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INDEX

Abraham, Edith May, on unionizing, 156 Abrahams, Ena on class and education, 81–2 on work and independence, 165 academic success, 80 acculturation 1918–39, 17–19 acculturation assimilation, definitions, 1 challenges, 19–21 East End, 15–31

women and children, 6–11

Adler, Rev. Dr Herbert

Adler, Nettie

and LCC scholarships, 85 apprentices lunch scheme, 162 on choosing a trade, 163 on domestic service issues, 154 on education, 71 on school managers, 83 Adler, Rachel and day nurseries, 62, 63 adult education, 71, 87–9 evening schools, 87–9, 102 hygiene for, 47–8 see also education; training

adults, absorb education from children, 71,

Alexander III and Jews, 22 aliens Alien Immigration Board, 21 Aliens Act 1905, 25 legislation, 58 America

immigration, 150 labour leaders and, 157 migration from UK to, 22 Angel, Moses, 168 and JFS, 75–6

and Old Castle Street school, 76 anglicization and education, 71–89 and Talmud Torah, 98–9 approaches to, 25

Copyright

sanitized accounts, 4–5

social workers and, 61

Anglo-Jewish community

and 1880s immigrants, 22–5

pre-existing, 1

anti-alienism, 23–4

and Talmud Torah classes, 93

‘Consecration Classes for Girls’, 103

and religious education, 102–3

combating, 25 on health, 33 post-WWI, 86–7 WWI, 85 Anti-Gambling Association, 113 anti-semitism 1930s, responses to, 128 Bernhard Baron Settlement and, 125–6,

128

72

Anti-Sweater on philanthropists aiding sweaters, 155 on sexual exploitation, 158 on Solomons’ workshop, 153 apprenticeship, 160–2 and need for paid work, 162 clubs as guardians, 114 Girls’ Apprenticing Sub-Committee, 16 JBG programmes, 114, 147, 160–1 Argentinean Jewish community, assistance to women, 211n18

– 247 –

248 Jewish Immigrants in London, 1880–1939

Artisans Dwelling Act 1875, 176n5 Ashkenazi early immigration, 2 synagogues, 91 assimilation/ acculturation, definitions, 1 Association for Jewish Youth (AJY), 122 Aylesbury Borstal Institution, visiting/ assistance to, 142

babies, JAPGAW and, 141 Barnett, Samuel, 176n5 and Toynbee Hall, 110 and Women’s Protection and Provident League, 155

Baron, Bernhard, and St George’s Settle- ment, expansion, 124 Barrett Street Trade School, 88 Battersea, Lady (Constance Rothschild) and JAPGAW, 133 and JLSPRW, 132 Bearsted, Fanny E. and JAPGAW, 144

Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine ‘Foreign Undesirables’, 178n57 ‘The Alien Immigrant’, 23 Blair, Sir Robert, and LCC scholarships, 85 Bloomsbury Trade School, 88 board schools Christian religious education, 93 English teaching, 79 immigrant community and, 76–81 JREB and, 95t5.1, 96–7 religious education, 73, 104 welfare assistance, 83–4 Board of Trade Alien Immigration ‘Report on the Volume and Effects

’,

180n90–1

Reports on

Recent Immigration

,

216n23; n28 report on the Sweating System 1887, 159 Boer War, 34 volunteers, 115

Booth, Charles

Life and Labour of the People in London,

9, 15, 26

on husbands as sole breadwinners, 150–1

and wages, 165 delinquent, provision for, 145–7 JBG apprenticeship programmes, 161 roles, school socialization, 71 boys’ & girls’ clubs, 109–129 and sexual development/ activity, 126–7 and social welfare, 123–4, 128 and sports, 113–14, 116, 118, 123 and WWI, 119–20 as apprentice guardians, 114 character forming, 113–15 democracy, 114–15 expansion, 116–19 inter-war years, 120–9 religion in, 112–13, 117–19, 122–3 boys’ clubs and English masculinity, 114–15 and muscular Judaism, 111 Boys’ Brigades, 112, 114 Brady Street Boys Club, 117 and physical fitness, 113

Copyright

Bearsted, Marcus Samuel, Lord, 42

and St George’s Clubs, 120

Beatrice Club for Working Girls, 116

associating with Christian neighbours,

129

Boy Scouts, 109, 112

boys

social welfare, 128 Beckman, Morris on sexual activity, 126 The Hackney Crucible, 69 Belgian refugees WWI, 66–7 JREB and, 101 ben Israel, Menasseh, 2 Bentwich, Norman, ‘Jewish Educational Disorganisation in London’, 97–8 Berg, Jack Kid see Harding and Berg Berner-Street School Happy Evenings, 65 Jewish Association, 83 Bernhard Baron Settlement, 31, 109, 124–5 and depression years, 125–6, 128 see also St George’s Jewish Settlement birth rates, 27–8 Black, Clementina ‘Women and Work’, 151 Black, Eugene on petty crime, 145–6

Index

249

and sports, 123 Anti-Gambling Association, 113 character forming, 113 secular, 112 Brady Street Girls’ Club and Settlement, 45 Brady Street Jewish Settlement, 110, 127 Brady Street play centre, 127 Bread, Meat and Coal charity, 168 Britain early Jewish population, 2–3 Irish migration to, 22 reasons for choosing, 22 Brodie, Marc, The Politics of the Poor

Buck’s Row board school, evening classes, 88 Buckle Street Infants’ School, 84 Buckman, Joe, Immigrants and the Class

, Butler Street girls’ club, 119 and education, 114 and religion, 123 Butler Street Settlement, 61

, 9

Struggle

6

children acculturation, 6–11, 20

and Jewish Free Reading Room ( JFRR),

106

charitable assistance, 63t3.2 demographics, 27–9 ‘happy evenings’, 64–5 home, Highbury House, 142 mental health services, 45 moral health, 131–48 services for, 61–3 UJW and, 64–6 Christian missions, conversionist, 25, 48, 49, 50–2

Christian religious education, board schools,

93

Christian Street Junior Girls’ School, 104–5 City Day Continuation School, 88 City of London schools, 81 class and education, 81

Copyright

Clothing Society, 83

clubs see boys’ and girls’ clubs; boys’ clubs;

girls’ clubs

Cobb, Cyril, and LCC scholarships, 85

Cohen, Freddie, on Stepney Jewish Girls’

Club’s, 129 Cohen, Lionel L., and Eastern European immigration limits, 22 Cohen, Mr ( JAPGAW) on white slavers,

141

Collet, Clara, Board of Trade work investiga- tion, 152–3 Collins, Kitty Rappaport on family life, 10 on going to dances, 121–2 on neighbourly assistance, 69 Commercial Street Board School, 78, 83, 84, 96 Commercial Street Talmud Torah, 98 community care, 38–43 leaders/ workers, 17 networks, 55–69 public image, 115 and emancipation, 3 reputation, 55–69

women and, 7–8

Carnegie Trust, 42

Catholic emancipation 1829, 2

Census of England and Wales 1901, 26–7

character forming

boys’ & girls’ clubs, 113–15

religious education and, 97, 98, 100 Charcroft House for unmarried mothers ( JAPGAW), 133, 138–42, 148 after care, 142 promoting independence, 141 charitable relief, JBG and Russo-Jewish Committee, 57t3.1 charity, extent of, 56–8 Charity Organisation Society (COS), 59–60 Chassidim, 107 chedarim, 75, 91–2, 93–4, 95–6, 98, 99, 102, 104, 107, 169 attendance, JFS and, 75 chevrot, 91–2, 92–3, 95, 102, 107 Chicksand Street board school Care Committee, 164 evening classes, 88 childcare, 9–10, 44–5 and infant mortality, 36–7 provision, 61–3 UJW and, 64

250 Jewish Immigrants in London, 1880–1939

solidarity, 9 sponsored education, development, 99 sponsored training, 160–5 Conjoint Committee, Russo-Jewish and JBG, 57 Conscience Clause, board schools religious education, 93 Consecration Services, girls, 103 continuing education, 88–9 conversionist missions, 25, 48, 49, 50–2 Cooper, Mrs (of East End Mission), 132 Country Holidays Fund, 65–6 criminal activity increased, interwar years, 144–5 JAPGAW on, 125 Cromwell, Oliver, 2 curricula, 79–82

dances, Collins on, 121–2 Davenant Foundation School, 78–9, 81

Davis, Dr Maurice, on cheder attendance, 75

Davis, Noah, 24

compulsory in Britain, 71 evening schools, 87–9, 102 hygiene for, 47–8 for mothers, 39, 41

industrial schools, 145–8 Christian, problems with, 146 post–14 assistance, 84–6 scholarships, 84–7, 89 and naturalization, 85–6 EAC/ EAS, 85 immigrant children and, 85 schools grants, 1878–80, 77–8t4.3–4 managers, 83 meals, 82–3, 89 medical services, 83–4 philanthropy, 82–4 teachers JREB on, 102 recruitment for East End, 78 technical education, JFS, 74

Copyright

day nurseries, 62–3

Deal Street School, 165

demographics, 26–9

depression years, 69

Bernhard Baron Settlement and, 125–6

domestic science classes, attitudes to, 80 domestic service, 154 Domestic Training Home ( JAPGAW), 133 Dundee women, wage increase after union- izing, 156

East End acculturation, 15–31 housing, 25–6 and London Jewish Hospital Associa- tion, 48–9 migration from, 31, 164, 168 public health, 33–53 East London Fund for Jews, 51 East London Industrial School, 147 East London Observer, on JFS, 75 Eastern European immigration, Anglo-Jewry and, 22 education, 7 adult, 87–9 and anglicization, 71–89

JFS and, 76

Education Act 1906, 82

Education Aid Committee (EAC), 84–6

Eichholz, Dr Alfred

on child health, 44

Eichholz, Ruth and help for mothers, 41, 43 and UJW, 64 on assimilation, 72 work in wider community, 61 Eisenberger, Fanny, on sweatshop condi- tions, 158 electric lighting factories, girls in, 161 emancipation, 2–3 Emanuel, Charles H. L., and LCC scholar- ships, 85 Emanuel, Rev. G. J., on women and charity visiting, 60–1 emigration from UK, funding, 58 employment patterns, 153–4 English hospitality, and Anglicization, 3, 4–5 Jewish education, immigrants and, 93–4 language adult education, 87 and gender, 87

Education Act 1870, 73, 76

Index

251

evening classes, LSPC and, 105 teaching, 79 lifestyles, education for, 71–2 masculinity, boys’ clubs and, 114–15 eugenicists, 33–4, 46, 86–7 eugenics, 41 evening schools, 87–9, 102 hygiene for, 47–8

gender and Jewish studies, 6–11 and learning English, 87 Gerson, Phyllis and immigrant community, 128 and Stepney Girls’ Club settlement, 127

Gilam, Abraham, The Emancipation of the Jews in England, 3 Girl Guides, 109, 111 girls adolescent, JAPGAW and, 137 and wages, 165 and WWI war industries, 163–4 apprenticeships 1904, 162 Adler’s lunch scheme, 162 JBG programmes, 161 Consecration Services, 103 education, curricula, 79–82 factory work, 163 leisure activities, post-war, 121–2

factory inspectors, on workshop hours, 159 Factory Acts, 158–9 Fagan, Hymie, on family life, 10 Falk, Mrs (Montefiore House), 147–8 families care, 9–10 demographics, 27–9 immigrant, 21 support, extended, 29

Fawcett, Millicent Garrett, on white slavery,

133

Federation of Synagogues, 91–2, 95–6

Feldman, David

Copyright

6

religious education

Consecration Services, 103

Hebrew alphabet, 94

JREB and, 97, 99

need, 93, 103

Talmud Torahs, 103

his mother’s stall, 165

on East End demise, 31

48–9

roles, school socialization, 71 training, JBG Industrial Committee and,

165

5, 26

160–5

travelling alone, JAPGAW and, 133–4 unemployed, 66 Girls’ Apprenticing Sub-Committee, 16 Girls’ clubs, 109–129 and Jewish womanhood, 116 and sweatshop workers, 159 outdoor activities, 118, 121 see also boys’ and girls’ clubs

Girls’ Club Directory (1902), 112 Girls’ Industrial Committee ( JBG), summer holidays, 65 Girls’ Training Corps, 129

Glenn, S., Daughters of the Shtetl

Golders Green, movement to, 164 Goulston Street Hall, 105 Great Garden Street Talmud Torah, 98 Great Synagogue, 74, 91

,

150

Englishmen and Jews

,

on immigrants and manufacturing, 151

Fineman, Mark, 21

Finn, Ralph, Time Remembered, 9 foreignness, de-emphasizing, 24

foremen, sexual exploitation by, 158

, Franklin, Arthur, on Talmud Torahs, 98 Franklin, Ellis, and PJTS, 58 Franklin, Frederic, on London hospitals,

Fowler, D., The First Teenagers

Free [Labour] Registry for Jews, 159

garment industry, 154–5 homeworkers, 150 labour subdivision, 154 postwar work decline, 165 wages, subsistence, 151–3 workshops, infection concerns, 35 Gartner, Lloyd on wages, 153 The Jewish Immigrant in England

, Geffen, Rev. Lionel, on London hospitals, 48, 49

252 Jewish Immigrants in London, 1880–1939

Green, Rev. A. L. on chedarim, 94 on value of training, 160 Grunshaw, Leie, 21

homeworkers, garment industry, 150 Horsfall, of Manchester, 29 House of Lords, Select Committee on the Sweating System, 153, 159 husbands deserting, 21 unions, women workers and, 156 Hyam, Hannah and apprenticeships, 161 on LSPC, 51 on school managers, 83 Hyman, Paula ‘Culture and Gender ‘Gender and the Shaping of Modern Jew- ish Identities’, 6, 56

’, 7

illegitimacy rates, 133

illiteracy, interwar years, 104 immigrants and manufacturing, 151 families, 21

Hampstead Hospital, 61

Harding J., and J. Kid Berg, Jack Kid Berg 18, 19, 20, 58 Hayes industrial school for boys, 146–7 health and race, 33 disease and overcrowding, 35–6 care, immigrant initiatives, 48–50 hazardous work environments, 157–60 Hebrew schools, hygiene for, 47–8 Henriques, Basil, 11 and JAPGAW, 136 and Oxford and St George’s Clubs, 116–17, 119–20, 120–1 and rescue work, 142–3 and Whitechapel Gallery services, 123

,

Copyright

Settlement, 124

on COS, 59–60

on JAPGAW, 148

on religion in clubs, 122–3

on verminous children, 44–5

Henriques, Rose

and St George’s Settlement, expansion,

124

journeys, 19–20

leave-taking, 19–20

legal status, 2–3

marital status, 28t1.2a-b

popular objections to, 23–4

repatriation/ emigration funding, 58

Russian/ Russian-Poles

1871–1911,

26t1.1

on Bernhard Baron St George’s Jewish

and Oxford and St George’s Clubs, 117, 120, 120–1 Fifty Years in Stepney, 34, 120–1 on verminous children, 45 Hertz (Chief Rabbi), on boys’ and girls’ clubs, 119 Hertz, Rose, and Belgian refugees WWI, 66, 67 Highbury House children’s home, 142 higher education, assistance, 85–6, 89 Hirsch, Broche, 21 historiography, 4–6 Hitler/ Nazism, Bernhard Baron Settlement and, 125–6 Hochberg, Severin, on immigration limit- ing, 58 Holloway Prison, inmates, visiting/assistance to, 142

sheltering, 58–9 women and education, 71–2 travelling alone, JAPGAW and, 133–4 UJW and, 64 work habits investigations, 155 immigration 1880–1905, 15–16 1905–18, 16–17 limiting 1900, 57–8 industrial schools, 145–8 Christian, problems with, 146 infant mortality, 33 and mothers’ employment, 37–8 causes, 36–7 rates, 29 Stepney, 1899–1933, 38–9t2.1 Infant Welfare Centres, 41

Index

253

Interdepartmental Committee on Physical Deterioration 1904, 12, 29, 44 International Congress of Women, 65

International Tailors, Machinists and Press- ers’ Union, 156 interwar years boys’ and girls’ clubs, 120–9 poverty/prostitution, 143–4 religious education, 101–5 investigation vs. sympathy, COS and, 59–60 Irwell, voluntary work in wider community,

on Sabbath classes, 95 on work for girls 1920s, 164

on worsening employment conditions,

162

preventive work, 135–7

Sara Pyke House (SPH), 137–8 Visiting Committee, destination check- ing, 135 Jewish Athletic Association, 118–19 Jewish Board of Deputies ( JBD) and emancipation, 3

and scholarships, 85–6, 86t4.5 ‘Grimsby: Schwartz Case’, 20 on population, 26 Jewish Board of Guardians ( JBG), 12, 21 and apprentices, 114 and Eastern European immigrants, 22–5 and immigrants sheltering, 58–9 and Russo-Jewish Conjoint Commit- tee, 57 and SRHS, 40

61

JADRK, 77 classes, 91, 92, 93, 94–5 Samuel Montagu and, 92, 95 Janner, Lady, and Brady Club, 123 JAPGAW see Jewish Association for the Protection of Girls and Women JBD see Jewish Board of Deputies JBG see Jewish Board of Guardians ‘Jew Bill’ 1753, 2

Copyright

gious Knowledge ( JADRK), 77

classes, 91, 92, 93, 94–5

Samuel Montagu and, 92, 95

and WWI refugees, 66–7

apprenticeship programmes, 160–1

and industrial school boys, 147

charitable relief, 56–8

emigration/repatriation funding, 58

Health Committee, 34 and nutrition, 45 and phthisis, 45 immigration limiting 1900, 57–8 Industrial Committee, 166 and girls’ training, 160–5 ladies committee, 161 JAPGAW and, 136 no involvement in workplace issues, 159 on community reputation, 55 on postwar suffering, 143 refers young men to Public Assistance 1930s, 69 Sanitary Committee, 35 Visiting Committee, and Russian immi- grants, 23 workroom expansion, WWI, 164 Jewish Children’s Penny Dinners, 63 Jewish Chronicle, 5, 12, 19–21 and Eastern European immigrants, 22–5 on education for mothers, 41

and tuberculosis, 35

Jewish Association for the Diffusion of Reli-

Jewish Association for the Protection of

Girls and Women ( JAPGAW), 69, 119, 131, 132 and JREB, 97 and marriage counselling, 136 and National Union of Women Workers (NUWW), 145 and sexually transmitted diseases, 144

Charcroft House unmarried mothers home, 138–42, 148 drop-in centre for ‘wayward’ girls, 144–5 founding, 132–5 Gentlemen’s Committee, rescue work,

135

girls entering domestic service, 154 Highbury House children’s home, 142

immigrant boats meeting, 134–5,

135t7.1

interwar years problems, 143–5 on criminal activity, 125 on Montefiore House, 147 on procurers, 134–5

254 Jewish Immigrants in London, 1880–1939

on husbands as sole breadwinners, 150 on sanitary issues, 30 Jewish Domestic Training Home, 142 Jewish Free Reading Room ( JFRR), 106 Jewish Graphic, on missions, 52 Jewish Health Organisation, 46–8 and evening schools sanitation, 102,

103–4

Jewish Historical Society of England, Trans-

, Jewish Infant Welfare Centre, 43 Jewish Ladies Society for Prevention and Rescue Work, 132 see also JAPGAW Jewish Lads’ Brigade ( JLB), 7, 109, 114 Jewish Maternity Hospital, 40–2 Jewish MPs, JBG on, 17

Jewish Religious Education Board ( JREB), 77, 96–8, 99–101 and LCC schools RE, 104–5 classes, 91, 92, 93, 94–5, 95t5.1, 96–8

actions

4

WWI decline, 99–101

Jews’ Infant School, 34, 77, 83 Jews’ Temporary Shelter, 55 Joseph, N. S., on immigration limiting, 57–8 Joseph, Rev. Morris and Belgian refugees WWI, 66 and Whitechapel Gallery services, 123 Joynson-Hicks, Sir William, on sheltering refugees, 58 Jüdischer Frauenbund, 132

Kadish, Sharman, ‘A Good Jew and a Good Englishman’, 7 King Edward Hospital Fund, 42 LJH and, 50 Kishinev pogrom, 22 Knutsford, Lord, 49 Kushner, Tony

, Kuzmack, Linda, Woman’s Cause

The Persistence of Prejudice

5–6

, 7

Labour Party, 61 on women and work post WWI, 164

Copyright

on declining interest, 102–4

on teachers, 102

Jewish voluntary schools, 72–3, 74–82

welfare assistance, 82–4

Jewish War Memorial, 101–2

and girls Consecration Services, 103 and religious education, 101–2, 103

Lady Magnus’s Club, religion in, 112–13

Lancet

‘Infantile Mortality

’,

38

‘Report of the Lancet Special Sanitary

Commission

’,

30

Special Sanitary Commission

on Polish Colony of Jew Tailors, 34,

‘Comforts Fund’, 128 Jewish World, on exemplary maternal care,

44

Jews’ College, 101–2 Jews’ Free School ( JFS), 7, 74–6, 94 and Consecration Services, 103 and extra-curricular lives, 89 and Talmud Torah classes, 93 clothing supply, 83 English teaching, 79 girls’ curricula, 81 ‘happy evenings’, 65 mothers and teachers union, 89 welfare assistance, 84

Jews’ Hospital and Orphan Asylum ( JHOA) Norwood House, 35, 55, 82, 151 after-care committee, work placements,

165

and apprenticeships, 162–3

157–8

Landau, Annie, and SPH, 138

Landau, Hermann, and PJTS, 58

landsmanshaften, women workers and, 156 League of Nations Committee on Traffic in Women and Children, 145 leave-taking, 19–20 leisure activities, 109 industry, 18 post-war, 121–2 Leman Street Club religion in, 112–13 PJTS, 58 Levi, Miss (Charcroft House), 139 Levine, Phillipa, ‘The White Slave Trade

’,

140

Levy, Abraham, and Old Castle Street school, 76, 94 Levy, Mrs, urges unionizing, 155

Index

255

Levy, Rev. S., ‘Problems of Anglicization’, 72 Liberal Jewish movement, 7, 116, 123 Limehouse, mothers and factory work, 37–8 Lipman, V. D. ‘Mass Immigration Social History of the Jews in England, 5 literacy rates, 29 living conditions, 30–1 Livshin, Ros, ‘The Acculturation of the

’, 5

Children

’,

7

Lloyds Bank, and East End, 17

London board schools, Jewish children and, 72–3t4.1–2, 74 London County Council and day nurseries, 62 classes, continuing education, 88–9 Education Committee, JAPGAW and,

136

health inspector, on workshop over- crowding, 159 Housing Committee, 35

London Day Training College, 85

London Federation of Infant Welfare

Centres, 61

London Hospital, 39

‘Hebrew Wards’, 48, 49 London Jewish Hospital Association, 17,

48–50

London Needlework Guild, 83 London School Board, JADRK on, 77 London Society for Promoting Christianity (LSPC), 50–1, 105–7 London voluntary schools, Jewish children and, 72–3t4.1–2, 74 Lower Chapman Street School, 83 Lucas, Helen, 168 on girls’ clubs, 111 on sympathy in charity, 60 religious instruction for industrial train- ees, 160 Lyons, Lewis, on unionizing, 156 Lyons, Mrs, on unionizing, 156

Manchester

Manchester and Salford Sanitary Associa- tion, 29 Manchester Hotel, 66 Manson, Rev. T. W., 52 manufacturing, immigrants and, 151 Marks, Lara ‘Dear Old Mother Levy’s ‘The Experience of Jewish Prostitutes

‘The Luckless Waifs and Strays marriage counselling, JAPGAW and, 136 marital status non-Russian/ Russian-Pole immigrants,

’, 8

’, 8

’, 8

28t1.2b

Russian/ Russian-Pole immigrants,

28t1.2a

patterns, 27–8 maternal care/ education, Jewish commu- nity, 38–43

medical missions, conversionist, 25, 48, 49,

50–2

Copyright

scholarships, 89

and naturalization, 85–6

Medical Officer of Health (MOH), on birth

rates, 27

melamedim, 94

men

and military life, 168

Talmudic study vs. English classes, 88 young after care, 68 sheltering, 67–9 see also boys Mendoza, Mr & Mrs, and Samuel and Myer Home, 68 mental health services, children, 45 Metropolitan Hospital, 48 Metropolitan Police and Piccadilly women, 145 Metropolitan Water Board, 34 Micholls, Mrs, Henriques on, 136 Mile End Guardians, on exemplary maternal care, 44 Mile End Old Boys’ Club, 18 Mile End Old Town, demographics, 27–9 milk quality issues, 36–7

Milk Act 1914, 36 Milk and Dairies (Consolidation) Act 1915,

medical services, schools, 83–4

demographics, 29

36

256 Jewish Immigrants in London, 1880–1939

millennialism, and historiography, 4 millinery business, 161 missionaries and education, 105–7 services, Commercial Street children

and, 96 Mocatta, Ben, and Whitechapel Gallery services, 123 Mocatta, Frederic and Women’s Protection and Provident League, 156 on abandoned families, 21 Model, Alice and day nurseries, 62, 63 on vice, 136 on voluntary work, 61 public health involvement, 40–3, 45 Montagu, Lily, 7 and West Central Jewish Club and Set- tlement, 112 and Whitechapel Gallery services, 123

mortality rates, 29 Moses, Miriam, voluntary work in wider community, 61 Mosley, Oswald, marches, Bernhard Baron Settlement and, 126 mothers club, Bernhard Baron Settlement, 125 employment, and infant mortality, 37–8 schools for, 39, 41, 61–2 Mothers’ and Babies’ Welcome (SRHS service), 40–3 Moul, Margaret (eugenicist), 46, 86–7 Mrs Levy’s Lying-In Home, 40 Mundella, A. J., on JFS, 76 Murphy, Shirley, MOH report 1901, 35 Myer, Denzil, 67 on East End religious decline, 100 Myrdle Girls’ Club, and religion, 118

Nathan, H. L., and Brady Club, 117 Nathan, Mrs, and day nurseries, 63

National Anti-Sweating League, ‘Living

Wages for Sweated Workers

’, 37

National Organisation of Girls’ Clubs, 66

naturalization, and LCC scholarships, 85–6

needlework classes, JBG and, 160 neighbourly assistance, 69 Netherton reformatory, 146 North London, movement to, 18 Norwood House, 35, 55, 82, 151

after-care committee, work placements,

Copyright

on single-sex activities, 126–7

on unionizing, 157

‘The Girl in the Background’, 31

Montagu, Samuel

and Federation of Synagogues, 91–2,

95–6

National Relief Fund, 66

National Union of Women Workers

(NUWW), 145

and JADRK, 92, 95 and PJTS, 58 and religious education, 95–6 and Talmud Torah Trust, 96 Montefiore, Claude and JAPGAW, 132

girls clubs, 66, 111

and West Central Working Lads’ Club,

165

114

on JREB, 97 on public image, 115 on school meals, 83 Montefiore, Emma, and West Central Work- ing Lads’ Club, 114 Montefiore House industrial school for girls, 131, 146, 147–8, 148t7.2 and parents, 147–8 Montefiore, Robin, 11 moral health, women’s and children’s,

131–48

Morris, Nathan, and LCC schools RE, 104

and apprenticeships, 162–3 nutrition, 44 JBG Health Committee and, 45

Old Castle Street Board School, 76–7, 94 evening classes, 88 Old Montague-Street Council School, 64 open-air school movement, 84 ophthalmic committee, JSO, 47 Orthodox Judaism, 11, 18, 48, 91–2, 97, 100, 102, 106, 107 evening schools, 48 synagogues, 91–2

Index

257

overcrowding, 30–1 and disease, 35–6 and sanitation, 34–5

Oxford and St George’s Clubs, 116–17,

119–20

Settlement, 34, 120–1

see also Bernhard Baron

Settlement

Pale of Settlement, 22 Pappenheim, Bertha, 132 Pearson, Karl, 86–7 and Moul, ‘The Problem of Alien Immi- gration’, 46, 86–7, 87t4.6 philanthropic services, 55–69 philanthropy, scientific, 59–61 phthisis concerns, 35–6 JBG Health Committee and, 45 Piccadilly women, NUWW and, 145 pogroms, 22

Poland, Russian, living conditions, 22 Police Court Magistrates, JAPGAW and,

Raine’s School, 80, 81 Ramsay, Edith, and Women’s Evening Institute, 88 recreational programmes, 109 settlements, 110 Reform synagogues, anglicized, 92 refugees, 58–9 from Nazis, 69 religion

in boys’ & girls’ clubs, 112–13, 117–19,

122–3

women and, 7–8 religious education, 91–107 Chief Rabbi’s curriculum, 102 interwar years, 101–5 Jewish education gender in, 6–11 spreading, 93–4 new initiatives, 103–5 Sabbath classes, 95, 95t5.1

144

JREB, 99–100

Poor Jews’ Temporary Shelter (PJTS), 25,

Poor Law relief, 39

takeup, 56, 57

Copyright

58–9, 137

and Belgian refugees WWI, 66

English classes support, 88

supplementary classes, 93–5, 95t5.1

repatriation funding, 58

resettlement (1650s), and millennialism, 2, 4

Robert Montefiore Senior Girls’ School, 104

continuing education, 88–9

roles, school socialization, 71

population demographics, 26–9 Portland Street men’s hostel, 66 post-war economic challenges, 164 Potter, Beatrice and Amalgamated Tailors’ club, 111 ‘East London Labour’, 30 on demand for Jewish women, 159 on married women in sweatshops, 150 Poulsen, Charles, Scenes from a Stepney Youth, 34, 162 Prag, J., on exemplary maternal care, 44 Presbyterian Mission to the Jews, 52 prison inmates, visiting/ assistance to, 142 prostitution interwar years, 143–4 rescue work, 131–45 trafficking JAPGAW on, 132 risks, Eastern European women, 131–7 Public Health Committee, 61

public health, East End, 33–53

Roseneath, 66 Ross, Ellen Love and Toil

, Rothschild Buildings, 15 Rothschild Emma, and JAPGAW, 133 Rothschild, Lady and day nurseries, 63 on value of training, 160 Rothschild, Lionel de on sheltering refugees, 58–9 Parliament seat, 3 Rothschild, Lord and London Jewish Hospital Associa- tion, 49 and Talmud Torah classes, 93 on sanitary issues, 30 school philanthropy, 82, 83 Rothschild, Major Lionel de, and Jewish War Memorial, 101

9

258 Jewish Immigrants in London, 1880–1939

Royal Commission on Alien Immigration 1903, 12, 25

Royal Free Hospital, hostel for girls with STDs, 144 Ruppin, Arthur, The Jews in the Modern World, 149 Russia, living conditions, 22 Russian and Russian-Polish women, employ- ment 1890s, 153–4 (1921 census), 164 in garment trade 1901, 154 Russian Revolution, attitudes to, 16 Russian/Russian-Poles immigrants, marital status, 28t1.2a

immigration

1871–1911, 26t1.1

Russo-Jewish Committee adult education classes, 71 and JBG Conjoint Committee, 57 emigration/ repatriation funding, 58 English classes, 88

Samuel, Marcus, 42 Samuel, Sir Stuart and LCC scholarships, 85 refutes anti-alienism, 25 sanitation issues, 30 and overcrowding, 34–5 sanitary movement, 33 Sara Pyke House (SPH), 137–8 Sassoon, Lady, 43 scholarships, 84–7, 89 and naturalization, 85–6 EAC/ EAS, 85 immigrant children and, 85 schools grants, 1878–80, 77–8t4.3–4 managers, 83 meals, 82–3, 89 medical services, 83–4 philanthropy, 82–4 Schools’ Boot Fund, 63, 83

Schwab, Anna, and Stepney Girls’ Club set-

tlement, 127

Copyright

Sabbath classes, 95, 95t5.1, 99–100

JREB, 99–100

Sabbath issues

apprentices, 162

secretarial work, 163

Sabbath services, Myer and, 100 Sadler’s Wells teachers, and St George’s girls club, 120

St George’s Clubs, 45 and religion, 122–3 during WWI, 119 Girls’ Training Corps, 129 post-war expansion, 120–1 St George’s in the East, demographics, 27–9 St George’s Settlement expansion, 124 on poor living conditions, 164 see also Bernhard Baron Settlement St Paul’s Industrial School, 146 Salaman, Redcliffe, on conversionist mis- sions, 50, 51–2 Samuel and Myer Home, 67–9 Samuel, Gerald, 67 Samuel, Ida on club non-members, 122 on girls and war industries, 164

Schwartz, Zali, immigration experience,

19–20

science, in curricula, 81

scientific philanthropy, 59–61

Sebag, Joseph, and London Hospital, 48

Sebag-Montefiore, Ida, 67 and Brady settlement, 127 Sebag-Montefiore, Muriel, 67 secretarial work, Sabbath issues, 163 Sephardi early immigration, 2 elders, and emancipation, 3 settlement movement 1930s, 127 houses, 109–11 objectives, 109–10

see also specific settlements Settles Street board school, evening classes,

88

sexual development/ activity, boys’ and girls’ clubs and, 126–7 sexual exploitation, and sweatshops, 158 sexually transmitted diseases, interwar years,

144

Short, Geoffrey, ‘Accounting For Success Sick Room Helps Society (SRHS), 40–3

’, 7

Index

259

sight problems, Jewish children, 46–7 smallpox control, 35–6 Smith, Dr, on exemplary maternal care, 44

Smith, Sally, ‘Sex, Leisure and Jewish Youth

Clubs

’,

126

Smith Street Evening Institute, 88 social welfare services, 55–69 boys’ and girls’ clubs and, 123–4, 128 socialization, education and, 71

Society for the Distribution of Jewish Litera- ture, 106 Society for the Propagation of the Gospel,

Stern, Rev. F. C., and Jewish War Memorial,

101

Stern, Rev. J. F., on JBG, 59 suffrage/ feminist movements, 7 summer holidays, 65–6 Swaythling, Lord, and Jewish War Memo- rial, 101 sweated industries, 154–5 married women and, 150–1 sweaters, sexual exploitation by, 158 sympathy vs. investigation, COS and, 59–60

52

102

Talmud Torah Trust, 96–9 schools amalgamation, 104 Talmud Torahs, 47–8, 75, 88, 91, 93–7, 101–4, 107, 169 declining support, 103–4 for Girls, 98 modernizing, 98–9

Tawney, R. H., on women and wages, 160 teachers

Solomons, Samuel, on boys’ clubs, 117

Sourasky, A., on unsuitable school rooms,

Spector, Cyril, Volla Volla Jew Boy, 15

Spence, Jean, ‘Working for Jewish Girls’, 112 Spielman, Gertrude, and day nurseries, 63 sports, boys’ and girls’ clubs, and, 113–14, 116, 118, 123

Stamford Hill, movement to, 18, 164

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JREB on, 102

recruitment for East End, 78

technical education, JFS, 74

Tower Hamlets Evening Schools, 87

Toynbee Hall, 110

Henriques and, 116

Trade Boards Act 1909, 160 trades unions, women and, 155–7, 164 trafficking JAPGAW on, 132 risks, Eastern European women, 131–7 training, community-sponsored, 160–5 Tribune, on East End, 25 tuberculosis, JBG and, 35 Tzedakah, 55–6

117

ultra-Orthodox Judaism, 16, 123 Union of Jewish Women (UJW), 61, 64–6 and Belgian refugees WWI, 66 and Consecration Services, 103 and EAC, 85 and school managers, 83 on ‘surplus women’, 153 unionizing efforts, 155–7 United Synagogue, 91–2, 102, 136, 147 United Synagogue, JAPGAW and, 136

Stein, Jack

and wages, 165

on family life, 11

Steinber, D. B., on religious decline, 100

Stepney, 15

demographics, 27–9 Stepney Central Foundation Schools, 79, 80, 81 medical services, 83–4 Stepney Girls’ Club settlement, 127 Stepney Jewish Club Chronicle, 115 Stepney Jewish Lads’ Club, 36, 119–20 and democracy, 114–15 and patriotism, 115, 119 and religion, 112, 123 Anti-Gambling Association, 113 as apprentice guardians, 114 members in forces, 119 post-war, 120 Stepney Jewish school, 74–5, 94 and Consecration Services, 103 Stepney Jewish Settlement, 110

Stern, Leonard, on boys’ clubs and religion,

Stern, Rev. (of East London Synagogue), on religion in clubs, 118

260 Jewish Immigrants in London, 1880–1939

Victor, Lilian, on Sabbath sports, 118 Victoria Boys’ Club, 109 Virsof, Miss, on Sabbath sports, 118 voluntary work, 59–61 women and, 59–63 and schools, 82

wages, subsistence, 151–3 Waley-Cohen, Robert, and Jewish War Memorial, 101 water supply, 34

Webb, Beatrice see Potter, Beatrice welfare assistance, schools, 82–4 West Central Girls’ Club, 7, 66 West Central Lads’ Club, 113–14 and religion, 112 Settlement, 31, 110, 112 West End Jews, and JHO, 50 white slavery see prostitution Whitechapel demographics, 27–9 mothers and work, 38

Eastern European, trafficking risks,

131–45

immigrant acculturation, 20 journeys, 19–20 travelling alone, JAPGAW and, 133–4 UJW and, 64 labour extent, pre-immigration, 149–51 leisured and girls’ clubs, 116 and Jewish rescue association, 131–45 moral health, 131–48 sexually transmitted diseases, interwar

years, 144 work during WWI, 66, 67 Women’s Evening Institute, 88 Women’s Liberal Federation, on wages, 153 Women’s Protection and Provident League, 155, 156 Woolfe, L. H. Jr, 19–20 work environments, hazardous, 157–60

workhouses, low usage, 39

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Whitechapel Gallery, 88

services, 123

Williams, Bill, The Making of Manchester

Jewry, 6

women

acculturation, 6–11 and class, 7–8 and clubs/ settlements, 110

and Jewish Free Reading Room ( JFRR),

workplace

post-war diversification, 164–5

post-war economic challenges, 164

women and, 149–66

World Jewry, 18, 53

106

and learning English, 87 and philanthropic services, 55 and Reform synagogues, 92 and religion, 7–8 and trades unions, 155–7 and voluntary work, 59–63 and wage earning, 160 and workplace, 149–66 and WWI war industries, 163–4 as community leaders/ workers, 17 classes, LSPC, 105 continuing education, 88–9 criminal activity, increased, interwar years, 144–5 demographics, 27–9 earnings, garment industry, 152–3t8.1–2

World War I and boys’ and girls’ clubs, 119–20 attitudes to, 16 refugees, 66–7 Wormwood Scrubs, inmates, visiting/ assis- tance to, 142 World War II, preparing for, 129

Yiddish language, 15, 17, 18, 20, 21, 31, 36, 39, 47–51, 72, 75, 79, 83, 87, 91, 94, 96, 98, 107, 135, 138, 156 decline, 72 literature/ culture, 12, 17, 42, 53, 88, 122, 136 youth clubs see boys’ and girls’ clubs; boys’ clubs; girls’ clubs youth, religious decline, 100–1, 102–3

Zborowski and Herzog, on work in Eastern Europe, 149 Zionism, attitudes to, 16