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Mobile Relay Configuration in Data-Intensive Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are increasingly used in data-intensive applications such as microclimate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge aced !y data-intensive WSNs is to transmit all the data generated within an application"s li etime to the !ase station despite the act that sensor nodes have limited power supplies. We propose using low cost disposa!le mo!ile relays to reduce the energy consumption o data-intensive WSNs. #ur approach di ers rom previous work in two main aspects. $irst, it does not re%uire comple& motion planning o mo!ile nodes, so it can !e implemented on a num!er o low-cost mo!ile sensor plat orms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to !oth mo!ility and wireless transmissions into a holistic optimi'ation ramework. #ur ramework consists o three main algorithms. (he irst algorithm computes an optimal routing tree assuming no nodes can move. (he second algorithm improves the topology o the routing tree !y greedily adding new nodes e&ploiting mo!ility o the newly added nodes. (he third algorithm improves the routing tree !y relocating its nodes without changing its topology. (his iterative algorithm converges on the optimal position or each node given the constraint that the routing tree topology does not change. We present e icient distri!uted implementations or each algorithm that re%uire only limited, locali'ed synchroni'ation. )ecause we do not necessarily compute an optimal topology, our inal routing tree is not necessarily optimal. *owever, our simulation results show that our algorithms signi icantly outper orm the !est e&isting solutions. Keywor s: Wireless sensor networks, energy optimi'ation, mo!ile nodes, wireless routing. !"isting Syste#: (he ollowing key issues have not !een collectively addressed. $irst, the movement cost o mo!ile nodes is not accounted or in the total network energy consumption. +nstead, mo!ile nodes are o ten assumed to have replenisha!le energy supplies which are not always easi!le due to the constraints o the physical environment. Second, comple& motion planning o mo!ile nodes is o ten assumed in e&isting solutions which introduces signi icant design comple&ity and manu acturing costs. +n mo!ile nodes need to repeatedly compute optimal motion paths and change their location, their orientation and/or speed o movement. Such capa!ilities are usually

not supported !y e&isting low-cost mo!ile sensor plat orms. $or instance, ,o!omote nodes are designed using --!it ./0s and small !atteries that only last or a!out 12 minutes in ull motion.

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$R%$%S!D S&S'!M:
We use low-cost disposa!le mo!ile relays to reduce the total energy consumption o data intensive WSNs. 3i erent rom mo!ile !ase station or data mules, mo!ile relays do not transport data7 instead, they move to di erent locations and then remain stationary to orward data along the paths rom the sources to the !ase station. (hus, the communication delays can !e signi icantly reduced compared with using mo!ile sinks or data mules. 8oreover, each mo!ile node per orms a single relocation unlike other approaches which re%uire repeated relocations.

A vantage:
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;. #ptimal mo!ile relay con iguration <. Static tree construction 2. Node insertion =. (ree optimi'ation Creation t*e wireless sensor networks: We consider wheeled sensor nodes with di erential drives such as >hepera, ,o!omote, and $+,A. (his type o node usually has two wheels, each controlled !y independent engines. We adopt the distance proportional energy consumption model which is appropriate or this kind o node. (he energy 48 (d) consumed !y moving a distance d is modeled as9 (he value o the parameter k depends on the speed o the node. +n general, there is an optimal speed at which k is lowest. +n, the authors discuss in detail the variation o the energy consumption with respect to the speed o the mote. When the node is running at optimal speed. Mobile Relay No e scenario: We now descri!e the main idea o our approach using a simple e&ample. Suppose we have three nodes s:7 s17 s; located at positions &:7 &17 &;, respectively, such that s1 is a mo!ile relay node. (he o!?ective is to minimi'e the total energy consumption due to !oth movement and transmissions. 3ata storage node s: needs to transmit a data chunk to sink s; through relay node s1. #ne solution is to have s: transmit the data rom &: to node s1 at position &1 and node s1 relays it to sink s; at position &;7 that is, node s1 does not move. Another solution, which takes advantage o s1"s mo!ility, is to move s1 to the midpoint o the segment &:&;, which is suggested in. (his will reduce the transmission energy !y reducing the distances separating the nodes. %+ti#al Mobile Relay Configuration: (he #ptimal 8o!ile ,elay .on iguration pro!lem is challenging !ecause o the dependence o the solution on multiple actors such as the routing tree topology and the amount o data trans erred through each link. $or e&ample, when trans erring little data, the optimal con iguration is to use only some relay nodes at their original positions. As the amount o data trans erred increases, three changes occur9 the topology may change !y adding new relay nodes, the topology may change !y changing which edges are used, and the relay nodes may move

closer together. +n many cases, we may have restrictions such as no mo!ility or certain relay nodes or we must use a i&ed routing tree. (hese constraints a ect the optimal con iguration. Static 'ree Construction: 3i erent applications may apply di erent constraints on the routing tree. When only optimi'ing energy consumption, a shortest path strategy (as discussed !elow) yields an optimal routing tree given no mo!ility o nodes. *owever, in some applications, we do not have the reedom o selecting the routes. +nstead, they are predetermined according to some other actors (such as delay, capacity, etc.). +n other less stringent cases, we may !e a!le to update the given routes provided we keep the main structure o the tree. 3epending on the route constraints dictated !y the application, we start our solution at di erent phases o the algorithm. +n the unrestricted case, we start at the irst step o constructing the tree. When the given tree must !e loosely preserved, we start with the relay insertion step. $inally, with i&ed routes, we apply directly our tree optimi'ation algorithm. No e Insertion: We improve the routing tree !y greedily adding nodes to the routing tree e&ploiting the mo!ility o the inserted nodes. $or each node sout that is not in the tree and each tree edge sis?, we compute the reduction (or increase) in the total cost along with the optimal position o sout i sout ?oins the tree such that data is routed rom si to sout to s? instead o directly rom si to s? using the 5ocal/os algorithm descri!ed. We repeatedly insert the outside node with the highest reduction value modi ying the topology to include the selected node at its optimal position, though the node will not actually move until the completion o the tree optimi'ation phase. A ter each node insertion occurs, we compute the reduction in total cost and optimal position or each remaining outside node or the two newly added edges (and remove this in ormation or the edge that no longer e&ists in the tree). At the end o this step, the topology o the routing tree is i&ed and its mo!ile nodes can start the tree optimi'ation phase to relocate to their optimal positions. 'ree %+ti#i,ation: We consider the su! pro!lem o inding the optimal positions o relay nodes or a routing tree given that the topology is i&ed. We assume the topology is a directed tree in which the leaves are sources and the root is the sink. We also assume that separate messages cannot !e compressed or merged7 that is, i two distinct messages o lengths m: and m1 use the same link

(si, s? ) on the path rom a source to a sink, the total num!er o !its that must traverse link (si, s? ) is m: @ m1. S&S'!M C%N-I.(RA'I%N:/ARDWAR! C%N-I.(RA'I%N:/rocessor ,A8 *ard 3isk /entium A+6 2:18) -B C)

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