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Konrad Zilch, Martin Schiitz

Wallsare notonlyenclosing, decorative ele- External walls Plasteredsing IeJeaf externalwalIs

ments.Theyalsohavemajorstructuraland are builtwithoutadditionallayersof thermal
buildingsciencefunctionsto perform.In terms External wallsmustbe designedand builtso insulationand are providedwitha coatof plas-
of structure,we distinguishbetweenload- thattheywithstand drivingrain.Thisrequire- ter on the insideand water-repellent rendering
bearing,stiffening and non-loadbearing walls. mentis mandatory occupied
for all buildings on the outside.The renderingpreventsmois-
Loadbearing wallscarryverticaland horizontal moreor lesspermanently by people.External turefrom penetrating the masonryand sub-
loadsand transfertheseto the subsoil.Stiffen- wallsaredividedintosingle-and twin-leaf sequentlyfreezing,and permitsthe useof :
ing wallsin the formof shearwallsguarantee walls.The single-leaf wall consistsof justone non-frost-resistant masonryunits.In orderto
the load-carrying capacityof the building,and wall of masonry,whereasthe twin-leafwall complywiththe strictthermalinsulation requir:e-
in the formof crosswallsor returnwallsprovide consistsof two parallelwallsup to 150mm mentsand, at the sametime,avoidunjustifi-
lateralsupportto preventthe bucklingof load- apart,joinedtogetherwithwallties.As a rule, ablythickwalls,whichalthoughsatisfying
bearingwalls,Therefore, theyare alwayscon- onlythe innerleafis loadbearing. Froma ther- buildingsciencedemandsareusuallytoo
sideredas loadbearing walls. mal pointof view,externalwallsare divided expensivein termsof construction and con-
Non-loadbearing wallsgenerallyonlycarry intosingle-and double-or multi-layer wallcon- sumptionof valuablespace.Suchwallsonly
theirownweightand havemerelyan enclosing structions. The masonryof a single-layer wall is use masonryunitswithvery goodthermalinsu-
function.Theyare not.calleduponto assistin likethat of a single-leafwall,but apartfrom lationproperlies(e.9.aeratedlightweight clay,
stabilizing the buildingor to providesupportto carryingthe loadsalsofulfilsthe necessary autoclavedaeratedconcrete,lightweig ht hol-
otherloadbearing walls.However,non-load- thermalrequirements. Thedouble-or multi- low concreteblocks,the formationof voids,
bearingwallsmustbe ableto transferhorizon- layerwall is a loadbearingconstruction but the cellsand slots,masonrywithoutmortarto the
tal loadsperpendicular to the face of the wall masonryfulfilsonly partof the thermalrequire- perpends)in conjunctionwiththermalinsula-
to loadbearingmembers. ments.The otherlayersare madefrommate- tion plastersor plasteringsystems.
Thebuildingsciencefunctions of thewallare rialsthat generallyonlycontributeto the thermal f al]]e2.4.2showsthe thermaltransmittance
thermal(insulation and heatstorage),sound insulation, e.g.single-leaf wallwith
external valuesthat can be achievedfor masonry300.,
insulation, fire protection and protectionagainst thermalinsulationplasteringsystem. and 365 mm thick,and howthe thermalinsula-
drivingrain.Specialrequirements that may tion can be improvedby usinga thermalinsu-
needto be fulfilledby a wall are protection lationplaster.
againstwater(bothpressurized and non-pres- Single-leaf external walls The use of thin-bedand lightweightmodars
surized), e.g.basement walls,and security The designof single-leafexternalwallsis these insteadof normalmortartogetherwith large-,.
functions(externalwallsof certainbuildings), daysdeterminedmainlyby thermalrequire- formatmasonryunitsand layingwithoutmortar
'1053paft 1, the mini- '
e.g.banks,militaryestablishments. Themany ments.Accordingto DIN to the perpendsfurtherreducesthe thermal
demandsplacedon wallscan.leadto conflicts mumthicknessfor a single-leafexternalwall is bridgingeffectof the mortarjoints.
of interest,whichcan be solvedonlythrough 115 mm.Thewallconstructions commonly in Thediagramsin fig.2.4.3showthe influence of
carefuldetailingand selectionof materials. useare illustratedinfig.2.4.1.Theregulations lengthof unitand type of perpendas well as
Basically, thefollowing criteriaapplywhen on thermalinsulationhaveled to the develop- thicknessof bed jointfor normal,LM 36 and -
choosingthe type of masonry: mentof differentsolutionsto complywiththose LM 21 mortars.A medium-bedjointof LM 36 is
Forfacingworkthe decisivefactorsare the regulations.So the single-leafmonolithicexter- practicallyidenticalwiththe thin-bedjoint.The
surfacefinishand the strengthof the unitsor nalwallwith everbetterthermalinsulation val- useof lightweight or thin-bedmodarrepresents,
theirfrostresistanceand resistanceto uesfor the masonryand mortarwill continueto a markedimorovement in thermalinsulation
mechanicaldamageand saturation. External be favouredfor certainapplications, And the irrespective of the thermalconductivity of the
walls,on theotherhand,areprimarily chosen useof insulatingplasterswill alsohelpto masonryunits.
depending on thermalrequirements, whilefor securethe use of monolithicmasonry.Adding In wallswith normalmortar,the thicknessof the
internalwallsit is soundinsulationand load- to the loadbearingmasonry
a layerof insulation bed jointand the lengthof the unitwith mortar
carryingcapacitythatinfluence ourchoice, allowsexternalwallsto satisfypracticallyall to the perpendshas a noticeableeffecton the
Whenselectingthe type of wall and type of demands.Onlyin the caseof curtainwall thermalconductivityof the masonry.Differ- ;
material,otheraspectssuchas weight,oppor- facadesdo we haveto considerthe additional enceswithinlightweightand thin-bedmodars
tunitiesfor rationalization on siteand the costs heatlossesvia the wallties betweenwall and merelyamountto the orderof magnitudeof
of materialsand construction haveto be con- facade. the rangeof onethermalconductivityclass.
s i d e r e d1 3 27, 1 ,9 1 ,4 1 , 1 6 1 1 . However', this can be importantif, whendeter-



2.4.1 Formsof single-leafexternalwalls

miningcharacteristic values,the measuredor

calculatedresultfor the masonrybeingevalu-
atedlieson thethreshold of a class[A.1,p.
1161, t >240 , > . 11 5 4 >115 > 115 1 1 52 > 1 7 5
.|f-f-- .t---.1+

Single-leafexternalwalls with thermalinsula- Plastered Singleleafexternal Single-leafexternal Single-leafexternal Single-leaffacing

single-leaf wall with thermal wall with curtainwall wallwith internal masonrywith 20 mm
tion compositesystems
externalwall insulationcomposite facade insulation wall joint
are.constructed frommasonryunitsperforming syslem
structural and otherfunctionsbut exhibitingrel-
conjunction witha thermally insulatingcoating
appliedto the externalwall surface.Thiswall 2.4.2 fhermal transmittancevaluesfor sinole-leafmasonrv
systemis employedfor new buildingwork,as Wallthick- Type of Rendering Designvaluefor thermalconductivityof masonry[WmK]
ness [mm] plaster 0.1 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.16 0.18
wellas for subsequently improving thethermal
300 LP 2 0.31 0.34 0.36 0.39 0.41 0.47 0.52
insulation of existingmasonry.The coating WDP 4 o.27 o.29 0.31 0.33 0.34 0.38 0.41
consistsof threelayers:bondingcoat,thermal 366 LP 2 o.26 o.28 0.3 0.33 0.35 0.39 0.44
insulation (hardpolystyrene foamor mineral WDP 4 o.23 o.24 0.26 0.28 0.3 o.33 0.36
fibrebatts)and a two-coatplasterfinishcom- External:20 mm lightweightplaster(LP)or 40 mm thermalinsulationplaster(WDP)
lnternal:10 mm lime-dvoslJm nlaster
prisingreinforcingand finalcoats.
Railsystemsor dowelscreatean additionalfix-
ingto the substrate.The heatlossescausedby
thethermalbridgesformedby suchmechani-
calfixingsaretakenintoaccountby increasing 2.43 fhermal conductivityof masonry in relationto thermal conductivity of masonry unit, type of mortar,thickness of
thethermaltransmittance values.However,this bed jointand lengthof unit
effectcan be ignoredwhenusingthermally
ootimized dowels. 0.25 0.25
12mm bedjoint
As the thermalinsulationcompositesystemis 6 mm bed joint
fullyresponsible for thethermalinsulation func- tl
tion,thistype of wall is oftenreferredto as a
"thermoskin" and is usedwith masonrywith
relativelylowthermalinsulation but highcom-
NM -
pressive strength(e.9.calciumsilicatemason- a
ry).Thissystemresultsin relatively thinwalls, ,/
LM 36:
whichgreatlybenefitsthe totalamountof inter- YF '/ )<
LM 36
In principle,thistypeof wallis an improvement = C
DIV v, _M t1
on the thermalinsulationplasteringsystem
becauselayersof thermalinsulation with better
C a LIV c

insulation valuesare used insteadof the olas- 6 '// ,/ 6

ter. '/ b
/): '=
As the thermalinsulationcompositesystem .>
b ,/t I F
doesnot satisfythe requirement for decreasing l tl

strengthof the layersfromthe insideto the out- co


t c
side,the materials
mustbe compatible
usedin thethreelayers
in orderto avoidthe nega- o
E t G
tiveconsequences (see"Plasters"). Thisis c

guaranteed by usingcompletesystems.Never- 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.10 0.15 0.20

theless,it shouldbe notedthatthistype of wall Thermalconductivityof masonry[WmK] Thermal conductivityof masonry

2,4.4 Sectionthrough375 mm single-leaffaced wall is vulnerableto mechanical damage.Apart by the lowestunitstrengthclassusedin thewall.
(sketchshowingprinciple) fromthat,additionalsoftskinshavean Saturation and attackby frostis assumedto
unfavourable effecton the soundinsulation onlyaffectthe outermasonryunitsin single-
Outside propertiesof the masonry. leaffaced walls.To avoidsaturationof the back-
Fireorotectionreouirements mustbe observed ing masonryin regionswith severeweather,
whenusingflammable or notreadilyflammable everycourseof masonryshouldincludeat least
withoutvoids thermalinsulation materials. two rowsof unitsof equalheightseparatedby
a 20 mm wide walljoint (offsetin eachcourse
Single-leafexternal walls with curtain wall to followthe bond)overthe full heightof the
facade wall.Thismustbe filledwithoutvoidsusing
./tnsiae lf externalwallsmadefromnon-frost-resistant waterproofmortaror, betterstill,run in liquid
20 masonryunitsare not rendered,the external waterproofmortarcourseby course.By in-
wall can be protectedagainstthe weatherand creasingthe thicknessof the walljointfrom
-1 3 7 5 1 '10
damageby addinga weatherproof claddingto mm to 20 mm, guaranteedby the full mortar
the outside.Thiscurtainwall can be attached filling,the minimum wallthickness becomes
eitherdirectlyto the externalwallor to external 310mm.Thisis dueto thefactthata 240mm
2.4.5 Formsof twin-leafexternalwalls
insulation, which is thenprotectedby the venti- thickwallwouldmeanthatthe walljointcould
latedcuftainwallfacade. only be formedin everysecondcourseand a
Outside lnside
Cavitywall The mechanicalfixingsfor the curtainwall continuousmoisturebarrierthe full heightof
resultin additional heatlosseswhichcan be thewallwouldnotbe possible(seefig.2.4.4.).
embedded quiteconsiderable. Thicknesses of 375 and 500 mm are also
Outerleal >50mm feasible.
Walltie with
dripdisc Single-leafexternal walls with internal insulation The jointsin the exposedface- if flushpoint-
Thethermalinsulationeffectof a single-leaf ing is not carriedout- shouldbe rakedout to a
Cavity externalwall can alsobe improvedby attach- depthof 15 mm and properlypointed.Sub-
MG ll (lla)
ing insulationmadefrom hardpolystyrene sequentpointinghasthe advantagethat pig-
foamor mineralfibrebattsto the insideface. mentscan be addedto the pointingmortarto
Thistype of wall is particularly suitablefor the varythe appearance of thejoints(see"Pointing").
> 9 0...].-....'.'.-..]T 1 6 0 < d < 1 5 O m m refurbishment of existingbuildings with It is very difficultto fulfilthe thermalinsulation
facadesworthyof preservation, and for those requirements with single-leaf facingmasonry.
PaftialJillcavity wall
roomsin newbuildingworkwhichare notper- Therefore, thesedaysfacingmasonryis almost
manently heated(e.9.assemblyhalls).Owing exclusivelybuiltas pad of a twin-leafmasonry
to the lossof the heatstorageeffectof the wall.
Loadbearing externalwalls,roomsinsulatedinternallyare
Air space quicklyheatedand storelessthermalenergy
>40mm afterthe heatingis switchedoff.Condensation Twin-leaf external walls
problemswithinthe wall construction can be a Twin-leafmasonryis increasingly beingused
Internalplaster problemwith absorbentmasonry,particularly for externalwallsto achievethe necessary
Wall tie with at junctionsbetweenfloorsand partitions.Like- thermalinsulation. Thevariousfunctionsof a
wise,the soundinsulation of adjacentrooms wall are separatedin thistype of construction
can be impaired throughflankingtransmis- and allocated to the individual leaves.The
----T---- < 1 5 0 m m sionscausedby unsuitable internal insulation innerleaf (backingmasonry)providesa solid
>40 systems. enclosureto the interiorand carriesthe vedical
Full{illcavitywall and horizontalloads.The outerleaf (facing
Single-leafexternalwallswithoutrendering masonryor renderedouterleaf)determines ihe
Facing (sing le-leaffaced wall) visualappearanceand servesas protection
The decisionto omitthe renderingfroman againstthe weatherand mechanicaldamage.
externalwall,i.e.the facademasonryremains Any thermalinsulationrequiredis fixedagainst
MG ll (la) exposed(facingbrickworketc.),dependson the wholeof the outsideface of the innerleaf.
the desiredapoearanceas well as localtradi- The outerskin usesnon-efflorescent, frost-
tionsand experience. The mainadvantageof resistantsolidmasonryunits.Perforated units
facingmasonry - in single-or twin-leafwalls- are lesssuitablebecausetheycan become
is the low cost of maintenance. severelysaturated,whichcan be aggravated
- I r<150 A single-leaf facedwall consistsof an outer by possiblelackof careduringpointing.
skinof frost-resistant, usuallysmall-format, fac- We distinguishbetweencavity,partial-fill cav-
wall ingor engineering ity,full{ill cavityand plaster-filled collar-jointed
bricksor calciumsilicate
facingbricksand a backingof, usually, non- (seefig.2.4.5).
Minimal frost-resistantmasonryunits.The use of differ- Onlythethickness of the innerleaf(min.
air space
ent masonry. materialsfor the backingand the 115 mm) may be consideredin the structural
Plaster facingworkshouldbe avoidedbecauseof the analysis. Whenanalysing the innerleafaccord-
possibledifferential deformation and the asso- ing to the simplifiedmethodof analysis,the
lnnerleaf ciatedriskof cracking.Facingand backingare thickness of mm is onlysuitablefor build-
bonded together and together form the load- ings of no more of thantwo full storeysplusan
Walltie bearingcross-section, The permissiblestress attic;in addition,crosswallsmustbe provided
>90 whichmaybe usedin the designis governed for stabilitv.The minimumthicknessof the

E{ernal walls

outerleafshouldbe 90 mm for reasonsof sta- is pressedtightlyagainstthe outsideface of 2,4.6 Outer leaf supportdetails
bilityduringconstruction. the innerleaf.
Wallties shouidbe soacedat max.500 m ver-
SupporTing the outerleaf tically,max.750mm horizontally. In additionto
Theweightof the outerleafmustbe supported the requirements outlinedin table2.4.8,Ihree Facing
on the loadbearingleaf.The completeouter ties per metreof edge lengthare required
leafshouldbe supportedoverits full length aroundopeningsand at the cornersof the
(e.9.on nibs projectingfromthe floors,on steel buildingas wellas alongmovement jointsand
sectionsboltedon or cast in). lf the supportis at the tops of outerleaves. This joint
non-continuous (e.9.separatebrackets),every The type,numberand arrangement of ties in sealedwith
masonryunitmustbe supportedat bothends curvedmasonryor masonrywith projections elastic
at the suppoftlevel. shouldbe specified, takingintoaccountthe
Usinga metalangleas a supportcreatesa deformation due to, for example,wind and/or
continuous thermalbridgewhich,in the temperature changes.'
arrangement shownin 'fi7.2.4.6,meansan Table2.4.10showsthe influence of walltieson
additionalheatflowto the outsideof 0.15 heattransmission for a numberof typicaltypes
WmK [A.2]alongthe lengthof the angle. of wall.In cavitywallsthe ties are practically Strips for
Forsupportovertwo storeysthis meansan ineffective as thermalbridges. distributing
increasein heatlossesof AU = 0.025WmrK load
The useof additionallayersof insulationin the
comparedto a wallwithoutsuch supports.The cavityincreasesthe heattransmission by up to Joinl
influence of the supportcan be neglectedfor 5% for optimum150mm thickcavityinsulation
an outerleaf12 m high.Supportdetailswhich and 5 mm thickwallties;theseinfluences can
can no longerbe inspectedafterbeing builtin be ignored.Therefore, to complywith DIN
mustbe permanently protectedagainstcorro- 4108part2, no analysis of thethermalbridge
sion. effecthasto be carriedout for minimumther
Outerleaves1 15 mm thickhaveorovedto be mal insulation when usingconventional forms
worthwhile in practice,Owingto theirgood of fixing,e.g.wireties.Whenusinglightweight
stability,theseneedto be supportedonly mortar,LM 36 is alwaysrequiredwhenwallties
every12 m in'height.Whensupportedat every are to be builtin. Othertypesof tie are permis- stainless
secondfloor,a 115 mm outerleafcan project siblewhentheycan accommodate min.1.0kN steelangle
beyondits supportby up to one thirdof its tensionand compression at 1.0mm slipper
thickness. Outerleaveslessthan115 mm thick tie.The numberof tiesmustbe increased if this
mustbe supportedevery6 m in heightand valuecannotbe guaranteed,Othertypesof
maynot be builtmorethan20 m aboveground ties(e.9.flatsteel)and dowelledfixingsin the
levelowingto theirlimitedresistanceto wind masonryare permissible whentheirservice-
loads,Buildings comprising no morethantwo abilityis verifiedby a buildingauthoritycertifi-
fullstoreysmayincludea triangular gableup cate.
to 4 m highwithoutanyadditional support.lf a Walltiesshouldbe builtin so thattheycannot
115mm leafis notprovidedwithflushpointing, conveymoisturefromthe outerto the inner
weakeningdue to subsequentrakingout of the leaf.Thisis achievedby positioning theties
jointsmustbe takenintoaccount. horizontally and by fittinga plasticdisc (drip
disc).The drip disc ensuresthatwaterpene-
Anchoringthe outer leaf tratingthe outerleafdoes not reachthe ther-
Theouterleafis to be anchoredto the load- malinsulation or the loadbearing leaf,but is
bearinginnerleafby meansof walltiesto pre- intercepted.
ventit fromoverturning, bucklingand bulging
as a resultof unequaltemperaturechanges.In Ad ditionalrequirements
addition,this anchoringservesto transferthe A dampproofcourse(dpc)shouldbe included
windloads.As the wind generatesbothpres- at the bottomof the cavitybetweenthe leaves Movement
sureand suctionforces,the anchorsmustbe in orderto protectthe innerleafand the tloor
ableto resisttensionand compression. Wall from moisturewhichpenetratesthe outerleaf
tiesmustbe of stainlesssteelto DIN 17440. and collectsat the baseof the cavity.The
Theirshapeand dimensions mustbe as given damp proofcoursemustbe laidwith a fallto
inItg.2.4.7. the outsidewithinthe cavityand horizontal
Whenthe bondingof the loadbearing leafand underthe outerjeaf.The outerleafmustbe
theouterleafcoincide,thenZ-shapeties may supportedin sucha way that it cannotslip.
be used.Otherwise the L-shaoeis moresuit- To do this,placethe firstrow of ties as low as
ablebecausethis can be bentto suit.lf the possibleand ensurethatthe waterproofing
bedjointsof the two leavesare not in the same complieswithDIN18195part4. Thedamp
planeor if the outerleafis builtat a laterdate, proofcourseshouldextendas far as the front
tiesfor subsequentfixingintothe innerleafof edgeof the outerleafand shouldcontinue
masonryare necessary. min.150mm up the innerleafon a firringpiece
Theuseof such anchorsis alsorecommended and be fixedto this leaf (see2.4.9).
whenattachingan additionallayerof thermal Openingsfor doors,windowsetc. in the outer
insulationin orderto ensurethatthe insulation leafareformedas transferstructures

2.4.7 Wall ties for twin-leaf external masonry (e.9.individualbracketsor steelsections),as drivingrain penetrating to the insidefaceof the
reinforcedmasonryor as lintels.The lattermay outerleafcan drainwithoutsaturatingthe ther-
Plasticdisc be constructedusingspecialsor in the formof mal insulation.Consequently, the outerleaf
camberedor semicircular arches. protectsthe layerof thermalinsulation against
130 >cn
Referto "Jointdesign"for detailsof the the directeffectsof the weatherand impactor
arrangement of movementjoints. otherdamage.lf a vapour-permeable material

is usedfor the thermalinsulation, thenthe cir-
Cavity walls culatingair notonly driesout the outerleafbut
In contrastto the curtainwallfacade,in this alsokeepsthe insulation dry,causinganycon-
type of wall,the cavitybetweenthe masonry densationto evaporate.
leavesmay be includedin calculations to The maximumdistancebetweeninnerand
determinethe thermalinsulationbecausethe outerleavesis 150mm (see"Cavitywalls").
openvedicaljointsin the outerleafare not pro- Thisdoesnot needto be fullyexploitedif the
videdfor ventilation. Rainwater or condensa- innerleafhas good insulationproperties.But it
tion in the cavitycan drainawayor evaporate is importantwhenthe innerleafmakesuseof
withoutcausingproblemsandwithoutthe inner masonrytypesthat exhibithighcompressive
leafbecomingsaturated.In addition,the cavity strengthbut lowthermalinsulation, In thatcase,
helpsthe outerleafto dry out faster.Thether- the thermalpropertiesof the wall are provided
malinsulation is mainlydetermined by the solelyby the layerof insulation. Thiscan partly
innerleaf,although thisis usuallyonlyeconom- compensatefor the disadvantage of the total
lcal in conjunction with innerleaveswithvery thicknessof the wall construction necessary to
highinsulation values. accommodate thermalinsulationpluscavity.A
The cavityshouldbe at least60 mm wide.This furtherdisadvantage is the highcostof con-
2.4.8 Minimumnumberand diameterof wall ties Der m2 minimumdistanceis basedon the fact that structingsuchwalls.
of wall area adequatecirculation of the air cannotbe Theminimum widthof the airspaceis 40 mm.
Wallties: expectedif the gap is too small.However,the lf we usethe maximumwidthof 150mm between
min. No. diameter widthof the cavitymay be reducedto 40 mm if the two leaves,we are leftwith 110 mm which
the mortaris struckoff flushon at leastone may be filledwith insulation. However,owingto
neitherof the side of the cavlty,thus preventingmortar the unevenness of the surfacesof the two
followingtwo bridgesfrom interrupting the cavity.The maxi- leaves,it is advisable to includea reasonable
linesapply mum distancebetweenthe two leavesis deter- tolerancein our planning.Insulating battsare
Wali sections minedby the load-carrying capacityof the wall recommended; theseare buttjointedtogether
> 12 m above
groundlevel,or tiesundercompression and shouldbe no more andfixedby suitablemeans(e.9.clamping
distancebetween 7 4
than150mm.Ventilation openings( discson walltiesor wallanchorsetc.).Blan-
masonryreaves or5 5 perpends) shouldbe includedat thetop and kets,on the otherhand,tendto swellor
70-120mm bottomof the cavityand at any intermediate expandand hencereducethe widthof the air
A walltie diameterof 3 mm is adeouatefor a Dlaster supportsto guaranteecirculationof the air. space.Therefore, they shouldnot be usedfor
f illedcollar-iointed
Openingsat the bottomalsoserveto drainthe thistypeof wall.
cavity(weepholes).Thisalsoappliesto span- The detailsat the top and bottomof the wall
drel panels.A totalof 7500mm2of ventilation regardingopeningsand waterproofing corre- '
openingsshouldbe providedfor every20 m2 spondto thosefor cavitywalls.
of wallarea(including doorsandwindows).
Thisfiguremeansthatfor a single-storey build- Full-fill cavity walls
ing and an outerleafof thin-formatunits Theseare externalwallsin whichthe cavity
approximately everysecondperpendat the betweenthe leavesis filledcompletelywith
2.4.9 Detailat base of twin-leaffacing masonry baseand belowthe roofor the undersideof insulationmaterialin orderto increasethe
supportsin the outerleafmustbe leftopen. thermalinsulation value,or the cavityis omitted
The damp proofcoursemustbe positioned in orderto reducethe overallthicknessof the
115 >60 exactlyin orderto preventthe masonrybelow wall.The outerleafshouldconsistof frost-
I Tf
the open perpendsbecomingsaturatedatthe resistantmasonryunitsat least115 mm thick
Loadbearing to increasethe resistance to drivingrain.The
leaf baseof the wall.As watermay collectin cer-
tain areasat the base,the innerleafis to be cleardistanceto the face of the loadbearing
MG ll (lla)
protectedagainstrisingdamp by extending innerleafshouldnotexceed150mm.Glazed
the damp proofcourseup the face of the inner unitsor unitswith surfacecoatingsmustexhibit
leaf.Openingsmustbe at least100mm above enhancedfrostresistance. Thethermalinsula-
Freshair inlet,e.g. groundlevel. tion is installedbetweenthe leaveswithoutany
vraopen perpends air space.The insulationmaterialsusedmay
in and2nd
courses Parlial-fill cavity walls be in the formof batts,blankets,granulates
Inthistypeof wallthefunctions of the individ- and loosematerialswhichare permanently
ual layersare clearlydemarcatedunderopti- water-repellent (hydrophobic) as well as inject-
mumbuildingscienceconditions. A layerof ed cellularfoams(e.9.hardpolystyrene or
thermalinsulationis attachedto the outside polyurethane), mineralwool,looseexpanded
faceof the inner,loadbearingleafbuta venti- perliteor polyurethane or ureaformaldehyde
latedgap remainsbetweenthis and the outer resininjectedcellularfoams.Up to now,the
leaf.Thiscavitvmeansthat condensation and serviceabilitv of thesematerialshas had to be


verifiedby a generalbuildingauthoritycertifi- 2.4.10 lnfluenceof wall ties on thermaltransmittancevaluesof twin-leaf

cate.In futurethe requirements theseinsula-
tionmaterialshaveto meetlvill be coveredby
corresponding standards.
In practicalterms,it is virtuallyimpossibleto
buildthe outerleafwithouta gap for the brick-
layer'sfingerswhenusingbattsand blankets
(notloosematerialsor injectedcellularfoams),
However, this hasthe advantagethat any
waterwhichdoes penetratecan drainaway lnnerleaf 1 7 5m m 1 7 5m m 1 7 5m m
l. = 0.36 l. = 0.56
unhindered. Thermalinsulation 1 0 0m m 1 2 0m m
Whenusedas full-fillcavityinsulation, water- l, = 0.040 l, = 0.040
proofor water-repellent materialsdo not need Cavity/Airspace 60 mm 40 mm
to be treatedany differently to theiruse else- Outer leaf 1 1 5m m 1 1 5m m 1 1 5m m
l. = 0.81 ), = 0.81 I = 0.81
wherewith resoectto theirthermalconductiv- Walltie 5 per m2
ity.However,full-fillcavityinsulationcan func- 3mmtl) SmmA 4mmA
tioneffectively onlywhenthe amountof water 1.O23
penetrating the insulationis not excessiveand, au. 0.003 0.009 0.006
aboveall,does not accumulateat certainposi- uc 1.026 0.312 0.282
tions.Thisis guaranteed by ensuringthatthe
outerleafis builtto a high standardof work-
manship- whichmeanserectingthe masonry
withfullyfilledjointscapableof transmitting
stresses. Lime-cement mortarsof group ll or
lla witha good stickyconsistencyare pre-
ferred.In addition,properbricklaying tech-
niquesappropriateto the materialof the outer
leafare essential(e.9.prewettinghighab-
sorbencyunits,reducingthe plasticityof the
mortarfor low absorbencyunits).Furthermore,
openingsin the outerleaftotallingat least
5000mm2per 20 m2of wallarea(including
doorsand windows)mustbe includedat the
baseof the wall so that any moisturethat does
becometrappedin the cavityinsulation -
despitecarefulconstruction - can drainto the
baseof the walland escapeto the outside.
Mineralfibreinsulationmaterialsin the formof
battsand blankets,or sheetsof foamedplastic
andfoamedglassareto be fixedto the inner
leafby,for example,plasticdiscsfittedto the
wallties,in sucha way thatthe thicknessof the
insulatlon remainsconstant.Blanketsof insulat-
ingmaterialsare buttjointedtogetherbut the
stifferbattsrequirejointsto be formed(e.9.
rebate,tongueand groove)or fixedwith layers
offsetso thatwatercannotpenetratethe joints.
Missingsectionsof hardfoammaterials(e.9.
wherewallties penetrate)mustbe made good
witha suitablesealingcompound.
Whenusingloosethermalinsulating materials
(e.9.mineralfibregranulate,polystyrene foam
beads,expandedperlite), it mustbe ensured 2.4.11 Max. permissiblesizesof infillpanelsin non-loadbearing externalwallswithoutmathematical
thatthe insulatingmaterialcompletelyfillsthe uVallthicknebs Permissiblemax. size of infillpanelfor a heightabove ground levelof:
cavitybetweenthe leaveswith a consistent 0toBm 8to20m 20to 100m
packingdensityand alsothatthe drainage e=1.0 e>2.01) e=1.0 e>2.01) e=1.0 le>2.01)
openingsat the baseof wall remainunob- mm mz m2 m2 ' lm'
115 12.0 8.0 8.0 5.0 6.0 4.0
structedby using,for example,a stainless 8.0 5.3
115r) 16.0 10.6 10.6 6.7
steelmesh,An inconsistent, incomplete filling 175 20.o 14.O 13.O 9.0 9.0 6.0
to the cavityimpairsthe thermalinsulation 240 36.0 25.O 23.0 16:0 16.0 12.O
value.Thisis particularly so at the top of the > 300 50.0 33.0 35.0 23.O 25.O 17.0
wallif the materialsettlesshortlyafterfillingor where e = ratio of longer to shorter side of infill panel
Max. permissiblesizesfor side ratios1.0 < e < 2.0 may be interpolatedlinearly.
overthe courseof time,However,voidsand 1)The sizesmay be doubledfor masonryunitsof strengthclasses> 20 and ratiosM > 2.0 (whereh = heightof infill
irregularitiesin fillingsof looseinsulating panel,| = lengthof infillpanel).
materialsand injectedfoamsare particularly 2)Permissible for masonrvunit comDressivestrenothclasses> 12

2.4.12 Slidingand elasticjointsat sides of infill criticalas theseallowmoistureto penetrate

uncheckedrightup to the innerleaf.Theonly
way to avoidthls is to use provenequipment
Jointmaskedby channel Wall recessedinto groove
or anglesection andtechniques in the handsof experienced

Plaster-fiIIed coIIar-jointed external waIIs

Thistype of twin-leafconstruction makesuse of
a continuous layerof plasterappliedto the out-
sidefaceof the innerleaf.Likethe cavitywall,
the innerleafin thiscaseconsistsof masonry
A n c h o ri n s l o t ,e . g . unitswith goodthermalinsulationproperties.
of stainlesssteel
Thistype of construction preventswaterfrom
reachingthe innerleafand providesprotection
masonry)is erectedas closeas possibleto the
plaster(gapfor bricklayer's fingers)withjoints
fullyfilledwith mortar,In termsof construction
and function, thiswallis an improvement on
the single-leaf facedwallwithits continuous
Slidingjoint at steelcolumn 20 mm walljoint.In contrastto the single-leaf
attributable to lackof carewhencastingthe
walljoint,plastering theoutsidefaceof the
innerleafand hencethe standardof workman-
shipandfunctionof the continuous coatof
plastercan be easilyinspectedbeforethe
Flator round bar outerleafis built.However, the disadvantage
in bed joint approx. of thetwin-leaf wallcomparedto the single-leaf
every 400 mm
facedwallis thatthe verticalloadsmustbe
carriedsolelyby the innerleaf.Compared to
the cavitywall,thistypeof wallis thinnerover-
2.4.13 Detailat base of infilloanel all.
lf a renderedouterleafis preferredto facing
masonry,thenthe plastercoaton the outside
faceof the loadbearing, innerleafmaybe omit-
facingbricksare not neces-
ted. Frost-resistant
sarywith such a renderedouterleaf.
Drainage openings(e.9.weepholes)are
requiredonlyat the baseof thewalltoallow
waterwhichhas penetratedthe outerleafand
draineddownto escape.Openingsat thetop
of wall are not necessarybecauseventilationin
the narrowgap betweeninnerand outerleaves
2,4.14 Junctionbetweeninfilloaneland timber oosl cannotbe expected. Walltiesjust3 mmthick
are adequateto connectthe two leaves.

Mortargroup ll or self-adhesive
anchorbent to form angle

Galvanizedclout nails


Non-loadbearing external walls betweenoverlappingfittingsor attachedby Gable walls

Non-loadbearing externalmasonrywallsare way of stainlesssteelanchorsin slots(seefig. Gable wallswithoutverticalload
slab-likecomponentswhich,apartfromtheir 2.4.12)in orderto achievethe slidingand elas- Masonrygablewallsarenecessary on build-
ownweight,haveto carryloadsactingperpen- tic connection.Stripsof resilient,elastic,rot- ingswith pitchedroofs.Withsteeproofslopes,
dicularto theirface (e.9,windloads)and proofmaterial(e.9.mineralfibreor bitumen suchwallscan constituteconsiderable areas
transfer theseto adjoining,loadbearing com- felt)are placedbetweeninfillpaneland adjoin- of masonry.Coupleand collarroofsdo not
ponents, e.g.shearwalls,floorplates.ln the ing component, outerand innerjointssealed transferany loadto the gablewall,which
structuralanalysisthey may not be takeninto with elastoplastic materialor prefabricated joint thereforeonlycarriesits ownweightand wind
accountwhenassessingthe stabilityof the fillers.Thesidesof panelsareeasilyconnect- loads.Theseshouldbe considered as non-
buildingor as lateralrestraintto loadbearing ed to steelcolumnswhenthe overalldimen- loadbearingexternalwalls.Theymay be
walls.Thesewallsare popularfor the infillpan- sionsof the sectionsare selectedto suitthe analysedstructurally or by comparisonwith
elsof frameor cellularstructuresof reinforced thickness of the infillpanel(seefig.2.4.12). the permissible valuesfor infillpanelsaccord-
concrete,steelor timber.Suchpanelscan be Stripsof foil are placedbetweensteelflange ingto DIN1053part1 table9, providedthe
builtin single-or multi-leaf
form,withor without and mortarto achievea slidlngjoint.Mineral gablewallis supportedat the edgesor by
plaster, withadditionalthermalinsulation fibre pads betweenthe mortarand the web of crosswallsor integralpiers.At the basethe
and/orcurtainwallfacade.Single-leaf, ren- the steelsectionhelpto improvesoundinsula- wall is held in positionby the relnforcedcon-
deredwallsmustbe min.115 mm thick,single- tion and fire protection. Thetransferof forces creteflooreitherby meansof tensionanchors
leaffacingmasonrymin.310mm. In a twin-leaf betweenmasonryand columnis ensuredby or viaadhesionandfriction, at thetop by a ring
wallthe outerleafmustbe at least90 mm and completelyfillingthe void betweensteelsec- beamor the roofconstruction. To do this,the
the innerleafat least115 mm thick. tion and panelwith mortar.At the top of the roofconstruction mustbe braced(e.9.timber
panela 20 mm toleranceis generally sufficient. or metaldiagonalbracing).The bettersolution
Basisfor design The gap is filledwith a soft,rotproofmaterial. in structuraltermsis the formationof a ring
According to DIN1053part1, the infillpanels Thisprevents the loadbearing adjoiningcom- beam,whoseendsat leastmustbe connected
of frameor cellularstructuresneed not be ponentunintentionally transferringloadsto the to the roofconstruction by way of steelanchors.
assessedstructurally whenthe panelsare sup- non-loadbearing panelby way of deformation Thesimplersolutionis to supportthe gable
portedon foursides(e, bonding,tongue and subsequentdeflection.At the baseof the wall at roof levelvia a connectionrigid in the
and groovejointsor anchors),normalmortarof wallthe horizontal forcesfrom,for example,, horizontal direction. Thisis usuallyachieved
at leastmortargrouplla or lightweightmortar wind loads,are transferred fromthe non-load- by way of masonryanchors.
LM36 or thin-bedmortaris usedand the con- bearingexternal wallto the loadbearing com-
ditionsof DIN1053part1 table9 (seetable ponentby friction.A layerof roofingfelt can be Gable walls with vertical load
2.4.11)aremaintained. The dimensions of the includedbetweenthewalland the loadbearing lf purlinsspanontothe gablewall,thena load-
infillpanelareto be takenas the cleardimen- component(fig.2.4.13). bearingmasonrypiercan be assumed
sionsbetweenthe supportingconstruction, Infillpanelsto a timberframeshouldalwaysbe beneaththe bearingfor the purlinas a resultof
Theheightsabovegroundlevelreferto the top completedwith a mortarjoint 10-20mm wide the verticalload.Apartfromcarryingthe roof
edgeof the respectiveinfillpanel.To classify betweentimberand masonry.Thiscompen- load,thisalsostiffens the gablewall.
twin-leafmasonry,it is recommended to use satesfor tolerancesand deformations in the Therefore, the gablewall is dividedintoload-
thethickness of the innerleafplushalfthe timberconstruction. A secureconnection to the bearingand non-loadbearlng areas.Theload-
thicknessof the outerleafas the designwall timberis providedby way of triangularfilletsto bearingsections(masonrypiers)beneaththe
thickness. In contrasttoloadbearing masonry, all sidesfixedwithstainless steelnails.This purlinshaveto be examinedaccordingto the
theconditions of table2.4.11takeintoaccount presupposesreliableadhesionbetweenmortar moreaccuratemethodof analysis.In doingso,
the lowtensilestrengthperpendicular to the and masonryunits(e.9.providedby suitable the clearheightof the piershouldbe usedas
bedjoints.Thisis possiblebecausefailureof a pretreatment, the useof low-shrinkage mortar the bucklinglength.Thedistribution of load
paneldoesnot leadto collapseof the entire etc.).Alternatively, stainlesssteelflat anchors belowthe purlinsmay be assumedto be 60'.
structure.lf the aboveconditionsare not met or bentto forman anglecan be specifiedas a The roofconstruction mustaccommodate the
openings are providedin non-loadbearing mechanical fixing,particularlywithlarge horizontalsupportreactions,e.g. by way of
externalwalls(,doors)which panels. diagonalbracingin the planeof the roof,aris-
impairthe load-carrying ability,a structural ing fromthe provisionof supportto the pier.
analysis is required. The non-loadbearing sectionsadjacentto the
masonrypiersshouldbe analysedas gable
Connectionsto loadbearingcomponents wallswithoutverticalload.
Infillpanelsachievetheirstabilityby being
fixedto adjoiningcomponents. The connec-
tionsmustbe ableto transferloadsactingon lnternalwalls
the infillpanelsto the loadbearingconstruction
and alsoaccommodatedeformations in the Loadbearing internal walls
adjoining construction. Theymaybe rigidor ln the latesteditionof DIN1053pad 1, the mini-
slidingand elastic.However, a rigidconnec- mumthickness for a loadbearing internalwall
tion,e.g. steelinserts,anchors,mortarjoints, has beenreducedtrom240mm to 115 mm.
bonding,shouldonlybe usedwhenexcessive Thisreductionin thicknesshas resultedin a
restraintand deformation is not exoectedfrom usefulgainin floorspace,particularly for
themasonryandthe surrounding loadbearing single-andtwo-storey buildingsin whichthe
construction. The use of slidingconnections loadsareonlyminimal. Thisis particularly
meansthereis no opportunityto spanthe infill dentwhen it can be guaranteedthatthe cross-
wallsbetweenthe adjoiningcomponents. The sectionsof suchthinwallsare not reducedby
infillpanelis generally builtintoa groove,or chasesand recesses. Reducingthe minimum


2.4.15 Structuralloadingschemeaccordingto wailthicknessto 115 mm has alsoallowed Location2:

DIN 4103 part 1 for non-loadbearing
internal internalwalls,previouslyclassedas non-load- Locations withlargenumbersof people,e.g.

bearingon accountof theirthickness,to now largerassemblybuildingsand schools,lecture
be includedas loadbearing elements.As a theatres,exhibitionhalls,retailpremisesand
result,stiffeningto the buildingis improved, similarfacilities:

floorspansare shortened,connectionprob- horizontallineload
lemsfor non-loadbearing wallsareminimized Pz= 1.0kN/mat a heightof 900 mm abovethe
etc.ln somecircumstances, designand con- baseof wall.
structionof the buildingis,on thewhole,made lrrespective of location,a bracketloadof
easier. 0.4kN/mwalllength(see2.4.15)and an
impactloadwith a forceof Euu"i" = 100kNm
actingat an unfavourable positionmustalsobe
Non-loadbearing internal walls allowedfor.The impactloadcan be causedby
Horizontal \
--,7 Whenbuiltfrommasonry,non-loadbearing a person(softimpact)or a hardobject(hard
internalwalls- or non-loadbearing internalpar- impact).
titions- are usuallybuiltas lightweightparti- Accordingto DIN 1055paft 3, the structural
tionsin the senseof DIN1055part3. Non- analysisof a loadbearing floorsuppodingsuch
loadbearinginternalpaditionsare onlysubject- partitionsmay assume- insteadof a more
ed to considerable windloadsin exceotional accuratecalculation - a uniformlydistributed
Location 1: P, = 9.5 P57t
Location2: P, = 1.6 L17t cases, shed-typebuildings withlarge additionalimoosedloadof 0.75kN/m'zfor wall
dooropeningswherethe pressure can build weights(including plaster)< 1.0kN/m'zwall
up insidethe building.ln suchcasestheyare areaand 1.25kN/m2for wallweights(including
to be treatedas non-loadbearing external plaster)1.0-1.5 kN/m2wall area.
walls.Otherwise, non-loadbearing internal par- Forwallweights> 1.5kN/m2wall area- or
titionsnot subjectedto wind loadsare covered > 1.0 kN/m2wall areafor floorswithoutade-
by the provisions of DIN4103.Therequire- quatetransversedistribution of the loads- the
mentsand analysesof DIN4103part 1 are not positionand magnitudeof the wall loadis to be
relatedto material.Construction guidelinesfor takenintoaccountaccuratelywhenanalysing
masonrypartitionsare stipulatedin DIN4103 the floor.
paft 3. At presentthis standardonlyexistsin
the formof an unpublisheddraft.Detailsgiven Materialsfor non-loadbearinginternalmasonry
hereare basedon the currentstateof know- partitions
ledgewith respectto non-loadbearing masonry Onlymaterialscoveredby DINstandardsor
partitionsbasedon the information sheetpub- buildingauthoritycertificates may be usedfor
lishedby DeutscheGesellschaft fur Mauer- buildingpartitions.Partitions of masonryunits
werksbau(GermanMasonryAssociation) [97, or wall elementsmay use onlymortarof mortar
1721. groupsll, lla or lll to DIN1053part1.Themor-
Non-loadbearing internalpartitionsarewalls tar shouldnot be unnecessarily firm in orderto
betweeninteriorspacesthat do notfulfilany preservesufficientelasticityin the masonryto
structuralfunctionfor the overallstructure,i.e. accommodatedeformation. Thin-bedmortar
theyare notcalleduponto stabilize the build- coveredby buildingauthoritycertificatemay
ing notto carryverticalloads.Consequently, be usedfor wallelements and gaugedunits.
they may be removedwithoutadverselyaffect-
ingthe stabilityof the building. Structuralanalysis
An assessment of the abilityto carryhorizontal
Requirements loadsaccordingto DIN4103part1 (see
Apaftfromself-weightplus plasterand/or 'ti1.2.4.15) may be carriedout mathematically
cladding,thesewallsmustbe ableto carry or by meansof tests.However,a mathematical
lightloadsfrom bracketsand horizontal analysisis difficultbecausetensilestresses
impactsfrom peopleor hardobjectsand trans- perpendicular to the bed jointmay not be
fertheseloadsto adjoining, loadbearing com- takenintoaccounteventhoughtheyare pre-
ponents.Theygaintheirstabilityfrom being sentto a limitedextent.
connectedto adjoining components. Maximumdimensionsthat satisfythe require-
DIN4103part1 distinguishes betweenthefol- mentsof DIN4103part t havebeendeter-
lowinglocationsfor partitionswiththeirassoci- minedexperimentally[97].
ated loads: Thesemaximumdimensions(takenfrom[97])
aregivenin table2.4.16torvarioustypesof
Location 1: masonryand supporlconditionsaccordingto
Locations withlownumbersof people,e.g. location, thickness and height.Designers
housing,hotels,offices,hospitalpatient adheringto thesedimensionsdo not needto
accommodation and interiorswith similarfunc- carry<iuta (lessfavourable)mathematical
tions(including corridors): analysis. lf thesemaximumdimensions are
horizontallineload exceeded,additionalsupportin the formof
Pr = 0.5 kN/mat a heightof 9OOmm abovethe steel,reinforcedconcreteor reinforcedmason-
baseof wall. ry columnsmustbe provided.



Thetype of junctionbetweena partitionand 2,4.16 Max, dimensionsfor non-loadbearing internalpaftitionsof man-mademasonryunits

thefloorabovedetermines whetherany load is Supported on
Suppodedon Supportedon 3 sides
transferred fromthe floorto that partition. 4 sides with 1 unsupported 3 sideswith un-
Therefore, we distinguishbetweenpartitions supportedtop
\,6di^.1 odd6

withand withoutverticalloading.Reinforced edge

concretefloorswith high slenderness ratios
Max. dimensionsfor walls suoportedon 4 sidesl)withoutverticalload'z)
requireus to assumepartitionswith vertical
d [mm] Max.wall length[m] for wall height[m] for location1 (uppervalue)and location2 (lowervalue)
loading. Theminimum thickness of 50 mm in 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.O AA
h Iml
thetablesis basedon practicalconsiderations. 50 3.0 3.5 4.O
Themaximumwall lengthis restrictedto 12 m t.c 2.O 2.5
in orderto limitcracking.Loadtransferon 60 4.0 /q 5.0 5.5
threesidesmay be assumedup to a 2.5 3.0 3.5
70 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.O
heighVlength ratioof h/l < 0.66.Smallerratios
meanthatthe partitionis supportedonlytop 9o
and bottom.In this casetheremustbe a mor- 3.5 4.O 4.s 5.0 5.5
tar jointbetweentop of wall and undersideof 7.0
5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5
floorslab. 10.0 10 . 0 10.0 10 . 0 10 . 0
6.0 6.5 7.O 7.5 8.0
Designand constructionrules
6.0 6.5 7.O 7.5 8.0
Followingthe recommendationsbelowwillhelp
175 no restrictionon length
ensuregood qualitynon-loadbearing
internal 12.0 12.O 12.0 12.0 12.O
partitions: 1 ) T h e m a x . w a ll le n g t h s a r e t o b e h a l v e d f o r w a l l s s u p p o r l e d o n S s i d e su( 1n s u p p o r t e d v e r t i ceadl g e ) .
2)The valuesgiven hereapply to calciumsilicateand autoclavedaeratedconcreteunitswhen using MG lll or thin-bed
. Max.finalfloorslab deflectionl,/500 mortar,Forwallthicknesses< 175 mm and MG llor lla, the valuesareto be halvedwhen usingthesetypesof
(lt= eQuivalent masonryunits.
spandependingon structural
system). Max. dimensionsfor walls suoportedon 4 sidesl)with verticalload2;
. Reducethe floorslab deflectiondue to creep d Max.wall length[m] for wall
andshrinkage by adheringto strikingtimes h tml 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5
and subsequently treatingthe concrete. 50 5.5 6.0 6.5
' Buildnon-loadbearing internalpartitionsafter 2.5 3.5
6.0 7.0
completionof the primarystructurewhenever 60 4.0 4.5 5.0 - -
possibleso thatthe majorityof deformations 70 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5
resultingfromshrinkageand creepof the b.c o.u 6.5 7.0 7.5
90 12.O 12.O 12.O 12.O 12.0
loadbearing constructionare alreadycom-
7.O 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0
pleted.At the very least,the topmostcourse 12.0 12.O 12.O 12.O
100 12.O
of masonryunitsand the plasteringshouldbe 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0
carriedout as lateas possiblein orderto min- t t c no restrictionon length
imizethe riskof cracks. 12.O 12.0 12.0 12.O
. Erectnon-loadbearing 120 no restrictionon length
partitionsin sucha 12.O 12.0
waythatfloorslab deformation due to the 175 no restrictionon lenqth
weightof such partitionsdoes not introduce 1)The max.wall lengthsare to be halvedfor walls supportedon 3 sides (1 unsupportedverticaledge).
anyadditional loadsintonon-loadbearing 2)The valuesgiven here apply to calciumsilicateand autoclavedaeratedconcreteunitswhen using MG lll or thin-bed
partitionsin the storeybelow(if possible,start mortar,and also for MG ll or lla with wall thicknesses> 100 mm. Forwall thicknesses< 100 rpm and MG ll or lla, the
valuesare to be halvedwhen usingthesetypes of masonryunits.
in the topmoststoreyand workdown).
Max. dimensionsfor walls supportedon 3 sideswithoutverticalloadl)(top edge unsupported)
Upto an equivalentfloorspanof l, = 7.66t, u dtmn'[ l v l a xw a l ll e n g t h [ m ]f o r w a l lh e i g h t [ m ]f o r l o c a t i o n l ( u p p e r v a l u ea) n d l o c a t i o n 2 ( l o w e r v a l u e )
non-loadbearing partitioncan carrya load by h Iml 2.0 2.25 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.O
wayof archingactionwithoutdamage,provid- 50 3.0 3.5 4 5 6
t.c 2.O 2.5
ingthe recommendations are followedand it is
60 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.O 8.0 9.0
guaranteed thatthe horizontal thrustcan be 2.5 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.O
carriedby the supportsat the endsof the wall. 70 7.O 7.5 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 10.0
Largerspansrequireadditionalmeasuresto 3.5 3.5 4.O 5.0 6.0 7.O
be taken,e.g. separatingthe baseof wallfrom 90 8.0 8.5 9.0 10.0 10.0 12.O 12.O
thefloorslabby meansof sandedbuilding 4.0 4.O 5.0 6.0 7.O 8.0 9.0

paperor reinforcing 100 10.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 12.O 12.O 12.O
the areasof wall at riskof 8.0 10.0
5.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 9.0
cracking. 115 11.5 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0 12.0 120
6.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 1o.o 19.q
1zo a.0 9.0 10.0 12.O 12.O 12.O 12.0
6.0 6.0
7,O 8.0 9.0 10.0 10.0
175 no restrictionon length
8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 12.0. 12.0 120..
autoclavedaeratedconcreteblocksor calciumsilicateunitswith thin-bedmodaror mortarsof mortargroup lll. When
using unitsof autoclavedaeratedconcreteand calciumsilicatewith normalmortar,reducethe max.wall lengthsas
follows:a) for walls56 and 70 mm thick reduceto 40%; b) for walls90 and 100 mm thick reduceto 50%; c) for walls
115 and 120 mm thick in location2 reduceto 50% (no reductionfor location1). The unitsshouldbe prewettedwhen
using mortargroup lll.


2 . 4 . 1 7 S l i d i n gj o i n td e t a i l s Junctionswith adjoining,loadbearing or recesses.In all othercases,the safetyfactor

components is increased to 1, = 2.5.
Slidingjointsbetweenwalls Connections musttakeaccountof the possible The reductionfactoris consequently defined
influencethat deformations in adjoiningcom- as ki = 2.0/2.5= 0.8.The useof divided
ponentsmay haveon the internalpartition. masonryunitsor dividedunitswith> 35% per-
Accordingto DIN4103part'1, the service- forationsmakesthe columnsmorevulnerable
abilityof junctions mustbe guaranteed. to irregularitiesand flawsin the construetion.
Thejunctiondetailsshownin figs.2.4.'17 and Unlikewalls,thesecannotbe compensated for
2.4.18do notnormally requirefurtherassess- by neighbouring partsof the cross-section and
ment. so this high riskof structuralfailurehasto be
Rigidjunctions arethosewhicharefullybond- takenintoaccountby way of an increased
ed, filledwithmortaror employsimilarmeas- safetyfactor.
ures(anchors,dowelsor steelinserts).Such
detailsare usedfor wallswhereno or very low
restraintforcesfromthe adjoiningmembers Free-standing masonry walls
are expectedto act on the wall. The problemof the free-standing masonrywall
Rigidlateralconnectionsare usuallylimitedto is that it is suppodedonlyat its base,and so
housebuilding (walllength| < 5.0 m).A rigid
the systemmustspanvertically.The exception
junctionbetweentop of wall and undersideof to thisruleis whensuitablemeasures, e.g.
floorslabcan be achievedby fillingthejoint reinforcedconcretecolumns,masonrypiersor
with mortar,Introducinga stripof hardfoam crosswallsat closespacing,are introducedto
JTr*ro"n beadoredse reducesthe influenceof the deformation ensurethatthe wall spanshorizontally
of the by way
] chamfered with trowel
adjoiningloadbearing but guar-
construction, of archingactionor by employing reinforced
anteesthe transferof horizontal masonry.Withoutsuchmeasures,the permis-
forcesdue to
Cast-in dovetail slot the hardfoamstrip beingcompressedas the sibleheightof the wall is very limitedowingto
Mineralwool or similar floorslab deflects. the fact thatthe cross-section mayonlycrack
Slidingjunctions are particularly as far as the centreof the wall.
applicationswhereit is necessaryto reduce Masonryunitsfor free-standing wallsmustbe
the riskof crackingdue to unintentional frostresistantif theyare not rendered.Free-
Anchor position beingintroduced standingmasonrywallsare alwaysbuiltwitha
intothe non-loadbearing
can be adjusted
veftically internalpartitionas a resultof the deformation properbondand withalljointsfilled.
seal of adjoiningcomponents. Thefoundationshouldbe takendownto a level
Slidingconnections areachievedby usingpro-
whereit is not affectedby frost.A horizontal
files,groovesand stainlesssteelanchorsin damp proofcourseof water-repellent moftaror
slots,maybewiththe additionof foilto createa waterproofpaintshouldbe includedabove
s l i d i n gb e a r i n g groundlevelin orderto protectthe wall against
Thejointshouldbe filledwithmineralwoolin risingdamp and splashingwater.Vertical
orderto improvefire protectionand sound facesof masonryin contactwiththe ground
insulation (see"Non-loadbearing shouldalso be protectedagainstingressof
walls"). moisture fromthe soil.Thelengthof an individ-
ual segmentof masonryshouldnot exceed
Slidingjointat undersideof floor
6-8m; longerlengthsshouldincludemove-
Golumnsand free-standingmasonrywalls mentjoints.Theyare a numberof ways in
which longwallsmay be segmentedattrac-
Columns tively(seefig.2.4.19). Thetop of thewallmust
Mineralwool Columnsare elementswith a cross-sectional be coveredin sucha way thatwatercannot
or similar*
area< 0.01m2.To act as a loadbearing ele- penetrate,indeedthat it drainsawayclearof
Aluminium or
ment,a columnmusthavea minimumcross- thefaceof thewall.lf usedas a coping,a
steel section as sectionof 0.004m2,Hence,the minimum brick-on-edge coursemustconsistof whole
dimensions of a loadbearing columnare 115 x bricksand be carefullyjointed.Thejointbelow
365 mm or 175x 240 mm.Columnshavea low a brick-on-edge copingmustbe waterproof.
- Incombustiblematerialif requiredto complywith fire momentof areaand thereforea lowstiffness Owingto the manyjoints,thistype of copingis
protectionregulations El.Theirhelpin distributing horizontalloadsis limitedin its applications. Othertypesof cop-
negligible,and so theyare notcalleduponto ing includeclay rooftiles,corrugatedroofing
carryhorizontalloadsin the structuralanalysis. unitsof fibre-reinforced cementor specially
Slidingjointat intermediatecolumn So columnscarryonlyverticalaxialloads.They designedcopingunits.Alsosuitableare pre-
may be analysedfor concentricor eccentric cast concreteunitswith permanently plastic
lMortar Mineralfibre
compression usingeitherthe simplified or jointslaid in water-repellent mortaror on a
moreaccuratemethodof analysis.The simpli- damp proofcourse,or metalcappingsof
fied methodmakesuse of the reductionfactor galvanized steel,copperor aluminium either
kr = 1.0,andthe moreaccuratemethoduses nailedor screwedon.
the safetyfactory* = 2.0. In this casethe
columnshouldconsistof one or morewhole
Slidinglayer, Flator round bar in bed ioinl masonryunitsor dividedunitswith < 35% per-
e.g. foil strip approx.every400 mm forationsand shouldnotweakenedbv chases



Pafiwalls ing authorityceftificateor by the provisionsof 2 . 4 . 1 8 R i g i dj o i n td e t a i l s

DIN4108part 4. Productssuitablefor external
Forreasonsof soundinsulation, partywalls insulationincludeextrudedpolystyrene sheets, Rigidjointsbetweenwalls
between adjoiningresidential buildings(ter- foamedglasssheetsand polystyrenebead
racedhouses,semi-detached houses)should foamsheetswith a minimumbulk densityof 30 Bondedjoint Jointwith anchors
be builtas twin-leafwallswith a continuous kg/m3. joint(cavity)fromfoundationto roof.
lf twin-leafexternalwallsare used,the separat- Externalbasementwallsare subjectedto ver-
ingjointmustbe takenthroughthe outerleaf ticalloadsin the planeof thewalland horizon-
aswellin orderto avoidan acousticbridge. tal loadsresultingfrom,for example,earth
According to DIN1053part1, the minimum pressure, perpendicular to the planeof the
thickness of eachleafshouldbe 115 mm. lf the wall.Earthoressureloadsare assumedto be
weightof the partywallexceeds100kg/m2wall mainlyactiveearthpressures,providedthe
area(including plaster),thewidthof thejoint wallsare not substantially thickerthanthe
mustbe at least50 mm: if over structuralanalysisrequires,and the backfill
150kg/m'z, then30 mm is permissible but50 mm materialis only compactedto mediumdensity, a
is stillrecommended. To complywiththe lf the backfillmaterialis highlycompacted, an
soundinsulation requirements of DIN4109,the increased earthpressure, e.g.earthpressure
cavitymustbe completelyfilledwith mineral at rest,mustbe assumed.The earthpressure
fibrebattsto DIN18165 part2. Closed-cell generates bendingmomentsin thewallwhich
hardfoamsheetsor wood-fibreboardsare areusuallythe decidingfactorin the designof
unsuitable for soundinsulation. The insulation thewall,
mustalwaysextendabovethe leafbuiltlastin
Section b-b
orderto preventmortarand debrisfallinginto
the cavityand possiblyformingacoustic Stability of external masonry basement walls Joint plastered over
bridgesbetweenthe leaves.Installing the insu- Verticaluniaxialloadbearingaction (onlylocation1)
lationin two layerswiththeirjointsoffsetis re- lf the basementwall is supportedtop and bot-
commended for improving the soundinsula- tom,we can assumethatthe wall acts as a ver-
tion.As the separating jointalsopassesthrough ticalloadbearing memberspanningin one
thefloors,the insulationshouldextendabove directionbetweentwo supportswith a cracked
thethickness of thefloorduringcasting,be sectionof no morethan halfthe wallthickness.
protectedby suitablemeansand supported Thetensilestressesperpendicular to the bed
againstthe pressureof concreteon one side. jointsmay not be takenintoaccount(see
lf theweightof a singleleafexceeds2OOkglm2 "Analysis of tensionand bendingtension").
wallarea,the separatingjointmay remain Theyare "neutralized" by verticalloads.
open.Specialcaremustbe takenhereto DIN1053part1 includestwo methodswhich
ensurethat mortaror debrisdoes not drop into may be appliedin orderto avoidthe needto
the cavityand formacousticbridges.Thisis analysethe wallfor earthpressure.Thefollow-
lessof a problemwhenusingthin-bedmortarif ing conditionshaveto be satisfiedfor both Rigidjoint at base of wall
the mortaris appliedby way of mortarsledges. methods(seefig.2.4.20)
Wall builton Wall builton
Otherwise, mortar- or concretewhencasting bonded screed loadbearingfloor
thefloors- can be preventedfromfallinginto ' Clearheightof basement wallh" < 2.60m,
the cavityby usingsuspendedbattensraised thickness of walld >240 mm.
as the workproceedsor jointforms,which . The roofto the basementmustact as a plate
haveto be removedsubsequently. and be ableto accommodate the forcesgen-
eratedby the earthpressure,
'The imposedloadon the groundoverthe
Externalbasementwalls areain whichthe earthpressureinfluences
the basementwall may not exceed5 kN/m2. Mortarjoint
Basements are no longerrestrictedto subordi- At the sametime,the sudaceof the ground
naterolessuchas the storageof food or fuel, shouldnotslopeupwardsfromthe wall and
butprovidespacefor diverseactivities, e.g. the depthof fill h" mustbe lessthanthe clear
washing, hobbies,workshop, playroom, guest heightof the basement wallh". 2.4,19 Segmentationof free-standingmasonry
room,studyetc,Theyrepresenta relatively walls (planviews)
inexpensive way of extendingthe usefulfloor ln the firstmethodthe decisivecriterionis the
spaceavailable.At the sametime,they corre- permanentload Noat the top of the basement
spondto the conceptof dense,space-saving wall belowthe basementroof,whichmustlie _+-+-6 to 8m
constructionIB]. withinthefollowing limits:
tionalthermalinsulationif that of the masonry maxNo> No> minNo
d=17.s to 96.5cm
aloneis notsufficient.Externalthermalinsula- _
tionis recommended. Thisshouldconsistof Compliance withthe permissible
edge -
materialscoveredby a standardbut with extra pressureis checkedusingthe equation
functionsregardingresistanceto water,irost
and earthpressure coveredby a generalbuild- max No= 0,45d oo


2,4,20 Loading assumptionsfor basement walls without whered = wallthicknessand oo = basicvalue .forb<h":
mathematicalanalysis of permissiblecompressivestress. No > 0.5 ffiiI No rn,"r,u,
Nj > 0.5 ffiifl Nuniaxiar
Theminimumloadsmin.N^arelistedin DIN1053
part1 tableB (seetablei.+.211.Theseensure .forb>2h.:
compliancewiththe permissibleeccentricityof No> min Nornia",",
the basementwall as a resultof axialforceand N., > min Nuniaxial
bendingmomentdue to earthpressure.
The secondmethodis basedon the findingsof
Mann/Bernhardt [9] and enablesthe wailto be HorizontaI loadbearing action
analysedwith slightlylessverticalload.The lf supportsare closelyspaced,then it is pos-
axialforceN, resulting frompermanent loading sibleto carrythe horizontalloadof earthpres-
at halfthe depthof fill mustliewithinthe follow- sureto the supportsby way of tensilebending
ing limits: stressesparallelto the bed joints.Owingto ihe
lowtensilebendingstrengthof masonryparal-
dxBr/(3y)>Nr>minN lelto the bed joints,thisformof horizontalload-
bearingactionis, however,very limited,partic-
wnere ularlywithwallswhichneedto be thinin order
2.4.21 Min. N^ for basementswallswithoutmathe- min N = (p"x h""x h"r)/ (20d) to maximizethe usableinteriorspace.lf the
Fo characteristic
compressivestrength verticalloadsare very lowowingto, for exam-
Wall min Noin kN/m of masonry ple,largewindowopeningsor floorslabs
thicknessd for depth of bacKill heof spanningparallelto the basement wall,or if.
mm 1 . 0m 1 . 5m 2 . 0m 2 . 5m
v safetyfactor
pe bulk densityof fill [kN/m3] thereare segmentsof wallwith unsupported
20 45 75
300 3 15 30 50
top edges,e.g.spandrelpanelsbeneathlarge
365 0 10 25 40 lf the vedicalloadsNoand N, do notliewithin basementwindows,the structuralsystemcan,
490051530 the givenlimits,the basement wallmustbe be takento be a horizontalarch.However,the
designedaccordingto the moreaccurate externalbasementwall mustbe supportedby
methodof analysistakingthe earthpressure the transverseelementsand at a closespacing
intoaccount.This involvesanalysingthe com- to guaranteethatthe arch is formedand the :
oressivestressesas well as the slab shear horizontal thrustaccommodated. At an inter-
resultingfromthe shearforcegeneratedby the mediatesupportbetweentwo archeswith
earthpressure.Alternatively, the permissible roughlyequalspansand loads,the arch
upperand lowerlimitsmay be adjustedby thrustsin the planeof the wall canceleach
2.4.22 Waterproofing of basementwallsfor the "non- increasing thethickness of thewall,reducing otherout and onlythe componentperpendic-
the heightof thewallby formingthe basein ularto wall hasto be resistedby the support.
reinforcedconcrete,or choosinga uniVmortar But at an end supporl,resistanceto horizontal
Thick bitumen
Masonry with normal
mortar in bed joints
combination witha highercompressive shearhasto be proved.Thetype of construc-
with/withoutmortar to strength.This is alsonecessaryif the design tionwhichusuallyfulfilsthe requirements of
perpends in accordance
with DIN 1053 pt 1 accordingto the moreaccuratemethodof such an analysisis reinforcedmasonryusing
Protective layer
(e,9.drainageboard) analysistakingearthpressureintoaccountis reinforced,concrete-filled specials.The base-
Cement screed laid not possible. Finally,
the load-carrying capacity mentwallmustbe as thickas possiblein order
Horizontalwater- on separatingmembrane
proofing of the basementwall can be increasedby to achievean adequate"rise"to ensurearch-
at base of wall
usingreinforcedmasonryor by consideringit ing action.In addition,a crackedsectionup to
to spanin two directions or horizontally [154]. halfthe thicknessof the wall may be assumed
at the centreof the arch in the calculations.
Biaxialloadbearingaction The perpendsmustbe fullyfilledwith mortarin
membrane Stabilitycan be checkedby assumingthatthe orderto transferthe compression. The charac-
externalbasementwall subjectedto earth teristicvaluethat may be usedfor the strength
pressurespansin two directionswhencross- of the masonryin the basementwall perpen-
wallsor structuralcomponents,e.g. piersor dicularto the perpendsis - basedon DIN
stiffeningcolumnsof reinforced,concrete-filled 1053part 3 - the characteristic valueBofor
2,4,23 Walerproofingof basement walls for the "tem- channelblocks,supportthewallat a clear solidunitsand halfthe characteristic valuepo
porarybuild-upof seepagewater" loadingcase spacingb < 2 hs.Thenecessary verticalloads for compressivestrengthperpendicular to the
maythen be reducedas followsaccordingto bed jointfor perforatedsolidunitsand other
Thickbitumen DIN1053part1 (intermediate valuesmay be perforatedunits.
vuaur r9
Horizontalwater- Polyethylene foil
proofing > 0 . 2m m
at baseof wall Protectivescreed



Reinforcedmasonry duringthe subsequent construction of thefloor A plinthmustbe water-

of the superstructure.
Reinforced externalbasementwallsare useful (seefig.2.4.22). proofedand protectedagainstsplashingwater
whenthe verticalloadsare so lowthat a The loadingcase"temporary build-upof to a heightof about200 mm aboveground
crackedsectionlargerthan halfthe thickness seepagewater"requiresa layerof blindingto level.Therefore,waterproofpaintor suitable
occursunderverticalor biaxialloadbearing be laidfirstwhichis thencoveredwitha min. renderingis appliedto exposedsurfacesand
action,or whencarryingthe loadshorizontally 0.2 mm thick polyethylene foil as a separating this mustoverlapthe verticalwaterproofingby
viatensilebendingstressesparallelto the bed membraneand thena screedto protectthis at least100mm. Intwinleafmasonrythewater-
jointsor via horizontalarchingactionleadsto againstmechanical damage.Thegroundslab proofingis placedon the outsideface of the
uneconomically thickwalls.Generally, the rein- is thencaston this(internal tanking)(seefig. innerleaf.
forcementis placedhorizontally in the bed 2.4.23).
joints.However,verticalreinforcement is pos-
siblein conjunction with specials.Pleaserefer' VerticaI waterp roofing Natural stone masonry
to "Reinforced masonry"for detailsof the de- Waterproofsheetingbondedto the wall or
signand construction of reinforcedexternal sealingcompounds workedcold (modified Naturalstonemasonrycan be classedas dry
basementwalls, syntheticbitumenthickcoatings)spreador walling,rubblemasonry,variousformsof
sprayedon are suitablefor the verticalwater- coursedmasonry,ashlarmasonryor faced
proofing.The numberof layersof waterproof masonrydependingon the degreeto which
Waterproofing sheetingdependon thetypeof sheeting the naturalstonesareworkedand theirresult-
As theyare constantlyin contactwiththe soil, selected.Thickcoatingsmay be one-or two- ing geometry.
externalbasementwallsare permanently sub- componentsealingsystemsand are always
jectedio especiallyarduousconditions.lf the appliedin two operations Drywalling
basement is an extension to the livingor ancil- Specialcare mustbe exercisedat the junction is madefromrubblestonewithoutmortar.The
laryspaceof a building, thenthe external walls withthe horizontal waterproofing. Thefounda- stonesshouldbe laidwithminimaldressingin
mustbe permanently protectedagainstthe tion/walltransitionshouldbe roundedoff with a a properbond so thatjointsand voidsare as
ingressof moisture. concavefillet(min.radius40 mm).Theoverlap smallas possible.Smallerstonesareto be
Togetherwiththe customarywaterproofing shouldbe at least100mm and be formedas wedgedintothe voidsto createtension
systems,masonrybasements, withoutelabo- an overlappedwatercheckjoint. betweenthe mainstones.Thishelpsthe wallto
ratetreatment, satisfythe requirements for keep its shapeand remainstable.Drywalling
designand construction to meetthe loading Protective layer is usedfor gravityretainingwalls.In assessing
cases"grounddamp"to DIN18195part4, Thisprotectsthe verticalwaterproofing to the stability,the densityusedshouldbe takenas
"non-hydrostatic pressure"to DIN 18195part 5 basement wallsagainstmechanical damage halfthe bulk densityof the naturalstone.When
and "hydrostatic pressure"to DIN 18195part6 duringbacKillingand subsequent compaction buildinggravityretaining walls,the natural
with"lowload"(temporarybuild-upof seepage of the excavation. Suitablematerialsare,for stonesare allowedto pile up againstthe soil
water).Mostbasementwallsdesignedfor the example,texturedplasticsheeting,thermal to be retainedin orderto improvethe stability
loadingcase"hydrostaticpressure"with "high insulationbattsor drainageboardsof no-fines of the wall.The largestand mostregular(rect-
load"(groundwater) will continueto be con- bitumen-bound polystyrene. Thisprotective angular)stonesare usedto framethe wallat
structedin concreteto ensureadeouatewater- layerguarantees thatthe verticalwaterproofing the cornersand ends,and for the base (see
proofing(external tanking).The mostpopular systemremainsfullyfunctional. ti7.2.4.24).
waterproofing systemsfor externalbasement
wallsare bitumenand polymerbitumensheet- Separatingmembrane Uncoursedrandomrubble masonry
ing;cold-application self-adhesive bitumen The inclusionof a non-woven fabricas a sepa- is madefromunworkedstonesas theyoccur in
sheeting;and modifiedsyntheticbitumenthick ratingor slidingmembranebetweenwater- nature.The roundformof the stonesresultsin
coatings.The latterare usedfor the majorityof proofingand protectivelayerpreventsloads a highlyirregular appearance.
waterproofing tasksin housebuilding and re- due to settlementof the backfillfrom being Thefinishedwallis highlysusceptible to sliding
presentthe mosteconomicsolution[93]. transferred to the waterproofing, causingthisto and does not exhibitany noteworthy compres-
becomedetached. sivestrengthdespitethe hardrock used.
Horizontal waterproofing To securethe masonrybond,the jointsmust
Horizontalwaterproofing in the formof a com- Servicepenetrations be carefullyfilledwith mortarand smallpieces
pletesealingmembrane is appliedto the Buildingservices(e.9.wastewater,fresh of stone.In addition,the cornersarebuiltusing
groundslabfor the loadingcases"ground water,electricityetc.)mustbe routedin such a stoneswith a moreregularshapeand the
damp"and "non-hydrostatic pressure". lt is way thatthe waterproofing is not impaired.In coursesheldtogetherwith headers(through-
extendedto the outsideat the baseof the addition,servicepenetrations mustbe ableto stones)trued up horizontallyeveryapprox.
elternalwallsbeneaththe firstcourseof accommodatesettlement of the structurewith- 1.0 m of wallheight(seefi1.2.4.25).
masonryunitsto overlapwiththe vertical out damage.
waterproofing. The groundslab mustproject Coursedrandomrubble masonry
beyondthe externalwallto ensure
sufficiently Constructionjoints The bed facesofthesestones(150-300mm
an adequateconnectionbetweenhorizontal Thewaterproofing mustsafelybridgeover high)obtainedfromquarriesundergoonlymini-
andverticalwaterproofing. Placingthe water- construction joints.Any waterstopsthat are in- malworking.Naturalstonesof varioussizes
proofingbeneaththe firstcourseof masonry cludedmustbe permanently connected to the are laid in moftarin approximatecourses.
unitsmeansthatthe entirefloorconstruction, waterproofing. Coursedrandomrubblemasonryis truedup
e.g.floatingscreed,is carriedout in the dry. horizontally acrossits completethickness
Nofurtherhorizontal waterproofing is required. Transitionto superstructure,plinth (>500 mm)everymax.1.5m of wallheight.
Sheetsof waterproofing materialare usually It is undesirable- bothfroma visualand a Thesameappliesto the inclusion of a damp
usedbecausetheseare morerobustthan technicalpointof view- to continuethe vertical proofcourse,which shouldbe builtin approx.
coatingswith regardto mechanicaldamage waterproofing abovegroundlevelat the base 150mm abovegroundlevel.Largestones


2,4.24 Dry walling 2.4.25 Uncoursedrandomrubble masonry shouldbe usedat the baseand at cornersin
orderto securethe masonrybond.Normal
mortarof groupll or lla is useddependingon
the type of rock.
is only usedfor lessimportantbasementwalls,
free-standing boundarywallsand for retaining
wallsin vineyards(seefig.2.4.26).

The bed jointsand perpendsof the stonesin
exposedfacesare workedto a depthof at
least120 mm. However,the naturalstones
beyondthis depthof wall are eithernotworked
at all or onlyvery little.Verticaland horizontal
jointsare.approximately at right-angles; -
2.4.26 Coursedrandomrubble masonrv 2.4.27 Hammer-dressedmasonrv Theheightof a coursemaychangewithina
courseand betweencourses;however,the..
masonryis to be trued up horizontally across
its completethicknesseverymax.1.5m of wall
height,Forinformation on mortarsand horizon-
tal damp proofcourses,referto "Coursedian-
domrubblemasonry" above(seettg.2.4.27),

Irregular coursedmasonry
The bed jointsand perpendsof the stonesin
exposedfacesare workedto a depthof at
least150mm.Verticaland horizontal jointsare
approximately perpendicular
to eachotherand
to the surface.
Perpendsand bed jointsmay not be thicker
than30 mm.The heightof a coursemay
changewithina courseand betweencourses,
2.4.28 lrregularcoursedmasonry 2.4.29 Regularcoursedmasonry
however,the masonryis to
but not excessively;
acrossits complete
be trued up horizontally
thickness everymax.1.50m of wallheight{see


2.4.30 Ashlarmasonry 2.4.31 Stonefacing with backingof man-made
masonrvunitsor concrete

--l-_l ][]n[
E[---]r > h/3 > 100
>g 1 0 0

l ]E[ ]l . >)40
> 24n

Openingsin walls

Regularcoursedmasonry Thethicknessof the totalwall construction 2.4.32 Atch actionover openingin wall
Thestonesshouldbe workedas for irregular shouldbe as determinedby the structural
coursedmasonry.However,the heightof analysis, butthisis seldomlessthan500 mm Vertical load
stonesmay not changewithina course.In for oracticalreasons.The conditionsdescribed
addition,the heightof everycourseis to be aboveapplysimilarly whenthe backingis
truedup (seefig.2.4.29). madefromconcrete.Here,the concreteis
Whenusedfor vaulting,domesand similar pouredand compactedaftereverycourseof
constructions,the bed jointsmustpass facingstoneworkto preventvoidsbeing
throughthe completethicknessof the curved formedbeneaththe headerstones.The oer-
element.Therefore, the bed jointsshouldbe missiblestressfor the comoletewall construc-
workedoverthe full depth,whileperpends tion is governedby the materialwiththe lowest
needonlybe workedto a depih of 150 mm. permissiblestress.Stonefacingsthat do not
complywiththe conditionsoutlinedabovemay
Ashlarmasonry. notbe includedas partof the loadbearing
Thestonesfor ashlarmasonryshouldbe worked cross-section. Coursedstonesmay be laid
accuratelyto the specifieddimensionsand all againsttheirstratification
onlywhenthey ex-
perpendsand bed jointsworkedto the full hibita minimumcompressivestrengthof
depth.Theprinciplesfor bondingashlarma- 20 MN/m2parallelto theirstratification.
A non-
sonryare basicallythe sameas for masonry loadbearingstonefacingshouldbe anchored
usingman-madeunits;all the differenttypes and supportedas for a non-loadbearing outer
of bondsusingstretchersand headerscan be leafof a twin-leafwall.Claddingpanelsmay
produced.Thejointthicknesscan be 4-30mm; not be includedas part of the loadbearing 2.4.33 Effectiveloadsover openingin wall with arch
mortaris difficultto applyto jointsthinnerthan cross-section of a column.
4 mm.Dryashlarmasonryrequiresthe bed
facesto be groundand is hardlyusedthese
days(see'fig.2.4.30). Openingsin walls

Stone-facedmasonry Openingsin wallsfor windows,doorsand

consistsof a skin of regularcoursedor ashlar largeritems,e.g. ventilation
ductsand light
masonryon a backingof man-madeunitsor wells,are bridgedoverby way of lintelsor
concrete(seefig.2.4.31). arches(masonry "lintels").
Thestonefacingmay be consideredas part of
the loadbearingcross-section when
Arching action over openings
' the stonefacingis builtat the sametime as Whendesigninga lintelor arch,we can
the backingand is bondedto it, assumean archingactionin the masonry
' the stonefacingis bondedto the backingby abovethe openingin the wall,providedthere
at least30% headers, are no openingsadjacentto and abovethe
. the headersofthe stonefacingare at least lintelor archand the associatedloadtriangle,
240mm deeo and are bondedat least and thatthe archthrust(horizontal support
100mm intothe backing, reactions)can be resistedat the sidesof the
. thethicknessof the stonefacingis > '1l3its opening.Therefore, the lintelor arch carries
h e i g hot r m i n .1 ' 1 5m m , the loadonlybelowthe assumedarch(seefig.
' withbackingsof man-madeunits,at least 2.4.32).
everythirdcourseof naturalstoneconsisis This is takenintoaccountby the (equilateral)
entirelyof headers. loadtriangleof masonryabovethe lintelor arch.


2.4.34 Reinforcedconcrete lintel details Uniformlydistributedfloorloadsabovethe load it may needto be formedas an upstandbeam.
triangleare nottakenintoaccountwhen Thereare channelblocksavailableto match
designing the construction overthe openingin the respectiveformatsand courseheightsof
the wall.Forfloorloadsthat act withinthe load facingmasonryand thesemay be usedto form
triangleas a uniformly distributedloadon the prefabricated lintelsand employedas form-
masonry(e.9.floorslabsand joistfloorswith workto the side of a reinforcedconcretelintel
joistspacing< 1,25m),onlythe sectionwhich castin situ(seefig.2.4.34).
lieswithinthe triangleis assumedto transfer
loadontothe lintel.Pointloads,e.g.from
beams,whichliewithinor nearthe loadtrian- Shallow lintels with masonry above
gle are assumedto distributetheirloads Shallowlintelsconsistof a prefabricated, rein-
Reinforced concretelintel Reinforced concretelintelas at 60". If pointloadsoccuroutsidethe load forcedtensionflangeand onlyachievetheirfull
(onlysuitablefor certain blocksas permanentformwork triangle,they needbe takenintoaccountonly if load-carrying capacityin conjunction witha
applications) to outsideface they liewithinthe spanof the lintelor arch and compression zoneof masonryor concreteor
belowa horizontalline250 mm abovethe apex both (e.9.masonryand flooror cappingbeam)
of the loadtriangle.In this casethe self-weight above.Thetensionflangemay be prefabri-
of the wall belowthe pointloadalsohasto be
takenintoaccount(seefig. 2.4.33).
catedfromconcreteor fromchannelblocksof
clay,lightweight concrete, calciumsilicateetc.;

lf archingactioncannotbe establishedin the
masonryabovethe loadtriangleoverthe open-
ing in thewall,the lintelor archmustbe
filledwith concretein whichthe reinforcement
(prestressed if required)is placed.In contrast
to beam-typelintels,shallowlintelscarrythe
q7/) assumedto carrythe entireload abovethe loadsactingon them in conjunction withthe

C a l c i u ms i l i - Clay
opening. wall abovelikea tied frame(a closedsystem).
The shallowlintel(tie)resiststhe tensileforces
fromthe arch (frame)in compression and
maskedby channelblocks cate channel channel Beam-type lintels thereforereplacesthe end supportswhich
for facing masonry blocks blocks Beamsof, for example,timber,steelor rein- wouldotherwisebe necessaryto accommo-.
forcedconcretetransferthe loadsactingon datethe horizontal thrust
themto theirsupportsat each end by way of The advantageof shallowlintelsis thatthey
2,4,35 Shallowlinteldetails bending.Therefore, the beamsmustbe de- can easilybe madefromthe samematerialas
signedto resistbendingand shearforces. the surrounding wall.Thisavoidscracksin and
Owingto theirexcellentmaterialproperties, damageto the plaster.By matchingthe dimen-
steelsectionscan be generally quitesmall,but sionsof the sl'lallowlintelto the modularsizes
compresston for reasonsoffire protectionhaveto be encased of the surrounding wall,thistype of construc'
zone in concreteand to complywithbuildingscience tion can be integratedintothe masonrywithout
shallowlintelas requirements mustbe providedwiththermal havingto adaptor cut the masonryunitsad-
insulation. jacentthe openingin thewall.Thisleadsto
Reinforcedconcretelintelsare usuallychosen moreeconomicand morerationalsiteopera-
whenthe lintelcan be combinedwitha rein- tions.Forfurtherinformation, see "Reinforced
forcedconcreteflooror in certainloadingsitu- masonry"and [35] (seefig. 2.4.35).
v^z ''' ations.Theymay be precastunitsor cast in
tl | zDF | ) ""'

-L H)4
w, J6
situwiththe reinforcedconcretefloor.A rein-
forcedconcretelintelmustalwaysbe provided Masonry lintels and arches
ER T- rH J= rca
+1 7 5 with insulation to meetthermalinsulation Prefabricated or in-situlintelsof horizontally
1 7 51 1 5 IT requirements. The problemwiththis is thatthe reinforcedmasonrymay be usedfor facing
effectivecross-section of the lintelmustbe work.The loadbearingbehaviourcorresponds
reducedin orderto accommodate the insula- to the tied framemodelof the shallowlintelwith
2,4.36 Supportinga soldiercourse"fake"lintel
tion and this createsa substratefor plastering wall above.The horizontalreinforcement is
whichis different to the surrounding wall. placedeitherin trough-shaped specialsor
Despitethe provisionof a plasterbacking horizontalchannelblocksor perforatedunits
--__lrtl spanningacrossthethermalinsulation, this with a continuousholeto suitthe bond of the
type of detailoftenleadsto cracksin the ren- facingmasonry.Designand construction
deringand stainingof thefinish. shouldbe in accordance withDIN1053oart3.
Onesolution to thisproblemis to providechan- Pleasealsoreferto "Reinforced masonry".
nel blocksin the respectivetype of masonryas In twin-leaffacingmasonrythe outerleafabove
permanentformworkinsteadof the reinforced the openingin thewallcan be carriedby nibs
concrete.The reinforcedconcretelintel(pre- on the side of the floorslab or by supports
cast or in situ)is then integratedintothis.This boltedto or cast intothe floorslab (e.9.steel
can also be used in conjunctionwith a rein- anglesor brackets).To satisfyarchitectural
forcedconcretelintelcasttogetherwiththe requirements we can alsoprovidea horizontal
4 5fl[
floorslab.In thisdetaila prefabricated lintel lintelin theformof a soldiercoursein conjunc-
1 Bolt unitmadefromchannelblocks(withintegral tionwith bracketsand barspassingthrough
2 Angle bracket
3 6 mm dia. V4A steelanchor
insulation) formsone side of the formworkfor the masonryunits.The shear-and tension-
4 Continuousbar carryingsoldiers(10 dia. V4A steel) the reinforcedconcretelintel.As the structural- resistantconnectionto a reinforcedconcrete
5 Continuoushole ly effectivewidthof this lintelis onlyverysmall, beambehindmeansthatthis is onlva "fake"


2.4.37 Semicircularand pointedarchesaccordingto [162] 2.4.38 Camberedand gauged archesaccordingto [162]


Thespan (S)feasibledependson type of arch, compressionin arch and verticalloads.The width (M,fof the abutmentdependson the span;the valuesgivenhere apply to abut-
mentwidthsessentiallywithoutverticalload.All valuesare guidelineswhich may be exceededin an accurateanalysis.Camberedarchesin non-loadbearing facingwork can be
builtfor spans up to approx,1.75m withoutthe need for a structuralanalysis.

lintelwithno loadbearing function(seefig. tanceto the archthrustat the supportsalso Camberedand gauged arches
2.4.36). hasto be takenintoaccountwhen designing haveinclined(skewback)abutmentsaligned
Masonrylintelsin the formof archesare pri- an arch.Shallowarcheswith a low risegener- withthe centreof the arch.The bed jointsalso
marilyusedin the refurbishment of olderbuild- ate a greaterhorizontal
thrustthanarcheswith pointto the centreof the arch.The riseof a
ings,butarealsobeingrediscovered as a a smallerradiusand largerrise.The horizontal camberedarch is max.1/50of the widthof the
moderndesignoptionin conjunctionwithfac- thrustmustbe resistedwithoutdisplacement at opening,thatof a gaugedarchmax.1/12.A
ingmasonry. Owingto the highlabourinput, the supportsirrespectiveof the curvatureof the camberedarchwithoutany risemay alsoact
thesearchesare oftenproducedas prefabri- arch becausethe arch itselfundergoesa as an arch in comoressionif the soldiercourse
catedelements,whicharethen liftedintoplace severeincreasein stressesdue to the reduc- deviatesslightlyfromthe verticaland is
on preparedabutments.Witha favourable tionin the riSeevenwithonlvminimaldisolace- wedgedintoabutmentsbuiltat a veryslight
rise/spanratioand predominantly permanent mentof the supoorts. angle.
loads,i.e.deadloadsconsiderably higherthan Thearchlintelis producedfroman odd num-
imposedloads,the arch may be designed Semicircularand pointedarches ber of courses,whichcan makeit necessary
accordingto the lineof thrustmethod.This Theradiusof a semicircular archis eoualto to insetthe abutmentsby halfthe widthof a
meansthatthe construction is subjectedonly halfthewidthof the opening,and for a pointed courseon the masonryat the sides.The extra-
to axialcompression and no shearor bending archequalto thefullwidthof the opening,with dos shouldalwaysend in a bed jointof the
momentswhenthe axisof the arch coincides the centresof the radiibeingthe respective masonryabovein orderto avoidlargecom-
withthe lineof thrust.However,this idealcase oppositespringingpoints.The abutmentsfor pensatingcoursesabovethe archor un-
is hardlypossiblein practicebecausechang- sernicircular and pointedarchesare generally attractivegussetsabovethe abutments. The
ingloads,and hencedifferent loadingcases, positionedhorizontally at the levelof the requirements regardingjointthicknesses and
meanthatvariouslinesof thrusthaveto be springingpoints.Thearchesarenormally con- bondingcorrespondto thosefor semicircular
considered whendesigning the arch.'Never- structedwithtaperingbed joints.The thickness and pointedarches(seefig.2.4.38).
theless,to ensurethat exclusivelycompressive of the jointsat the undersideof the arch (intra-
stresseswithouta crackedsectionoccur in the dos)shouldnot be lessthan5 mm,at the outer
cross-section of the arch,the geometryof the ring of the arch (extrados)not greaterthan Vaultingand arch floors
archshouldbe suchthat,if possible, the lines 20 mm.Specialtaperingunits(voussoirs) may
of thrustfor all possibleloadingcaseslie in the be necessary for smallradii.Whenusingsmall- Vaults
middlethirdof the cross-section. Linesof formatunits,the sizeof the bed jointsat the Theseare roof-like,one-way-spanning, or also
thrustcanthusbe usedindependently ofthe extradosof the arch increaseas the arch bidirectionalarch-likeor sphericalcurvedroof
loadsin oiderto designa suitable, economic becomesthicker.Therefore, thickarchesare constructions of masonry.The varioustypesof
archfor masonrywhich,in theory,cannot alsobuiltin individual rings,oneabovethe vaultingare basedon the two fundamental
accommodate anytension.In doingso, we other.Archesare alwaysconstructedusingan types:barrelvaultswith cylindricalcurvature,
assumethatthe structuralsystemis basedon odd numberof unitsso thatthereis nevera and domeswith sphericalcurvature.Besides
determining the linesof thrustfor a three-pin jointat the crownbut ratheralwaysa keystone. the barrelvault,othercylindricalformsinclude
archin whichthe pinsare positionedat the Thebed jointsmustbe arrangedperpendicular the Prussiancap vault;the cloisteredvault;the
springingpointsand at the crownof the arch. to the lineof thrustand fllustrunthe full deoth troughvault;the cov; and the groinedvault.
Archeswithlongerspansand morepronounced of the arch.The bondfor masonryarchesis to The dome is a sphericalformof vaultingwhose
changesof loadinghaveto be designed be producedaccordingto the bondingrules surfacesgenerallyform partof the surfaceof a
accordingto elastictheory.Providingresis- for masonrypiers[32,141,1611(tig.2.4.37). sphere(seefig.2.4.39).


2.4.39 Types of masonryvaulting Vaultswith smallerspans,a favourablespan/
riseratio(f/l> 1/10)and essentially
loadingcan be designedaccordingto the line

6) Barrelvault
/(__ - - - - - - l
of thrustmethod.Theyare builtfromtapered
masonryunitsthat supporteachotherand are
supportedon immovable abutmentsin sucha
way thattheyare onlysubjectedto compres-
sion.The archthrustcan also be resistedby
,,iY--', ties(intension)insteadof abutments.
,4''\ / Vaultswithlargespansand pronounced
changesof loadingaredesignedaccordingto
/,' \/
Trough vaull Cove Cloisteredvault elastictheory.

Masonry arch floors between beams

D-" 7
Thesearethe upperpartof an arch built
betweensteelbeamsas verticalsuppotls(see
tig.2,4.40). Thestructural systememployed for
Starvaulting Sailvaull suppotl
determining the verticaland horizontal
reactionsfor archfloorsis a three-pinarchwith
the centrepin at the crown.Withan essentially
2.4.40 Designrequirementsfor masonryarch floors stationary imposedloadaccordingto DIN1055
part3, archfloorswith a thicknessbasedon
Arch floor in masonrybond rulesandwithbeamsspacedat max.
approx.2.50m do not needto be analysed
structurally. Inthiscase,the minimum thick-
nessmustbe 115 mm,theymustbe builtusing
"Kuff"bond or herringbonebond,and the ratio
of riseto span mustbe at least1/10.Centering
Risef>1/10x1 for parallelarchesshould,likethe bricklaying
itself,be carriedout simultaneously in orderto
limitthe horizontal thrustcausedby the arches
"Kuff" bond Hetringbonebond at the end baysof multi-bayfloors.Tiescan be
integratedto transferthe horizontal thrustfrom
the end baysof multi-bayfloorsto the side
walls.Thesemustbe includedin the end bays
parallelto the directionof spanof the floorat
the endsof the beamsand at a spacingequal
to the spanof the end bay but at leastat third-
points.In orderto considerthe end plate
formedby ties as an adequateabutment(rigid
-': horizontalolate)ableto transferthe horizontal
Steel Steel -'/
beams oeams thrustto the sides,the widthof the end plate
mustbe equalto one thirdof its length.The
tiesusedmustbe longerthanthe minimum
2,4.41 Assumptionsfor arch thrustfor multi-bayarch floor
widthof the plate.ln the caseof narrowend
baysit is sometimesnecessaryto extendthe
lE Directionof span tiesoverseveralbays(seefig.2.4.41).
- The end baysmustbe providedwith supports
Lateral ..-..:
Lateral support at the sideswhichare in the positionto accept

-- c the horizontal thrustof the middlebayseven
i- whenthe end baysarenotloaded.Thesup-
,'I c
o portsmay be securedby meansof masonry,
I !
permanentverticalload,anchorsor othersuit-
i;f ablemeasures. Inthe basements of buildings
o- 4 E
with an essentially stationaryimposedloadof
max.2.0 kN/m2we can assume,withouta
structuralanalysis,thatthe horizontal
fromarchfloorsup to 1.3m spancan be
accommodatedby meansof 2 m long,240 mm

Length of anchor Sidesupport

thickcrosswalls at a spacingof max.6.0m.
>1/3 | >1/31
Thecrosswalls mustbe builtsimultaneously
Detailsof end bay Structuralsystemfor with and fully bondedto the end bay support
thrustfromend bay wallsor - in the caseof toothing- via a non-
mechanical connection (seefig.2.4.42).


Pointloads horizontalpointloadsperpendicular to the 2.4.42 Accommodatingthe arch thrust without

planeof the wallwhereF > 3 kN. Perforated structuralanalysisfor a multi-bayarch floor
over basement
Masonrycan be subjectedto point(concen- and cellularunitsrequirea plateor similarto
trated)loadsfrom beams(e.9.windowlintels); be incorporated underneathso thatthe hori-
joists(e.9.joistfloors);or columns( zontalload is transferredto at leasttwo webs
dowmullions,roofposts).Thesegeneratever- in orderto avoidoverloadinq the webs of indi-
ticalconcentrations of stresson the bearing vidualmasonryunits.
surfacesand horizontalspittingtensileforces
in the loaddispersionzone.The spittingtensile
forcescan be accommodatedby the tensile Connections
strengthof the masonrybond, by reinforce-
mentor by reinforcedconcreteelements. Wallsmustbe connectedto floorsand roof
A padstoneor similaris alwaysintegratedinto framesin orderto guaranteetransferof forces
the masonryto distributethe loadfromheavy and provisionof horizontalsupportfor load-
pointloads.Thisis usuallyof reinforcedcon- bearingand stiffening walls.Thiscan be
cretebut may be of steel.The reinforcedcon- achievedeitherby anchorsor throughad-
cretering beamor the suppor/floorstrip is hesionand friction. may alsocomprisemasonryunits In orderto alsoachievethree-dimensional
of higherstrengthincorporatedin the masonry stability
for the building,ringbeamsmustbe
bondbelowthe pointload.In bothcasesthe placedin all externaland crosswallswhichact
designermusttakeaccountof possiblecrack- as verticalplatesfor carryinghorizontalloads
ing in the masonryas a resultof restraints (e.9.wind).Thispresupposes thatthefloors
causedby the changein material(seefig. act as horizontalplates.Floorsthat do not act 2.4.43 Load dispersionbelowpoint load
2.4.43).A loaddistribution of 60" may be as plates(e,9.timberjoistfloors),or those
assumedwithina sectionof wall strengthened whicharesupportedon thewallsviasliding
Masonryof higherstrength
withunitsof higherstrength.The strength bearingsin orderthat deformations are not
requiredfor this masonryis determinedby the restrained(e.9.roofslabs)requirethatthe 01 from point load
bearingstressesbeneaththe pointload.The walls,and hencethe building,gainhorizontal (beam,column,joist)
heightoverwhichthe wall mustbe strength- restraintby way of cappingbeamsor other
enedis determinedby the fact thatthe normal eouivalentstructuralmeasures.
masonryof the wall (of lowerstrength)mustbe
ableto carrythe load beneaththe 60" loaddis-
persion. Connecting walls to floors and roof frames
Thepermissible stressesfor masonrybelow allwalls- includinginternal
In principle, walls
pointloadsare greaterthanfor the restof the or paftywallsseparating buildings- mustbe
wallbecausethe inclined"struts"createdby connectedto floorssuchthatforcescan be
the60'load dispersion generate a biaxialcom- transferred,providedthe floorsare intended
pressionconditionat the pointof actionof the to providelateralsupportto the walls.
pointloadwhichincreasesthe load-carrying
capacityof the masonrylocally.However,the Connectionusing anchors
inclinedstrutsmeanthattherearealsohorizon- Anchors(withverticalstrapsin the caseof tim- Masonry of lower strength
tal "ties"in the lowercoursesof thewall,the ten- ber joistfloors)mustalwaysbe includedin
sionin whichhasto be resistedby horizontal loadbearingareasof wallsand neverin non- or : to be carriedby masonryof higherstrength
reinforcement or by thefloorslabactingas a tie. loadbearing spandrelpanels.Onlyby provid- oz : to be carried by masonry of lower strength
Pointloadsthat act at the end of a wall create ing verticalloadis the wall in a positionto
an inclinedstrut,whichis balancedby a hori- accommodate the anchorforcesand guaran-
zontaltensionat the top of the wall.Thisten- tee the transferof forcesto the floor.A lackof _f:
sionleadsto verticalcracks,to tearingof the verticalloadmightdictatethe useof a dng I l"'
masonrybearing,if it cannotbe accommodat- beam.Generally, the spacingbetweenanchors ?r't'
ed by the masonrybond,the reinforcedcon- shouldnot exceed2.0 m in orderto limitthe - T.--f
cretefloorslab or ring beamactingas a tie or forcesplacedon them.However,the spacing
by horizontal reinforcement in the masonry. may be increasedto max.4.0 m in exceptional
Whenanalysing the pointloadandthe circumstances if the particularconstruction
dispersion of the loadaccordingto DIN1053 does not permitany othersolution.
part1, the positionof the pointload is taken Wallsparallelto the directionof spanof the
intoaccountthroughthe dimensionsof the floorrequirestrapswhichextendat least1.0m al
pointof actionof the load(seefig.2.4.43). intothe floorand are fixedto at leasttwo floor #
Pointloadsperpendicular to the planeof the ribs or Mo beams(threejoistsin the caseof
wall,e.g.fromhorizontalimpacts,shouldnot timberfloors).Thisdistribution of loadover appliesfor
exceed0.5p*accordingto the moreaccurate severalribs or beams/joists is necessarybe- At= 2d2
methodof analysisin DIN 1053part 1 and causeotherwisethe restraintforcessubjectthe and
0,5x2.67 oo = 1.33ooaccordingto the simpli- floormembersto lateralbending(seefig. e < d/6
fiedmethodof analysis. In addition, the shear 2.4.46).Beamssplicedoverinternal wallsand
o '. -. 'Sy 1' 1 + o 1-A ) <
stressesin the bed jointsof the individual tied to the perimeterwallsmusthavea tension- l' 1
masonryunitsunderloadmustbe analysedfor resistantspliceconnection. Thisis necessary Permissiblebearingstressto DIN 1053 pt 1


2.4.44 Supportoptionsfor gable walls in orderto linkopposingexternalwallstogether Ringbeamsmay be madefromtimber,steel,

and ensurean effectiveconnectionbetween reinforcedmasonryor reinforcedconcrete.
Unbracedgable wall
externalwallsand floors. Theyare to be designedfor a tensileforceof
Anchorat apex Gablewallscan be connectedvia anchorsto 30 kN underserviceloads.Thisfigurecorre-
a bracedroofframe.Alternatively, they gain spondsto the forcesto be expectedin build-
theirstabilityby way of crosswallsor other ingsof normaldimensions. Thebeamsshould
measures (e.9.reinforced concretecolumns be designedfor greatertensileforceswhena
restrainedby the floorslab,masonrypiers) structuralanalysisof the wall plate,floorplate
(seefig.2.4.44). deformation
or differential resultsin largerfig-
ures.Ringbeamsof reinforcedmasonrymust
Connectionusing adhesionand friction complywiththe corrosionprotection,reinforce-
Securesupportfor wallsby way of adhesion mentarrangement and mortaror concrete
and frictionis providedby concretefloors coverrequirements of DIN1053paft3. Ring
whenthe depthof bearingof the slab on the beamsof reinforcedconcretemusthaveat
wall is at least'100mm;anchorsarethen leasttwo continuous10 mm reinforcingbarsto
unnecessary. An adhesion/friction connection DIN1045.Thereinforcement lapsshouldbe in
assumesthat a connectioncaoableof transfer- accordance withDIN1045,and staggered if
ringforcesis generatedby the adhesionalone, oossible.
and is only reinforcedby the frictionarising The reinforcement requiredfor ring beamsof
fromverticalloadsif necessary;however,the reinforcedmasonryor reinforcedconcretemay
presenceof frictionis not absolutelyessential. includethe full cross-section of continuous
Suooort via braced roof frame We can alsoassumethis situationat the junc- reinforcement notfullyutilizedin floorslabsor
tionbetweena walland a cappingbeam. windowlintelsno morethan500 mm fromthe
centrelineof the wall or floorparallelto the
beam(seetig.2.4.47). Theuseof different
Ring beams and capping beams materialsfor the masonryand the ring beam
Theseare horizontalstraightmembersin the can leadto damageto masonry.Aboveall,
planeof the wall.Ringbeamsaccommodate severetemperaturedeformations in ring
tensionwithinthewallplate,whichensuesas a beamsgenerally as wellas the shrinkage of
resultof externalloadsor differential deforma- reinforcedconcretering beamsin padicular
tion,and henceincreasesthe stabilityof the can leadto cracksin the masonry.Tempera-
wallsand that of the wholestructure. ture deformations can be minimizedby includ-
Cappingbeamsalsoserveas ringbeams ing adequatethermalinsulation, shrinkage
whentheyforma completering aroundthe reducedby latestrikingof the formworkand by
wholebuilding.Furthermore, theirreinforce- subsequently treatingthe concrete.To mini-
mentarrangement allowsthemto accommo- mizecrackingin rendering,a reinforcedcon-
dateloadsperpendicular to the planeof the cretering beamshouldmakeuse of fabric
wallby way of bending. reinforcement shouldbe fabri-
or, alternatively,
catedfrom channelblocksto matchthe sur-
Ring beams roundingwall and henceprovidea consistent
act as tiesto holdthe structuretogether.They substratefor the rendering.Thisor the useof
Supportvia integralcolumn are requiredin buildingswith morethantwo full reinforcedmasonryas a ring beammeansthat
storeys,or thoselongerthan 1Bm at wall ele- the disadvantages of changingthe material
mentsprovidedfor stabilizingthe structure are,on thewhole,avoided.
(external walls,twin-leafpartywalls,crosswalls
etc.)at or immediately beloweveryfloorlevel. Cappingbeams
Ringbeamsmay be interrupted onlywhentheir are subjectednot onlyto tensileforcesbut also
effectiveness is guaranteedby othercompo- to bendingmomentsfrom horizontalloads.
nents,e.g.windowlintelsor landingsin thecase Cappingbeamsare necessarywhenfloorsdo
of continuouswindowsto a staircase. not act as plates,e.g.timberjoistfloors,or are
2.4,45 Load distributionof a ring beam for building It is alsonecessary to holdthe structure together providedwithslidingbearingswhereiheyare
stiffened bv floor olates by way of ring beamsin the caseof wallswith supporledon the wallsand so do not provide
manyor particularly largeopenings; thisis lateralrestraintat floorlevel.The ring beam
especiallythe casewhenthe sum of the widths becomesa cappingbeamand takeson a sta-
of the openingsexceed60% of the lengthof bilizingtask.As a rigid horizontalbeamit trans-
the wall or 40%;o in the caseof windowsgreater fersthe horizontalloadsfromwind,reversalof
thanA3 of the storeyheight. forces,earthquakes the shearwalls(see
Otherfunctionsof ringbeamsareto act as a tie 'fi7.2.4.48).
for the compressionarch in a horizontal floor The cappingbeamand its connections to the
plate;to act as a tie for the vedicalmasonry shearwallsshouldbe designedfor a horizontal
plate;and to accommodate tensilestressesin loadequalto 1/100of the verticalloadof the
the masonryas a resultof differential deforma- wallsand for a proportionof the wind loads.In
tion causedby temperature fluctuations, addition,cappingbeamsbeneathslidingbear-
shrinkageor differential settlement of the sub- ings musttakeaccountof tensileforcesfrom
soil[54] (seefig.2.4.45). the residualfrictionforcesof the floors.


Shearwallsmustbe analysed to ensurethey 2.4.46 Fixinglensionanchorsin masonry

canaccommodate the supportreactionsof > 240 >240
cappingbeams,and thattheyadequately TT t--|
transferthe forcesto the foundations.
lf a cappingbeamdoesnotfulfilringbeam

Strap> 15 x 50 mm
functionsat the sametime,it needsonlyto Gable anchormust be
extendas far as necessaryto iransferits sup- O fixed to 3 joists
portreactionsto anotherelement.Capping
beamsmaybe madeof timber,steelor rein- :

O .%
forcedconcrete.Theymustbe rigid enoughto 6

preventany cracksin the masonrydue to

deformations. Thisreouirementmeansthatthe %
feasible spanof sucha beamis sometimes
limited.Reinforced concretecappingbeams Strutting
musthaveshearlinksand at leastone longitu-
dinalreinforcing bar in eachcornerof the link. Fixingto masonryin directionof span of floor Fixingto masonryat right-anglesto span of floor
Cappingbeamsshouldbe treatedlikering
beamswithregardto the problemof the riskof
cracksin masonrycausedby a changeof 2.4.47 Delailsof ring beamstaking into accountparallelreinforcement
materialbetweenwall and beam,Thisalso
applies to the useof channelblocksto achieve
a consistent plastersubstrate. r Reinforcement


t ) , , , ', ' ,
r a/


ln-situconcretefloorwith Timberjoistfloorwith rein- Precastfloor with reinforced Reinforcedmasonryas

ring beam reinforcement forced concretering beam concretering beam ring beam



Ring beam made from Max. spacingof parallelreinforcement

which may be considered

2.4.48 Capping beam action