Sei sulla pagina 1di 12

B.Sc.(Hons.), MBA ngcheekin@gmail.com mrcheekin@blogspot.com.

au
All Rights Reserved 2012 Ng Chee Kin

Ng Chee Kin

Written By

Page 1

Introduction to Science
1.1 What is Science?

1 2 3 4

.b

Science is a systematic study of nature and its effects on us and the environment. Natural phenomena are events that happen naturally around us. Science can be divided into many elds such as: Biology, physics, chemistry, geology, astronomy and meteorology. Science-based careers are occupations that are based on science, for example: Life science doctor, nurse, dietician, botanist, zookeeper; earth science environmental scientist, meteorologist, geologist, mineralogist, volcanologist; and physical science physicist, chemist, engineer, architect, and radiologist.
A Science Laboratory

t.c

om
Beaker Filter funnel Measuring cylinder Evaporating dish

CHAPTER 1

gs

po
Water trough

.a
Tripod stand Bell jar

Pr Re E SS EXp s

lo

Gas jar

u in
Test tube rack Flat-bottomed ask Conical ask Test tube holder Crucible tongs Flat-bottomed ask Round-bottomed ask Dropper Eureka can

1.2

2 3

Test-tube

rc
Boiling tube

he

ek

It is a room or a building where scientic investigations are carried out. We must obey safety rules and precautions when working in a science laboratory. Common laboratory apparatus:

Page 2
4 Hazard warning symbols: Highly ammable Examples: Ethanol, petrol
1.3 The Steps in a Scientic Investigation

(3) Planning the experiment (4) Controlling variables (5) Collecting data (6) Analysing and interpreting data (7) Drawing a conclusion (8) Writing a report
1.4 Physical Quantities and Their Units

Explosive Examples: Sodium, potassium Corrosive Examples: Concentrated hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide Poisonous/toxic Examples: Lead, mercury 1

om
Area of regular shapes Area of irregular shapes Volume of liquids

Length of curves

.a

(2) Forming a hypothesis

u t.c
m kg s K A Unit symbols Units and their relationship

(1) Identifying the problem

external), micrometer, vernier calipers String and ruler, opisometer Mathematical formulae, graph paper Estimation using graph paper Measuring cylinder, pipette, burette 1 cm2 = 100 mm2 1 m2 = 10 000 cm2 1 km2 = 1 000 000 m2 1 ml = 1 cm3 1 l = 1 000 cm3 1 m3 = 1 000 000 cm3

Physical quantities and their s1 units: Physical quantities length mass time SI units metre

lo

gs
kilogram second kelvin ampere

po

Irritant

ek

in

1.5

1 2

he

Examples: Chlorine, chloroform

The weight of an object is the pull of the Earths gravity on the object. The mass of an object is the quantity of matter in the object.
Measuring Tools

.b

temperature

electric current

Weight and Mass

Volume of Mathematical regularformulae, shaped solids water displacement method (Eureka can or measuring cylinder lled with water) Volume of Water irregulardisplacement shaped solids method (using Eureka can or measuring cylinder lled with water)

1 m3 = 1 000 000 cm3

1.6

Examples: Ethanol, petrol

rc

Highly ammable

Physical quantity Length of straight lines

Tools/method Metre rule, ruler, calipers (internal &

1 cm = 10 mm 1 m = 100 cm 1 km = 1000 m

Page 3
1.7 The Importance of Standard Units

Chloroplast Vacuoles 4

.a
Euglena (f) Yeast 2 Chondrus (c) Spirogyra
2.3

Stores water and dissolved materials

u
nucleus

Standard unit improves international communications. They also ensure the physical quantities are measured accurately and consistently.

Carries out photosynthesis

(e)

CHAPTER 2

om
1 Organisation of cell: Cell (simple) Tissue Organ System Organism (complex)

A microscope is used to study the general structure of a cell.


Unicellular and Multicellular Organisms

Cell As a Unit of Life


2.1 What is a Cell?

bud

2.2

1 2

A cell is the basic unit of life. Its function is to carry out life processes. Cell

(a)

nucleus

po

t.c

A unicellular organism has one cell only.

A multicellular organism has many cells. (a) (b)

Pleurococcus Protoplasm Nucleus Animal cells Irregular in shape No cell wall No chloroplasts Mostly no vacuoles 3 Cytoplasm Plant cells Regular in shape Have cell wall Have chloroplasts Have large vacuoles Cell membrane (b)

gs

Hydra

nucleus

.b

Amoeba

lo
pseudopodium

Cell Organisation in the Human Body

The functions of cell structures: Structure Nucleus Cytoplasm Cell membrane Cell wall Function

ek

in
(c) Chlamydomonas
chloroplast

Controls all cell activities

rc

A place where chemical processes take place

he

(d)

cilium

Controls ow of materials in and out of cell Gives shape to the cell

Paramecium

Page 4
2 Examples of cell: (a) Nerve cell (c) Nerve tissue 5 Examples of system:

Trachea

.a
Lungs

Nose

u
Bronchus Skin Liver Kidney Urinary bladder

(d) Epithelial tissue (b) Red blood cell

4 (c) Epithelial cell

Examples of system: (a) (b)

po

t.c
Respiratory system
Pituitary gland Thyroid gland

om
Stomach

Excretory system
Oviduct or Fallopian tube

gs

lo

(d) Bone cell

Ovary Uterus Vagina

Lungs

(c) 3 Examples of tissue: (a) Connective tissue

.b

Female
Adrenal gland Testis (male) Sex glands Testis Sperm duct

(d)
Ovary (female)

in

Urethra penis

ek

Eye

Kidney

Endocrine system
2.4

Male

he

The Human Being A Complex Organism

(e)

(f)

1 2 3

(b) Mucsle tissue

Tongue

Brain

A human being is a complex multicellular organism because the cells are organized into tissues, organs and systems. Cell specialisation helps to divide body functions among the different types of cells. Cell specialisation and cell organisation ensure the life processes are carried out effectively.

rc

Page 5
CHAPTER 3
Examples Soil, wood, most metals Water, mercury (a type of metal) Air Liquid Mercury Water Air To make thermometer, hydrometer To make drinks, cooking, washing and cleaning To ll buoy, rise hot air balloons, make a submarine sink or oat

3.1

What is Matter? 3.3

Density is dened as mass per unit volume of a substance. Mass Density = Volume

gs

Matter exists in three states: solid, liquid and gas. 2 Matter changes its state when it is heated or cooled. 3 The kinetic theory of matter states that matter consists of tiny and discrete particles. 4 Characteristics of state matter: 1 Characteristic Arrangement of particles Solid Closely packed Liquid Gas Further apart Very far apart

lo

The unit of density is gram per cubic centimeter (g/cm3). 3 The buoyancy of a substance is affected by its density. 4 Buoyancy (or otation) refers to the ability of a substance to oat or sink in another substance. 5 A lower density substance will oat on a higher density liquid. 6 On the other hand, a higher density substance will sink in a lower density liquid. 2

t.c
1

3.2

The States of Matter

po

om
4.1

Matter is everything that has mass and occupies space. 2 Examples of matter are wood, air, water, soil and living things.

The Concept of Density

Gas

CHAPTER 4

The Variety of Resources on Earth


The Various Resources on Earth

The basic resources needed for life on Earth are: Importance Needed for respiration and combustion Carbon dioxide is needed for photosynthesis Useful substances Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide

Basic resource Air

.b

cork (0.24 g/cm3) water (1.00 g/cm3) zinc (7.10 g/cm3)

Movement of particles

he

No free movement, vibrate about a xed position High Denite shape Denite volume

Move freely, collide with one another

Move freely, very rapidly and randomly Low

ek

Spaces between particles

in

Very small

Large

Very large

Water

3.4

The Properties of Matter and Their Application in Everyday Life

Soil

Matter

Example Iron, steel

Applications To construct buildings, bridges and vehicles, make cooking utensils To build bridges ad houses, making furniture To make toys, components in vehicles

Solid

Shape Volume

rc

Density

Medium

No denite shape Denite volume

No denite shape No denite volume

Minerals

.a

Needed to support Fresh water the functions of the body systems Contains air, water, Humus minerals and organic substances which are needed to support living things Minerals such as metals are used to make useful products and construct buildings Metals

Wood Plastic

Matter

Page 6
Fossil fuels Used to produce energy in power plants, factories, vehicles, machines and to make plastics They are sources of food, building materials, clothes and fuel Coal, petroleum, natural gases Examples Iron, hydrogen, oxygen, helium, carbon, mercury Naphthalene, Soil, air, sugar, rubber, dessert table salt, water Brittleness and hardness Ductile (can be pulled into strands) and hard Malleable Brittle (can break easily) and soft Nonmalleable Poor conductor of heat Poor conductor of electricity Low Low Low of Compounds and

Comparing metals and non-metals Physical properties Surface appearance Brittleness and hardness Metals Shiny Ductile (can be pulled into strands) and hard Malleable Non-metals Dull

om
Density Comparing Mixtures (c)

Living things

Meat, skin, carcasses, silk, milk

Malleability (ability to be shaped)

Conductivity of heat Conductivity of electricity Melting point Boiling point the

4.2

t.c

Elements, Compounds and Mixtures

Comparing elements, compounds and mixtures Aspect Appearance Element Compound Mixture

po
Nonmalleable

Brittle (can break easily) and soft

Denition

lo

It is the simples substance

ek

Composition

he

Only consists of one type of particle Cannot be separated by any processes

Can consist of one or more than one type of particle

in

It is made up of two or more substances which are chemically combined

It is made up of two or more substances which are not chemically combined

Malleability (ability to be shaped)

gs

.b

Conductivity of heat Conductivity of electricity

Good conductor of heat Good conductor of electricity High High High

Poor conductor of heat Poor conductor of electricity Low Low Low

Aspect (a) Method of separation (b) Formation of a new substance Conversion of energy

.a

u
High High High

Good conductor of heat Good conductor of electricity

Properties

Compounds By chemical reactions. A new substance is formed Heat is released or absorbed when a compound is formed The characteristics of the original components are no longer maintained

Mixtures By physical means. No new substance is formed No heat is released or absorbed when a mixture is formed The characteristics of the original components are maintained

Melting point Boiling point Density

Separation method

Can be separated by chemical means only, such as electrolysis

Can be separated by physical means, such as ltration

Physical methods to separate components of a mixture Physical properties Surface appearance Metals Shiny Non-metals Dull

rc

(d) Characteristic of the original components

Page 7
(e) Identication of the original components The original components cannot be identied easily Components are combined in a specic ratio The original components can be identied easily Components are formed without a xed ratio 1 Air consists of about 20% of oxygen.
Water lls up of gas jar, showing that about 20% of the volume of air consists of oxygen

5.2

The Properties of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide

u
Slightly soluble No effect

Properties Colour

Oxygen

.a

Carbon dioxide Colourless Odourless Slightly soluble Very soluble (to form sodium carbonate) Lime water turns cloudy

Colourless Odourless

Air contains water vapour.


Cork Test tube Ice Water Beginning of experiment

om
Liquid on the outer wall of the test tube

(f) Ratio of components

Odour (smell) Solubility in water Solubility in sodium hydroxide

1 2 3

CHAPTER 5

5.1

The Composition of Air


Nitrogen (78%)

rc

he

The Air Aroun Us

Oxygen (21%) Glass slide Glass slide

ek

Preservation of resources is the act of keeping the resources in their original state. Conservation of resources is the responsible use and management of natural resources to prevent loss, waste or damage. Preservation and conservation of Earths resources are important to: (a) prevent extinction of animal and plant species (b) prevent depletion of natural resources such as fossil fuels and minerals (c) prevent the pollution of air and water (d) ensure the basic needs of humans are not threatened (e) ensure the natural resources will be available for future generations

po

Air contains microorganisms.

in

Air contains dust particles.

.b

lo

gs

End of experiment

t.c

4.3

To Appreciate the Importance of Earths Resources

Not soluble

Effect on lime water Supporting combustion

Supports combustion.

Does not support combustion. A glowing A glowing splinter splinter relights relights A burning A burning splinter splinter burns more burns more brightly brightly Neutral Has no effect on moist blue and red litmus papers Has no effect on hydrogen carbonate indicator Acidic Turns moist blue litmus paper to red Turns red hydrogen carbonate indicator to yellow

pH

Sticky surface facing up Dust particles

Experiments to show the properties of air

Inert gases + water vapour + dust + microorganisms (0.97%)

Carbon dioxide (0.03%)

Dust particles

Page 8
5.3 Oxygen is Needed for Respiration

Inhaled air 78 21 0.03 0.97 Less

Exhaled air 78 16 4 0.97 More


5.6

Nitrogen Oxygen Carbon dioxide Inert gases Water vapour


5.4

t.c

om
Kinetic (working energy) Heat (working energy) Light (working energy) Sound (working energy)

Gas

Composition (%)

.a

Oxygen is needed for respiration to produce energy. The composition of inhaled and exhaled air:

Bronchitis, pneumonia (caused by sulphur dioxide) Death (caused by carbon monoxide) The effects of air pollution on the environment: Acid rain (caused by sulphur dioxide) Thinning of the ozone layer (caused by CFC) Greenhouse effect (caused by carbon dioxide) Haze (caused by dust particles, soot)
The Importance of Keeping the Air Clean

Energy

Characteristics

Examples

Potential Energy stored A stretched (stored energy) in an object due sling-shot to its position or A rock on a cliff condition. A compressed spring A wound up alarm clock Energy that is found in moving objects. A moving bus A swinging pendulum A rotating ceiling fan A ying aeroplane A burning candle A boiling water The hot Sun A hot iron A shining star A glowing light bulb A burning campre A switched on torch A beating drum A person singing A blowing whistle

Oxygen is Needed for Combustion

1 2

Combustion kerosene):

of

hydrocarbon

(such

as

in

.b

Carbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide

lo

Combustion is a process that requires oxygen, heat and fuel. Combustion of carbon (such as charcoal):

5.5

Air Pollution

2 3

he

Air pollution is caused by the pollutants in the air. Air pollutants are harmful substances that are added to the air. The effects of air pollution on human beings: Lung cancers (caused by asbestos, sulphur dioxide) Brain damage in children (caused by lead particles, carbon monoxide)

ek

Hydrocarbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide + Water

We can keep the air clean by practising the following: Using less CFC based products, such as aerosols. Recycling and reducing wastes Using unleaded petrol Using public transport or sharing vehicles (car pooling) Installing catalytic converters to motor vehicles 2 Cigarette smoke contains tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide which are harmful to humans.

gs

po

Energy that is released by hot objects.

CHAPTER 6

Energy that is produced by glowing objects.

Sources of Energy
The Various Forms and Sources of Energy

6.1

rc

1 2 3

Energy is an ability to do work. The SI unit for energy is joule (J). Forms of energy: Potential, electrical, kinetic, chemical, heat, nuclear, light, mechanical, sound

Energy that is produced by vibrating objects.

Page 9
A ringing telephone Electrical (working energy) Energy that is produced by owing electrical current (electricity). An electric iron An electric heater 4 Sources of energy: Examples Coal Petroleum Natural gas Uses To generate electricity in power plants As the main fuel for vehicles and machines To move a sailboat To turn a windmill for pumping water and grind corn To generate electricity in wind farms Geothermal Geysers Hot springs Volcanoes To produce geothermal energy that can be used to generate electricity

Fossil fuels

om
5 6
6.2

Energy changes from one form to another. For example: Situation Energy change Potential energy Kinetic energy A marble rolls down a slope

po

Chemical Energy that (stored energy) is stored in a substance that can be burnt.

Food Fossil fuels (such as natural gas, coal and petrol) Wood Explosion of an atomic bomb The explosion on the Suns surface

Wind

Moving air

t.c

Winding up spring Kinetic energy Potential energy of a toy car Burning a candle Beating a drum Switching on a fan An exploding atomic bomb Chemical energy Heat + Light energy Kinetic energy Sound energy Electrical energy kinetic energy Nuclear energy Heat + Light + Sound energy

ek

Nuclear Energy that (stored energy) is produced by atoms that are broken down (through nuclear ssion) or combined (through nuclear fusion). Mechanical (combination of working and stored energy) Energy that is posessed by an object that has both kinetic energy and potential energy.

in

.b

Sun (solar)

lo

Water (hydro)

Rain fall The Sun

gs

To generate hydroelectricity To generate electricity (solar cells and solar panels collect solar energy and convert it electrical energy) To enable photosynthesis in green plants.

The Sun is the primary source of energy.


Renewable Sources and Non-Renewable Energy

rc

A car is driven up a hill A pendulum swings back and forth

he

Comparing renewable and non-renewable energy sources:

Radioactive substances

Uranium To produce nuclear energy. Plutonium To produce electrical energy in submarines and warships

Renewable Energy Non-renewable Energy (energy sources that (energy sources that will can be reused and be used up one day and will never run out) cannot be replaced) Solar energy (from the Sun) Fossil fuels (such as natural gas, petroleum and coal)

.a

Sources of energy

Page 10
Hydroelectricity (from owing water) Biomass energy (from plants) Wind energy (from wind) Geothermal energy (from the Earth) 2 Nuclear energy (from plutonium) Aspect Denition on SI Unit Heat A form of energy joule (J) Temperature Degree of hotness of an object kelvin (K). Normally we use degrees Celsius (C) Affected by Volumethe bigger the volume, the more the heat Amount of heat- the more the heat energy is supplied, the higher the temperature

t.c

po

Conservation and efcient use of energy: (a) Use energy efcient equipment, such as uorescent lights (b) Use public transport, such as buses and light-rail transit (LRT) (c) Practice car-pooling to work
The Importance of Conserving Energy Sources

How it is produced

6.3

lo

Conserving non-renewable resources will make them last longer for the future generations.

CHAPTER 7

1 2

Heat is a form of energy Heat can be produced from: (a) kinetic energy, such as rubbing two objects together (b) chemical energy, such as burning fossil fuels (c) electrical energy, such as lighting an electric bulb (d) nuclear energy, such as nuclear ssion in the Sun Comparing heat and temperature:

ek

7.1

Heat as a Form of Energy

in

Heat

Kinetic Supplying energy heat energy (such as to an object rubbing (causing temperature hands) to increase) Chemical energy Removing heat from (such as burning an object fossil fuels) (causing temperature Electrical to decrease) energy (such as lighting a light bulb) Nuclear energy (such as nuclear ssion in the Sun)

om
Difference
7.2

.a
P

u
Q

Q 100C

100C

P contains more heat than Q

P and Q have the same temperature

gs

The Effects of Heat Flow on Matter

1 2 3 4

Effect

Causes matter to expand or contract Causs matter to change from one state to another

Causes matter to become hot or cold Causes heat to ow from a hot region to a cold region

Heat changes the volume of matter. When heated, the volume of matter increases. Hence, matter expands. When cooled, the volume of matter decreases. Hence, matter contracts. Heat ows from a hot region to a cold region in three ways: (a) conduction, occurs in solids (b) convection, occurs in uids (such as liquids and gases) (c) radiation, does not require a medium
Effects of Heat on Matter

he

.b

7.3

Process Melting Freezing

rc

Change of state of matter Solid Liquid Liquid Solid

Heat ow Heat is absorbed Heat is released

Page 11
Boiling Liquid Gas Heat is absorbed Heat is released Heat is absorbed
7.5

Evaporation Sublimation

Liquid Gas Solid Gas Gas Solid

Absorbing and Giving Out Heat

3 4

7.4

Application of Contraction and Expansion of Matter

rc

he

ek

in

.b

lo

gs

Application of expansion and contraction of matter:

po

t.c
3

Heat is absorbed Heat is released

1 2

Objects that absorb heat are called heat absorber. Objects that give out heat are called heat radiator. Dark, dull objects are good heat absorber and good heat radiator. White, shiny surfaces are poor heat absorber and poor heat radiator.

om
2.

.a

Condensation Gas liquid

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f)

Mercury or alcohol in thermometers Bimetallic strip in thermostats Bimetallic strip in re alarms Gaps in railway tracks and bridges Telephone wires Metal pipes carrying hot water and oil

7.6

The Benets of Heat Flow

Application of heat ow via conduction: (a) Heat is used for cooking food with cooking utencil (b) Heat is used to melt metal for making jewellery and equipment Applications of heat ow via convection: (a) Convection currents improve the air circulation and keeps the buildings cool (b) Convection currents cool the Earths surface through sea breeze and land breeze. Applications of heat ow via radiation: (a) Heat ow by radiation is used to dry laundry (b) The heat from the Sun keeps the Earth and our body warm