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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

Tutorial 3 Solution Reciprocating Compressor Winardi Sani


1. Air is compressed in a single-stage reciprocating compressor from 1.013 bar and 15 C to 7 bar. Calculate the indicated power required for a free air delivery of 0.3 m3 /min, when the compression process is as follows: (a) isentropic (b) reversible isothermal (c) polytropic, with n = 1.25 What is the delivery temperature at each case?
p
3 2 2

= 0.3 m3 /min FAD, V At state 1: p1 = 1.013 bar, T1 = 15C = 15 + 273.15 = 288.15 K

this area

= p
4

indicated work

At state 2: p2 = 7 bar. Isentropic index = 1.4

(a) Isentropic compression, s1 = s2 Temperature, T2 : T2 p2 = T1 p1 1 1.4 1 = = 0.286 1.4 p2 7 = = 6.9102 p1 1.013 p2 p1


1 1

(1)

= 1.737 T2 = 288.15 1.737 = 500.58 K = 227.43C

(2)

(3)

Indicated power: T2 RT1 ( 1) 1 T1 Wisen. = m wisen. T2 = mRT 1) 1( 1 T1 1.4 = = 3.5 1 1.4 1 wisen. =

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia From the ideal gas equation: mRT 1 = p1 V1 = 1.013 bar 0.3 = 506.5 W isen. = 3.5 506.5 W (1.737 1) = 1.306 kW W (4) m3 105 Pa N/m2 1 min min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec

(b) Reversible, isothermal compression, T1 = T2 Indicated work: wisoth. = RT1 ln p2 p1 p2 p1

isoth. = m W wisoth. = mRT 1 ln ln

p2 = ln 6.9102 = 1.93 p1 (5)

isoth. = 506.5 1.93 = 0.979kW W Temperature, T2 = T1 = 15C: (c) Polytropic compression, n = 1.25 Temperature, T2 : p2 n T2 = T1 p1 1.25 1 n1 = = 0.20 n 1.25 p2 7 = = 6.9102 p1 1.013 p2 p1
n1 n n1

(6)

= 1.4720 T2 = 288.15 1.4720 = 424.15 K = 151C

(7)

(8)

Indicated power: wpoly. = n T2 RT1 ( 1) n1 T1 Wpoly = m wpoly n T2 = mRT 1) 1( n1 T1 n 1.25 = =5 n1 1.25 1

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia From the ideal gas equation:

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

mRT (remains unchanged.) 1 = p1 V1 = 506.5 W ploy = 5 506.5 W (1.4720 1) = 1.195 kW W

(9)

isoth. < W ploy < W isen. . The From the answers in (a), (b), and (c), we see W minimum work is achieved by the isothermal compression. 2. The compressor of Question 1 is to run at 1000 rev/min. If the compressor is singleacting and has a stroke/bore ratio of 1.2/1, calculate the bore size required. (Answer: 68.3 mm) = 0.3 m3 /min swept volume Without clearance, V
d l rod shaft

N = 1000 rev/min
motor

l/d = 1.2

Swept Volume = induced volume: d2 d2 l = 1.2d 4 4 V = 0.3d3 V = V = V N 0.3 = = 3 104 m3 1000 (10)

d2 1.2d = 3 104 m3 4 d = 0.683 m = 68.3 mm (11)

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

3. A single-stage, single-acting air compressor running at 1000 rev/min delivers air at 25 bar. For this purpose the induction and free air conditions can be taken as 1.013 bar and 15 C, and the FAD as 0.25 m3 /min. The clearance volume is 3% of the swept volume and the stroke/bore ratio is 1.2/1.
p
3 2

T2 delivery

N = 1000 rev/min p2 = 25 bar Induction and FAD are of the same conditions. pin = 1.013 bar; Tin = 15C = 288.15 K in = 0.25 m3 /min V l/d = 1.2
V1

expansion

suction
4

T1

induced volume swept volume V2 clearance volume V

V3

V4

swept volume

(a) Bore and stroke Swept volume per cycle: d2 l = 0.3 d3 4 V1 = Vs + V3 = (1 + 0.03)Vs = 1.03Vs Vs = Polytropic expansion: V4 p3 = V3 p4
1 n

V4 = V3 11.777 V4 = 0.03 11.777 Vs = 0.353 Vs Induced Air per cycle: Vin = in V 0.25 = = 0.25 103 m3 N 1000 (15) (16) (17) (14)

Equating eq. (17) and eq. (16):

co m

pr

es

si

on

Clearance volume:V3 = 0.03 Vs Polytropic coeff.: n = 1.3.

(12) (13)

p2 = p1

1 n

25 = 1.013

1 1.3

= 11.777

Vin = V1 V4 = (1.03 0.353)Vs = 0.677 Vs

0.25 103 m3 = 0.677 Vs Vs = 0.3693 103 m3 (18)

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia The bore and the stroke of the cylinder: 0.3 d3 = 0.3693 103 m3 d = 0.7319 101 m = 0.0732 m d = 73.2 mm l = 1.2 73.2 mm = 87.84 mm (b) Volumetric efciency:
atmosphere

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

(19) (20)

a T a Va m

(p,V,T)induced m

v =

Vin Vs V3 Vs p2 p1
1/n

=1 From the previous calculations: V3 = 0.03 Vs p2 p1


1/n

(21)

= 11.777

v = 1 0.03 (11.777 1) = 0.6767 v = 67.7% (c) Indicated power: T2 n RT1 ( 1) n1 T1 W =m w n T2 = mRT 1) 1( n1 T1 n 1.3 = = 4.333 n1 1.3 1 w= T2 p2 = T1 p1
n1 n

(22)

25 = 1.013

1.31 1.3

= 2.096

From the ideal gas equation: mRT 1 = p1 V1 = 1.013 bar 0.25 = 422.083 W = 4.333 422.083 W (2.096 1) = 2, 004. W W = 2.0. kW W (23) m3 105 Pa N/m2 1 min min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

(d) Isothermal efciency: isoth = Isothermal power: p2 isoth. = mRT W 1 ln p1 ln p2 25 = ln = 3.21 p1 1.013 (25) (26) 1.355 = 67.5% 2.0 isoth W W (24)

isoth. = 422.083 3.21 = 1.355kW W isoth =

4. The compressor of Question 3 has actual induction conditions of 1 bar and 40 C, and the delivery pressure is 25 bar. Taking the bore as calculated in Question 3, calculate the FAD referred to 1.013 bar and 15 C, and the indicated power required. Calculate also the volumetric efciency and compare it with that of Question 3.

3
atmosphere

p = 1.013 bar
a

T a = 15 o C Va m m

(p = 1bar ,T = 40 oC) Vin m induced


cylinder

p 4 1

V
(a) FAD, see eq. (22) in the lecture note: p4 Vin pa Va = RTa RT4 Ta p4 FAD = Va = Vin T4 pa m = where Vin = 0.25 m3 /min

(27)

Ta = 15 + 273.15 = 288.15 K

pa = 1.013 bar

T4 = 40 + 273.15 = 313.15 K p4 = 1 bar 288.15 1 Ta p4 = = 0.9084 T4 pa 313.15 1.013 a = 0.25 0.9084 = 0.227 m3 /min FAD = V (28)

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (b) Indicated power: n T2 1) mRT 1( n1 T1 n 1.3 = = 4.333 n1 1.3 1 = W T2 p2 = T1 p1
n1 n

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

25 = 1

1.31 1.3

= 2.10

From the ideal gas equation: mRT 1 = p1 V1 = 1 bar 0.25 m3 105 Pa N/m2 1 min min 1 bar 1 Pa 60 sec

= 416.667 W W = 4.333 416.667 W (2.10 1) = 1985.96. W = 1.986 kW W (c) Volumetric efciency, see eq. (19) in lecture note:: a Va V = s Vs V s = Vs N = 0.3693 103 1000 = 0.3693 m3 /min V 0.227 = 61.4% v = 0.3693 v =

(29)

(30)

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

5. A single-acting compressor is required to deliver air at 70 bar from an induction pressure of 1 bar, at the rate of 2.4 m3 /min measured at free air conditions of 1.013 bar and 15 C. The compression is carried out in two-stages with an ideal intermediate pressure and complete intercooling. The clearance volume is 3 % of the swept volume in each cylinder and the compressor speed is 750 rev/min. The index of compression and re-expansion is 1.25 for both cylinders and the temperature at the end of the induction stroke in each cylinder is 32 C. The mechanical efciency of the compressor is 85 %. (Answers: 22.74 kW; 5.98 kW; 0.00396 m3 ; 0.000474 m3 ; 26.75 kW)
3 70 bar 2

p p
2

p=p
i

p
1

1 2

p p 1 bar
1

32 oC 1 4

Vs,HP Vs,LP

(a) the indicated power required pi (n1)/n 1 p1 For ideal intermediate pressure: pi = p1 p2 c =2 W n mRT 1 n1 c =2 W n mRT 1 n1 p2 p1
(n1)/2n

(31)

n1 1.25 1 = = 0.1 2n 2 1.25 n 1.25 = =5 n1 1.25 1 p2 p1


(n1)/2n

70 1

0.1

= 1.5294

m =

a pa V 1.013 bar 2.4 m3 /min 1 min 105 Pa N/m2 = RTa 0.287 kJ/kg K 288.15 K 60 s 1 bar 1 Pa

= 48.997 103 kg/s


3 mRT kg/s 0.287 kJ/kg K 305.15 K = 4.291 kW 1 = 48.997 10 Wc = 2 5 4.291 (1.5294 1)

c = 22.72 kW = W

(32)

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

(b) the saving in power over single-stage compression between the same pressure c,single = W n mRT 1 n1 p2 p1
(n1)/n

1 n 1.25 = =5 n1 1.25 1

n1 1.25 1 = = 0.2, n 1.25 p2 p1


(n1)/n

70 1

0.2

= 2.339

mRT 1 = 4.291 kW c,single = 5 4.291 (2.339 1) = 28.727 kW W (33) Power saving: saved = W c,single W c W saved = 28.727 22.72 = 6.0 kW W (34) (35)

(c) the swept volume of each cylinder LP compressor: a in pa V p1 V = RTa RT1

m = in,LP = V

in,LP V Vin,LP

m R T1 p1 48.997 103 kg/s 0.287 kJ/kg K 305.15 K 1 bar 1000 = 5 1 bar 10 Pa 1 k = 4.29 102 m3 /s in V 4.29 102 = = 60 = 3.43 102 m3 (36) N 750

From the p V diagram, we see: Vin = V1 V4 V1 = Vs + V3 = 1.03 Vs , The polytropic expansion from 3 4: V4 p3 = V3 p4
1 n

with V3 = 0.03Vs

(37)

pi = p1

1 n

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043 with pi =

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia p1 p2 =
1 1.25

70/1 = 8.367

8.367 1

= 5.471

V4 = 5.471 V3 = 5.471 0.03 Vs = 0.1641 Vs V1 V4 = (1.03 0.1641) Vs Vs,LP = HP compressor: Vs,HP = Vs,HP Vs,LP pi 3.96 103 = = 0.47 103 m3 8.367 (39) (40) Vin 3.43 102 = = 3.96 103 m3 0.8659 0.8659 (38)

(d) the required power output of the drive motor.


Power transmission motor rod joint piston

shaft

mech =

W shaft W (41)

shaft = 22.72 kW/0.85 W shaft = 26.73 kW = W

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Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

6. Show the volumetric efciency of an ideal single-stage reciprocating compressor is given by: vol = 1 V3 Vs p2 p1
1/n

(42)

where V3 and Vs are the clearance and swept volume, respectively.


p
3

T2 delivery

expansion

suction
4

T1

induced volume swept volume V2 clearance volume V V1

V3

V4

swept volume

The denition of the volumetric efciency is: vol = Vin Vs (43)

Referring to p V diagram, the relationship between the swept and induced volume as follows: Vs = V1 V3 Vin = V1 V4 vol = Let dene the clearance ratio: c = V1 V3 = vol
V3 Vs

V1 V4 V1 V3
V3 V1 V3

V3 V1 1+c or = 1 + 1/c = c V3 c V1 V4 = c V3 V1 V4 =c V3 V3
1/n

V4 p3 = V3 p4

11

co

pr e

ss

io

(44) (45) (46)

(47) (48) (49)

(50)

Solution Tutorial 3/ ws BDA 3043

Jabatan Kejuruteraan Loji dan Automotif Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal dan Pembuatan Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia 1+c c p3 p4 p3 p4
1/n

vol = c

(51)
1/n

=1+c 1 with p3 = p2 , p4 = p1 and c =


V3 Vs

(52)

vol = 1

V3 Vs

p2 p1

1/n

(53)

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