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Retrofit Procedure for R-22 R-407C, R-407A, or R-427A

1.  Establish baseline performance. Note the oil type in use and any system operating data (if system is operating properly). Check for existing leaks and identify any needed repairs. 2.  Recover the existing refrigerant charge (DO NOT vent to atmosphere). Weigh the amount of refrigerant removed. 3.  Perform any repairs identified in step 1 and fix any leaks. 4.  Replace the filter-drier and, if necessary, elastomeric seals (O-rings, Schrader valves, etc...). Verify the condition of the system oil; replace, if necessary. 5.  Determine oil change requirements.  POE is the recommended lubricant for R-407C, R-407A, and R-427A. F  or R-427A, if an oil separator is in use and reliable oil return with R-22 is established, replacement of the original mineral oil/alkylbenzene may not be needed (skip to step 7). Otherwise, proceed to next step below. D  rain the existing mineral oil or alkylbenzene from the compressor sump, suction line accumulators, etc Record the amount of oil removed. 8.  Charge the system with the new refrigerant as liquid only from cylinder. The charge weight for R-407C and R-407A/R-427A should be approximately 90-95% and 95-100% of the weight of R-22, respectively. 9.  Adjust TXV set-point and/or refrigerant charge to achieve the desired superheat. Low side pressure control settings may also need to be adjusted. 10.  If possible, monitor the oil level in the compressor. Adjust oil amount as necessary to attain normal operating level (mid-sight glass). Perform additional flushes only as required. 11.  Label system clearly, indicating the type and amounts of system refrigerant and oil.

Frequently Asked Questions

1.  Do I have to retrofit my R-22 equipment?  No. There is no retrofit mandate. The need to retrofit systems will be driven by a variety of market factors, including refrigerant availability. If your R-22 equipment is relatively leak-free, your best option may be to simply maintain your equipment. 2.  R-410A is a replacement for R-22. Can I use it to retrofit R-22 equipment?  R-410A is strictly a replacement for new applications and is not a retrofit. The use of R-410A in R-22 equipment may result in poor performance, system damage, and unsafe conditions. 3.  Many R-22 retrofits say they work with MO and AB. Arent these products drop-ins?  No, there are no drop-ins. As no two refrigerants behave alike, there will be performance differences. As for claims of working with MO/AB, this is based, in part, on additives (i.e. hydrocarbons) mixed with HFCs. While additives may improve oil solubility, these blends are still immiscible with MO/AB. As with HFCs, acceptable results may be achieved in some systems. However, other systems will struggle with oil return and logging. 4.  Are multiple POE flushes required for R-22 retrofits?  Replacing most of the MO/AB with POE helps ensure reliable oil return. However, this may not always be necessary. Many systems perform well after just one POE oil change. Systems with an oil separator have operated successfully on a partial POE oil change, or in some cases without POE. Best practice, however, is to follow the OEMs recommendations. 5. I s there one retrofit that will work in all R-22 systems?  Unfortunately, there is no retrofit with the versatility of R-22. Forane 427A does as good a job as any in covering the broadest range and has been successfully used in AC, MT, and LT systems. It has a slightly lower capacity than R-22, so be sure to consider system loading. Its also a high glide blend and isnt typically recommended for flooded evaporators. 6.  If a refrigerant is a blend, do I have to replace all of it after a system has had a leak?  Typically, that is not necessary. Fractionation, or changes in blend composition, can result from leaks. However, the type of leak, system design/usage, and specific refrigerant all affect fractionation. Changes in composition from liquid leaks tend to be small. Leaks on regularly running DX systems produce little fractionation, as refrigerant flow keeps the components mixed. Fractionation from leaks of azeotropic/near-azeotropic blends also tend to be slight. In many cases, once a leak has been repaired, the system charge can simply be topped off. 7.  Most retrofits have a higher GWP than R-22. Why should I retrofit?  While its true that most retrofits have a higher GWP, R-22 is an ozone depleting substance and, as such, is being phased out. The retrofits are based on non ozone depleting HFC technology. Additionally, while certain retrofits have a noticeably higher GWP (i.e. R-507A), products like R-407C, R-407A, and R-427A have GWP values that are comparable to R-22. 8.  Can R-22 be purchased after 2020? What about R-22 equipment?  There is no sale or use ban on R-22. As long as the refrigerant is available, servicing of equipment may continue. R-22 components may also be purchased and used for service.

R-22 Retrofits

6.  Add an equivalent amount of OEM-recommended POE oil. In some cases, additional oil flushes may be required to meet OEM recommendations. With R-427A, multiple oil flushes are typically not required. 7.  Evacuate the system (less than 500 microns) and ensure it maintains a vacuum. If vacuum is lost, it may indicate that leaks are present in the system.

The statements, technical information and recommendations contained herein are believed to be accurate as of the date hereof. Since the conditions and methods of use of the product and of the information referred to herein are beyond our control, Arkema expressly disclaims any and all liability as to any results obtained or arising from any use of the product or reliance on such information; NO WARRANTY OF FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY, OR ANY OTHER WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, IS MADE CONCERNING THE GOODS DESCRIBED OR THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HEREIN. The information provided herein relates only to the specific product designated and may not be applicable when such product is used in combination with other materials or in any process. The user should thoroughly test any application before commercialization. Nothing contained herein constitutes a license to practice under any patent and it should not be construed as an inducement to infringe any patent, and the user is advised to take appropriate steps to be sure that any proposed use of the product will not result in patent infringement. 2013 Arkema Inc. All rights reserved. SDC/PPC 02/2013

For Technical Support or Customer Service call: Customer Service: 800.245.5858 Technical Support: 800.738.7695 Arkema Inc. 900 First Avenue King of Prussia, PA 19406 610.205.7000

An Overview of R-22 Retrofits

Phase-Out: The refrigerant R-22, long an HVACR industry staple, is being phased out over the next decade. In accordance with the Montreal Protocol, the use of R-22 for new systems was banned January 1, 2010. Under the EPAs Allocation Rule, the manufacturing of R-22 for servicing of existing equipment also was dramatically reduced. HCFC refrigerant production levels will continue to decrease over the next several years, until 2020. As of January 1, 2020, the manufacturing of R-22 for aftermarket service will cease (see Table 1). EPA projections suggest a possible supply deficit over the next several years, with R-22 demand potentially exceeding allowable production levels. Efforts to recover/reclaim R-22 as well as retrofit suitable systems need to increase to ensure adequate refrigerant supply throughout this transition. It is important to note that this is not a use ban. R-22 equipment may still be serviced and used after 2020. For more information on our Reclaim Program, please visit our website at Retrofit Options: There are currently many different R-22 retrofit options. While some of these refrigerants are similar to R-22, none are so-called drop-ins. When choosing an R-22 retrofit, product users should verify if their selection is SNAP (Significant New Alternatives Policy) approved by the EPA see SNAP list at: Selecting the right solution for your application can be difficult, especially when sorting through the many retrofit claims. Arranging retrofits by operating pressures may help (see Table 2). Lower pressure products are lower in capacity and may be best suited for use in higher temperature applications. Similar pressure products tend to have the broadest application range and have been successfully used in air-conditioning and medium-temp refrigeration as well as some low-temp systems. Higher pressure products are typically used in place of R-22 in medium-low temperature refrigeration. Environmental Concerns: R-22 retrofits are based on HFCs, which face increasing regulatory pressure related to their Global Warming Potential (GWP). Unfortunately, most R-22 retrofit options have a noticeably higher GWP than R-22. Selecting a retrofit with a lower GWP value (see Table 3) can help reduce the impact of your refrigerant emissions on the environment. Additionally, the lower GWP R-22 retrofits tend to be some of the more efficient refrigerant options, which also can help reduce the total carbon footprint of your application. Retrofit Issues: There are several issues common to R-22 retrofits. First, all of these products are blends (400 or 500 ASHRAE series) that should be liquid charged to prevent unwanted shifts in composition. While fractionation from leaks is a concern, many leak scenarios will not significantly affect blend integrity. Slow vapor leaks on dormant systems, however, may require special attention. Most R-22 retrofits also are high glide blends that are not suitable for use in flooded evaporators. The HFCs used in R-22 retrofits do not swell elastomers in the same way as R-22. The process of changing refrigerants may produce leaks at lightly constrained seals (i.e. O-rings). At a minimum, replace critical seals before re-charging the system. Leak-check all O-ring joints afterward. Another issue with R-22 retrofits is their inability to mix with traditional lubricants. As previously mentioned, R-22 retrofits are based on HFCs and are immiscible with mineral oil (MO) and alkylbenzene (AB). Many retrofits use additives (i.e. hydrocarbons) with the HFCs to improve oil solubility. However, these blends are still immiscible. While immiscible refrigerant-oil combinations may work in some systems, others will struggle with oil return/logging. The most reliable way to ensure proper system performance is to switch to an OEMrecommended polyolester (POE) oil. Many retrofits need higher refrigerant flow rates to provide the same cooling capacity as R-22 (see Table 4) and avoid starving the system. This may necessitate component replacement, such as expansion devices, distributor nozzles, or even line-sets, when using these products. Similar flow rate products (i.e. R-407A) typically do not require replacement of thermal expansion valves. Adjustments are sometimes required, and assessment of other system components is recommended.

Retrofit Solutions
Arkema recommends Forane 407C, 407A, and 427A as retrofit options for many R-22 applications. All are SNAP approved. When reviewing the various retrofit considerations GWP, capacity, efficiency, operating pressures, flow rates you will find that these products represent some of the closest overall performance matches to R-22 available in the market today. R-407C has the closest capacity to R-22 for air conditioning, while R-407A offers performance similar to R-22 in supermarket refrigeration. R-427A is a hybrid blend that mirrors R-22s operating pressures, allowing it to be used in a wider range of systems. Forane 404A and 507A can also be used to retrofit some R-22 refrigeration systems. However, these products typically require additional system modifications to achieve similar performance.


Primary Usage Application Range Composition (Weight %) All R-22 Systems All R-22 Systems 100% R-22 Air Conditioning ACMT (DX) New & Retrofit 23% R-32 25% R-125 52% R-134a 1,774 -47 187 Similar (AC) Similar NO POE General Purpose R-22 Retrofit ACLT (DX) Retrofit Only 15% 25% 10% 50% R-32 R-125 R-143a R-134a Commercial Refrigeration MTLT (DX) New & Retrofit 20% R-32 40% R-125 40% R-134a 2,107 -49 180 Similar (MTLT) Slightly Higher NO POE

TABLE 1: R-22 pHaSe-OUt tIMelINe

YEAR 2010 MILESTONE Ban on New Systems Containing R-22 75% Cut in HCFC Production 2011-2014 2015-2019 2020 After 2020 R-22 Production Continues to Decrease Each Year 90% Cut in HCFC Production R-22 Production for Service Market Ceases R-22 Service May Continue Using Existing Supplies


retrofit type Lower Pressure Similar Pressure ashrae # R-417A R-421A R-422B R-424A R-407C R-422D R-427A R-438A application range Air Conditioning Medium Temperature Air Conditioning Medium Temperature Low Temperature (some) Higher Pressure R-404A R-407A R-407F R-417B R-421B R-422A R-422C R-428A R-434A R-507A Medium Temperature Low Temperature

TABLE 3: R-22 RetrOfIt GWp cOMparISON

4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 R-407C R-22 R-407A R-427A R-404A R-507A


GWP (100 year) Normal Boiling Point (F) Critical Temperature (F) Capacity (Relative to R-22)

1,810 -41 205 Same Same N/A MO or AB

2,138 -45 186 Slightly Lower Similar NO Partial POE MO* or AB* *(With Oil Separator) 95100% 010 psi Higher 2545 F Lower

R-507A R-427A R-407C R-407A R-404A Standard Cycle Calculations 65125F Condenser 25F Evaporator

Flow rates (Relative to R-22) TXV Change-out Recommended Lubricant

Charge Ratio (Relative to R-22) Discharge Pressure (Relative to R-22)

150 160

100% Same Same

9095% 1525 psi Higher 1015 F Lower

95100% 2535 psi Higher 2035 F Lower







Refrigerant Flow Rates (% Relative to R-22)

Discharge Temperature (Relative to R-22)