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Frontiers Author(s): J. Arthur Harris Source: The Scientific Monthly, Vol. 30, No. 1 (Jan., 1930), pp.

19-32 Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/14705 . Accessed: 05/01/2014 10:34
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FRONTIERS
By Dr. J. ARTHUR HARRIS
DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA

at the head the open prairies, Frontiers the fieldsof frosty AFTER writing thatthiswas mnowand the sands of heated deserts, sheetI recalled of myfirst limitless plains and the also thetitleof Lord Curzon'sRomanes the seemingly Lecture delivered about twenty-two unendingdefilesof rugged seemingly thefronAboveall it recalls yearsago to the youngmen of the an- mountains. the term of Oxford. Lord Cur- tiersman.To the American cientUniversity between and political frontier impliesthe borderline zon spoke of geographic and urgedthe youngmenof what frontiers, and whatis unknown.It is known those ofapartfrom partin therespon- 3annotbe conceived to taketheir Oxford men of hardy,fearlessand independent boundaries of thewide-flung sibilities and who thewilderness and more whopenetrated theempire. It is morefitting thedevelmadepossible daring to the presentneeds of our bytheir pertinent to considerthe Dpment of a westand the regeneration Americancivilization decaof an east that was approaching of science. frontiers of dence. for a discussion As a background long ago to reTo be sure, the frontier it is proper ofscience thefrontiers hasbeen movedbeyondthe gaps of the Appafrontier call thatthegeographic and the regionslying to the and lachians, themostever-present untilrecently ceased havelargely barriers his- eastof these of our American reality compelling oftheold oftheinfluence thatLord Curzon tobe conscious tory. It is significant the fact that notwithstanding lays almostequal stresson the frontier frontier, theyare in no small degreedependent history. in English as a factor on thenew and intellectually ex- physically WhileLord Curzon'svastcolonial replacedthe has led himto treathis prob- westwhichhas so swiftly perience might old frontier.Even westof the Missislem muchmoreas an American have donethanwouldhave otherEuro- sippiit is, in our day,onlythebotanist, whohave and thegeologist an un- thezoologist is nevertheless there peanwriters, of seeingwith theirown his treat- the privilege between difference mistakable of the life of the old and that which eyes something ment of the frontier yetin a largewaytheforward thesametitleby an frontier, wouldbe accorded maybe said to ofthefrontier that this is movement American. May I suggest our nadominated in theEuropeanand have until recently due to a difference ofthefrontier? tionallife. conception theAmerican of to thedevelopment I havereferred In Europe theycrossthe frontier.In the frontier.In the westbecausein Americathe great we penetrate America has beento thewest. movement of the frontier of thedefense Europetheythink " has, indeed, been we plan forits de- In a way "the west In America frontier. with"the frontier." The synonymous velopment. of the greatwestward To the Americanthe term frontier fullmagnificence onlywhenwe can be realized bound- movement no specific geographic suggests thatthemoveline has been recallthatthestatement ary,forthe greatfrontier shifting.Instead,it calls to menthas been towardthe westis true constantly sense. therifle, thepacksad- onlyin the averageor statistical mindthemusket, was mostcomdle and the canoe,the deep woodsand In detail,themovement
LU

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ofourfrontiersplicated. Alongthe St. Lawrenceand in partto thehardihood of and our pioneers pushed menof exploration overtheGreatLakestheFrench In largepartit hasbeendue theircanoesto thevalleyof the Missis- settlement. of the of the results cutthe to the application a lineofoutposts, sippiand,with ofscience. offrontiersmen in two. In the southwest the research continent frontier our western Spanish had establishedtheir settle- Geographically, ments on the Rio Grandeand Gila and has passed intohistory. Intellectually, is frontier Pacificcoast. In the thepassageof thegeographic on the southern oftheweststima foothold a loss. The exploration Russiahad secured northwest and had laid claimto a partof whatis ulatedtheimagination.The settlement the musclesand nowCalifornia.Hencetheventuresomeof the west hardened peo- strengthened the moralcourageof our vanguardof the English-speaking of the west seaboardhad in its forebears. The resources ple of the Atlantic of indethe development to cut and to oblit- made possible movement westward and action. It is of thought by those pendence established eratethe frontiers that we must findsome in race,languageand re- the conviction who differed in fortheold frontier equivalent ligion. The greathumantide of fron- mioral and spiritual over ournewsocial,intellectual notmerely moved forward tiersmen the fronof life thatleads me to consider against theforce barriers, geographic the tiersof science. and against obstacles great biological men, but also of primitive resistance FRONTIERS OF SCIENCE of social and reagainstthe opposition ofhistoric In science as in Americanhistorythe engendered ligiousprejudices is inseparable This cutting conceptionof the frontier political differentiation. In scithe frontiersman. of that from by the of old frontiers and obliterating crefrontiersman in the history as ence has furnished movement greatwestward ates the frontier. of some of the mostthrilling chapters Men of the old frontierwere of the our national history. most diverse sort. Many of the men in The westward tide of thehuman flow and homespun were merely buckskin of ourgreatconand thetransformation of the real frontiersmen camp-followers havebeenso rapid thatthemost tinent analogymustnot be The of west. the of us have not yet realizedits fullsigthemen of the between drawn closely too ofthe with most As compared nificance. frontiersmen of sciand the old border it has been withtimein history, changes of sciencehas in frontiersman The ence. Theswiftness and almost instantaneous. of maybe commonwith the true frontiersman of thetransformation magnitude unconqueran wilderness American the thewestgraspedwhenwe contemplate the unknown, ern half of our continent as we see it able desireto penetrate viindividual an follow the to courage and then recallthatas lateas the to-day, in the doing an sion and exultation century early years of the nineteenth writers our things which others Inow can not be considered manythoughtful done. of theentire trans-Mississippi possession Not all the lines of Kipling's "The primarily becauseit region as important measure up to the title, but Explorer" to the region thehabitable wouldprotect of the verses seem to me to two eighteen of some east againstthe encroachment fronthe scientific describe graphically rivalpower. well as the frontiersman of as tiersman not sciThis mayseemto be history, border. geographic the to my foreign ence. It is not,however, of our theme. The development present "There's no sense in going furtherit's the edge of cultivation," wilderness has been due vast American

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FRONTIERS
So theysaid, and I believeditbroke myland and sowedmycropBuilt mybarnsand strung myfences in thelittleborder station Tuckedawaybelowthefoothills where thetrailsrunout and stop.

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theirdominant butit is mybeinterest, liefthattheir had a profound discoveries in stimulating in other influence research branches of science. I also believe thatthestimulus of the scientific of own exploration our western Till a voice,as bad as Conscience, frontier has playeda partnotfully realranginterminable changes izedin ourownintellectual On one everlasting Whisper development. day and nightrepeated-so: For example, and a quaronlya century "Somethinghidden. Go and find it. ter ago Lewis and Clark set out on the Go and lookbehindthe Rangesgreat expedition vastareas which opened lostbehind theRanges. Something of the west to scientific Lost and waitingforyou. GoI " exploration. Moresignificant thanthefactthattheir in the routine Not all mentrained of letter ofauthorization was drawn by the research can be frontiersmen scientific president of theUnitedStatesin person of science, but onlythosewhohave the was theinterest of theAmerican people rarecapacity to heartheoneeverlasting in their explorations. A study ofthelitwhisper, dayand night repeated, so: erature of our western of a exploration century ago furnishes indications of a Something hidden. Go and findit. in science publicinterest thesignificance Go and lookbehindthe Rangeslost behindthe Ranges. Something ofwhich has,I think, notbeenfully apLost and waitingforyou. Go! preciated. Lack of timeprecludes the listingof To thosewho do hear and who are the naturalists and geologists who with willingto makethe necessary sacrifices the fur-traders, with Custer or other thepossible frontiers are boundless. military leaders, with the wagon road It seems to be worth whileto classify or the railroad exploring parties or alone someof the frontiers as theyexistto. withtheir ownblankets and rifles braved day. In a few years,the advancesol thehardships of our western in frontiers sciencemayhave beensuchthata new% search of scientific knowledge. Their willbe open. group offrontiers workwas simple, but it was fundamental. The of theircontributions details OF SCIENCE THE OBVIousFRONTIERS have long been covered withdust,but The most evident frontiers of science theirinterest in research and theiraeol complishments are thoseassociatedwith the frontiers under difficulties fired geographic exploration. Whentheword the enthusiasm of theircontemporaries. on They were few in number, "unexplored" occurredfrequently but their the maps of the world, men of science spiritof adventurous research stilllives. often experiencedthe hardships of the in menof to-day whocould tracetheir wilderness. They were frontiersmen intellectual inheritance to the scientific both physicallyand intellectually. frontiersmen of theearlydays. The Golden Age of Science that proThe incidentsof the physical and duced Darwin and his eminentcontem. moralcourageof the naturalists of our ex- old frontier porarieswas an age of geographic would make an inspiring ploration-an age when frontiersmen be- chapter in the history of science. Let gan to create frontiersin the forests, oneexample which illustrates leadership desertsand swamps of Northand South as wellas courage suffice. JohnWesley Americaand of the Dark Continent. Powellknewthatthe GrandCanyonof Geography, geologyand the natural his. the Coloradoshouldbe explored. He tory of plants, animals and man were might have leftthe task forsomeman

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sincehe had only withtwousablearms, FRONTIERS OF LABORATORY SCIENCE one. But when he had led the main are notnecesof science But frontiers en- sarilyassociatedwith geographic couldgowithout as faras they party fronto boatson a voyage tiers. Willard Gibbs,movingquietly, themselves trusting perils of the unknown the unknowable through his acaamong and unnoticed, ofmoral demically his menplacedstrength chasm, of Yale, associates prominent of physical was as truly courageabove the strength as Daniel Boone a pioneer volun- or Kit Carson. and everymember completeness theleaderwhohad to accompany teered gavewayto thecity As thewilderness one arm in the serviceof his and as the power of specializedtechsacrificed to riskhis life niquesof research and was willing it was country known, became of science. in theservice shouldrethatthelaboratory inevitable With the passingof our geographic place the camp. Thus whilethe scienon our tificfrontiers pioneering border the physical frontier, of the geographic it was was largelycompleted. are the moreobvious pioneering, own continent thatin timetheachievements We shall neveragain have livingand inevitable should suchan of thepioneers of thelaboratory our ownborder within working recognized. oftheblazed cometo be themorewidely listofnaturalists honorable for wallsabout oflaboratory be written Thebuilding might trailas thatwhich hisscientific widened merely thescientist thepast century. forthe frontiers.He refusedto look at the But whatof ourresponsibility the walls-he saw onlythevisionofthewilAmerica, South of wildernesses try which he might scien- derness of problems and thegreat islandsofthePacific of Asia. In to solvewith newequipment.His prowregions unexplored tifically the attack on these obviousfrontiersess has beenunbounded. theheavhas analyzed The astronomer is necessary.A morethan exploration their posicharted and well as as museums bodies enly the in men groupof able their tions at presentand determined herbariais essential. Notwithstanding we are but pitifully coursesfor the future. The physicist wealth our national us to hearthevoicesof our equippedin suchspecialists.Greatcol- has enabled and to lookat acrossa continent must go to Europe for study, friends lections through ofourbodies bones becausewe have not the trainedmen. theshattered the chemist This is a seriousstate of affairsfor our flesh. On one frontier on new elements; and found resultsof has sought science. The first American the behavior he has formulated becomethe types another exploration biological he has all laterspecimens of ions in solution;on another towhich or standards comof thousands tens by referred. synthesized indirectly or directly be must which he oncesupposed couldbe we havethe pounds in America, remain If these vital in the fu- made only by some mysterious bases forgreatdevelopments to go elsewhere, forcewithinthe bodies of living orture. If we allowthem mustgo to Europe ganisms. students our future did not cease to be a The biologist have to studywhat our own explorers whenhe tradedin theold are frontiersman collected. Some of our industries forthenewmicroor fowling-piece ofourlackoffore- rifle because nowsuffering of the anatomy ofthe scope. The description in developing ourknowledge sight re- of the tissueswas but a preludeto the of little-explored resources biological fromthe in South America tracingof theirdevelopment gions. Our prestige willsuffer ifwe do not egg and the sperm. Even the egg and and in thePacific the sperm couldnotbe takenas thebeour opportunity. recognize

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of biology are were themost problems urgent ginning. Biologicalfrontiersmen is uniqueand and in thefield. The solution until theirstructures not satisfied of our day must wereknown. In thebiolog- simple. Frontiersmen development of the and equipment physicsand chemistrytakethe methods ical laboratory, intothefield. manip- laboratory withdelicate havebeencombined I can writeon thissubjectwithconwhichhas beulative experimentation on viction basedon myownexperience.A of research field comea partof every interest has lain botanical of mainpersonal livingorganisms.The interrelations of thephysicochembothplantand ani- in theinvestigation hostsand parasites, of theplanttissuefluids with vast ical properties mal, have been unraveled, in determining whichare of importance to mankind. profit of thedistribution of naturalvegetation. To list again the accomplishments even a superof thequietlaboratory Space will not permit thefrontiersmen which ficialreviewof the results of the series achievements wouldbe to recount whichhave extended of the of investigations have becomethe commonplaces I wouldlike from and coastaldeserts therainforests of science. Instead, history of the of the Island of Jamaicathrough the some conceptions to formulate are notso ap- mesophytic, and xerophytic which hygrophytic of science frontiers America to theHawaihabitats ofNorth parentor familiar. to say ian rain forests. It is sufficient THE LABORATORY ON THE GEOGRAPHIC that the lightwhichthesestudieshave FRONTIER factors deterthrown upon the intrinsic of vegetation sci- miningthe distribution of biological In the development which has fully justifiedthe cost in funds, is stilla greatfrontier encethere effort. must be attackedbeforethe physical timeand personal Out of thesepure scienceresearches has disappeared. frontier because has grown thatthephysitheconviction Science has lost irreparably of plants and ani- cochemical of theplanttissue properties adequatecollections of fluids in theinroads are of fundamental significance notmadebefore malswere of the determining the adaptationof agriculdeprivedus forever civilization and turalspecies Powell,in founding and varieties forcultivation opportunity. soil and climaticcondithe burdenof the Bureau of undervarying carrying was as truly a tions. I can notgiveherethescientific AmericanEthnology, to of theyearsof studydevoted pioneeras whenhe entrusted results scientific and to the chasmof the Colorado. agricultural plantsin our western himself perhis visionwe have for- southwestern deserts. The highest Notwithstanding of obtaining sonalresults of thesemonths spentwith ever lost the opportunity in barns,garages, equipment the full details on whichan adequate laboratory Indianmust rotting oftheAmerican and in tentsin the boat-houses knowledge openair are twofold. depend. losses. It 'irst, theyhave led to the establishIt is toolateto repairthese that the is our dutyto see to it thatwe do not mentof my early convictions mustultiof plant geography whichare still problems lose the opportunities in terms of thephysibe written open to us forworkon plantsand ani- mately habitats. Scientific cal and chemical natural characteristics of the malsin their with plantorganism as wellas in thehistory menof our day willnotbe content the and physical factors of theenvironment, the natural historythat satisfied early pioneersof botanyand zoology. and that theseresultsobtainedin the of thelab- pursuit havetheprecision Theymust ofpurescience maybe ofhuman whenappliedto agriculture. oratory. But it is clear thatmanyof importance

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hometo me spective are Second,theyhave driven solvents. Such phenomena thatone mustseize such notlimited the conviction of of contact to the surface beforeit is too late. A thetwoliquids. Theyare found opportunities to some oversplen- extent fewdays ago I rodeswiftly in cona solution comes wlhenever through the golfcourses tactwiththewalls of a beaker, did boulevards or with and luxurious the air above. This multitude and past the greathotels of probcitywhichhas lemswas scarcely mansions of a southern thought ofa fewyears for all timethe ago. Technically buriedand obliterated as the theyare known swamp and the strandscrub through problems of the interface.Theymight whichI pushedmy way withmachete as well be called the problems of the onlya fewyearsago. My frontiers and knapsack of thesolutions. all thatwilleverbe known Now in thedevelopment notes contain and differenof thevege- tiation certain features concerning newfields are apt to be ofscience tation. leaderopened up by someimaginative In scientific candorlet us admitthat bysomefrontiersman ofscience. Others let contribute thiscase is extreme.In equal candor details. A new terminology us recallthatall over our nationaldo- is developed and the sciencecongresses are are likethelatterdays of the Towerof main changesin naturalconditions swiftly takingplace, and let frontiers-Babel. Thehighspecialization necessary of thelaboratory in anybranch mentake themethods it fora of science isolates before it is toolate. intothefield detimefrom branches.Intensive other or barriers. velopment createsfrontiers OF Thisisolation OF THE INTERFACES THE FRONTIERS in has alwaysbeenpresent THE SCIENCES science. Therewas a timewhenastronindependent of physics As Americanswe conceiveof the fron- omywas largely had no when chemistry the mapped and ofchemistry, between tier as the fringe and the unexplored. In science the bonds with physicsand when biology or chemphysics be- had no place foreither theboundary frontier is notmerely in istry. In our day the great sciences tweenthe knownand the unknown specialized any great and formallyrecognized tendto breakup intohighly physics has its own branch ofresearch.It maybe theinter- fields. Theoretical an independent seeks face of two highly developed sciences. language.Genetics Here I am temptedto illustrateby anal- status. An inevitable resultof specialization retogether ogy. Oil and watershaken of a a timethedevelopment main oil and water still. Each has its is thatafter and within given branch of science seems to its own chemicalcomposition, to be at an end. But thisis the of space occupied workers the threedimensions of the whenthe problems as such each has its verymoment by each substance own physical properties. But at the in- interfacemust be attacked. Physics ofastronto theservice be brought numerable surfaces where the oil and must and biology. Chemistry chemistry the water come into contact special omy, itswayintobiology.Morpholfind physical forces are in operation. Fur- must if some substances which are ogy mustbe considered in the lightof thermore, draw The physiologist must soluble in the two liquids-oil and physiology. and chemistry, and must water-be added to their respectivesol- upon physics is no to wakeup to thefactthathisscience ventsbeforethey are shaken together at all if structure as wellas funcdisperse one liquid as fine droplets science throughout the other, these dissolved tionis nottakenintoaccount. I liketo think as of scientific research substances appear to behave in a very in dimensions.Any single of the re- a problem orderlyway at the frontiers

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of of thedistribution tlhe mapping fieldof speciali- 3ider or any narrow method oftheearth. We saythat one-dimen-thevegetation zation may be considered overthesurmethods theplantsare distributed sional. Thus if two different it is working faceof theearth. Thus theoretically theinvestigator be employed wouldseemquitesimpleto map the ocin twodimensions. in of speciesand largergroups has beenso currence research One-dimensional of space. in the past thatwe have over- twodimensions fruitful map is, however, of specializa- Such a vegetation the importance glorified unlesswe take into meaningless happensthatthe results largely tion. It often of temperature of specializedresearchdo not attain accountthe differences with elevation associated which are are they until importance theirfullest and withdistancefrom withtheresults above sea-level in connection considered the equator. This adds anotherspace field. a quitedifferent from to our map. Again,the dewas de- dimension For example,hybridization and latitudeand the of scien- greesof longitude field as an independent veloped lines of the map of the geogtificresearch. When I was a student, contour concerning was beinghailedas the newest raphergive no information cytology refine- the physical and chemicalproperties highest lineof specialization-the of the soil. These But and watercontent or morphology. menit of anatomy imporare of fundamental obscure properties nowbe a rather might cytology plantdistribution. sciencewere it not tancein determining phase of biological of watercontent, are Thus the dimensions of genetics forthefactthatstudents some physical compoand chemical structure properties in physical tofind seeking oftheresults sitionof thesoil mustbe scaledon our basisfortheinterpretation Thus map as additional dimensions. Our map in hybridization. of experiments to has, in short, a distribuchangedfrom withdue regard develop must genetics space to a map inde- tionin two-dimensional of two formerly the dimensions space. in many-dimensional ofspecialization. fields pendent are inare linesof specialization dimensions If three But eventheforegoing becomes not adequate. The earth'scrustis not of problems volvedthesolution For example,Wil- static. It is subjectto perpetual change three-dimensional. of plants. the distribution liamBatesonragedwhenW. F. R. Wel- whichaffects in determines thevegetation don ventured to calculate probable Conversely, forthe sacredresultsof Gregor some measurethe changeswhichtake errors features. Mendel. Now it is only the high and place in the physiographic are systems in genetics and biological who can disregard The physical mighty interrebut intimately oftheir not independent ofthesignificance suchcriticism plantspecies living in three lated. Furthermore, is developing results. Genetics offloras are thepresent-day descendants hybridization, dimensions-experimental of ancienttimes. The distribution of analysis. and mathematical cytology of of that is not independent the present specializaof intensive Each newfield an adeadds one moreto the num- the past. No map will convey tionmerely dimensions unlessall these mustbe consid- quatepicture which ber of dimensions on the of timeare represented. ered by thosewho are working has been drawnnot independent This illustration of the formerly frontiers for the comof depicting the purpose to bring striving science and of branches but to plexityof botanical problems outofchaos. unity between of a showthe manylinesof contact illustration Let us drawanother meteorkind fromthe sci- the varioussciences. Geology, different somewhat and physiolchemistry ology, physics, we conthat ence of botany. Suppose

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in the ade- gerous, but I would like to be written ogyall havelinesof contact ofvegetation.Alongall downas havingsaid thatno biological quatemapping botany and the problem between theseinterfaces of significance willbe foundin methods of descripthere is roomforpioneer whichmathematical othersciences will not ultimately be tionand analysis work. on these applied. of research The fruitfulness is entering represent theborderlines Biometry a far broader frontiers which is perhaps bestillus- fieldof influence.It early becamea ofdifferent sciences and factor in psychology.It must ultiwhere biology trated by thefrontier a mately in contribute whatis quantitative meet. It is butrelatively mathematics weregen- sociology. fewyearssincethesesciences Physics is nowusingthesame at all in theories of probability to havenothing as thosewhich erallysupposed the development of mathemathad found its underlay common. Mathematics is beginand chem- ical biology.Pure mathematics physics place in astronomy, of thematheas theexact ningto feelthe influence wereknown istry, and these sciences. Biology,on the otherhand, maticsdeveloped forbiological application. Finally,thephilosophy which unwas calleda descriptive science. theory which It is needlessto say that the fron- derliesthe mathematical whohad the courageto assert has been developedfor biologicalretiersman to influence our research that biological mustbe prose- searchis nowbeginning on all scientific research. had to outlook cutedby mathematical methods and themost determined contend against FRONTIERS OF THE APPLICATION OF bigotedopposition. Support was reSCIENTIrIC RESEARCH fused. Publicationspace was denied. or misrepresented. I havetriedto showthatthefrontiers Resultswereignored biologists were criticized of science are not limited to the geoMathematical on the ground which graphicallyregional,nor yet to the outer thatthe problems prob- fringeof a single highlydeveloped labwerenotbiological they considered evidenc- oratoryscience. There are new frontiers thereby lemsat all, the critics to grasp the of research to be created by those who ing theirown incapacity of biological research. have the fortitudeto take the methods real possibilities As workon the development of mathe- of the laboratory into the wilderness. of the with Finally,thereare vast frontiers adequatefordealing matical theory thebio- highestpromisefor those who can mashas advanced biological problems behave wid- ter the perplexitiesof the interfaces themselves logical problems tween our established branches of sciened. The accomplishments of mathematicsence, thus making it possible to write in biologyhave been so great and sc our knowledgeof the universe in fewer equations. on thetask but more comprehensive variedthatwe darenotenter But the frontiersof science are not yearsI of a review. For nearlythirty in limitedto the boundaryline betweenthe interested have not beenparticularly biologicalproblem. I surveyed and the unblazed in a specific any one specific nor to theundetermined in whatI havefell fieldof research, have beeninterested i.e., relationships was the more important problem, betweentwo or morehighly the problem of the method of solving developed fieldsof research. The fronbiological problems.DuringthistimeI tiersmanof science may traverseeither withany of these wildernessesfor the exultation have nevercomeinto contact what has not bewhichcouldnol of seeing and recording investigation biological be at least supplemented by mathemat-fore been seen or of grasping and foris alwaysdan- mulating relationships not heretofore ical methods.Prophecy

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onlyby thebasisof hand,he may can be accomplished conceived. On the other on as of research last kinds diverse most the the in that the idea with fired be of frontiers untouched to yet practically has a humanservice analysisscience science. biological render. more problems these with of In grappling of application Thereare frontiers is it to-day as we conceive as well science than as welfare human science to of required. These are not problems of research. frontiers of the are problems the biology first alone--they whileto consider It is worth fieldsof practicalapplication. applicationof the resultsof biological so-called economicand wouldperhapsbe researchunder difficult application Economic here thatsome It is which conditions. political those for things term, a better his inand intel- new typeof man mustestablish countfor the enlightenment of biologyand on the frontiers are quite terests of mankind lectualinspiration to economics. contribute which as those as practical of the application But new frontiers comfort. physical are research of biological results of the the all list to is impossible Since it through calledintobeing those of the re- notsolely of the application frontiers of ournatural exploitation it will be in- theuncurbed research, sultsof scientific of settlement. by thevanguard some of the new resources to consider teresting rapid on the so been has been growth Our have which of application frontiers by the hisconceived as time of scale vanthe of movement the createdby guard of populationacross the conti- torian that the blue smokefromthe hadhardly in theclearing havebeencre- cabinchimney nent. Suchnewfrontiers theblackcloudfrom of socialdevelopmentfadedawaybefore stage atedbyevery overthe its grime sifted of thesmokestack the penetration whichhas followed and mines the in laborers the of cottages thewilderness. grew in hiswaste the mills. Centersof population was prodigal The pioneer of naturalresources. To his view the apace and solidblocksof grainand orwas boundless. chardwere requiredto load the trains wealth ofnatural horizon when that carriedfood fromareas whereit theforests he conserve Whyshould centers to theindustrial fer- couldbe grown Why extent'? their no one knew be consumed. The old tilizetheacrewhena newacreofvirgin whereit might thusvansettlement of human soil couldbe clearedto replacethe one frontiers apof scientific but newfrontiers of its fertility?Why think ished, exhausted orThe being. into sprang plication of the rangewhencattle of the future of disfree that were crops and chards of thousands and sheepby thehundreds in theisolated patches pasturedat public expensemeantpri- ease whengrown offuntheparadise became ofthesettler vate gain? we gus and insect when grownin solid which The needof theseresources or acutein blocksof miles. Food deteriorated willbecome beginto feelto-day would Paragraphs in transit. perished forof thefuture.But thereplacement biological to listthe specific of be required of the fertility ests,the restoration whichhave been createdby of our range problems the soil,the rehabilitation floods urban development.Epidemicsswept from ofdangers and thereduction and meansofprevencities, ofnaturalcondi- thecrowded due to the disturbance and madeeffective. be to sought the tion had by be accomplished not to are tions of politi- Streamswere pollutedby sewage,enof commissions appointment and dangeringthe health of those below. cians withhighlypaid secretaries and sunlight filaments replaced of the workof Glowing budgetsfor inspection new and problems candle, the flickering They states. inother commissions similar

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alongside the humanities, but thereare stillthosewho feelthatit is notone of thehumanities.Theyassert thatscience must be humanized. If sciencewere valuable only as it makes twobladesofgrassto grow where but one grewbefore, onlyas it givesus the resultsof the electionbeforethe dawn of the day afterthe ballotsare FRONTIERS OF SCIENTIFIC EDUCATION cast instead of a month later,onlyas it The frontiers of scienceare not lim- distributes the latest syncopation from itedto research and to theapplication of the grillroomto drownout meditation the results of research. Thereare also by our firesides, I mightagree that frontiers of scientific education. I do science has notwonits place among the not referto the techniqueof science humanities.But it is only the superobserver teaching, of ficial whofailsto see thebeauty but to the greater problem making science a moreimportant factor in sciencebeneaththe mechanism and in our future economic, intellectual and thedetail. sociallife. Two familiar caseswill serveto illusOnesuchfrontier is theenlightenment trate. as tothesignificance ofthepublic ofpure I do not knowwhether the discovery and appliedscience. It is too generally of Neptune has carried with it anypracassumed thatappliedscience is ofhuman tical advantage to mankind, but to me value, whilepure scienceis of merely the locationof an unknown planetby academic interest.Thosewhohold this mathematical reasoning and the experivieware blindto twogreatprinciples. mental verification of thedeductions by First, science has an intellectualsig- the telescope is far moredramatic than in thedevelopment nificance of our cul- anything whichwe knowin literature. turewhich is independent ofitsmaterial It is fortunate forthe UnitedStates contribution to our comfort. thatwe havein our ownboundaries the be- richest Second, the actual relationship knownsupplyof helium. It is tweenpure and appliedscienceis such practically important that the wellsbe thatpurescience research laysthefoun- capped and the preciousnon-explosive dationsfor application. Scientific men gas be conserved.But the importance are oftenurged to prune the many- of the existence of heliumin quantities branched treeofresearch in order thatit sufficient foraerial navigation dwindles may bring forththe fruitsof practical into insignificance in comparison with accomplishment moreabundantly. Those the intellectual value of the fact that who recommend the pruning-knife science made it possible to discover should understand that if it is applied helium in thesunbefore it was found on to pure scienceit will be the rootswhich the earth. That heliumcould be denourish the whole tree that are lopped tected in thesunbefore it was found on off. the earth makes us as human beings Anotherfrontier forthosewho feelthe worthy to lookdownon theearthas we call of scientific education is that of a flythrough theclouds. seriousand sympathetic attackon theold One may define humanities in sucha idea that science lacks estheticvaluewayas to include or to exclude whatever that science is unimaginative, if not onelikes. Thosewhocare to do so may sordid. Science has by virtue of its excludefrom the humanities the inspipractical human service taken its place rationof the discovery of Neptune, of of vision of the physics and physiology themselves forced upon theattention of theinvestigator. Nobleworkhas been done,but trails in many havehardly of the beenbroken new frontiers of scifortheapplication ence createdby the needs of new and ever-changing conditions.

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helium, ofradium, or of theformulationmade a rule to read somepoetryand listento somemusicat least once everyweek; for perof haps development oftheidea oftheorderly thepartsof mybrainnowatrophied would science thus have been kept active through thebiological universe. Whether use. The or not, the loss of thesetastesis a loss of happiness, belongsto the humanities and and equationfor human physicaldevelop- may possiblybe injuriousto the intellect, to the moral eharacter, by enbe- moreprobably and human ment, human inheritance of our nature. the emotional feebling part in the terms of haviormustbe written There may be some questionas to quantitative science. whether Darwindid notoverestimate his is the highest In all thesethings there loss. Those who him knew doubted ofmagnificent esthetic value-the beauty whether there had been any real orderliness. To be sure, many havenotthecapacity "atrophyof that part of the brain on thehigher tastesdepend." Darthe apparent which to see the beautybeneath mistaken as much here confusion whodo winwas perhaps of detail, butforthose as he when was he that books thought his influence science can haveno benumbing " last "a fewyears. might on theesthetic faculties. Thoughtless writers do notstopto inDarwin's wordshave been so often quire whether men their who spend years to quotedthat it wouldbe superfluous or evenin pursuit ofthefine repeatthem wereit notforthefactthat in business as much pleasure from paintI wishto preacha new sermon on the artsderive ings, music and poetry when they are old text. In 1876he wrote: nearly seventy as when they were I have said that in one respect mymindhas twenty-five yearsof age. They merely or thirty the last twenty years. changedduring to showthebaneor beyond it, poetry of quoteDarwin'swords Up to the age of thirty, fuleffect ofscientific work on thehigher many kinds . . . gave me great pleasure and I took intensedelightin esthetic even as a schoolboy faculties. Admitting for the plays. sakeof argument Shakespeare, especiallyin the historical that Darwin's self-apI have also said that formerly picturesgave in music, me considerable, and musicverygreat delight. praisal of his loss of interest poetryand natural scenery But now for manyyears I can not endureto painting, read a lineof poetry:I havetriedlatelyto read may have been correct, a quite difdull ferent and found it so intolerably Shakespeare, explanation appeals to me as bethat it nauseatedme. I have also almostlost sound. To metheexplanamytasteforpictures or music. Musicgenerally ingthemore on what I tion seems to be that Darwin's own sets me thinking too energetically have been at work on, instead of giving me greatphilosophical generalizations overpleasure. I retainsome taste for finescenery, shadowedin esthetic magnificence the but it does not cause me the exquisitedelight and poetry the musie and the scenery which it formerly did. On the other hand, gavehimpleasure in hisyouth. novels which are works of the imagination, which not of a veryhighorder, have been for though And evenif Darwinwas wholly right years a wonderfulrelief and pleasure to in his evaluationof his "loss of the me. . . . aesthetic tastes" was nothis loss loss of thehigher higher This curious and lamentable gain? Hundreds ofmillions as booksof his- theworld's aesthetic tastesis all theodder, of in each generation and travels(Independently tory, biographies mayseekto preserve facts whichtheymay contain), the enjoyment any scientific of all theirfaculties. It and essayson all sortsof subjectsinterest meas is only a great intellectual frontiersman muchas theyeverdid. My mindseemsto have for grinding becomea kindof machine general who can give the worlda greatgenerof facts,but why alization laws out of large collections which hasinfluenced all modern of thatpart thought. have causedtheatrophy thisshould which tastes
of the brain alone, on the higher I can notconceive. A manwitha mind THE SACRIFICE OF THE FRONTIERSMAN depend, morehighly constituted than organized or better It wouldnotbe right to closethis brief wouldnot,I suppose, have thussuffered; mine, of the manyfrontiers and if I had to live mylife again,I wouldhave survey of science

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THE SCIENTIFIC

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whichcall formenof visionand deter- to everyspecies of danger,want and misery sevenyears,it seemedhard to be indebted the fact for mination without emphasizing to Charity,howeverkind and considerateit that the frontiersman of sciencemust mightbe, for the means of returning to my and nativeland. encounter greatpersonal hardships The bitter personal disappointments. to findsuch exIt is not uncommon frontiersman like the prophetmay be pressions who in those ofdisappointment without honor in his owncountry or in have been frontiersmen in science. his own generation.In scienceas in Gregor Mendel, afteryearsof painstakgeographic explorationit sometimesing work, or sadly, wouldsay hopefully turns outthattheChristopher Columbus "Meine Zeit wirdbald kommen." But is in disfavor while the Amerigo it did not come until long after the Vespuccigives his name to the Great candlesburned aboutthebieroftheold Discovery. abbot. I have alreadyquotedDarwin's By way of comparison it is desirable words,and whileI am not at all sure to recallthesacrifices which thepioneer thathe was rightin his self-judgment, of ourwestmadein exploring and open- theyat least indicatesomeof the pering to tradeand settlement thatpartof sonalsacrifice he felt he had made which ournational domain. Sinceall thatcan whenhe foundthathe had so lost the be doneis to illustrate, let us takea few capacity forrelaxation thathe feltimlinesfrom the journalof one whom we pelledto write, seems to have "My mind as "the unknown fron- become may designate forgrinding a kindof machine " In 1827he found tiersman. at a trad- generallaws out of large collections of ing-post thosewho could give him in- facts. " his old compan- It is needless formation concerning illustrations. to multiply ions. and fittingly caught Kiplinghas,I think, Here I met again some of the companions of disappointment the sense expressed whocamewithme in thefirst instance from the United States. I enquired about otherswhom of the old explorerwho heard the I heldin kindremembrance. Somehad died by whisper,"Somethinglost behind the diseasesand others lingering by the fatal ball Ranges. Lost and waiting for you. and arrow,so that out of 116 men,who came After and hardall his sacrifices fromthe UnitedStates in 1824,therewerenot Go!" he says: ships more than sixteenalive. Most of the fallen
a wereas truemen,and as brave as everfired rifle, and yet in theseremote and foreign parts foulnd not eventhe benefit of a grave,but left theirbodies to be tornby the wild beasts or mangledby the Indians. Well I knowwho'll take the creditall the cleverchapsthatfollowedCame,a dozenmentogetherneverknewmydesertfears; Tracked meby thecampsI 'd quitted, I'd hollowed, used the water-holes They'll go back and do the talking. They'll be called the Pioneers! mysites of townshipsTheywill find not the citiesthat I set there. riversTheywillrediscover heardat night. notmyrivers and bearings By myownold marks theywill showme howto get there, By thelonelycairnsI builded theywill guide my feet aright.

It would be idle for me to attemptto describethe feelings that welledin my heart,as the sails filled the shoresof a to bear me from I had seenand suffered so much. where country, My dreamsof successin theseparts considered werebanished mostimportant bymyfellow men, all myendurance of toil,hunger, forever. After thirst and imprisonment, afterencountering the and fiercer fiercest wild beasts in thesedeserts, men,after tracingstreamsbeforeunmeasured and uncharted source by anyof myrace to their over rugged and pathless mountains, subject

Vera Later,as he tookpassage from withsimplicity but with Cruz,he wrote unconscious ofhissevenyears eloquence of failure:

Thesewordsring true for the scienas for the explorer, tificfrontiersman is an exof science forthefrontiersman of scienceis plorer. The frontiersman

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In no land and upon no people are the evi. dences more plainly stamped. Not till the mountains were left behindand the American pioneersbegan to push across the trackless plains,did Americacease to be Englishand be-

the geographer of the greatera of ex. to the other side of the ploration;frontiers on the exploratior Thenturning where on a widely different arena of whichour future intellec. world, economic, tual and social development depends. but amid kindredtravail the British Empiremaybe seenshaping theBritish THE NEED FOR FRONTIERSMENOF character, whilethe Britishcharacter is SCIENCE still buildingthe British Empire, he If I seemextreme in my views,con- says: sider what Lord Curzon had to say There, too, on the manifold Frontiersof twenty-two now amid the gaunt highlandsof yearsago concerning thein. dominions, or the eternalsnowsof the fluence of geographic frontiers on the the Indian border, nowon the parchedsands of Persia of Anglo-Saxon development character, Himalayas, or Arabia, now in the equatorialswampsand Of the evolution of thecharacter of the forests of Africa,in an incessant with struggle American peopleas conditioned by theii natureand man,has beenfounda corresponding westward march acrossthe continent he disciplinefor the men of our stock. Outside of the English Universities no schoolof charsaid: acter existsto compare withthe Frontier;and
character is there moulded not by attrition with fellowmenin the arts or studiesof peace,but in the furnace of responsibility and on theanvil of self -reliance. Alongmanya thousand miles of remote border are to be foundourtwentieth-

reclamation and theardours of the chase, the AmericanRation was born. There that wonderful and virile democracy, imbued thecourage and tenacity of its forefathers, He mustoftengo beyond the range. with but fired withan eager and passionateexaltawithout supportand under opposition tion, sprang into being. The panorama of it willoften Whenhe doessucceed, have characters and incidents,already becoming history, passes in vividprocession before been at a costof effort whichwill lead ancient our eyes. First comesthe trapper and the furhim to lookback on the deserts he has trader tracking his way intotheIndian huntingcrossed and to say withKipling's"Ex groundsand the virginsanctuariesof animal plorer": life. Then the backwoodsman clears away the forests and plantshis log hut in the clearings. I remember goingcrazy. Therefollow himin swift succession therancher I remember thatI knewit withhis live-stock, the minerwithhis pick,the WhenI heardmyself hallooing farmer withploughand seeds, and finally the to the funny folk I saw, urbandweller, themanufacturer and theartisan. Veryfull of dreams thatdesert: On thetop of theadvancing wavefloats a scum but mytwolegs tookme through it ... of rascalitythat is ultimately in the deposited And I used to watch 'em moving miningcamps of Californiaand the gambling withthetoesall black and raw. dens of the Pacific Coast. Seenes of violence And when he has traversed the greal and carnage, the noise of firearms, and the region beyond thefoothills, he mayhav( bleaching bones of men, mark the advance. The voice of the backwoods-preacher sounds beenso much in advanceofhistimethal through the tumult in accents of mingled all the water-holes he hollowed, all the ecstasyand rebuke. But fromthistempestuous lonely cairns he builded willbe forgottercauldronof human passion and privation,a earnest, restless, selfexuberant, bytheclever chapsthatfollow. They'll new character, an here Andrew confident, emerged, Jackson, be calledthePioneers. therean AbrahamLincoln,flamedacross the All these things must be thelot of th( stage; and into this nobleheritageof achievereal frontiersman of science. But th( mentand suffering, the entirenation,purified both vastfrontiers ofscience await-frontier, and unitedin its searchfor the Frontier, its occupation and its manhood, has proudly widerand deeper thananyconceived by of entered. "There 's no sense in going furtherit's the edge of cultivation."

and on thetrails in advance ofhistime. He must first od comeAmerican. In theforests of the Frontier, amid the savageryof conflict, all contend withthosewhosay: thelabourof

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unexit is largely mapped;biologically, plants of history natural The plored. fused their being. . . . The Frontier officer known;theappliis partly mayawait and animals takeshis life in his hands; forthere to these of precision him eitherthe knifeof the Pathan fanatic,or cationof methods the moredeadlyfeversof the Africanswamp. problems begun. Individual is scarcely he takes But the riskis the last thingof which developed; are highly ofscience of his coun- branches account. He feelsthatthe honour is a vision sciences of the unification the try is in his hands. I am one of thosewho ofthe tobe realized. Theapplication on the still hold that in this large atmosphere, is rela- results of Empire, wherethe machine outskirts hastransresearch ofpurescience and the individualis strong, formed tivelyimpotent life; moreextenour industrial and invigorating is to be foundan ennobling application. await still results sive savingthemalike from for our youth, stimulus havebeen exploited resources ease and the morbidexcitements Biological the corroding of Westerncivilization. To our ancientUni- in thepast; they demustbe conserved, I lookto play veloped or replaced through and reinspired, revivified versities, scientific theirpart in this nationalservice. in thefuture. Science has conresearch comto ourphysical enormously has passedinto tributed frontier Our western methodof thought history.With it has gone one of the fort; the scientific lives char- still failsto influence the personal ournational forces which developed someequiva- of the mass of our citizens. We await find acter. For it we must fron- onlyfrontiersmen lent. We havenotthewide-flung thenewfronto create tiersof the BritishEmpire. We must tiers where thetrails thefoothills beyond for other run out and stop. I venture to think make ours the responsibility frontiers of science frontiers of our own creation. The thatin themanifold lies all about we shall findone of themeansof meetof opportunity wilderness the world is ingthemoralneedsof ourtime. Geographically, 's.
centuryMarcher Lords. The breath of the and ininto theirnostrils has entered Frontier

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