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# HEAT TRANSFER

## Fundamentals and Applications

Prof S V Jain
Assistant Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
Institute of Technology
Nirma University
MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
Conduction
Convection
COMBINED HEAT TRANSFER
Conduction and Convection
HEAT TRANSFER ENHANCEMENT
HEAT EXCHANGERS

CONTENTS
MODES OF HEAT
TRANSFER

Conduction: Transfer of heat through solid/liquid material
Convection: The moving of heat through moving fluid or gas
Radiation: Transfer of heat by means of electromagnetic waves
Modes of Heat Transfer
When one end of metal strip is heated, the heat travels to the other end.
As the metal is heated, the particles vibrate, these vibrations make
the adjacent particles to vibrate, and so on.
The vibrations are passed along the metal and so is the heat.
CONDUCTION
Conduction is heat transfer by means of molecular agitation within a
material without any motion of the material as a whole.
Q = heat transferred, J/s (W)

K = thermal conductivity of the barrier, W/m-k

A = area, m
2

T = temperature, K

dx = thickness of Insulation, m

Fouriers law of heat conduction
( )

Q =

=
Metals are different
The outer electrons for metal atoms drift, and are free to move.

When the metal is heated,
this Sea of electrons gain
kinetic energy and transfer
it throughout the metal.
Insulators, such as wood and plastic, do not have this Sea of
electrons which is why they do not conduct heat as well as metals.
Why does metal feel colder than wood, if they are
both at the same temperature?
Metal is a conductor, wood is an insulator. The metal conducts the
heat away from your hands, the wood does not conduct the heat away
from your hands as well as the metal.
So the wood feels warmer than the metal.
9
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
Pure Metals > Alloys > Non-Metallic Solids >
Thermal Insulations > Gases
Typical values of k [W/m K]
Material k (W/mK) at 25C
Copper 385
Aluminum 250
Cast Iron 80
Stainless Steel 16
Concrete, stone 1.7
Insulation materials 0.035 - 0.16
Expanded Polystyrene 0.03
Polyurethane foam 0.02
Water 0.61
Air (gas) 0.024
K varies with temperature, density, molecular weight,
alloying etc.
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THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY
Thermal diffusivity is a material property which represents how
fast heat diffuses through a material.
It is the ratio of heat conducted through a material to the heat
stored per unit volume
P
C
k
stored heat
conducted heat

o =
(

=
The larger the thermal diffusivity, the faster the propagation of heat
into the medium.
A small value of thermal diffusivity means that heat is mostly
absorbed by the material and a small amount of heat will be conducted
further.
o Thermal diffusivity
Specific heat
P
C
High k or low C
P
large thermal diffusivity
m
2
/s
Ohms Law : Flow of Electricity
V = I R
elect
Voltage Drop = Current flow Electric Resistance
ELECTRICAL ANALOGY
(THERMAL RESISTANCE )
Temp Drop = Heat Flow Thermal Resistance
Rtherm=
T

=
T
T/
=
dx

T = Q R
therm
Conduction through Composite Wall
dx = L
Composite wall in series
Resistance in Series and Parallel
Conduction through Cylinder
Single Hollow

Qr = 2kL (To Ti)
ln (ro/ri)
Multiple
CONVECTION
Convection is the mode of energy transfer between a solid surface and
the adjacent fluid (liquid or gas), and it involves the combined effect of
conduction and fluid motion.
Newtons law of cooling:
h = convection heat transfer coefficient, W/m
2
.C
A
s
= surface area, m
2
T
s
= surface temperature, C
T

## = temperature of fluid far from the surface, C

Q = h As (T
s
- T

) = h As T
Rconv = T/Q = 1/hAs
Heating fluids
become less dense.
Refrigerator
Freezer
compartment
is put at the top,
because cold air
sinks, so it cools
the food on the
way down.
It is warmer at
the bottom, so
this warmer air
rises and a
convection
current is set
up.
Why is it windy at the seaside?
Convection type Description Typical value
of h (W/m
2
K)
Natural convection fluid motion induced by
density differences
10 (gas)
100 (liquid)
Forced convection fluid motion induced by
pressure differences from
a fan or pump
100 (gas)
1000 (liquid)

Boiling fluid motion induced by a
change of phase from
liquid to vapor
3000 1,00,000
Condensation fluid motion induced by a
change of phase from
vapor to liquid
5000 1,00,000

Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient (h)
Radiation is the energy emitted by matter in the form of electromagnetic
waves (or photons) as a result of the changes in the electronic
configurations of the atoms or molecules.
Stefan-Boltzmann law:
4

emit s s
Q AT =
= emissivity of the surface
= Stefan-Boltzmann constant
= 5.67 x 10
-8
W/m
2
. K
4

A
s
= surface area, m
2
T
s
= surface temperature, C

Typical values of Emissivity ()
Material Emissivity ()
Aluminum Foil 0.04
Aluminum Rough 0.07
Aluminum Anodized 0.77
Granite 0.45
Brick, fireclay 0.75
Concrete 0.85
Glass smooth 0.92 - 0.94
Lampblack paint 0.96
Plaster 0.98
COMBINED
CONDUCTION AND CONVECTION

Conduction and Convection
Heat Flow Through a Plane Wall

Heat Transfer through a Hollow Cylindrical Pipe
(Parallel flow heat exchanger)

Heat Transfer through Multiple Cylinders
Heat Transfer from a Real Surface
(Determination of thickness of insulation)
X
Heat Transfer in
Conduction
K depends on temperature
Max. in solids, negligible in gases
Can be prevented by thermal insulations, vacuum
Convection
Surface phenomenon
h depends on velocity, geometry, orientation