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CHAPTER 6: POLYNOMIALS

TUTORIAL
POLYNOMIALS
1. Find the quotient and remainder by using long division process when
a)
5 6 2
2 3
+ x x x
is divided by
3 x
b)
4 2 3 4
2 3
+ + x x x
is divided by
1
2
+ x x
c)
5 2 3
2 3
+ x x
is divided by
2
2
+ x
2. Find the remainder when
15 28 5 2
2 3
+ x x x
is divided by
2 x
3. Determine if
) 1 ( x
is a factor of
8 2 22 12 ) (
2 3
+ + x x x x P
4. Find the value of r if
r x x x x P + + 3 9 2 ) (
2 3
leaves a remainder -54 when divided by
) 2 ( x
5. Factorise
3 3 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x P
and hence solve the equation
0 ) ( x P
(SCIENCE ONLY)
6. Factorise the polynomial completely
24 10 15
2 4
+ x x x
(SCIENCE ONLY)
7. Express a polynomial h(x) of degree 4, with leading coefficient 3 and -9, -6, 1 and 5 as
its zeroes.
(SCIENCE ONLY)
8. When
x bx ax x 15
2 3 4
+ +
is divided by
3 4
2
+ x x
, the remainder is
3 5 + x
.Find the
values of a and b.
MATHEMATICS UNIT Page 52
CHAPTER 6: POLYNOMIALS
(SCIENCE ONLY)
9. Given that
, ) )( )( 2 ( 8 12 10 3 2 ) (
2 2 3 4
c x b x a x x x x x x P + + +
where
c b a and ,
are
positive integers
(a) Determine the values of
c b a and ,
(b) State the zeroes of
) (x P
10. Express the following in partial fractions
(a)
) 2 )( 1 (
12 7

x x
x
(c)
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1 2
2
+
+
x x
x
(b)
) 1 2 )( 5 (
4
2
+
+
x x
x
(d)
1
1
3

+
x
x

11. Express the following in partial fractions
(a)
) 2 )( 1 (
4 2
2

+ +
x x
x x
(c)
) 2 )( 1 (
12 3
2
3
+
+
x x
x
(b)
1 2
1
2
2
+ +
+ +
x x
x x
(d)
2 3
2
3
+ x x
x
12. Polynomial
) (x P
is defined by
. 10 7 4 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x P
(a)
Using long division, show that
) 2 ( + x
is a factor of
) (x P
(b)
Find all the zeroes of
) (x P
(c)
Find the remainder when
) (x P
is divided by
). 3 ( x
Hence, express
) (x P
in the form of
) ( ) ( ) 3 ( x R x Q x +
when
) (x Q
is the quotient and
) (x R
is the remainder
13. Given that
( ) 2 3 ) (
2 2
+ + + kx x k x x P
n
where k and n are positive integers
(a) Show that
) 1 ( x
is a factor of
) (x P
MATHEMATICS UNIT Page 53
CHAPTER 6: POLYNOMIALS
(b) Find the value of n when k = 3,
) 2 ( x
is a factor of
) (x P
(c) Hence, factorise
) (x P
completely
14. Given that
2 5 2 ) (
2 3
x x x x P
(a) If
) ( a x
is a factor of
) (x P
where a is a positive integer, find the value of a
(b) Obtain the roots of the equation
0 ) ( x P
(c) Express
) ( ) 1 (
10 20
2
x P x
x
+
+
in partial fractions
15. Given that
) 3 ( + x
and
) 1 2 ( x
are factors of the polynomial
12 11 2 ) (
2 3 4
+ + + x bx ax x x P

(a) By using the factor theorem, find the values of the constants
. and b a
(b) Factorise
) (x P
completely and show that the quadratic factor of
) (x P
is always
positive for all real values of x.
(c) Find the set of values x which satisfies the inequality
0 ) ( > x P
PAST YEAR EXAMINATION QUESTIONS
2004/2005
16. Given
) 3 ( + x
is one factor of
3 2
2 11 12 9 ) ( x x x x P
. Factorise
) (x P
completely,
and express
) (
18 13
x P
x +
as a sum of partial fractions [8 marks]
17. A polynomial has the form
q px x x x P +
2 3
3 2 ) (
, with x real and p, q constants.
(a) When
) (x P
is divided by
) 1 ( x
the remainder is
) 4 2 ( x
. Find the values of p
and q, and factorise
) (x P
completely if 2 is one of the roots [7 marks]
MATHEMATICS UNIT Page 54
CHAPTER 6: POLYNOMIALS
2005/2006
18. (a) Polynomial
b x ax x x P + +
2 3
2 ) (
has
) 1 ( + x
as a factor and leaves a remainder
12 when divided by
) 3 ( x
. Determine the values of a and b . [6 marks]
19. Two factors of the polynomial
6 ) (
2 3
+ + bx ax x x P
are
) 1 ( + x
and
) 2 ( x
. Determine
the values of a and b and find the third factor of the polynomial. Hence, express
) (
13 5 2
2
x P
x x
as a sum of partial fractions [13 marks]
2006/2007
20. Find the values of A, B, C and D for the expression
2 4
2 3
9
27 6 3 4
x x
x x x
+
+
in the form of
partial fractions
9
2 2
+
+
+ +
x
D Cx
x
B
x
A
where A, B, C and D are constants [5 marks]
21. (a) Show that
) 3 ( x
is a factor of the polynomial
6 5 2 ) (
2 3
+ x x x x P
. Hence,
factorise
) (x P
completely [4 marks]
(b) If
c bx ax x f + +
2
) (
leaves remainder 1, 25 and 1 on division by
) 1 ( x
,
) 1 ( + x
and
) 2 ( x
respectively, find the values of a, b and c. Hence show that
) (x f
has two equal real roots. [9 marks]
2007/2008
22. Express
) 4 2 )( 2 (
1 2
2
+ +
+
x x x
x
in partial fractions [6 marks]
23. (a) Find a cubic polynomial
) )( )( ( ) ( c x b x a x x Q + + +
satisfying the following
conditions : the coefficient of
3
x
is 1, Q(-1) = 0 , Q(2) = 0 and Q(3) = -8
[4 marks]
MATHEMATICS UNIT Page 55
CHAPTER 6: POLYNOMIALS
(b) A polynomial
18 4 ) (
2 3
+ + bx x ax x P
has a factor
) 2 ( + x
and a remainder
) 18 2 ( + x
when divided by
) 1 ( + x
. Find the value of a and b. Hence, factorise
) (x P
completely [8 marks]
2008/2009
24. Express
) 1 )( 1 (
8 3 5
2
2
x x
x x
+
+ +
in partial fractions [5 marks]
25. Polynomial
6 8 ) (
2 3
+ + nx x mx x P
can be divided exactly by
) 3 2 (
2
x x
. Find the
values of m and n. Using these values of m and n, factorise the polynomial completely.
Hence, solve the equation
0 12 16 11 14 3
2 3 4
+ + + x x x x
using the polynomial
) (x P
[13 marks]
2009/2010
26. Given a polynomial
30 2 ) (
2 3
+ + bx ax x x P
has factors
) 2 ( + x
and
) 5 ( x
.
(a)
Find the value of the constants
a
and
. b
[6 marks]
(b)
Factorize
) (x P
completely. [3 marks]
(c)
Obtain the solution set for
0 ) ( < x P
[3 marks]
QS016 2010/2011
27. Dividing
b ax x x M + +
2
) (
by
) 1 ( + x
and
) 1 ( x
give a remainder of -12 and -16
respectively. Determine the values of
a
and
. b
[6 marks]
QA016 2010/2011
MATHEMATICS UNIT Page 56
CHAPTER 6: POLYNOMIALS
28. By using the partial fraction method, show that

,
_

2
1
2
1
4
1
4
1
2
x x x
Hence , find


+
dx
x
x
4
1
2
2
[6 marks]
QS015 2011/2012
29. The polynomial
, 2 ) (
2 3
b ax x x x p + +
where
a
and
b
are constants, has a factor of
) 2 ( x
and leaves a remainder of
3
a
when it is divided by
). ( a x
(a)
Find the values of
a
and
. b
[6 marks]
(b)
Factorize
) (x p
completely by using the values of
a
and
b
obtained from part
). (a
Hence, find the real roots of
, 0 ) ( x p
where
a
and
b
are not equal to zero.
[6 marks]
QA016 2011/2012
30. When
3 3
2 3
+ qx px x
is divided by
2
2
+ x x
, the remainder is
1 8 x
.
By using the Remainder Theorem, find the values of
p
and
q
. Hence, obtain the quotient.
[7 marks]
SUGGESTED ANSWERS
POLYNOMIALS
1.
(a)
4 ) ( , 3 ) (
2
+ x R x x x Q
(b)
11 5 ) ( , 7 4 ) ( + x x R x x Q
(c)
9 6 ) ( , 2 3 ) ( + x x R x x Q
2. -45
3.
) 1 ( x
is a factor of P(x)
4. r = -40
MATHEMATICS UNIT Page 57
CHAPTER 6: POLYNOMIALS
5.
1 x
,
1 x
,
3 x
6.
) 4 )( 3 )( 2 )( 1 ( ) ( + + x x x x x f

7.
810 747 93 27 3 ) (
2 3 4
+ + x x x x x h
8. a = 2, b = -6
9. (a)
2 , 2 , 1 c b a
(b)
2 , 2 , 2 ,
2
1

10. (a)
2
2
1
5

+
x x
(c)
) 1 ( 4
1
) 1 ( 2
3
) 1 ( 4
1
2
+

+
x x x
(b)
) 1 2 ( 17
13 6
) 5 ( 17
3
2
+
+

x
x
x
(d)

( ) 1 3
1 2
) 1 ( 3
2
2
+ +
+

x x
x
x
11. (a)
2
12
1
7
1

x x
(c)
) 2 (
8 2
) 1 (
5
3
2
+
+

+
x
x
x
(b)
( )
2
1
1
1
1
1
+
+
+

x x
(d)
2
8
1
1
3

+
x x
x
12. (a)
) 2 ( + x
is a factor of P(x)
(b) -2, 1, 5
(c)
20 ) 10 )( 3 ( ) ( , 20 ) (
2
x x x x P x R
13. (b) 2 (c)
) 1 3 )( 2 )( 1 ( ) (
2
+ + x x x x x P
14. (a) 2 (b)
1 ,
2
1
, 2
(c)
1 2
24
2
2
) 1 (
10
1
10
2
+

+
+
+
+ x x x x
15. (a)
20 , 11 b a
(b)
) 4 3 )( 1 2 )( 3 ( ) (
2
+ + + x x x x x P
(c)
) ,
2
1
( ) 3 , (
16.
) 2 1 ( ) 3 ( ) (
2
x x x P +
2
) 3 (
3
3
1
2 1
2
+

+
+
x x x
17. (a)
) 1 )( 1 2 )( 2 ( ) ( , 2 , 3 + x x x x P q p
MATHEMATICS UNIT Page 58
CHAPTER 6: POLYNOMIALS
18. (a) a = -5, b = 6
19. a = 2, b = -5,
) 3 ( + x
3
2
2
1
1
1
+
+

+ x x x
20.
0 ,
3
10
, 3 ,
3
2
D C B A
21. (a)
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 ( + x x x
(b) a = 4, b = -12, c = 9
22.
) 4 2 ( 4
4
) 2 ( 4
1
2
+
+
+
+

x x
x
x
23. (a)
10 3 6 ) (
2 3
+ + x x x x Q
(b)
2
) 3 )( 2 ( ) ( , 3 , 1 + x x x P b a
24.
2
) 1 (
5
1
1
1
4
x x x +
+
+

25.
) 1 )( 2 3 )( 3 ( ) ( , 5 , 3 + x x x x P n m
2 ,
3
2
, 1 , 3 x x x x
26. (a)
3 a

29 b
(b)
) 3 2 )( 5 )( 2 ( ) ( + + x x x x P
(c)
) 5 ,
2
3
( ) 2 , ( x
27.
15 , 2 b a
28.
c
x
x
x +
1
]
1

,
_

+
2
2
ln
4
5
29.
(a)
4 , 2 0 , 0 b a b a
(b)

2 , 2 , 2 x x x
30.
4 p
and
3 q
,
( ) 1 3 + x x Q
MATHEMATICS UNIT Page 59