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BW Questions

1. How many characteristics can be found in a Dimension table ---- (248)

2. What is the limit on Key figures in a Fact table----(233)

3. What are the types of Hierarchies

a. Hierarchy not time-dependent.

b. Entire Hierarchy is time-dependent.

c. Time-dependent Hierarchy structure.

4. What is Extended Star Schema ?

5. Explain Conversion Routine ?


6. What is Info Sets ?

7. First we load master data then we will Apply Hierarchy/Attribute Change and finally

we do transaction data load Why we are following this way to load the data ?

8. What is Line Item Dimension ?

dimension table contains only one characteristics

9. Different types of Key Figures in BEX:

Restricted Key figures & Calculated Key figures

10. Difference between PSA transfer method and IDoc transfer method?

11. How many dimensions can a cube have? 16 out of which 3 are system defined. Time, Unit and Data packets

12. How many tables in ODS ? Total 3 tables - (New data, Change log, Active)

On process chains :

1. What are the extractor types?

• Application Specific

o BW Content FI, HR, CO, SAP CRM, LO Cockpit

o Customer-Generated Extractors LIS, FI-SL, CO-PA

• Cross Application (Generic Extractors)

o DB View, InfoSet, Function Module

2. What are the steps involved in LO Extraction?

• The steps are:


RSA5 Select the DataSources


LBWE Maintain DataSources and Activate Extract Structures


LBWG Delete Setup Tables


0LI*BW Setup tables


RSA3 Check extraction and the data in Setup tables


LBWQ Check the extraction queue


LBWF Log for LO Extract Structures


RSA7 BW Delta Queue Monitor

• LBW0 Connecting LIS InfoStructures to BW

4. What is the difference between ODS and InfoCube and MultiProvider?

• ODS: Provides granular data, allows overwrite and data is in transparent tables, ideal for drilldown and RRI.

• CUBE: Follows the star schema, we can only append data, ideal for primary reporting.

• MultiProvider: Does not have physical data. It allows to access data from different InfoProviders (Cube, ODS, InfoObject). It is also preferred for reporting.

5. What are Start routines, Transfer routines and Update routines?

• Start Routines: The start routine is run for each DataPackage after the data has

been written to the PSA and before the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no return value. Its

purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global DataStructures. This structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire DataPackage in the transfer structure format is used as a parameter for the routine.

• Transfer / Update Routines: They are defined at the InfoObject level. It is like the

Start Routine. It is independent of the DataSource. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks.

6. What is the difference between start routine and update routine, when, how and why

are they called?

• Start routine can be used to access InfoPackage while update routines are used while updating the Data Targets.

7. What is the table that is used in start routines?

• Always the table structure will be the structure of an ODS or InfoCube. For example if it is an ODS then active table structure will be the table.

8. Explain how you used Start routines in your project?

• Start routines are used for mass processing of records. In start routine all the

records of DataPackage is available for processing. So we can process all these records together in start routine. In one of scenario, we wanted to apply size % to the forecast data. For example if material M1 is forecasted to say 100 in May. Then after applying size %(Small 20%, Medium 40%, Large 20%, Extra Large 20%), we wanted to have 4 records against one single record that is coming in the info package. This is achieved in start routine.

9. What are Return Tables?

• When we want to return multiple records, instead of single value, we use the return table in the Update Routine. Example: If we have total telephone expense for a Cost Center, using a return table we can get expense per employee.

10. How do start routine and return table synchronize with each other?

• Return table is used to return the Value following the execution of start routine


What is the difference between V1, V2 and V3 updates?

• V1 Update: It is a Synchronous update. Here the Statistics update is carried out at the same time as the document update (in the application tables).

• V2 Update: It is an Asynchronous update. Statistics update and the Document update take place as different tasks. o V1 & V2 don’t need scheduling.

• Serialized V3 Update: The V3 collective update must be scheduled as a job (via

LBWE). Here, document data is collected in the order it was created and transferred into the BW as a batch job. The transfer sequence may not be the same as the order in which the data was created in all scenarios. V3 update only processes the update data that is

successfully processed with the V2 update.

12. What is compression?

• It is a process used to delete the Request IDs and this saves space.

13. What is Rollup?

• This is used to load new DataPackages (requests) into the InfoCube aggregates. If we have not performed a rollup then the new InfoCube data will not be available while reporting on the aggregate.

14. What is table partitioning and what are the benefits of partitioning in an InfoCube?

• It is the method of dividing a table which would enable a quick reference. SAP uses fact file partitioning to improve performance. We can partition only at 0CALMONTH or 0FISCPER. Table partitioning helps to run the report faster as data is stored in the relevant partitions. Also table maintenance becomes easier. Oracle, Informix, IBM

DB2/390 supports table partitioning while SAP DB, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2/400 do not support table portioning.

15. How many extra partitions are created and why?

• Two partitions are created for date before the begin date and after the end date.

16. What are the options available in transfer rule?

• InfoObject

• Constant

• Routine

• Formula

17. How would you optimize the dimensions?

• We should define as many dimensions as possible and we have to take care that no single dimension crosses more than 20% of the fact table size.

18. What are Conversion Routines for units and currencies in the update rule?

• Using this option we can write ABAP code for Units / Currencies conversion. If we

enable this flag then unit of Key Figure appears in the ABAP code as an additional parameter. For example, we can convert units in Pounds to Kilos.


Can an InfoObject be an InfoProvider, how and why?

• Yes, when we want to report on Characteristics or Master Data. We have to right click

on the InfoArea and select ―Insert characteristic as data target‖. For example, we can make 0CUSTOMER as an InfoProvider and report on it.

20. What is Open Hub Service?

• The Open Hub Service enables us to distribute data from an SAP BW system into

external Data Marts, analytical applications, and other applications. We can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object for exporting data is the InfoSpoke. We can define the source and the target object for the data. BW becomes a

hub of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the distribution status in the BW system.

21. How do you transform Open Hub Data?

• Using BADI we can transform Open Hub Data according to the destination


22. What is ODS?

• Operational DataSource is used for detailed storage of data. We can overwrite data in

the ODS. The data is stored in transparent tables.

23. What are BW Statistics and what is its use?

• They are group of Business Content InfoCubes which are used to measure performance for Query and Load Monitoring. It also shows the usage of aggregates, OLAP and

Warehouse management.

24. What are the steps to extract data from R/3?

• Replicate DataSources

• Assign InfoSources

• Maintain Communication Structure and Transfer rules

• Create an InfoPackage

• Load Data

25. What are the delta options available when you load from flat file?

The 3 options for Delta Management with Flat Files:


Full Upload


New Status for Changed records (ODS Object only)


Additive Delta (ODS Object & InfoCube)

26. Under which menu path is the Test Workbench to be found, including in earlier


The menu path is: Tools - ABAP Workbench - Test - Test Workbench.

Q) I want to delete a BEx query that is in Production system through request. Is anyone

aware about it?

Q) Have you tried the RSZDELETE transaction?

Q) Errors while monitoring process chains.

A) During data loading. Apart from them, in process chains you add so many process

types, for example after loading data into Info Cube, you rollup data into aggregates, now

this rolling up of data into aggregates is a process type which you keep after the process type for loading data into Cube. This rolling up into aggregates might fail.

Another one is after you load data into ODS, you activate ODS data (another process type) this might also fail.

Q) In Monitor----- Details (Header/Status/Details) à Under Processing (data packet):

Everything OK à Context menu of Data Package 1 (1 Records): Everything OK ----

Simulate update. (Here we can debug update rules or transfer rules.)

SM50 à Program/Mode à Program à Debugging & debug this work process.

Q) PSA Cleansing.

A) You know how to edit PSA. I don't think you can delete single records. You have to

delete entire PSA data for a request.

Q) Can we make a datasource to support delta.

A) If this is a custom (user-defined) datasource you can make the datasource delta

enabled. While creating datasource from RSO2, after entering datasource name and pressing create, in the next screen there is one button at the top, which says generic delta. If you want more details about this there is a chapter in Extraction book, it's in last pages u find out.

Generic delta services: -

Supports delta extraction for generic extractors according to:

Time stamp Calendar day Numeric pointer, such as document number & counter Only one of these attributes can be set as a delta attribute.

Delta extraction is supported for all generic extractors, such as tables/views, SAP Query and function modules. The delta queue (RSA7) allows you to monitor the current status of the delta attribute

Q) Workbooks, as a general rule, should be transported with the role.

Here are a couple of scenarios:

1. If both the workbook and its role have been previously transported, then the role

does not need to be part of the transport.

been transported, and then you have a choice of transporting the role (recommended) or

just the workbook. If only the workbook is transported, then an additional step will have

to be taken after import: Locate the WorkbookID via Table RSRWBINDEXT (in Dev

and verify the same exists in the target system) and proceed to manually add it to the role

in the target system via Transaction Code PFCG -- ALWAYS use control c/control v

copy/paste for manually adding! 3. If the role does not exist in the target system you should transport both the role and workbook. Keep in mind that a workbook is an object unto itself and has no dependencies on other objects. Thus, you do not receive an error message from the transport of 'just a workbook' -- even though it may not be visible, it will exist (verified via Table RSRWBINDEXT).

Overall, as a general rule, you should transport roles with workbooks.

Q) How much time does it take to extract 1 million (10 lackhs) of records into an

infocube? A. This depends, if you have complex coding in update rules it will take longer time, or else it will take less than 30 minutes.

Q) What are the five ASAP Methodologies?

A: Project plan, Business Blue print, Realization, Final preparation & Go-Live - support.

1. Project Preparation: In this phase, decision makers define clear project objectives and

an efficient decision making process (i.e. Discussions with the client, like what are his

needs and requirements etc.). Project managers will be involved in this phase (I guess).


Project Charter is issued and an implementation strategy is outlined in this phase.


Business Blueprint: It is a detailed documentation of your company's requirements.

(i.e. what are the objects we need to develop are modified depending on the client's


3. Realization: In this only, the implementation of the project takes place (development of

objects etc) and we are involved in the project from here only.

4. Final Preparation: Final preparation before going live i.e. testing, conducting pre-go-

live, end user training etc. End user training is given that is in the client site you train them how to work with the

new environment, as they are new to the technology.

5. Go-Live & support: The project has gone live and it is into production. The Project

team will be supporting the end users.

Q) What is landscape of R/3 & what is landscape of BW. Landscape of R/3 not sure.

Then Landscape of b/w: u have the development system, testing system, production system Development system: All the implementation part is done in this sys. (I.e., Analysis

of objects developing, modification etc) and from here the objects are transported to the testing system, but before transporting an initial test known as Unit testing (testing of objects) is done in the development sys. Testing/Quality system: quality check is done in this system and integration testing is done. Production system: All the extraction part takes place in this sys.

Q) How do you measure the size of infocube?

A: In no of records.

Q). Difference between infocube and ODS? A: Infocube is structured as star schema (extended) where a fact table is surrounded by different dim table that are linked with DIM'ids. And the data wise, you will have aggregated data in the cubes. No overwrite functionality ODS is a flat structure (flat table) with no star schema concept and which will have granular data (detailed level). Overwrite functionality.

Flat file datasources does not support 0recordmode in extraction. x before, -after, n new, a add, d delete, r reverse

Q) Difference between display attributes and navigational attributes?

A: Display attribute is one, which is used only for display purpose in the report. Where as navigational attribute is used for drilling down in the report. We don't need to maintain Navigational attribute in the cube as a characteristic (that is the advantage) to drill down.



A: But how is it possible? If you load it manually twice, then you can delete it by



Sure you can. ODS is nothing but a table.


A) Yes of course. For example, for loading text and hierarchies we use different data

sources but the same InfoSource.


A) Data flows from transactional system to analytical system (BW). DataSources on the

transactional system needs to be replicated on BW side and attached to infosource and update rules respectively.





Q) AS WE USE Sbwnn, sbiw1, sbiw2 for delta update in LIS THEN WHAT IS THE

PROCEDURE IN LO-COCKPIT? No LIS in LO cockpit. We will have datasources and can be maintained (append fields).

Refer white paper on LO-Cockpit extractions.

Q) Why we delete the setup tables (LBWG) & fill them (OLI*BW)?

A) Initially we don't delete the setup tables but when we do change in extract structure

we go for it. We r changing the extract structure right, that means there are some newly added fields in that which r not before. So to get the required data (i.e.; the data which is required is taken and to avoid redundancy) we delete n then fill the setup tables.

To refresh the statistical data. The extraction set up reads the dataset that you want to process such as, customers orders with the tables like VBAK, VBAP) & fills the relevant communication structure with the data. The data is stored in cluster tables from where it is read when the initialization is run. It is important that during initialization phase, no one generates or modifies application data, at least until the tables can be set up.


SIGNIFICANCE of ODS? - It holds granular data (detailed level).




WHAT IS DATA SIZE? - The volume of data one data target holds (in no. of


Q) Different types of INFOCUBES. - Basic, Virtual (remote, sap remote and multi)

Virtual Cube is used for example, if you consider railways reservation all the information

has to be updated online. For designing the Virtual cube you have to write the function module that is linking to table, Virtual cube it is like a the structure, when ever the table


you will get the information : and search for Designing Virtual Cube and you will get a good material designing the Function Module

is updated the virtual cube will fetch the data from table and display report Online

Q) INFOSET QUERY. - Can be made of ODS's and Characteristic InfoObjects with



ARE THERE. - In R/3 or in BW? 2 in R/3 and 2 in BW

Q) ROUTINES? - Exist in the InfoObject, transfer routines, update routines and start


Q) BRIEF SOME STRUCTURES USED IN BEX.? - Rows and Columns, you can

create structures.


Variable's are Texts, Formulas, Hierarchies, Hierarchy nodes & Characteristic values.

Variable Types are - Manual entry /default value, Replacement path, SAP exit, Customer exit, Authorization


You can drill down to any level by using Navigational attributes and jump targets.

Q) WHAT ARE INDEXES? - Indexes are data base indexes, which help in retrieving

data fastly.


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN 2.1 AND 3.X VERSIONS. - Help! Refer documentation



USED? - No.

Q) WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF KPI'S? - KPI's indicate the performance of a

company. These are key figures


image (correct me if I am wrong)


REPORTING AND RESTRICTIONS. - Help! Refer documentation.


TOOLS USED FOR PERFORMANCE TUNING. - ST22, Number ranges, delete

indexes before load. Etc


DATA DAILY. There should be some tool to run the job daily (SM37 jobs)


AUTHORIZATIONS. - Profile generator


WEB REPORTING. - What are you expecting??





expecting? MultiCube works on Union condition


Q) What types of partitioning are there for BW?

There are two Partitioning Performance aspects for BW (Cube & PSA) Query Data Retrieval Performance Improvement:

Partitioning by (say) Date Range improves data retrieval by making best use of database [data range] execution plans and indexes (of say Oracle database engine).

B) Transactional Load Partitioning Improvement:

Partitioning based on expected load volumes and data element sizes. Improves data

loading into PSA and Cubes by infopackages (Eg. without timeouts).

Q) How can I compare data in R/3 with data in a BW Cube after the daily delta loads?

Are there any standard procedures for checking them or matching the number of records?

A) You can go to R/3 TCode RSA3 and run the extractor. It will give you the number of

records extracted. Then go to BW Monitor to check the number of records in the PSA and check to see if it is the same & also in the monitor header tab.

A) RSA3 is a simple extractor checker program that allows you to rule out extracts

problems in R/3. It is simple to use, but only really tells you if the extractor works. Since records that get updated into Cubes/ODS structures are controlled by Update Rules, you

will not be able to determine what is in the Cube compared to what is in the R/3 environment. You will need to compare records on a 1:1 basis against records in R/3 transactions for the functional area in question. I would recommend enlisting the help of the end user community to assist since they presumably know the data.

To use RSA3, go to it and enter the extractor ex: 2LIS_02_HDR. Click execute and you will see the record count, you can also go to display that data. You are not modifying anything so what you do in RSA3 has no effect on data quality afterwards. However, it will not tell you how many records should be expected in BW for a given load. You have that information in the monitor RSMO during and after data loads. From RSMO for a given load you can determine how many records were passed through the transfer rules from R/3, how many targets were updated, and how many records passed through the Update Rules. It also gives you error messages from the PSA.


Types of Update Rules? - A) (Check box), Return table


Transfer Routine?

A) Routines, which we write in, transfer rules.

Q) Update Routine? -

A) Routines, which we write in Update rules

Q) What is the difference between writing a routine in transfer rules and writing a routine

in update rules?

A) If you are using the same InfoSource to update data in more than one data target its

better u write in transfer rules because u can assign one InfoSource to more than one data target & and what ever logic u write in update rules it is specific to particular one data


Q) Routine with Return Table.

A) Update rules generally only have one return value. However, you can create a routine

in the tab strip key figure calculation, by choosing checkbox Return table. The corresponding key figure routine then no longer has a return value, but a return table. You can then generate as many key figure values, as you like from one data record.

Q) Start routines?

A) Start routines u can write in both updates rules and transfer rules, suppose you want to

restrict (delete) some records based on conditions before getting loaded into data targets, then you can specify this in update rules-start routine. Ex: - Delete Data_Package ani ante it will delete a record based on the condition

Q) X & Y Tables?

X-table = A table to link material SIDs with SIDs for time-independent navigation attributes. Y-table = A table to link material SIDs with SIDS for time-dependent navigation attributes. There are four types of sid tables


time independent navigational attributes sid tables


time dependent navigational attributes sid tables


hierarchy sid tables

I hierarchy structure sid tables

Q) Filters & Restricted Key figures (real time example)

Restricted KF's u can have for an SD cube: billed quantity, billing value, no: of billing

documents as RKF's.

Q) Line-Item Dimension (give me an real time example)

Line-Item Dimension: Invoice no: or Doc no: is a real time example

Q) What does the number in the 'Total' column in Transaction RSA7 mean?

A) The 'Total' column displays the number of LUWs that were written in the delta queue

and that have not yet been confirmed. The number includes the LUWs of the last delta request (for repetition of a delta request) and the LUWs for the next delta request. A LUW only disappears from the RSA7 display when it has been transferred to the BW System and a new delta request has been received from the BW System.

Q) How to know in which table (SAP BW) contains Technical Name / Description and

creation data of a particular Reports. Reports that are created using BEx Analyzer.

A) There is no such table in BW if you want to know such details while you are opening

a particular query press properties button you will come to know all the details that you wanted. You will find your information about technical names and description about queries in

the following tables. Directory of all reports (Table RSRREPDIR) and Directory of the reporting component elements (Table RSZELTDIR) for workbooks and the connections to queries check Where- used list for reports in workbooks (Table RSRWORKBOOK) Titles of Excel Workbooks in InfoCatalog (Table RSRWBINDEXT)

Q) What is a LUW in the delta queue?

A) A LUW from the point of view of the delta queue can be an individual document, a

group of documents from a collective run or a whole data packet of an application


Q) Why does the number in the 'Total' column in the overview screen of Transaction

RSA7 differ from the number of data records that is displayed when you call the detail view?

A) The number on the overview screen corresponds to the total of LUWs (see also first

question) that were written to the qRFC queue and that have not yet been confirmed. The detail screen displays the records contained in the LUWs. Both, the records belonging to the previous delta request and the records that do not meet the selection conditions of the preceding delta init requests are filtered out. Thus, only the records that are ready for the next delta request are displayed on the detail screen. In the detail screen of Transaction RSA7, a possibly existing customer exit is not taken into account.

Q) Why does Transaction RSA7 still display LUWs on the overview screen after

successful delta loading?

A) Only when a new delta has been requested does the source system learn that the

previous delta was successfully loaded to the BW System. Then, the LUWs of the previous delta may be confirmed (and also deleted). In the meantime, the LUWs must be kept for a possible delta request repetition. In particular, the number on the overview screen does not change when the first delta was loaded to the BW System.

Q) Why are selections not taken into account when the delta queue is filled?

A) Filtering according to selections takes place when the system reads from the delta

queue. This is necessary for reasons of performance.

Q) Why is there a DataSource with '0' records in RSA7 if delta exists and has also been

loaded successfully? It is most likely that this is a DataSource that does not send delta data to the BW System via the delta queue but directly via the extractor (delta for master data using ALE change pointers). Such a DataSource should not be displayed in RSA7. This error is corrected with BW 2.0B Support Package 11.

Q) Do the entries in table ROIDOCPRMS have an impact on the performance of the

loading procedure from the delta queue?

A) The impact is limited. If performance problems are related to the loading process from

the delta queue, then refer to the application-specific notes (for example in the CO-PA area, in the logistics cockpit area and so on). Caution: As of Plug In 2000.2 patch 3 the entries in table ROIDOCPRMS are as effective for the delta queue as for a full update. Please note, however, that LUWs are not split during data loading for consistency reasons. This means that when very large LUWs are written to the DeltaQueue, the actual package size may differ considerably from the MAXSIZE and MAXLINES parameters.

Q) Why does it take so long to display the data in the delta queue (for example

approximately 2 hours)?

A) With Plug In 2001.1 the display was changed: the user has the option of defining the

amount of data to

be displayed, to restrict it, to selectively choose the number of a data record, to make a distinction between the 'actual' delta data and the data intended for repetition and so on.

Q) What is the purpose of function 'Delete data and meta data in a queue' in RSA7? What

exactly is deleted?

A) You should act with extreme caution when you use the deletion function in the delta

queue. It is comparable to deleting an InitDelta in the BW System and should preferably be executed there. You do not only delete all data of this DataSource for the affected BW System, but also lose the entire information concerning the delta initialization. Then you can only request new deltas after another delta initialization. When you delete the data, the LUWs kept in the qRFC queue for the corresponding target system are confirmed. Physical deletion only takes place in the qRFC outbound queue if there are no more references to the LUWs. The deletion function is for example intended for a case where the BW System, from which the delta initialization was originally executed, no longer exists or can no longer be accessed.

Q) Why does it take so long to delete from the delta queue (for example half a day)?

A) Import PlugIn 2000.2 patch 3. With this patch the performance during deletion is

considerably improved.

Q) Why is the delta queue not updated when you start the V3 update in the logistics

cockpit area?

A) It is most likely that a delta initialization had not yet run or that the delta initialization

was not successful. A successful delta initialization (the corresponding request must have QM status 'green' in the BW System) is a prerequisite for the application data being written in the delta queue.

Q) What is the relationship between RSA7 and the qRFC monitor (Transaction SMQ1)?

A) The qRFC monitor basically displays the same data as RSA7. The internal queue

name must be used for selection on the initial screen of the qRFC monitor. This is made

up of the prefix 'BW, the client and the short name of the DataSource. For DataSources whose name are 19 characters long or shorter, the short name corresponds to the name of the DataSource. For DataSources whose name is longer than 19 characters (for delta- capable DataSources only possible as of PlugIn 2001.1) the short name is assigned in table ROOSSHORTN.

In the qRFC monitor you cannot distinguish between repeatable and new LUWs. Moreover, the data of a LUW is displayed in an unstructured manner there.

Q) Why are the data in the delta queue although the V3 update was not started?

A) Data was posted in background. Then, the records are updated directly in the delta

queue (RSA7). This happens in particular during automatic goods receipt posting (MRRS). There is no duplicate transfer of records to the BW system. See Note 417189.

Q) Why does button 'Repeatable' on the RSA7 data details screen not only show data

loaded into BW during the last delta but also data that were newly added, i.e. 'pure' delta records?

A) Was programmed in a way that the request in repeat mode fetches both actually

repeatable (old) data and new data from the source system.

Q) I loaded several delta inits with various selections. For which one is the delta loaded?

A) For delta, all selections made via delta inits are summed up. This means, a delta for

the 'total' of all delta initializations is loaded.

Q) How many selections for delta inits are possible in the system?

A) With simple selections (intervals without complicated join conditions or single

values), you can make up to about 100 delta inits. It should not be more. With complicated selection conditions, it should be only up to 10-20 delta inits. Reason: With many selection conditions that are joined in a complicated way, too many 'where' lines are generated in the generated ABAP source code that may exceed the memory limit.

Q) I intend to copy the source system, i.e. make a client copy. What will happen with

may delta? Should I initialize again after that?

A) Before you copy a source client or source system, make sure that your deltas have

been fetched from the DeltaQueue into BW and that no delta is pending. After the client copy, an inconsistency might occur between BW delta tables and the OLTP delta tables as described in Note 405943. After the client copy, Table ROOSPRMSC will probably be empty in the OLTP since this table is client-independent. After the system copy, the table will contain the entries with the old logical system name that are no longer useful for further delta loading from the new logical system. The delta must be initialized in any case since delta depends on both the BW system and the source system. Even if no dump 'MESSAGE_TYPE_X' occurs in BW when editing or creating an InfoPackage, you should expect that the delta have to be initialized after the copy.

Q) Is it allowed in Transaction SMQ1 to use the functions for manual control of


A) Use SMQ1 as an instrument for diagnosis and control only. Make changes to BW

queues only after informing the BW Support or only if this is explicitly requested in a note for component 'BC-BW' or 'BW-WHM-SAPI'.

Q) Despite of the delta request being started after completion of the collective run (V3

update), it does not contain all documents. Only another delta request loads the missing documents into BW. What is the cause for this "splitting"?

A) The collective run submits the open V2 documents for processing to the task handler,

which processes them in one or several parallel update processes in an asynchronous way. For this reason, plan a sufficiently large "safety time window" between the end of the collective run in the source system and the start of the delta request in BW. An

alternative solution where this problem does not occur is described in Note 505700.

Q) Despite my deleting the delta init, LUWs are still written into the DeltaQueue?

A) In general, delta initializations and deletions of delta inits should always be carried out

at a time when no posting takes place. Otherwise, buffer problems may occur: If a user started the internal mode at a time when the delta initialization was still active, he/she

posts data into the queue even though the initialization had been deleted in the meantime. This is the case in your system.

Q) In SMQ1 (qRFC Monitor) I have status 'NOSEND'. In the table TRFCQOUT, some

entries have the status 'READY', others 'RECORDED'. ARFCSSTATE is 'READ'. What do these statuses mean? Which values in the field 'Status' mean what and which values are correct and which are alarming? Are the statuses BW-specific or generally valid in qRFC?

A) Table TRFCQOUT and ARFCSSTATE: Status READ means that the record was read

once either in a delta request or in a repetition of the delta request. However, this does not mean that the record has successfully reached the BW yet. The status READY in the TRFCQOUT and RECORDED in the ARFCSSTATE means that the record has been written into the DeltaQueue and will be loaded into the BW with the next delta request or a repetition of a delta. In any case only the statuses READ, READY and RECORDED in both tables are considered to be valid. The status EXECUTED in TRFCQOUT can occur temporarily. It is set before starting a DeltaExtraction for all records with status READ present at that time. The records with status EXECUTED are usually deleted from the

queue in packages within a delta request directly after setting the status before extracting a new delta. If you see such records, it means that either a process which is confirming and deleting records which have been loaded into the BW is successfully running at the moment, or, if the records remain in the table for a longer period of time with status EXECUTED, it is likely that there are problems with deleting the records which have already been successfully been loaded into the BW. In this state, no more deltas are loaded into the BW. Every other status is an indicator for an error or an inconsistency. NOSEND in SMQ1 means nothing (see note 378903).

The value 'U' in field 'NOSEND' of table TRFCQOUT is discomforting.

Q) The extract structure was changed when the DeltaQueue was empty. Afterwards new

delta records were written to the DeltaQueue. When loading the delta into the PSA, it shows that some fields were moved. The same result occurs when the contents of the DeltaQueue are listed via the detail display. Why are the data displayed differently? What can be done? A)Make sure that the change of the extract structure is also reflected in the database and that all servers are synchronized. We recommend to reset the buffers using Transaction $SYNC. If the extract structure change is not communicated synchronously to the server where delta records are being created, the records are written with the old structure until the new structure has been generated. This may have disastrous consequences for the


When the problem occurs, the delta needs to be re-initialized.

Q) How and where can I control whether a repeat delta is requested?

A) Via the status of the last delta in the BW Request Monitor. If the request is RED, the

next load will be of type 'Repeat'. If you need to repeat the last load for certain reasons, set the request in the monitor to red manually. For the contents of the repeat see Question 14. Delta requests set to red despite of data being already updated lead to duplicate records in a subsequent repeat, if they have not been deleted from the data targets concerned before.

Q) As of PI 2003.1, the Logistic Cockpit offers various types of update methods. Which

update method is recommended in logistics? According to which criteria should the decision be made? How can I choose an update method in logistics?

See the recommendation in Note 505700.

Q) Are there particular recommendations regarding the data volume the DeltaQueue may

grow to without facing the danger of a read failure due to memory problems?

A) There is no strict limit (except for the restricted number range of the 24-digit

QCOUNT counter in the LUW management table - which is of no practical importance, however - or the restrictions regarding the volume and number of records in a database


When estimating "smooth" limits, both the number of LUWs is important and the average data volume per LUW. As a rule, we recommend to bundle data (usually documents) already when writing to the DeltaQueue to keep number of LUWs small (partly this can be set in the applications, e.g. in the Logistics Cockpit). The data volume of a single LUW should not be considerably larger than 10% of the memory available to the work process for data extraction (in a 32-bit architecture with a memory volume of about 1GByte per work process, 100 Mbytes per LUW should not be exceeded). That limit is of

rather small practical importance as well since a comparable limit already applies when writing to the DeltaQueue. If the limit is observed, correct reading is guaranteed in most cases.

If the number of LUWs cannot be reduced by bundling application transactions, you should at least make sure that the data are fetched from all connected BWs as quickly as possible. But for other, BW-specific, reasons, the frequency should not be higher than one DeltaRequest per hour.

To avoid memory problems, a program-internal limit ensures that never more than 1 million LUWs are read and fetched from the database per DeltaRequest. If this limit is reached within a request, the DeltaQueue must be emptied by several successive DeltaRequests. We recommend, however, to try not to reach that limit but trigger the fetching of data from the connected BWs already when the number of LUWs reaches a 5- digit value.

Q) I would like to display the date the data was uploaded on the report. Usually, we load

the transactional data nightly. Is there any easy way to include this information on the report for users? So that they know the validity of the report.

A) If I understand your requirement correctly, you want to display the date on which data

was loaded into the data target from which the report is being executed. If it is so, configure your workbook to display the text elements in the report. This displays the relevance of data field, which is the date on which the data load has taken place.


Can we filter the fields at Transfer Structure?


Can we load data directly into infoobject with out extraction is it possible.

Yes. We can copy from other infoobject if it is same. We load data from PSA if it is already in PSA.


DAILY, WEEKLY AND MONTHLY. a) We can set the time.


OFFSHORE PROJECTS. THROUGH WHICH NETWORK. a) VPN…………….Virtual Private Network, VPN is nothing but one sort of network where we can connect to the client systems sitting in offshore through RAS (Remote access server).


Prepare Project Plan and Environment Define Project Management Standards and


Define Implementation Standards and Procedures

Testing & Go-live + supporting.


CUBES IF ONE CUBE GOT LOCK ERROR. HOW CAN U RECTIFY THE ERROR? Go to TCode sm66 then see which one is locked select that pid from there and goto sm12 TCode then unlock it this is happened when lock errors are occurred when u scheduled.

Q) Can anybody tell me how to add a navigational attribute in the BEx report in the


A) Expand dimension under left side panel (that is infocube panel) select than

navigational attributes drag and drop under rows panel.


In current systems (BW 3.0B and R/3 4.6B) these Tcodes don't exist!


A) Transactional InfoCubes differ from standard InfoCubes in that the former have an

improved write access performance level. Standard InfoCubes are technically optimized for read-only access and for a comparatively small number of simultaneous accesses. Instead, the transactional InfoCube was developed to meet the demands of SAP Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM), meaning that, data is written to the InfoCube (possibly by several users at the same time) and re-read as soon as possible. Standard Basic cubes are not suitable for this.

Q) Is there any way to delete cube contents within update rules from an ODS data

source? The reason for this would be to delete (or zero out) a cube record in an "Open

Order" cube if the open order quantity was 0. I've tried using the 0recordmode but that doesn't work. Also, would it be easier to write a program that would be run after the load and delete the records with a zero open qty?

A) START routine for update rules u can write ABAP code.

A) Yap, you can do it. Create a start routine in Update rule.

It is not "Deleting cube contents with update rules" It is only possible to avoid that some content is updated into the InfoCube using the start routine. Loop at all the records and delete the record that has the condition. "If the open order quantity was 0" You have to think also in before and after images in case of a delta upload. In that case you may delete the change record and keep the old and after the change the wrong information.

Q) I am not able to access a node in hierarchy directly using variables for reports. When I

am using Tcode RSZV it is giving a message that it doesn't exist in BW 3.0 and it is

embedded in BEx. Can any one tell me the other options to get the same functionality in BEx?

A) Tcode RSZV is used in the earlier version of 3.0B only. From 3.0B onwards, it's

possible in the Query Designer (BEx) itself. Just right click on the InfoObject for which you want to use as variables and precede further selecting variable type and processing


Q) Wondering how can I get the values, for an example, if I run a report for month range

01/2004 - 10/2004 then monthly value is actually divide by the number of months that I selected. Which variable should I use?

Q) Why is it every time I switch from Info Provider to InfoObject or from one item to

another while in modeling I always get this message " Reading Data " or "constructing

workbench" in it runs for minutes

anyway to stop this?

Q) Can any one give me info on how the BW delta works also would like to know about

'before image and after image' am currently in a BW project and have to write start routines for delta load.

Q) I am very new to BW. I would like to clarify a doubt regarding Delta extractor. If I am

correct, by using delta extractors the data that has already been scheduled will not be

uploaded again. Say for a specific scenario, Sales. Now I have uploaded all the sales order created till yesterday into the cube. Now say I make changes to any of the open record, which was already uploaded. Now what happens when I schedule it again? Will the same record be uploaded again with the changes or will the changes get affected to the previous record.

Q) In BW we need to write abap routines. I wish to know when and what type of abap

routines we got to write. Also, are these routines written in update rules? I will be glad, if

this is clarified with real-time scenarios and few examples?

A) Over here we write our routines in the start routines in the update rules or in the

transfer structure (you can choose between writing them in the start routines or directly behind the different characteristics. In the transfer structure you just click on the yellow triangle behind a characteristic and choose "routine". In the update rules you can choose "start routine" or click on the triangle with the green square behind an individual characteristic. Usually we only use start routine when it does not concern one single characteristic (for example when you have to read the same table for 4 characteristics). I

hope this helps.

We used ABAP Routines for example:

To convert to Uppercase (transfer structure) To convert Values out of a third party tool with different keys into the same keys as our SAP System uses (transfer structure) To select only a part of the data for from an infosource updating the InfoCube (Start Routine) etc.

Q) What is ODS?

A) An ODS object acts as a storage location for consolidated and cleaned-up transaction

data (transaction data or master data, for example) on the document (atomic) level.

This data can be evaluated using a BEx query. Standard ODS Object Transactional ODS object:

The data is immediately available here for reporting. For implementation, compare with the Transactional ODS Object.

A transactional ODS object differs from a standard ODS object in the way it

prepares data. In a standard ODS object, data is stored in different versions ((new) delta,

active, (change log) modified), where as a transactional ODS object contains the data in a single version. Therefore, data is stored in precisely the same form in which it was written to the transactional ODS object by the application. In BW, you can use a transaction ODS object as a data target for an analysis process.

The transactional ODS object is also required by diverse applications, such as SAP Strategic Enterprise Management (SEM) for example, as well as other external applications.

Transactional ODS objects allow data to be available quickly. The data from this kind of ODS object is accessed transactionally, that is, data is written to the ODS object (possibly by several users at the same time) and reread as soon as possible.

It offers no replacement for the standard ODS object. Instead, an additional function

displays those that can be used for special applications.

The transactional ODS object simply consists of a table for active data. It retrieves its data from external systems via fill- or delete- APIs. The loading process is not supported by the BW system. The advantage to the way it is structured is that data is easy to access. They are made available for reporting immediately after being loaded.

Q) What does InfoCube contains?

A) Each InfoCube has one FactTable & a maximum of 16 (13+3 system defined, time,

unit & data packet) dimensions.

Q) What does FACT Table contain?

A) FactTable consists of KeyFigures. Each Fact Table can contain a maximum of 233

key figures. Dimension can contain up to 248 freely available characteristics.

Q) How many dimensions are in a CUBE?

A) 16 dimensions. (13 user defined & 3 system pre-defined [time, unit & data packet])

Q) What does SID Table contain?

SID keys linked with dimension table & master data tables (attributes, texts, hierarchies)


What does ATTRIBUTE Table contain? - Master attribute data


What does TEXT Table contain? - Master text data, short text, long text, medium text

& language key if it is language dependent


What does Hierarchy table contain? - Master hierarchy data


What is the advantage of extended STAR Schema?

Q). Differences between STAR Schema & Extended Schema?

A) In STAR SCHEMA, A FACT Table in center, surrounded by dimensional tables and

the dimension tables contains of master data. In Extended Schema the dimension tables does not contain master data, instead they are stored in Masterdata tables divided into attributes, text & hierarchy. These Masterdata & dimensional tables are linked with each other with SID keys. Masterdata tables are independent of Infocube & reusability in other InfoCubes.

Q) As to where in BW do you go to add a character like a \; # so that BW will accept it.

This is transaction data which loads fine in the PSA but not the data target.

A) Check transaction SPRO ---Then click the "Goggles"-Button => Business Information

Warehouse => Global Settings => 2nd point in the list. I hope you can use my "Guide" (my BW is in german, so i don't know all the english



Does data packets exits even if you don't enter the master data, (when created)?


When are Dimension ID's created?


When Transaction data is loaded into InfoCube


When are SID's generated?


When Master data loaded into Master Tables (Attr, Text, Hierarchies).


How would we delete the data in ODS?


By request IDs, Selective deletion & change log entry deletion.


How would we delete the data in change log table of ODS?


Context menu of ODS ? Manage ? Environment ? change log entries.


What are the extra fields does PSA contain?

A) (4) Record id, Data packet …

Q) Partitioning possible for ODS?

A) No, It's possible only for Cube.


Why partitioning?


For performance tuning.


Have you ever tried to load data from 2 InfoPackages into one cube? A) Yes.


Different types of Attributes?


Navigational attribute, Display attributes, Time dependent attributes, Compounding

attributes, Transitive attributes, Currency attributes.

Q) Transitive Attributes?

A) Navigational attributes having nav attr…these nav attrs are called transitive attrs


Navigational attribute?


Are used for drill down reporting (RRI).


Display attributes?


You can show DISPLAY attributes in a report, which are used only for displaying.


How does u recognize an attribute whether it is a display attribute or not?


In Edit characteristics of char, on general tab checked as attribute only.


Compounding attribute?


Time dependent attributes?


Currency attributes?


Authorization relevant object. Why authorization needed?


How do we convert Master data InfoObject to a Data target?


InfoArea ? Infoprovider (context menu) ? Insert characteristic Data as DataTarget.


How do we load the data if a FlatFile consists of both Master and Transaction data?


Using Flexible update method while creating InfoSource.


Steps in LIS are Extraction?


Steps in LO are Extraction? Maintain extract structures. (R/3) Maintain DataSources. (R/3) Replicate DataSource in BW. Assign InfoSources. Maintain communication structures/transfer rules. Maintain InfoCubes & Update rules. Activate extract structures. (R/3) Delete setup tables/setup extraction. (R/3) InfoPackage for the Delta initialization. Set-up periodic V3 update. (R/3) InfoPackage for Delta uploads.


Steps in FlatFile Extraction?


Different types in LO's?


Direct Delta, Queued Delta, Serialized V3 update, Unserialized V3 Update.

Direct Delta: - With every document posted in R/3, the extraction data is transferred directly into the BW delta queue. Each document posting with delta extraction becomes exactly one LUW in the corresponding Delta queue. Queued Delta: - The extraction data from the application is collected in extraction queue instead of as update data and can be transferred to the BW delta queue by an update collection run, as in the V3 update.

What does LO Cockpit contain? Maintaining Extract structure. Maintaining DataSources. Activating Updates. Controlling Updates.

RSA6 --- Maintain DataSources. RSA7 ---- Delta Queue (allows you to monitor the current status of the delta attribute) RSA3 ---- Extract checker. LBW0 --- TCode for LIS. LBWG --- Delete set-up tables in LO's. LI*BW --- Fill Set-up tables. LBWE ---- TCode for Logistics extractors. RSO2 --- Maintaining Generic DataSources. MC21 ----- Creating user-defined Information Structure for LIS (It is InfoSource in SAP BW). MC24 ---- Creating Updating rules for LO's. PFCG ---- Role maintenance, assign users to these roles. SE03 -- Changeability of the BW namespace. RSDCUBEM --- For Delete, Change or Delete the InfoCube. RSD5 -- Data packet characteristics maint. RSDBC - DB Connect RSMO --- Monitoring of Dataloads. RSCUSTV6 -- Partitioning of PSA. RSRT -- Query monitor. RSRV - Analysis and Repair of BW Objects RRMX - BEx Analyzer RSBBS - Report to Report interface (RRI). SPRO -- IMG (To make configurations in BW). RSDDV - Maintaining Aggregates. RSKC -- Character permit checker. ST22 - Checking ShortDump. SM37 - Scheduling Background jobs. RSBOH1 -- Open Hub Service: Create InfoSpoke.

RSMONMESS -- "Messages for the monitor" table. ROOSOURCE - Table to find out delta update methods. RODELTAM - Finding for modes of records (i.e. before image & after image) SMOD - Definition CMOD - Project Management enhancing SPAU - Program Compare SE11 - ABAP Dictionary SE09 - Transport Organizer (workbench organizer) SE10 - Transport Organizer (Extended View) SBIW - Implementation guide


Statistical Update?


What are Process Chains?

TCode is RSPC, is a sequence of processes scheduled in the background & waiting to be triggered by a specific event. Process chains nothing but grouping processes. Process variant (start variant) is the place the process chain knows where to start.There should be min and max one start variant in each process chain, here we specify when should the process chain start by giving date and time or if you want to start immediately.Some of theses processes trigger an event of their own that in-turn triggers other processes. Ex: - Start chain ? Delete BCube indexes ? Load data from the source system to PSA ? Load data from PSA to DataTarget ODS ? Load data from ODS to BCube ? Create Indexes for BCube after loading data ? Create database statistics ? Roll-Up data into the aggregate ? Restart chain from beginning.

Q) What are Process Types & Process variant?

A) Process types are General services, Load Process & subsequent processing, Data

Target Administration, Reporting agent & Other BW services. Process variant (start variant) is the place the process type knows when & where to start.

Q) Difference between MasterData & Transaction InfoPackage?

A) 5 tabs in Masterdata & 6 tabs in Transaction data, the extra tab in Transaction data is



Types of Updates?


Full Update, Init Delta Update & Delta Update.


For Full update possible while loading data from R/3?


InfoPackage ? Scheduler ? Repair Request flag (check).

This is only possible when we use MM & SD modules.


InfoPackage groups?


Explain the status of records in Active & change log tables in ODS when modified in

source system?

Q) Why it takes more time while loading the transaction data even to load the transaction

without master data (we check the checkbox, Always Update data, even if no master data exits for the data)?

A) Because while loading the data it has to create SID keys for transaction data.

For what we use HIDE fields, SELECT fields & CANCELLATION fields?

A) Selection fields-- The only purpose is when we check this column, the field will

appear in InfoPackage Data selection tab. Hide fields -- These fields are not transferred to BW transfer structure. Cancellation - It will reverse the posted documents of keyfigures of customer defined

by multiplying it with -1


nullifying the value.

I think this is reverse posting

Q) Transporting.

A) When it comes to transporting for R/3 and BW, u should always transport all the R/3

Objects first………once you transport all the R/3 objects to the 2nd system, you have to replicate the datasources into the 2nd BW system…and then transport BW objects. First you will transport all the datasources from 1st R/3 system to 2nd R/3 System. Second, you will replicate the datasources from 2nd R/3 system into 2nd BW system. Third, you will transport all the BW Objects from 1st BW system to 2nd BW system. You have to send your extractors first to the corresponding R/3 Q Box and replicate that to BW. Then you have to do this transport in BW.

Development, testing and then production


Functionality of InitDelta & Delta Updates?


What is Change-run ID?


Currency conversions?


Difference between Calculated KeyFigure & Formula?


When does a transfer structure contain more fields than the communication structure

of an InfoSource?

A) If we use a routine to enhance a field in the communication from several fields in the

transfer structure, the communication structure may contain more fields.

A) The total no of InfoObjects in the communication structure & Extract structure may be

different, since InfoObjects can be copied to the communication structure from all the

extract structures.

Q) What is the PSA, technical name of PSA, Uses?

A) When we want to delete the data in InfoProvider & again want to re-load the data, at

this stage we can directly load from PSA not going to extract from R/3.


For cleansing purpose.


Variables in Reporting?


Characteristics values, Text, Hierarchies, Hierarchy nodes & Formula elements,


Variable processing types in Reporting?


Manual, Replacement path, SAP Exit, Authorizations, Customer Exit


Why we use this RSRP0001 Enhancement?


For enhancing the Customer Exit in reporting.


What is the use of Filters?


It Restricts Data.


What is the use of Conditioning?


To retrieve data based on particular conditions like less than, greater than, less than or

equal etc.,


Difference between Filters & Conditioning?


What is NODIM?


For example it converts 5lts + 5kgs = 10.


What for Exception's? How can I get PINK color?


To differentiate values with colors, by adding relevant colors u can get pink.


Why SAPLRSAP is used?


We use these function modules for enhancing in r/3.


What are workbooks & uses?


Where are workbooks saved?


Workbooks are saved in favorites.


Can Favorites accessed by other users?


No, they need authorization.


What is InfoSet?


An InfoSet is a special view of a dataset, such as logical database, table join, table,

and sequential file, and is used by SAP Query as a source data. InfoSets determine the tables or fields in these tables that can be referenced by a report. In most cases, InfoSets are based on logical databases.

SAP Query includes a component for maintaining InfoSets. When you create an InfoSet, a DataSource in an application system is selected. Navigating in a BW to an InfoSet Query, using one or more ODS objects or InfoObjects. You can also drill-through to BEx queries and InfoSet Queries from a second BW system, that is Connected as a data mart.

The InfoSet Query functions allow you to report using flat data tables (master data reporting).

Choose InfoObjects or ODS objects as data sources. These can be connected using joins. You define the data sources in an InfoSet. An InfoSet can contain data from one or more tables that are connected to one another by key fields. The data sources specified in the InfoSet form the basis of the InfoSet Query.

Q) LO's? Synchronous update (V1 update) Statistics update is carried out at the same time as the document update in the same


Asynchronous update (V2 update) Document update and the statistics update take place separately in different tasks. Collective update (V3 update) Again, document update is separate from the statistics update. However, in contrast to the V2 update, the V3 collective statistics update must be scheduled as a job. Successfully scheduling the update will ensure that all the necessary information Structures are properly updated when new or existing documents are processed. Scheduling intervals should be based on the amount of activity on a particular OLTP system. For example, a development system with a relatively low or no volume of new documents may only need to run the V3 update on a weekly basis. A full production environment, with hundreds of transactions per hour may have to be updated every 15 to 30 minutes.

SAP standard background job scheduling functionality may be used in order to schedule the V3 updates successfully. It is possible to verify that all V3 updates are successfully completed via transaction SM13. This transaction will take you to the ―UPDATE RECORDS: MAIN MENU‖ screen. At this screen, enter asterisk as your user (for all users), flag the radio button 'All' and hit enter. Any outstanding V3 updates will be listed. While a non-executed V3 update will not hinder your OLTP system, by administering the V3 update jobs properly, your information structures will be current and overall performance will be improved.



Business Content - Business Content is the umbrella term for the preconfigured BW objects delivered by SAP. These objects provide ready-made solutions to basic business information requirements and are used to accelerate the implementation of a BW.

Business Content includes:R/3 extractor programs, DataSources, InfoObjects, InfoSources, InfoCubes, Queries, Roles, and Workbooks.

From the Grouping menu, choose the additional Business Content objects that you want to include. Groupings gather together all of the objects from a single area:

Only Necessary Objects: Only those? additional objects that are needed to activate the objects that you have selected are included (minimum selection). In Data Flow Before: All? the objects that pass data on to another object are collected. In? Data Flow Afterwards: All the objects that receive data from another object are collected. In Data Flow Before and Afterwards: All the objects that? both deliver and receive data are collected. Backup for? System Copy: You use this setting to collect some of the objects into a transport request. This request can be added again after a system copy has been made.

Q) I found 0fiscyear has no master data table, and 0fiscper has master data table t009.

Does anyone know how the system gets the data for these 2 info objects?

A) From context menu of source system à transfer global settings, based on FISCVARNT

you can take data for 0FISCYEAR and 0FISCPER

Q) I am facing an odd problem in my dev box. I am using 0FIAP_O03 to load

0FIAP_C03 (InfoSource 0FI_AP_4 loads the ODS). I have loaded the ODS with R/3 data without any problem. I saw the data in New Data table and then after activation I am able to see the data in Active Data table and Change Log table. Now, when I want to do the delta initialization in the cube using ODS data, the request fails miserably. In fact, all the update rules are active between ODS and cube and all of them are one to one mappings

(not even a single ABAP routine in UpdateRules). If the cube and the corresponding

update rules are active and the data loads immaculately perfect until ODS, why would the load from ODS to cube fail? (There are no lock entries in the system). Does anyone have any idea?


You must have a Job Log in SM37. If not the job was never started.


I have checked up sm37, the job shows as complete! But the request status under

InfoCube à manage à request tab is still showing yellow. Assuming a false status, I have checked for the data in the cube. Nope. No data there either. Do you have any clue why would the job log show as complete, where as no data appears in the cube? Regarding the export datasource issue, I have tried that too before posting the question. In fact, why would you want to go with export datasource when you would have already created an

export datasource by creating update rules between ODS and cube! Sorry for the silly question, but any help in this regard is highly appreciated.


Hi, Maybe you have to do a 'Generate Export Datasource' by right-click on the ODS


Actually I'm trying to create a simple standard, [order -Flat data] ODS, while I tried

activating it in Info provider- RSA1, it gets saved but not getting activated, throws up error. I'm working on BW-3.1version; I enabled only BEx report in Settings. The errors are

1. I couldn't find the 0RECORDMODE object. BW Delta process: updatemode

object in the left hand side KF or Char Info objects. So, I tried to insert the 0RECORDMODE object on the right hand side, to Data fields folder, it shows the object while trying to find 0RECORDMODE in INSERT INFOOBJECTS options [on right click at Data Fields Folder], But once I enter this object, said continue, it didn't add to the DATA FILED Folder side along with my keyfigures. 2 Could not write in to the output device T'- Error: So, I just tried to activate the ODS object I'm getting the error 'could not write in to the output device T' in status bar. Also the status is inactive. What could be the error?

Q) I need to populate the results of my query into another InfoCube. Any ideas on how I

should go about this?

Q) For the current project I am looking at, they have 2 major companies in their Group.

Both companies are on different clients in R3. Their configuration and system setup is different in R3. Is it advisable to separate their BW systems to 2 different clients as well? Or is it recommended to actually fit both in one? What's the best practice?

Q) I am creating a CO-PA datasource. I successfully set the business content datasources

into active versions in R/3. Then, I try to create CO-PA datasource for Transaction data

using KEB0. However, I cannot see any value fields

those things. Characteristics from Segment Item and Line model and others including Calculated Key figures are available fine, except the value fields. Is there any way I can set to make value fields available?

you know all the VVOCO and

Q) While executing the query it generally takes the default name of the excel sheet as

BOOK1, BOOK2, but My client wants that the default name should be the same name as query name.

A) Embed the query in a workbook saved as the name of the query and have your client

open the workbook as opposed to the query.

Q) Considering that I have in this infocube 6 dimensions, 30 characteristics and 20 key

figures, do you see any simply any way to make my upload process easier? Do you think that the server will support that amount of data? Or which considerations should I add to make sure that this upload process would run?

Q) We need to find the table in which query and variable assignments are stored. We

must read this table in a user-exit to get which variables are used in a query.

Q) We need to find the table in which query and variable assignments are stored. We

must read this table in a user-exit to get which variables are used in a query.

A) Check out tables RSZELTDIR and RSZCOMPDIR for query BEx elements. I found

this info on one of the previous posting, variable table, RSZGLOBV, query table - get query id from table RSRREPDIR (field RSRREPDIR-COMPUID), use this id for table start with RSZEL* When 'ZFISPER1' name of the variable when VNAM = 'ZVC_FY1' - characteristics.

Step 1 - before selection Step 2 - after selection Step 3 - processed all variable at the same time

Q) Actually the ODS has data till date (09 Dec) which is coming from 2 datasources, but

the infocube has data upto 8 November only as we have deleted few requests because there was mismatch of notification complaints encountered during reporting. So we tried to update the data thru "Update ODS Data in data target" by selecting the delta update option, we are getting an error message called "Delta update for ZUODEC02 (ODS) is invalidated". Please let me know the solution to come out this problem. Can we go for Initialize delta update again for cube?

Q) How is the display of USD in currency controlled to be seen as USD or $?

A) You can control Currency display with the following customizing point. In BW

customizing BW Customizing Implementation Guide à Reporting-relevant Settings à General Reporting Settings à Set Alternative Currency Display In this table, you can specify the symbol or string you want to use. If this table is empty USD, the symbol used in BEx restitution is $.

Q) Deleting Data from PSA?

A) Context menu PSA and delete data or context menu à Edit several requests delete the

required request and in reconstruction tab of cube manage delete request.

Q) If u update data from ODS to data target. System will generate InfoSource with one

prefix name?


It will generate with prefix name starting with 8 along with InfoSource name.


How to check physically about data load?


At the bottom while updating. tRFC8 ani naming convention tho executing avuthu

untundhi -- just have a look when u update from ODS.

Q) What is an aggregate?

A) Aggregates are small or baby cubes. A subset of InfoCube.

Flat Aggregate --when u have more than 15 characteristics for aggregate system will generate that aggregate as flat aggregate to increase performance.

Roll-up--when the data is loaded for second time into cube, we have to roll-up to make that data available in aggregate.

Q) X & Y Tables?

A) X-tables and Y-tables only have primary key.

X-table (SID- key relationship plus SID columns per time-independent navigational attribute) or a Y-table (SID- key relationship. Timestamp, SID columns per time- dependent navigational attribute)

Q) Routine with Return Table

A) Update rules generally only have one return value. However, you can create a routine

in the tab strip key figure calculation, by choosing Return table. The corresponding key figure routine then no longer has a return value, but a return table. You can then generate

as many key figure values, as you like from one data record. In the routine editor, you will find the calculated characteristic values in the structure ICUBE_VALUES. Change these values accordingly (in the above example: Employee), fill the field for the relevant key figure (in the above example: Sales revenue), and use this to fill the return table RESULT_TABLE

Q) What is Line-Item Data, in which scenario u use line item dimension?

A) A line item dimension in a fact table does not have the dimension table, it connects

directly with the SID table at its sole characteristic. When there is only one characteristic in a dimension, it will eliminate the dimension table. Fact table directly linked to the SID table.

Compressing InfoCubes Use

When you load data into the InfoCube, entire requests can be inserted at the same time. Each of these requests has its own request ID, which is included in the fact table in the packet dimension. This makes it possible to pay particular attention to individual requests. One advantage of the request ID concept is that you can subsequently delete complete requests from the InfoCube. However, the request ID concept can also cause the same data record (all characteristics agree, with the exception of the request ID) to appear more than once in the fact table. This unnecessarily increases the volume of data, and reduces performance in Reporting, as the system has to aggregate using the request ID every time you execute a query. Using compressing, you can eliminate these disadvantages, and bring data from different requests together into one single request (request ID 0).

This function is critical, as the compressed data can no longer be deleted from the InfoCube using its request IDs. You must be absolutely certain that the data loaded into the InfoCube is correct.

Functions You can choose request IDs and release them to be compressed. You can schedule the function immediately or in the background, and link it to other events. Compressing one request takes approx. 2.5 ms per data record. With non-cumulative InfoCubes, compression has an additional effect on query performance. Also, the marker for non-cumulatives in non-cumulative InfoCubes is updated. This means that, on the whole, less data is read for a non-cumulative query, and the reply time is therefore reduced. If you run the compression for a non-cumulative InfoCube, the summarization time (including the time to update the markers) will be about 5 ms per data record. If you are using an Oracle database as your BW database, you can also carry out a report using the relevant InfoCube while the compression is running. With other manufacturers'

databases, you will see a warning if you try to carry out a report using an InfoCube while the compression is running. In this case you can only report on the relevant InfoCube when the compression has finished running. If you want to avoid the InfoCube containing entries whose key figures are zero values (in reverse posting for example) you can run a zero-elimination at the same time as the compression. In this case, the entries, where all the key figures are equal to 0, are deleted from the fact table. Zero-elimination is permitted only for InfoCubes, where exclusively key figures with the aggregation behavior 'SUM' appear. You are not permitted to run a zero- elimination with non-cumulative values in particular.

Activities For performance reasons, and to save space on the memory, summarize a request as soon as you have established that it is correct, and is no longer to be removed from the InfoCube.


You can convert currencies at 2 places?


One is at update rule level & one at the front-end (reports lo)


You can create infospokes only on 4 objects.


ODS, InfoCubes (Master data attributes and texts) & not on hierarchies and

multiproviders. I mean for data offloading from BW to excel. Not only into excel but also to application server and also to database tables.


If you use process chains, you can Automate the complex schedules in BW with the help of Event-controlled processing, Visualize the schedule by using network applications and Centrally control and monitor the processes.



For BEx you can have only one transport request. There should always be one transport open if you want to create or edit queries. All the queries which u create or edit are assigned to this request. Suppose there is no open request, then you cannot edit or create any queries Once you have some queries in a request and you want to transport then you can release this one and immediately create a new one so that u can again create or change


Q) Our is a SAP-BW with a non-sap source system. Everyday for client information we

usually check the data loading thru' monitor. Is there any ways so that I can connect our

mail-server to it & get automatic e-mails from BW server about every time after the transaction data is loaded?

A) Go to SBWP Tcode there u have set for getting automatic mails.

Write a transfer routine for the infoObjects to extend the length of the data type.

Q) How can we stop loading data into infocube?

A) First you have to find out what is the job name from the monitor screen for this load

monitor screen lo Header Tabstrip lo untadhi. SM37 (job monitoring) in r/3 select this job and from the menu u can delete the job. There are some options, just check them out in sm37 and also u have to delete the request in BW. Cancellation is not suggestible for

delta load.

Q) If the Ship to address is changed, will it trigger delta for the 2LIS_11_VAITM

extractor? A) I suppose you are talking of changing the ―Ship to‖ address information in the Ship to master data. That has nothing to do with Transactional Data. Therefore no delta will be in the 2LIS_11_VAITM extractors. Address is changed for ShipTo on the sales order document (not Master data) and

this address is saved in ADRC table.

Q) How to reset the data mart status in the ODS. Which transaction is used for resetting

the status?

A) Go to the ODS and from context menu, Manage Reset the Data Mart Status (third

column). If necessary restart the load from the DM which at InfoSource = "8ODS-Name" using Update Tab" Initialize Delta Process" Initial Load without Data Transfer" after resetting the Data Mart Status.

Q) We are facing a problem with authorizations for BPS. We have a large number of

agents that need to enter plan data via a layout. In order to simplify the control of the necessary authorizations, we would like to filter via something similar to a user exit using

a function module in order to avoid having to define authorization objects for each of the agents who have access to the systems. Right now, we are not sure if there is user exit concept available as it is for BW variables.

A) In BPS, you can use user specific variables or you can set up a Variable of type exit. You can also have a variable of type authorization which uses the security /

authorization of the BW system.

Q) Here are the steps for Process chain

A) Call transaction RSPC

Create a process chain with the start process; herein you can > schedule > your whole Process chain (at once, by an event, by day, and so on) Call the icon "process types" > within the process types:

Call the infopackage you need to load the data from the source > system to > ODS > Activate the ODS à Update the ODS into the InfoCube à Rollup the data from the InfoCube to the aggregate the connection between the steps from 2 until 7 are connected by à EVENTS; you à can create events by pressing the right mouse click down from the à predecessor à process to the successor process; the system asks you à independent from à error, only by error, only by success". In such a way you can create the process chain Copying Process chains, there is a way to copy process chain. In the RSPC view, open the desired process chain to be copied. Type COPY in the transaction-calling field on left top of the screen. The process chain will be copied then. However, I am using BW

3.1C. Perhaps this works in 3.0 as well.

Q) I want to add the ADNR (address number) of the ship-to party to the standard

extractor in LBWE. We have ONE-Time ship-to recipients and we want to be able to report on the STATE of the recipient rather than the state of the sold-to. I just wanted

verification that I might be going in the right direction

add the ADNR to the include MCPARTUSR section of the MCPARTNER structure?

(And hopefully those fields would then be available in any of the MCVBAK, MCVBAP

Communication structures

populate the field with a user exit during the extraction process. Or I could add it directly

to the MCVBAK in a "Z". Append (?). Then populate the field with a user exit during the extraction process. Has anyone attempted something like this before? Is that what I need to do to get it into the communication structures for LBWE the logistic cockpit to use it? Haven't seen many posts or documentation that talks about specifics. Saw a bunch on master data augmentation, but not on the transaction extractors

A) We ultimately did add a few fields to the structure, and then populated them with

a user exit. Every document is associated with an ADDR, so why not give the 0DOCUMENT an attribute called ADDR or a full set of attributes that include addresses. Then build an infoset on R/3 to populate the 0DOCUMENT object directly with addresses. Treat the addr as "master" data of the 0document object rather than part of the transactional data. I THINK it would work but am not certain yet.

In order to add this field could I


Or add an additional append ZMCPART, and then

Q) Can any body know how to create datamarts for Masterdata characteristics? Here for

example I have two master data characteristics like 0Mat_plant and Zmatplt in the same

BW system. Now I want to upload the data from 0Mat_plant to Zmat_plant using the delta enabled infopackage.

A) Datamarts are a functionality of an ODS you need one extraction program

created by the ODS to make the upload into the data target) and not a functionality from Master data tables. Therefore create one ODS for jour object ―like 0Mat_plant‖


To check the version of particular infoobject in table RSDIOBJ


I have a break on one document between R/3 and BW. The document does exist in

BSEG, but is missing from BW. All the other documents that were posted during that time were extracted by BW except this one. What could be the reason?

A) The record may be missing because of any logic in update rules or transfer rules

logic. I mean to say that there may be any filter on that particular record in Update or

transfer rules. First check whether the record exist in RSA3. Then check in PSA whether that record is in BW or not. Then check the update rules.

Q) What's the difference between R3 drill down reporting and BW reporting?

These two reporting seem to function similarly with slice and dice. If they function similarly, then that means we don't have to implement BW, just use R3 Drill down reporting tool, am I right?

A) The major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3 are in terms of performance and



Performance -- Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can

produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year-end -- now imagine that occurring even more frequently.

2. Data analysis -- BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and

analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.

1) What is process chain? How many types are there? How many we use in real time

scenario? Can we define interdependent processes with tasks like data loading, cube

compression, index maintenance, master data & ods activation in the best possible performance & data integrity.


What is data integrityand how can we achieve this?


What is index maintenance and what is the purpose to use this in real time?


When and why use infocube compression in real time?


What is mean by data modelling and what will the consultant do in data modelling?


How can enhance business content and what for purpose we enhance business content

(becausing we can activate business content)

7) What is fine-tuning and how many types are there and what for purpose we done

tuning in real time. tuning can only be done for infocube partitions and creating aggregates or any other?

8) What is mean by multiprovider and what purpose we use multiprovider?

) What is scheduled and monitored data loads and for what purpose? Ans # 1:

Process chains exists in Admin Work Bench. Using these we can automate ETTL

processes. These allows BW guys to schedule all activities and monitor (T Code: RSPC). PROCESS CHAIN - Before defining PROCESS CHAIN, let us define PROCESS in any given process chain. Is a procedure either with in the SAP or external to it with a start and end. This process runs in the background. PROCESS CHAIN is set of such processes that are linked together in a chain. In other words each process is dependent on the previous process and dependencies are clearly defined in the process chain. This is normally done in order to automate a job or task that has to execute more than one process in order to complete the job or task.

1. Check the Source System for that particular PC.

2. Select the request ID (it will be in Header Tab) of PC

3. Go to SM37 of Source System.

4. Double Click on the Job.

5. You will navigate to a screen

6. In that Click "Job Details" button

7. A small Pop-up Window comes

8. In the Pop-up screen, take a note of

a) Executing Server

b) WP Number/PID


In the Click on "Application Servers" button


You can see different Application Servers.


Goto Executing server, and Double Click (Point 8 (a))


Goto PID (Point 8 (b))


On the left most you can see a check box


"Check" the check Box


On the Menu Bar

You can see "Process"


In the "process" you have the Option "Cancel with Core"


Click on that option. * -- Ramkumar K

Ans # 2:

Data Integrity is about eliminating duplicate entries in the database and achieve normalization. Ans # 4:

InfoCube compression creates new cube by eliminating duplicates. Compressed infocubes require less storage space and are faster for retrieval of information. Here the

catch is

don't have any error in modeling. This compression can be done through Process Chain and also manually. Tips by: Anand


Indexing is a process where the data is stored by indexing it. Eg: A phone book

we write somebodys number we write it as Prasads number would be in "P" and Rajesh's

number would be in "R"

data by creating indexes is called indexing.


Datamodeling is a process where you collect the facts

navigation atributes etc

ill be using. This process of collection is done by interviewing the end users, the power

users, the share holders etc

sometimes a Sr. Consultant (4-5 yrs of exp) So if you are new you dont have to worry

so make

about it

sure that you have read datamodeling before attending any interview or even starting to work


We can enhance the Business Content bby adding fields to it. Since BC is delivered by SAP Inc it may not contain all the infoobjects, infocubes etc that you want to use

according to your company's data model

apt number

your company uses a attribute for say

whole infocube you can add the above field to the existing BC infocube and get going


Tuning is the most imp process in BW

means lowering time for loading data in cube

lowering time for doing a drill down etc


are various things you can do


Once you compress, you can't alter the InfoCube. You are safe as long as you


The phone book process is indexing


similarly the storing of

attributes associated to facts

and after you collect all these you need to decide which one you

it is generally done by the Team Lead, Project Manager or


do remember that it is a imp aspect of any datawarehousing soln

eg: you have a customer infocube(In BC) but

then instead of constructing the


Tuning is done the increase efficiency

lowering time for accessing a query

fine tuning=lowering time(for everything


can be done by many things not only by partitions and aggregates there

for eg: compression, etc

like you can

combine 4-5 infocubes or 2-3 infocubes and 2-3 ODS or IC, ODS and Master data

you can refer to for more info


Scheduled data load means you have scheduled the loading of data for some particular

date and time you can do it in scheduler tab if infoobject

monitoring that particular data load or some other loads by using transaction RSMON. Delta records in LO ?

Multiprovider can combine various infoproviders for reporting purposes


and monitored means you are

RSA7 , SM13 , LBWQ . Use of Generic Extractors? Why do we create Generic data source? When standard business contend cannot fulfil your needs then you go for generic Extraction . You create generic extraction based on

1. View

2. Infoset

3. Function Module

Performance Tuning ?

You can use Tcodes RSRV , RSRT . All transactions related to DB02, ST02, ST03, ST05

What is WAD? Use full ness of that? Web Application Designer . Used to design web based application

Where can I Add a field in the data source? R/3 side? Follow enhancemenmt procedure ….

1. check the extract str using rsa6 tcode

2. go to se11 and enter the extract str.

3. click on append str.

4. it will ask z* name and say ok.

5. add new fields.

6. go to se 37 and enter 'exit_saplrsap_001.

7. you can see include program

8. double click on that and you will editor and write an aabap code to populate

the field.

9. check the datasource using rsa3 tcode.

Difference between Data Target and Info Provider? Data Targets are the one which stores data physically like Data Store and Infocube. Infoproviders also contain like Multi Providers which data doesn't store practically and access from data targets.

When designing an info cube what are the requirements to be gathered?

What will be Char , Key Figures , Attributes ,Hierarchies Number of Dimensions .



What is the reconciliation? comparing the R3 data to the BW data in the Reports the company codes then they say that the data reconciled.

if the figures match with all

Another purpose of Reconsilation is: For istance if u deleted one request



can reload that request by reconsilation.

Technical difference between LIS and LO?

1. LIS works on the concept of Transparent Table concept where as LO uses Cluster

table concept.

2. One DS in LIS (2lis_11_s264) is devided in to three DS in LO's namely

2lis_11_vahdr, 2lis_11_vaitm, 2lis_11_vascl. That means we can get detailed level of information through LO's.

3. LIS uses two transperent tables for delta updates, as for as LO concerned

structures like RSA7,LBWQ,SM13 will come into picture.

4. LIS works under Push Mechanism and LO works under Pull Mechanism.

5. Enhancing the DS is more complex in LIS than LO's.

6. Volume of the data handled by LO's is more than that LIS

Compounding Info Object: How did u use this compounding info object in your project?

A Compounding attribute is a superior object which must be combined to define an

object; for example when you define cost center then controlling area is the compounding

(superior) object.

What is the data mart status in ODS?

If the ODS object request is used as a data source in data marts, that is in other BW

systems or the Myself system, the data mart status for the ODS object is displayed. Use the corresponding pushbutton to manage the distribution of this request.The tick icon shows you that the request is retrieved from all connected data targets. The Compile icon shows you that the request is already updated in other data targets. However, it is possible that you might have to repeat this request. In the event that you have the impression that the data was not correctly posted, reset the monitor status and request a repeat so that the request can be posted again. To do this, choose Reverse Posting of Request in the monitor. You can also read the documentation about the monitor.


How to exclude data source from extraction?

You will not be filling setup for the unneceaasry data source . Hence it will not Be scheduled . fill

1. Need for replication ?

Data sources from source system will be avail in BW system

2. How many times you did LO Extraction ?

It depends on Requirements

3 . How to do enhancement in LO ?

1. check the extract str using rsa6 tcode

2. go to se11 and enter the extract str.

3. click on append str.

4. it will ask z* name and say ok.

5. add new fields.

6. go to se 37 and enter 'exit_saplrsap_001.

7. you can see include program

8. double click on that and you will editor and write an aabap code to

populte fields


check the datasource using rsa3 tcode.


Delta method in LO ?

This method will bring the deltas after an Full load has been done . The delta records Can be seen in delta queue ( RSA7 )

5. Some update methods

Direct Delta . Queued delta , Serialized V3 , Un serialized V3 .

6. Generic data extraction ?

When standard business content does not fulfill your requirment then you go for Generic extraction . Transaction SBIW .

Extraction Based on : View , Info set query , Function module .

7. Delta methods in Generic Extraction ?

Calendar day , Time stamp , Numeric Pointer .

8. CO PA Tables ?

CE1 *** / CE *** = Line Item tables CE2 *** = Plan Line item tables CE3 *** = Value fields CE4 *** = Segment tables


Delta Queue ?

This queue ( RSA7 ) has the delta records it is in R3 side .

10 . LUW ?

Logical Unit of Work , To ensure data base transaction integrity . A transaction is Committed if success or Rolled back if failure .

1. What is ERP? - ERP is a package with the techniques and concepts for the integrated

management of business as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core business like production and financial market. As the growth and merits of ERP package ERP software is designed for basic

process of a company from manufacturing to small shops with a target of integrating information across the company.

2. Different types of ERP? - SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel,

PeopleSoft. Among all the ERP’s most of the companies implemented or trying to implement SAP because of number of advantages aver other ERP packages.

3. What is SAP? - SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German

name (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package. 4. Explain the concept of ―Business Content‖ in SAP Business Information Warehouse? - Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries,

InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, Business Applications and other selected applications.

5. Why do you usually choose to implement SAP? - There are number of technical

reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure data handling, min data redundancy, max data consistency, you can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing, tight integration-cross function.

6. Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation? - Certainly. You can run BW without

R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non- SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL

products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.

7. What is IDES? - International Demonstration and Education System. A sample

application provided for faster learning and implementation.

8. What is WF and its importance? - Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and

execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.

9. What is SAP R/3? - A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that

performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. Takes care of any enterprise however diverse in operation, spread over the world. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located at different system.

10. What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3? - The

application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized

server. This server is called database server.

11. What should be the approach for writing a BDC program? - Convert the legacy

system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into

sap system called ―sap data transfer‖. Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if success data will transfer).

12. Explain open SQL vs native SQL? - ABAP Native SQL allows you to include

database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.

13. What are datasets? - The sequential files (processed on application server) are called

datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.

14. What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table? - Internal

table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the

program. Check table: Check table will be at field level checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid. Transparent table: - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.

15. What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3? Would it be sufficient

just to Web-enable R/3 Reports? - Performance Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end,

quarter end, or year-end now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing

data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.

16. How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business

operates? - In order to use an ERP system, a business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP

systems will require that the

people understand the business processes and how they integrate.

17. What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining? - OLAP - On line Analytical

processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema ,composition facts and dimensions . By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine ―builds‖ and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriate called ―reporting. 18. What is ―Extended Star Schema‖ and how did it emerge? - The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data is termed as the Extended Star Schema.

19. Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data - Meta Data: Data that describes

the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data. Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies. Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.

20. Name some drawbacks of SAP - Interfaces are huge problem, Determine where

master data resides, Expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, lengthy implementation time.

21. What is Bex? - Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate

reports, view reports, analyze information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex browser. Bex has the following components: Bex Browser, Bex analyzer, Bex Map, Bex Web.

22. What are variables? - Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter

query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application:

Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacment Path.

23. What is AWB?. What is its purpose? - AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench.

AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information whearhousing.

24. What is the significance of ODS in BIW? - An ODS Object serves to store

consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or

across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.

25. What are the different types of source system? - SAP R/3 Source Systems, SAP BW,

Flat Files and External Systems.

system. Which can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.