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Building

science

Buildingscience
Joachim Achtziger

2.6.1 Surfaceresistancesin m2K V Thermalinsulation . location,orientation and formof the structure,


Directionof heat flow . physicalpropertiesof materialsand compo-
Horizontal Downwards
R" 0.10 0.13 0.17 Thethermalinsulation of a buildingis intended nentsusedfor the structure,
to contributetowardsa hygienicand comfort- ' the designof systemsfor the technicalser-
R 0,04
ableinternal climate,whichis notdetrimental vices,
to the heaithof the occupantsand usersof the . performance featuresfor the componentsof
building,and at the sametimeprotectsthe thesesystems,and
structureagainstthe climate-related effectsof . the behaviour of the usersof the building.
moisture andtheirconsequences. Theenergy
requiredfor heatingin thewinterand measures Thecombination of planningand designstan-
to providean acceptableinternal climatein the dards,standardswith generallyacknowledged
summerwithoutthe useof air conditioning for designdata,standardsfor the measurement of
coolingmustbe optimizedin conjunction with componentsand materialsas wellas those
the necessarythermalinsuiationand energy- coveringproductsis shownin a verymuch
savingmeasures. Thesedays,thermalinsula- simplified and generalized forminfig.2.6.2.
tionto a buildingis notjusta meansof saving Thequalityof a buildingin energytermsis
energybut an important elementin an environ- calculated accordingto a designstandard.
mentalprotectionprogramme. Therefore, Furtherrulesare necessaryfor assessingthe
reducingemissions frombuilding thermalperformance
of pollutants of partsof a building,
heatingsystemsis an importantaspect. such as roomsadjacentthe soil,roomsin the
Besidessavingheatingcostsfor the user,an roofspaceor partsof the buildingwith lower'
increasingly importantfactor,evermorepre- temperatures, as well as standardsfor specify-
ciousenergyand fuel resourcesare also ing the thermalperformance of components
spared. and theirnon-constant behaviouruponheating
The Construction ProductsDirective[13],the and cooling.Tablesof valuesor measurements
mostimportantelementin the creationof a of componentspreparedaccordingto estab-
EuropeanSingleMarketfor the construction lishedrulesservefor the calculationof trans-
industry,acknowledges the importanceof missionheatlossesfroma buildingenvelope
thermalinsulation and definesthe areaof and givenheatgains.Fufther,componentscan
"Energyeconomyand heatretention"as one be assessedaccordingto theirconstituents,
of six essentialrequirements. On the whole, basedon the propertiesof the materials
the costsand adaptationproblemsof Euro- employed.Therefore,a complete,coordinated
peanstandardization are outweighedby the standardizedconceptfromthe productproper-
benefits,The effectsof theseare to: tiesto finalenergyrequirement is availablefor
. harmonize the markets, describing the performance of a building.In
. createuniformframeworkconditionswithin Germany,DIN4108remainsas the National
t h eE U , Application Document andthe publication
' attainEuropean supplyconditions, describingnationalrequirements. Thefirst
' set uniformevaluationand testingstandards, nationalmeasuresfor savingenergyin the
. set uniformstandardsof qualityrecognized heatingof buildings wereestablished within
throughoutEurope;differentstandardsin dif- the scopeofthe Energy-savings Act of 1976,
ferentcountriescan be assessedaccording whichledto the 1977ThermalInsulation Act
'1982 1995.
to a systemof gradedperformance classes. and itssubsequent revisions in and
The new Energy-savings Act of 2001hasthe
The objectiveof the principaldocument"Ener- potentialto achievea further30%savingin
gy economyand heatretention"is, takinginto energyin the heatingof buildings. A complete
accountthe location,to keepdownthe con- energyplanningconceptis available forthe
sumptionof energyrelatedto the useof a designof buildings, takingintoaccountheat-
buildingand itstechnicalsystems, and to ing systemsand an assessment of the energy
guaranteean adequateof standardof thermal carrier.
comfortfor the occupants,Thisencompasses
and standardizes the followingmainfactors:

160

d
Thermalinsulation

Heat transfer, thermal insulation parameters, terms 2.6.2 Diagramof relationshipbetweenmaterials,componentsand designstandardsfor assessingbuildingsin terms
of energy performance
Heattransfercan take olace in the formof con-
ductionin solid,liquidand gaseousmedia,
and in the formof radiationin transparent
materials and vacuum.In buildingmaterials,
heattransferis expressedby the propertyof
thermalconductivity.Thermalconductivityl.
specifiesthe heatflow in W passingthrough
1 m2of a 1 m thick layerin t h whenthe tem-
peraturegradientin the directionof the heat Tabularvalues
lvlethodsof calculation
flowis 1 K. The lowerthe thermalconductivity, Methodsof measurement
the betteris the thermalinsulation for a given
thickness of material. Thethermalinsulation
capacityof a componentis characterized by
Ihe thermalresistanceR, lt is determinedby
dividing thethickness of the layerconcerned
(inm) by the material'sthermalconductivityl.
(inWmK). Multi-layer componentsrequirethe
valueof each layerto be calculatedseparately Fabricated
on slte
accordingto this method.Thetotalof the indi-
-,,\
vidualvaluesgivesthethermalresistance R \-/
forthe completecomponent.The higherthe \ ,/\
thermalresistance, the betteris the thermal
insulation.
To determinethe thermaltransmittance
througha component,we also needto know
the internaland externalsurtaceresisfanceR",
and R"".Thesurfaceresistanceis the resis-
tanceof the boundarylayerof air to the trans-
fer of heatfromthe internalair to the compo-
nentand fromthisto the external.air. The sur-
2.6.3 Calculationof thermalresistanceand thermaltransmittancevaluesfor single-and multi-layermasonry
faceresistances are generallystandardized components
accordingto the orientation of the component
(vertical,horizontal) and the externalair circu- Construction Sketchof principle Equation
lation(unrestricted, ventilated,notventilated)
as givenin table2,6.1.Theyhavebeendeter-
minedfor a degreeof emissionsfromthe sur- Thermalresistance
faceof e = 0.9 and a wind soeedn = 4 m/s at
theexternalsurface.Thetotalof all resistances Single-layercomponent _o
- thoseof the layersof the componentand the ,'R

surfaceresistances of the boundarylayersof


air - is the total thermalresistanceR- which the
completecomponentappliesto resistthe flow
of heat.The reciprocalof this valueis the ther-
maltransmittance U - the characteristic vari-
ableforthethermalinsulation of a building
1
1 1
component. The U-valueis fundamental for

2
Thermalresistance
calculating the heatingrequirement of a build-
ing.Thesmallerthe U-value, the betteris the
thermalinsulation. The calculationof the ther-
lvlulti-layer
componenl
,/,4 -
n=-
dr
+ -
d2
+
malresistance of single-and multi-layer com- ln', rnz 1
'!Rn

oonentsas well as the U-valueis shown


schematically in 2.6.3,Thecalculation of the U-
2
valuefor comoonentsmadeJromseveral ]0,
d2 o"l
neighbouring sectionswith differentthermal
conductivities is dealtwith in the sectionenti-
$i
tled"Thermalbridges".The mathematical Thermaltransmittance
assessment of heattransferand temperature
gradientsin componentsis a relativelydifficult Single-or multi-layer
problemdependingon timeand geometry. component
Therefore, to simplifythe workwe assumesta-
tionary,i.e.constant,temperatures on both
sidesof the componentas well as a one-
dimensional heatflowacrossthe thicknessof

r61
Building
science

2.6.4 Thermalconductivityof dry expandedclay and expandedshaleconcretesampleswith and withoutvarious the component. Thisapproachis generally suf-
quartzsand additionsby volumeof total aggregatecontent(%) in relationto gross density(averagetempera-
ficientlyadequateforwinterconditions with
ture 10"C),afterW. SchLlle,Gieseckeand Reichardt[195]
permanently heatedinteriorsand constantlow
Expandedclay concrete Expandedshaleconcrete temperatures outside,as wellas for calculating
0,90 0.90 a meanheatlossovera longerperiodof time.
the heatflow
At equilibrium,
0,80 0,80
u
30o/o 30o/o1 < D = U x A ( O- iO " )
0.70 o.70
; 209
a
0.60 2Oot 0.60 i.- passesthroughan externalcomponentwithan
!
l
-/u areaA on onesideof whichthereis internal air
c 0,50 0.50 Vo
o
a
at a temperatureOiand on the other,thereis
'{.
6
E 0.40 -,-'' 1 "6n 0.40
externalair at a temperature8e.Therefore, the
o thermaltransmittance U is criticalfor the trans-
c
F
0.30 0.30 missionheatlossthroughthe component.
1000 1 1 0 0 1 2 0 0 1 3 0 0 1 4 0 0 1 5 0 0 1 6 0 0 1 7 0 0 1200 1300 1400 1500 However,the graphicrepresentation of the U-
valuein fig.2.6.8revealsthatonlyslight
Bulk density(kg/m3)
improvements are possiblebeyonda certain
thickness of component. Thisnon-linear be-
haviourleadsto the situation of increasing
cosisfor moreand moreinsulationhavingever
2.6.5 Orderof magnitudeof thermalconductivity 2.6,6 Variables.svmbolsand unitsused in thermal smallerenergy-saving effects. Thevariables,
(WmK) of solid constituentsof buildingand ther- performance__ _
symbolsand unitsnecessary for assessing the
mal insulationmaterials,afterJ.S. Cammerer[29] Phvsicalvariable Svmbol Unit
Inorganicbuildinglra!glq!s Temperature o "c thermalperformance of the buildingenvelope
Crystalline Thermalconductivity 7, W/mK aregivenin table2.6.6.Further detailsarecon-
perpendicularto crystalaxis 4 . 7I o 7 . O Thermalresistance R m'?K,AiV tainedin DINEN ISO7345andthe respective
parallelto crystalaxis to 14 Internalsurfaceresistance 'R- s m2K.AiV
Quaftzite
Dartsof DIN4108.
6 Externalsurfaceresistance R m,KAV
Limestone,marble,granite 1 . 6t o 4 , 0 Totalthermalresistance
Basalt,feldspar,sandstone (airto-airresistance) R m2K,\N Thermal conductivity of building materials
Amorphoussolidifiedmells such as Thermaltransmittance WlmzK Withthe exceptionof verydensestone,build-
blastfurnaces]-agand glasses 0.7 Io 1.2 Heatflow ;
N a t u r aol r q a n i C s u b s t a n c e s
ing materialsare porousto someextent.They
0.3to0.4 Heat flow rate q W/m2
0 . 1 6t o 0 , 3 5 Specificheat capacity c J,4<gK containair-filledvoidsof varioussizesin vari-
Gross/bulkdensity p kg/m3 ous arrangements, and thesecan havea sig-
Thickness d m nificanteffecton the transferof heat.Thether-
Area m2
Volume
malconductivity of masonrydependson:
m3
. thethermalconductivity of the solidcon-
lvlass m kg
stituents,
. the porosityor gross/bulkdensity,
. the nature,sizeand arrangement of the
2.6.7 Thermalconductivityof buildingmaterials
pores,
1,0
' the radiationpropertiesof the boundarywalls
of the voids,
'temperature, and
. the wateror moisturecontent.
05
0.4 As the thermalconductivity of the material
underobservation dependson thetemperature
0.3 withinits rangeof application, for buildingpur-
posesall thermalconductivityvaluesare relat-
0.2 ed to a meantemperature of 10"Cso that
uneouivocal comparisons can be made.For
the samereason,materialparametersare
specifiedfor the dry stateof the material,initial-
0.1 ly withouttakingintoaccountthe fact that
<>
c
ss moistureincreasesthe thermalconductivity.
Table2.6,5providesan overview of theorder
of magnitudeof the thermalconductivities of
O
l
solidmaterials usedto manufacture building
c
C and thermalinsulationmaterials.Materialswith
o
a mainlycrystalline components exhibita higher
5 o.o3
E thermalconductivity thanthosewithvitreousor
o
g
F
lime-based components. Forinstance, the
additionof quartzsandto concreteor mortar
has a noticeablydetrimental effecton the ther-
mal conductivity.Measurements of concrete

162
Thermalinsulation

withdifferentquartzcontentsare shownin fig. buildingmaterials beingmarketedinternation- 2,6.8 ThermaltransmittanceU in relationtothermal


resistanceR
2.6.4.Generally speaking, the useof aggre- ally.Thenominalvaluefor thermalconductivity
gatesconiainingquartzcan be assumedto is the valueto be expectedfor the thermal
reducethe insulatingeffectof the concreteby insulation propertyof a buildingmaterial or
U (WmzK)
20%.However,the characteristic variableinflu- product,assessedby way of measurements
encingthethermalconductivity of buildingand takenat a referencetemperatureand humidity 6
insulation materialsis the grossdensity.This accordingto table2.6.11,specifiedfor defined
5
relationship is shownin Iig.2.6,7- the eval- percentiles and confidence rangesand corre-
uationof morethan 1000measurements in a spondingto an expectedservicelifeunder 4
Europeanresearchproject.Afterbeingincor- normalconditions.Theterm "servicelife"also
poratedintoa structure,especiallyin external includesthe ageingbehaviour of products, 3
components, buildingmaterials exhibita suchas thermalinsulation materialswithhigh- 2.38
greateror lesserwatercontent.Owingto the molecular prooellants, whichovertimeunder- 2
1.49
generally relatively smallproportion, thisis go an exchangeof gaswiththe surrounding 1.O7
knownas moisturecontent.Dependingon the air,or the settlementbehaviourof loosether- oasffi
porousstructureand the magnitudeof the mal insulation materials in voids,Onlythe
2.0 3.0 4.0
moisturecontent,the watermay parilyor com- materialscatterand the influenceof moisture
pletelyfilllargerand smallerporesor just are relevantfor masonryproducts. R (m2Kl,{)
adhereto the sidesof the ooresor in corners fhe design valuefor thermalconductivityis
of thepores.Dampbuildingmaterials exhibita the valueof a thermalpropertyof a bullding
higherthermalconductivity comparedto the material or oroductundercertainexternal and
drystate,and this dependson the moisture internal conditions, whichcan be regardedas
content,which in turn is relatedto the type of typicalbehaviourof the materialor productin
material. its formas a constituent of a component.The
Figure2.6.9showsthe thermalconductivityof designvaluesaredetermined by the user/
variousbuildingmaterials as a functionof the planner,buildingauthorities stan-
or national
moisturecontent;this can be expressedrelat- dardscorresponding to the intendedapplica-
ed to eitherthe volumeor the mass.lf thether- tionof the product,the environmental or clim-
malconductivity in the dry stateand the mois- aticconditions as wellas the purposeof the
turecontentof the buildingmaterialis known, c a l c u l a t i oen.,g . :
thethermalconductivityin the moiststatecan 2.6.9 Thermalconductivityof buildingmaterialsin
relationto moisturecontent(volume-and mass-
be calculated accordingto DINEN ISO10456 . energyconsumptron related)
usingthe equation . designof heatingand coolingplants - Y6lurns-lsl3tsl
' surfacetemperature ----- mass-related
lu,*= 1,.,0,u x F, . compliance withnationalbuildingcodes
. investigations of non-constant thermal
'trm -_" afu(u2,
u1)
c o n d i t i o ni sn b u i l d i n g s Thermalconductivity(W/mK)

't rm -_' 6 f , { V 2 - v j ) Thermalinsulation designvaluescan be ,-/


derivedfromthe nominalvaluesby meansof 0,5 -' clay brrcKs
where: the conversionfactorsgivenin DINEN ISO .-t-'
P = t c r!6 kg/m
3
fuandf, = conversionfactorfor mass-and 10456.Thisis customary for thermalinsulation
1'= 43
o/o
volume-related moisturecontentrespectively materials. Designvaluesfor masonrymaterials
u, andf, = moisturecontent0 of dry material are derivedfromthe thermalconductivityin the
u, and ry, = mass-and volume-relatedmois- dry state. 0,4
turecontentrespectively.
Thermal insulation provided by layers of air
Themoisturecontentsu and y commonin Layersof air in componentstransferheatby
practice,as well as conversionfactorsfor the conduction, convection and radiation.
moisture content,are givenin DINEN'12524 The variousheattransportmechanismshave
corresponding to table2.6.10.Thestandard- the effectthat,unlikewith solidmaterials, for air --'---z
izedmoisturecontentsu (mass-related) and y the thermalresistanceR doesnot risewith '--
P u nlce concrele
(volume-related) are relatedto the moisture increasing thicknessbut insteadreachesa 1 0 1 5k g l m '
contentequilibriumof the corresponding mate- maximumvalueandthenremainsconstant. 58 lo
rialat 23'C and 5Oo/o relativehumidity,or 23'C Thermalresistances of layersof air according
and 80%relativehumidity.The moisturecon- t o t a b l e2 . 6 J 2 a r es p e c i f i eidn D I NE N I S O Gas concret(??/evtl.aerated c )2
tentsin the desiredreference ambientcondi- 6946and may be takenlntoaccountonlywhen P = 540 kg/nr 3
---/
tionsand the conversionfactorsfor the influ- analysingthermalperformanceif they are iso- N=79o/o
----:== .a-:-----
enceof the moisturecontenton the thermal latedfromthe outsideair.Suchlayersof air
conductivity can alsobe determined individual- alsoincludethe cavitiesin twin-leaf masonry Perlite = 303 ko/m 3
'1053becausethe openingsin the 0,1
ly for certainmaterialsby way of experiment, wallsto DIN N=87
o/o
withthe aim of achievingmorefavourablether- outerleafare too smallto bringaboutan =-==:=-
malconductivity valuesfor realsituations.The exchangeof air withthe outsideair.The extent
term"nominalvalue"was introduced to achieve to whicha layerof airwithsmallopeningsto 46
a uniformspecification for the propertiesof theoutsideair can stillbe regardedas a lvloisturecontent (%)

163
Building
science

2.6.10 Moisture-related
propediesof masonrymaterials stationary layer,or to whichinsulating values
l\.4aterial Moisturecontental Moisture content at poorlyor well ventilatedlayersof air can be
23"C,50%re 2 3 ' C , \ O a / ran g i v e na r es h o w ns c h e m a t i c a il nl yf i 9 . 2 . 6 . 1 3 .
Smallor dividedair spacescorresponding to
tig.2.6.14,as occurin perforated masonry
Solid bricks units,horizontally perforatedclay bricksand
gripaids,requirespecialconsideration. In
C a l c i u ms i l i c a t e -
Pumiceconcrete thesecases,the geometryof the perforations
Normal-weiqht concrete the gap width{o-thickness ratio- has an influ-
enceon the equivalent thermalconductivity of
concrete
the void,Thethermalresistances of air spaces
Concretewith pre- withany dimensions can be calculated accord-
dominantlyexpanded ingto DINEN ISO6946,Thethermalresis-
tanceof an air cellis foundusinqtheeouation:
with blast-
furnace
a-
(hu+ 1/2 Eh,o(1+d2lb2- d/b))
concrete
Concretewith other where:
Mortar(masonrymoftar 250-2000
Rs = thermalresistance of air space
q!q.p]419l!!s!]}9r) d = thickness of air space
= widthof air space
E = degreeof exchangethroughradiation
?44 accorqing
Bg1glglggconditions to DINENISO10456 hro = €xternalsurfaceresistancedue to
Property Boundary condition radiationfor a blackbodv
| (10"c) _ il (23.C)
abcd
Referencetemperature 10'C 10'c 23"C 23'C huis as follows:
Moisture u . for a horizontalheatflow:
A;.1.;-
"U6o
"23,50
aqed ,3zo aqed
h" = 1.25Wm2Kor 0.025/dW/m2K,
udryis a low moisturecontentattainedafterdrying,
u23,50is a moisturecontentwhich becomesestablishedin equilibriumat 23'C air temperatureand 50% whichever is the greater
relativehumrdity.
. for an upwardheatflow.
hu= 1.95\N/m2Kor 0.025/dW/m2K,
whichever is the greater
' for a downwardheatflow:
2.6.12 fhermal resistanceR of stationaryair layers- surJaceswith high degreeof glE!lg!!
@onofheatfbw hu= 0.12d 044W/m2Kor O.025/dW/m2K,
ry]m __-. R in mrK,A/V whichever is the greater
, upwaros Horizontal Downwards
0 0,00 0.00 0.00
5 0.11 0.11 0.11
whered = thickness
of air spacein direction
of
7 0.13 0.13 0..13 heatflow.
10 0.15 0.15 0.15
tc 0.16 o.17 0.17
25
The thermaloptimization of perforatedmasonry
0.16 0 . 18 0,.19
50 0 , 16 0.18 o.21 unitsdependson the distribution of perfora-
100 0,16 0.18 o.22 tionsand theircross-section, In comparing dif-
300 0,16 0.18 o.23 ferentpatternsof perforations, the proportionof
NC!9.l4q!qdiq1g trel!9lllqy Q_e4!Cl!gq Qylllgelinterpoiation.
perforations and the thermalconductivity of the
solidmaterialmustbe keptconstant. Figure
2.6.15 illustratesthethermalinsulation qualities
2.6.13 Thermalresistancesof stationary,
poorlyventilatedand wellventilatedair layersaccordingto DIN EN ISO6946
for variousarrangements of perforations in clay
brickswith40% perforations [46].The 1Bsam-
plesare arrangedin orderof descending ther-
malconductivity.
ln lightweight concreteunitsthethermalcon-
ductivity- for the samegrossdensity-
dependsquitecruciallyon the proportlon of
perforations and the arrangement of cells.
Figure2.6.16showsthermalconductivities of
masonrymadefromthree-and four-cell
hollowblocks,as wellas a slottedunitcalcul-
atedaccordingto EN 1745assuming a gross
densityof 600 kg/ms.The valuesgivenapplyto
unitsmadefromexpandedclay concreteand
O p e n i n g< 5 0 0 m m 2p e r 1 m l e n g t h O p e n i n g > 5 0 0 m m 2p e r ' l m l e n g t h O p e n i n g > 1 5 0 0 m m 2p e r 1 m l e n g t h
lightweight mortarLM 36,
< ] 5 0 0 m m 2p e r 1 m l e n g t h
Stationaryair layer Poorlyventilatedair layer Well ventilatedair layer
R - halfthe valueof the stationaryair
layerbut max.0.15 m2K,4V R"" = R"i= 0.13 m,l(W

164
Thermalinsulation

Determinationof design values for thermal 2 . 6 .l 4 S m a l lo r d i v i d e dn o n - v e n t i l a t evdo i d s{ a i rs p a c e s )


conductivity
Thedesignvaluefor thermalconductivity for
usein calculating thethermalinsulation of
d.
buildings is definedfor Germanyon the basis
of the practicalmoisturecontentor the mois- -1--
turecontentequilibrium aI23"Cand B0%rela-
tivehumidity. To do this,the practicalmoisture
contentor the referencemoisturecontentof
t'tt b /"
thebuildingmaterial mustbe known.Practical 7- ."
moisture contentis understoodto be a quantity
ofwaterinthe buildingmaterial which Heatflow
becomes established in an adequately dry
structure overthe courseof time.This is
causedby waterbeingabsorbedfromthe air
(hygroscopicity) and the formationof conden-
sationon surfacesand withincomponents.
practicalmoisturecontentexcludes for a constantproportionof perforationsand constanttotalweb thick-
2.6,15 Variationsin clay brick cross-sections
Therefore,
ness (heatflow horizontal)[2]
moisture dueto buildingprocesses whichhas
notyetfullydisappearedand saturationresult- Diamonds, Circularholes, Ellipses, Hexagons, Delta Rectangles,par-
ingfromprecipitation, risingdampand dam- offset parallel parallel offset perforations allel+ grip holes
ageto the building. Thepracticalmoisture con-
tentis definedby the relativecumulativefre-
quencyof a multitude
manystructures
of investigations
as possible.Figure2.6.17
showsthetypicalprogression
material.
clavedaeratedconcretewallsand roofs(see
on as

for a building
The resultsof measurements of auto-
WWWffiffiffi
Ellipses,
offset
Rectangles,
parallel
Rectangles,ofl-
set + grip holes
Rectangles,ofl
seY"standard"
T-bricks Interruptedouter
weos
fig.2.6.21) can serveas an examplefor the
dryinggradient
External

gradient
of externalcomponents
wallswith adequaterainprotection
andpermitting evaporation

yearsunderdifferent
is considerably influenced
[104].

on bothsidesdry
outfaster,The dryingperiodlastsabouttwo
conditions. As the drying
by the
WWWWffiffi
K-bricks Gothic
bricks
Meander
bricks
"Spring"
bricks
Fence
bricks
Fineceramic"B"
bricks
weather, theoccupation of the building, the
standardof construction
thewalls,and determining
removing
complicated,
moisture
and the orientation
the moisture
coresof materialis expensiveand
a new methodof determining
characteristic
by

of a buildingmaterial
bywayof its hygroscopicmoisturecontent
of

the ffiffiWWWW
equilibrium in a definedclimateis nowbeing 2,6.16 The influenceof pedorationson the thermalconductivityof lightweightconcreteunitswith
grossdensity600 kg/ms
used(fig.2.6.18). Moisture absorption at 23'C
andB0%relative humidityhasprovedequiva-
lentto thefieldinvestigations. We speakthen

tilml
Unit Proportionof Concrete Thermalconductivity
of thereferencemoisturecontent,a parameter perforations gross density of masonry
whichhasalsobecomeestablished in Euro- kq/m3
peanstandards (seetable2.6.10,columns5 35 929 0,27
and6).Thewatercontentof a buildingmaterial B 35 923 0.25
is specifiedeitheras the quantiiyof watercon- llLjILlul c 680 0.18

tainedin a massunitof the material,


thedrymassas the "mass-related
relatedto
watercon-
tent"u in kg,&g,or as the volumeof watercon-
t!l!_[]l C
tainedin a volume
unitof the material,relatedto the material
volumeas the "volume-related watercontent"
y in m3/m3.
Themass-related moisturecontentis recom-
mended for buildingmaterials becauseit
remainsconstantoverthe entiregrossdensity
range. As an example, figure2,6.19showsthe
resultsof teststo measurethe sorptivemois-
tureof aeratedconcreteat an ambienttemper-
atureof 23'C and B0%relativehumiditv,and
Building
science

2.6.17 Cumulativefrequencyof moisturecontenl 2.6.18 Volume-related moisturecontentin relationto tig.2.6.20showsthe relationship between ther-
of pumice buildingmaterialsin external relativehumidityfor absorptionand desorption mal conductivityand moisturecontentderived
walls determinedin 88 samples of a calciumsilicateunitwith grossdensity
1720kg/m3,afterKunzel
fromthis.Takingthe mass-related moisture
20
contentas our referenceoointallowsthe useof
E ' Abiorption a surchargeto coverthe influenceof the mois-
E o Desorption tureon thethermalconductivity, whichis inde-
p16
c pendentof the materialbulkdensityandthe
o
o thermalconductivity. To carryout a thermal
o
insulation the userrequiresa thermal
analysis,
zo
3
o-
an
E
rr8
a
I conductivity designvaluefor the particular
type of masonryconstruction. Thistakes
o
f
6 accountof the type,formand grossdensityof
I
64
// the masonryunitas well as the type of mortar.
o
.F E
l
I The thermalinsulationpropertiesof different
6
b _-----t
b
cr
4
typesof masonrycan be determinedfrom
tablesaccordingto EN 1745or by measuring
samplesof wallor by calculation basedon the
Relativehumidity(%) materialparameters[3]. To take intoaccount
Volume-related
moisturecontent
the influenceof moistureon the thermalcon-
2.6.19 Sorbedmoisture(equilibriummoisturecontent) 2.6.20 Percentageincreasein thermalconductivityol ductivity,the referencemoisturecontentsand
of autoclaved aerated concrete at 20'C and 80% autoclavedaeratedconcretedependingon
rh in relationto the volume(y) or the mass (u) of
moisture correction valuesFmgivenin table
1.,0,,,,
in relationto % by vol. or 1 mass 70,after
the materialdependingon gross density l6l
2.6.23applyin Germany. Morefavourable
valuesnotcontainedin thetablemavbe
10 14
verifiedexperimentally.

Thermal performance of external walls


10 plas-
o
Thethermalresistance R of single-leaf
\o
I teredexternalwalls,single-leafexternalwalls
B
-:-\
c r>Q. with internalor externalthermalinsulation, or
o s6 o twin-leafwallswithor withoutadditional insula-
;9
A tionis calculated by simplyaddingtogether
a
c
o
o t o the R-values of the individual layers.As an
! 6?
= example, figure2.6.24showsa plastered
l a
m c^ single-leafwallwitha thermalinsulation com-
0
0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.20 positesystem.lf the insulationis attachedwith
300 400 500 600 700 800 900
mechanical fixings,additional heatlosses
Moisturecontent(%) Thermalconductivity(W/mK)
occurdependingon thetypeof fixing,Based
2.6.21 Drying-outof autoclavedaeratedconcreteexter- 2,6.22 Ventilatednaturalstonefacadesand lightweight on experiments and numericalpararneter
nal components(wallsand flat roofs)plotted curtainwalls;increasein thermaltransmittance studies[6, 205],the heattransferfor a com-
againsttime [3] of wall in relationto numberof fixingsand fixing ponent(including thethermalbridgeeffect)
material
can be represented in a simplifiedestimation
AU (WmzK) methodas follows:
o4 . by addingthe increase AU to thethermal
transmittance valueU for the undisturbed
sectton

E
U"=U+au
>1'
!-
. by a percentageincreasein the thermal
transmittance
valueU
c
o
O
Aj
l
U"= U(t+-rOO)
6
'6
. by addingthe increasein the conductance
of
02468 01234 a componentby meansof the discretether-
Time (years) No. of fixingsper m2 maltransmittance1
Natural stone facade
o Lightweightcurtainwall
L= IUiA,+ L1,
The initialprogressionof the given range stemsfrom
measurements on externalwalls at the FraunhoferInsti- Thefirstmethodwith a surchargeAU was first
tute'sopen-airsite (lowerlimit:externalwall, evaporation usedin the European standardEN6946.The
possibleon both sides;upper limit:outerface sealed,
correctionvaluesgivenin table2.6.25applyto
evaporationonly possiblevia innerface).
o externalwalls the varioustypesof anchorsusedfor fixing
o flat roofs thermalinsulationcompositesystems.A ma-
representmeasurements of actual buildings. sonrysubstratebehavesslightlybetterthana

166
Thermalinsulation

concreteone.Thetype of renderinghas practi- lvloisturecontentsand conversionfactorsfor moisturecontentaccordingto draftstandardEN 12524table 2,


callyno influenceon the outcome.Thethermal and moisturecorrectionfactor F- accordingto draft standardEN 10456
conductivityof the insulation
materialand its lvlaterial Moisturecontentat Conversionfactorfor Moisture
23 "C. 80% rh moisturecontent correction
thicknesshaveno effecton the additionalheat factor
losswhenaddingAU.TheAU-values givenper kgkg F-
anchorcan be simplyaddedtogetherfor the Autoclavedaerated 1.2
particularapplication,slncein the mostun- concrele
favourable situationthe anchoronlyhasan Lighh//eight concrete 4 1.15
with pumice
effectwithina radiusof max.250 mm aboutits 1.08
Lightweightconcrete 0.03
axis.Influences of AU < 0.002can be ignored with expandedclay
because the additionalheatlossliesbelow Clay o.o12 10 1. 1 3
3o/o. C a l c i u ms i l i c a t e 0.o24 10 1.27
lvlortar 0.06 4 1.27
Atjust1%the influence of thethermalbridges
canbe neglected for mechanical fixingsys-
temsusingplasticrails.However, if the plastic
railsarereplacedby aluminium ones,this 2,6.24 Exampleof calculationfor externalwall of plasteredsingle-leafmasonry
resultsin a considerable surcharge of AU =
Layer Thicknessof IR R
0,05Wm'?Kfor horizontalrailsfixedto the load- layerrn m W/mK m2K,i1,{
bearingsubstrateat 500 mm centres. Internalplaster 6 0.015 0.35 0.04
Inthecaseof a thermally insulated wallwitha C a l c i u ms i l i -
ventilated external claddingmadefromany cate masonry 5 0 . 1 7 5 0.99 0 , 18
oneof a numberof differentmaterials,the Bonding
compouno 4-
cladding fixingsin thewallact as thermal R i g i de x -
bridges. Theireffectdependson the following panded poly-
influences: styrene foam 3 0 , 1 2 0 3.00
. material of thefixings Textured
' numberof fixingsper unitsurfacearea rendeflnq 1-
ThermalresistanceR = X d/)\. = 3.22
. typeof wallmaterial.
Thermaltransmittance
Timbersupportingconstructions with vertical U = 1 / ( 0 . 1 3+ 3 . 2 2+ 0 . 0 4 )= 0 . 3 0W m ' z K
andhorizontal battensfor carryingthe thermal
insulation andthe claddinghaveonlya rela-
tivelysmalleffecton the heattransfer.Thether-
1 , 5 -- 1 2 17.5
malinsulation of suchconstructions can be Tl r-l
calculated accordingto DINEN ISO6946.One
particularly unfavourable casewitha highnum-
berof fixingsis the ventilated facadewitha
claddingof naturalstone.The naturalstone
slabsareusuallyfixedto thewallby meansof
supporting and retaining anchors. The 2.6.25 Heat lossesvia varioustvoes of anchors
absoluteincreasein the thermaltransmittance Type oI Dia, of anchors aK per ancnor
anchor mm W/m'?K
causedby the anchorsdoesnotdependon
Facadeanchorwith
thethickness of the insulation andthetypeof disc and steelscrewwith
stonebasically hasno influence on the heat neao 0.008
transfer.On theotherhand,replacinga con- anchorwith 0.004
electrogalvanized steelscrew
creteloadbearing wallwithoneof masonry
with plasticcoatinq
reducesthe influenceof the anchorsby 4Oo/o. Facade anchor with 0.002
Thereis a linearcorrelation betweenthe V4A stainless steel
absoluteincreasein the heattransferand the screwwith
Facadeanchorwith
numberof anchorsper unitsurfacearea(see thermalbreak
fiq.2.6,22). The influence of thethermal
bridgesis cut by halfwhenstainless steel
anchors areused.lf the naturalstonefacadeis
replaced by a lightweight ventilated cladding
withothertypesof fixingto the loadbearing 2.6.26 Recommen.qedvaluesfor totalenergytransmittanceof transparentcomponentsto DIN 4108 part 6
wall,surprisingly, the influence of the anchors Transparentcomponent Totalenergytransmittance
remains the same.Theuseof a olasticunder YI

S i n g l eg l a z i n g 0.87
lay("Thermostop") betweenbracketand 0.76
D o u b l eg l a z i n g
masonry bringsabouta clearreductionin the Heat-absorbingdouble glazingwith selectivecoating 0.50 to 0.70
thermalbridgeeffect,but a thermalbreak Tripleglazing,standard 0.60 to 0.70
attachedto the cold side of the brackethardlv Tripleglazingwith 2{old selectivecoating 0.35 to 0.50
Solar-control glass 0.20 to 0.50
hasanyeffect.
Translucentthermalinsulation -
An important planninginstrument thesedaysis 035 to 060
Translucentthermalinsulation
the"Determination of thethermalinfluences of T h e r m ailn s u l a t i o n1,0 0 - 1 2 0m m ;
thermalbridgesfor curtainwallventilated 0.8 Wm'?K< U" < 0.9 Wm'?K
facades"[163].Thediscretethermalbridge Absorbentopaquethermalinsulationwith s-[lglelayerglass cov aPProx.Or]0

167
Building
scienee

2.6.27 Rangesof standardthermaltransmittanceU lossvaluec in W/K or the thermalbridgesur- coatingsand noblegasfillingshavealready


for various external masonry walls chargeAU in Wm2Kis specifieddependingon reachedpeakvaluesbetween0.7 and 0.4
the construction of the supportsystemand the W/m2K.
thermalresistanceof the loadbearingconstruc-
tion (influenceof transverseconduction).The The permeability of the windowfor solarradia-
U-value
System effectof a thermalbreakis shownin fi7.2.6.28, tion is expressedby the totalenergytransmit:
w/m2K a thermallyadvantageous supportingconstruc- tanceg. Thiscorrespondsto the percentage
tionin fig.2.6.29.Figure2.6.27is an overview proportionof ineidentradiationthat passes
of the thermaltransmittance valuesfor a num- throughthe glazingintothe interior of the build-
ber of differentwall constructions. ing.As the glazedsurfacesare generallynot
positioned perpendicular to the solarradiation
0.30- 0.50 and so part of the solarenergyis lostthrough
Windows reflectionat the pane,the totalenergytrans-
Thewindowas the "thermalhole"in the build- mittanceis reducedby 15%.Furthermore,
ingenvelopeis nowa thingof the past.Tech- permanent shade,frompadsof the building,
nological developments glazing
in insulating trees,neighbouring buildings,windowftames
systemshaveset standardsin the energy etc.,as wellas the degreeto whichthe solar
assessments of heatedbuildings.Thereduction energysuppliedis usedmustbe takeninto
in transmission heatlossesand maintenance of accountwhencalculating solarheatgains.lf
0.30- 0.45
a sufficienttotalenergytransmittance for the no individualfiguresbasedon measurements
passiveuseof solarenergymeanthatwindows are availablefor the totalenergytransmittance,
contribute to the heatgainduringthe heating the designvaluesgivenin fig.2,6.26maybe
season.However,the areasof glazingdo have used.Thesevaluescoverthe lower,i.e.less
S theirlimitsin termsof thermalinsulation during favourable,rangeof permeability of insulating
NR\
t tM_I--1 1
the summer,whenthey can leadto uncomfort-
ably high interiortemperatures. Thethermal
glazingwithrespectto the solargainsin the
heatingseason.Figure2.6.31showsthether-
t)\R[ 0.20- 0.40 transmittance U* of a windowdependson: mal balanceof two windowswith doubleand
t\Til ' the distancebetweenthe panes tripleglazingduringthe heatingseasonin a
\T'E
\E--f--__-ll
' the numberof panes
. the emissivityof the glasssurfacestowards
referenceenvironment (10"C heatingthreshold-
temperature, degreedaysfactor2900)com'
the cavity oaredto the heatlossesof a well-insulated
. the gasfillingin the cavitybetweenthe panes externalwall.The Un-values are achievedby
' the hermeticedgesealof insulating glazing usingcoatedglassesand gasfillingsto the
' the materialof the frame. cavity.lt can be seenthat doubleglazingwith
0.25- 0.40 a combination of higherUo-value but less
The thermaltransmittance U* can be taken favourabletotalenergytrahsmittance has
fromtablesaccordingto DINEN ISO10077 advantageson the southernside but for other
part 1 (table2.6.30)for constantframepropor- orientatjons exhibitsslightdisadvantages com-
tionsof 20 or 3O%,dependingon the glazing paredto the tripleglazing.The latteris not
(U")andthetypeand designof theframe(Ur), usedso widelybecauseof the considerably
orijeterminedby a simplearea-basedassess- higherweightof the glass.In the searchfor
mentof the U-valuesfor glazingand frame solutionswith evenlowerthermaltransmittance
0.30- 0.50 includinga surcharge for the glasssealaround values,countersash and coupledwindows
the perimeter. Timberand plasticframespro- offergood alternatives in certaincircum-
videgoodthermalinsulation; the insideand stances.The much betterinsulatedexternal
outsidesurfacesof metalframesmustbe care- wallsof modernbuildingsrenderit necessary
fullyseparated(thermal break).Wideningthe to pay specialattentionto the detailat the junc-
cavitybetweenthe panesonly improvesthe tion betweenthe windowand the wall,or the
Uo-value up to a certainwidthdependingon positionof the windowin the wall.Poordesign
thb type of glass(forair about20 mm). lf this or workmanship can havea considerable
0.40- 0.50 width is exceeded,thenthe improvement to effecton the heatlosses.Variouswindow
the thermalinsulationpropertiesis counter- arrangements in monolithicmasonrywallswith
actedby convection. By employing noble external,cavityand internalinsulationhave
gases(argon,krypton,xenon),we can exploit beeninvestigated with respectto theirheat
theirlowerthermalconductivity(comparedto lossesvia the windowrevealsand masonry
air).The heattransportby way of radiation [45].Figure2.6.32showsthe bestpositionsfot:
characterized by the emissionbehaviourof the windowsin differentmasonrywall construc-
glasssurfacescan be drasticallyreducedby tions.
usinglow-Ecoatin.gs. The development of low- DIN4108supplement 2 contains windowsill,
E glazingbeganwith sputtered,laterpyrolytic revealand headdetailsfor monolithicmasonry
coatingsand an airfillingto the cavity;this or masonrywith externalor cavityinsulation.
broughtUn-values of 1.8Wm'zK.Today,double An extractshowingdetailsfor a wallwithcavity
glazingwith magnetroncoatingsand noble insulation is shownin fig.2.6.33.
gasfillingsreachUg-values of 1.1Wm2K.And
moderntripleglazingsystemsbasedon silver

168
Thermalinsulation

Translucentthermal insulation (Tl) 2,6,28 Thermalbridges in ventilatedcurtainwall facades;influenceof thermalbreak betlveen


Incontrast to normalopaquethermalinsulation aluminiumbracketand fixinosubstrate
attached to ihe outside,Tl allowsthe incident Discretethermalbridge loss coefficient1 (W,4() Substratefor fixings
solarradiation to passthroughthe insulation o.12 Bracketfixing point
material. Theradiation is thenabsorbedand 0 , 11
converted intoheatat the loadbearing wall.As 0,10 Thermalinsulation
Tl functions as thermalinsulation, the heatloss 0.09 Bracketslidingpoint
to theoutsideis considerably impededand the 0 . 0 8
majority of the solarenergyis conveyedas o.o7 T-sectionsupport
heatto the interiorbehindtheTl wall.As fig.
0,06
2.6.34shows,conventional, opaquethermal hermalbreak
0,05
insulation converts the incidentsolarradiation
0.04
intoheatat the externalsurfaceand thenradi-
0.03
atesthe majorityof it back to the externalenvi- with thermalbreak
proporlion 0.02
ronment. Onlya negligible of the
absorbed incidentsolarradiation is transmitted 0 . 0 1
through thewallto the interior. Butthewel- 0.00
0 0.1 0.2 0,3 0.4 0,5 0.6 > o.7
comepassiveuseof solarenergyduringthe
wintercan leadto undesirable heatgainsdur- ThermalresistanceR of fixing substrate(m2K,AiV)
ingthewarmermonthsof the year.The lower 2.6.29 Thermalbridges in ventilatedcurtainwall facades;rail systemsof chromium-nickel steelwith
thethermalconductivity and storagecapacity good thermalperformance
of theabsorbentsurfaceof a Tl wall,the hotter 0.03
it becomes uponthe incidence of solarradia- /,/ Substratefor fixings
tion.Thismeansthatthe absorbent surface thermalbreak
behinda Tl wallcan reachoeaktemoeratures Facadefixingwith
of 100'Cand morewithverylightweight base plate and
perforatedplate
masonry comparedto maximumtemperatures
Serratedrail
of 70'Cfor veryheavymasonry.The translu-
Spacerwith
centthermalinsulation mustbe providedwith thermalbreak
sunshading for suchsituations. Themoreinten- Thermalinsulation
sivelythesuncan shineon thefacade,the 0.0] -
higher the heatgainsof a Tl wallare.This
meansthatthe energygainsare greatest for a
southorientation, the lowestfor a nodhorien-
tation.Theheatlossesduringthe heatingsea-
sonoutweighthe benefitsin the caseof a nodh
0.4 0.5 0.6 >0.7
orientation. Tl surfacesfacingeastand west
exhibitan evenenergybalance.Cleargains Thermal resistance R of fixing substrate(m2K V)
havebeenrecordedfor south-facing Tl sur-
facesduringthe heatingseason.Thethickness
of themasonryhas no significanteffecton the 2 , 6 , 3 0 Thermal transmittance_oJ windows to DINENIS9llSZZIe4 1
Type of
energy gains of a Tl wall,Nevertheless, when glazrng irfr.,x Wm2K
planning a Tl buildingit is important to con- Proporlionot tra qa 30%
siderthethickness of the masonrybehindthe 1. 0 1.4 r. 8 2.2 2.6 3.0 3,4 3.8 7.O
5.7 4.3 4.5 4.5 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1 o. l
translucent thermalinsulation as thisinfluences S i n g l e
-s.t
thedelaybetweenmaximumincidence of solar Doubiit--- ffi n z8 zg 3z 3.4 3,5 3.6 4.4
radiation andthe heatbeingpassedon to the glazrng 3.1 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.5 4,3
interior.
Thisdelayis about4 hoursforwalls 2.9 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3,2 3.3 4.1
2.7 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.9 3,1 3.2 4.0
175mmthick,about6 hoursfor walls240mm 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.9
2.5 2.2
thickandaboutB hoursfor walls300 mm thick, 2.3 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.8
virtuallyirrespective of thetypeof wallmaterial, 1,9 2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.8 3.6
Consequently, thetimeat whichthe heatis 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 3.5
1 . 7 1 , 6 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 3.3
passed on to the interioris decisivefor the 2.1 2.3 2.4 3,2
l.c 1. 5 1. 6 1.7 1. 9 2.O
comfortof the user.Thethermaland energy 1.3 1.4 1,5 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.O 2.1 2.2 3,1
effectsand the influenceof climate,material 1.2 1.3 1.5 L6 1
1 ..77 1.9 2.O 2.1
-2e 2,9
parameters and construction detailshavebeen Triple 2.3 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.5 2.7 ze 3.7
glazrng 2.1 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2,4 2.5 2.6 2.8 3,6
investigated in a projectsponsored by Ger- 1.9 1.7 1.8 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.4
many's FederalMinistry for Research and 1.7 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.1 2.2 2.4 2.5 3.3
Technology [63]. LC 1. 5 1, 6 1.7 1, 9 2.0 2.1 2.3 2.4 3.2
Astheuseof translucent thermalinsulation 1,3 1.4 1,5 1.6 1.7 1.9 2,O 2.1 2.2 3.1
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.9
frequently leadsto excessive heatwhichcan- 0,9 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1,7 1.8 2.0 2.8
notbe used,the cost-benefit ratiocan be con- o,7 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.5 1,6 1.7 1. 8 2.6
siderably influenced in individual casesby pro- 9,5 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1,3 1.4 1.6 1.7 2.5
vidingonlya partialcoveringof translucent Note:Calculatedusingy-valuesfrom appendixE. Valuesfor windowswhoseframe proportion* 30% shouldbe
thermal insulatlon. Theareaof translucent determinedus.lllg_the equationsin the main.partof this standaF,
Building
science

2 . 6 . 3 1 T h e r m abl a l a n c e o f w i n d o w s o v e r a h e a t i n g s e a s o n f o r a r e f e r e n c e l o c a t i o n i n G e r m a n y thermalinsulation is typicallybetween10 and


2 3Oo/oof the totalareaof insulation. ln choosing
KWh/HPm
whichareasto cover,architectural aspects,
the orientation of the facade,the planneduse
of the interiorand the amountof spaceavail-
ableon thefacadeall playa role.A solarener-
gy systemconsistingof a translucentlayerof
polycarbonate witha capillarystructureand a
! DoubleglazingUs=1.2 9 = 0 . 6 5 finalcoatingof translucentplasterhas proved
to be an especially practicableoption[204].
Tripleglazing Us=0.8 9=0.5
One importantadvantageof the systemis that
in summera largepartof the incidentsolar
E x t e r n aw
l all
radiationis reflectedat the surfaceof the
% ascompanson "-"."
rr_^e
translucent plaster,and so expensive and
troublesome shadingsystemsaregenerally
20

I
unnecessary.

Solar gains of opaque external walls


Externalcomoonentsabsorbdirector diffuse
incidentsolarradiation. Thus,the outerlayers
South EasWVest Opaque
of the componentheatup firstand the heatis
conductedto the insideof the component.
Thisprocessreducesthe heattransferthrough
the externalcomponent.The heatgaindue to
2.6.32 Positionof window in wall for differenttypes of walls
+ smallheatflow via windowreveal radiation deoendson the available solarradia-
- large heatflow via window reveal tionand henceon the orientation and colourof
the component's surfaces, anyshadingto
thosesurfacesand the externalsurfaceresis-
tance,Thereduction in transmission heat
Type of externalwall accordingto table 1
losseswhichcan be achieveddueto the
Positionol absorptionof radlationby an opaqueexternal
windowin
watl Monolithic Externalinsulation Cavityinsulation Internalinsulation wall is proportionalto the U-valueof the ex-
ternalwall.Whetherthe construction hasone
or morelayersis virluallyirrelevant; likewise,

l7t4t the sequenceof layersin a multi-layer con-

Outside
tffi struction.
Theannualsolarnetheatgainsfromopaque
sectionsof the buildingenvelope without

w translucent thermalinsulation constituteonlya


f././/-

fractionof the totalsolarheatgainsand are

T partlyoffsetby the radiationheatlossesfrom


the buildingto a cloudless sky.Therefore,
can usuallybe ignored.Table2.6.35contains
they

solargainfactorsfor commonexternalwalls.
Thethermaltransmittance of an externalwall is
onlyreducedby 2-12%by the radiation influ-
encefor averageclimaticrelationships. The
Fraunhofer Institutefor BuildingPhysicshas
reachedsimilarconclusions in a computer-
Central
assistedexperimental studyon buildings with
monolithic and multi-layer external walls[198].

lnside
ruw3wl m
+ffi
170
Thermalinsulation

Heat storage relativelysmall.Theoretical studieshavepro- 2.6.33 Favourablewindowpositionto DIN 4108


Theinterior heatsup and coolsdown,the sun supplement2 to reducethermalbridge effect
ducedthe sameresult1741. Therefore, the
(fulljill cavitywall)
shines on theoutsideand rapidchangesto questionof whetherthe heatstoragecapacity
theairtemperature take placeon bothsidesof or thethermalinsulation of external compo-
components. Theseeffectsleadto temperature nentsis moreimportantfromthe pointof view
changes andchangesto the heatflowswhich of savingenergycan be answered: it definitely
cannotbe takenintoaccountby the thermal dependson thermalinsulation. Theimportance
resistance R or the thermaltransmittance U. ln of the thermaltransmittance as the basisfor
thesecasesthe heatstoragecapacityof the calculating transmission heatlossesthrough
materials andcomponents in conjunction with external wallsis undisouted. Studiesof build-
thetimeplaya decisiverole. ingswiththe mostdiverseexternalmasonry
Fora mathematical analysiswithnumerical wallshaverevealed thatdespiteseverely fluc-
methods we requirevariables derivedfromthe tuatingexternalclimaticconditions quasista-
specific heatcapacity, thethermalconductivi- tionaryheatflowsbecomeestablishedafter,at
ty,thegrossdensityand thethickness of the most,oneweekandthe U-valueadequately
materials concerned.The heatstoragecapaci- describes the heatlossesthroughthe opaque
ty Q",i,e,theamountof thermalenergyin external surfacesof a building[2]. However,
J/m2K storedin 1 m2of a slab-like component heavycomponents, whicharethussuitedto
of thickness d in m madefroma materialwith storingheat,do havea positiveeffecton the
densityr in kg/m3for a 1 K temperaturerise,in internal climatebecausetheycooldownslower
a homogeneous construction is givenby whenventilating the interioror afterswitching
offthe heatingand hencemaintain the interior
Q"=cxPxd air temperatureat a comfortablelevelfor a
longerperiod.Theamountof heatlostthrough
Thepropagation of a temperature zone in a ventilation and transmission remains, however,
material
is describedby its thermaldiffusivitya the sameas for the lightertype of construction.
in m7s.As the a-valueincreases,so the tem-
peraturechangein a materialspreadsfaster. We mustdistinguish betweentwo opposing
Thethermaldiffusivityis derivedfromthe ther- phenomenawith regardto the effectof the
malconductivityI, the specificheatcapacityc heatstoragecapacityon the annualheating
andthedensityp of the material concerned: requirement. Theheatgainsdueto internal
heatsourcesand incidentsolarradiation can
)r be betterused by the heavyconstruction than
A_
oxc the lightweight construction becauseoverheat-
ing of the interioris considerably lowerin the
Thethermal diffusivityof buildingmaterials lies former.Thiseffectis rewardedwith a better
intherange0.4to 1 x I 0 6 m7s dependingon useof the heatgains.In contrast, the behav-
bulkdensity(timber= approx.0.2x 10-6m7s, iourof the lightweight construction is more
steel= approx,2.0x 10-6m7s).Theheatpene- favourablethanthe heavyconstruction in the
trationcoefficient of the materialconcernedis caseof a night-time temperature reduction
thegoverning variablewhenassessing the becausethe internal airtemperatures canfall
behaviour of materialssubjectedto briefheat morerapidlyand hencethe heatlossesare 2.6,34 The functionof translucentthermalinsulation
^^m^.r6d +^^n.^t 'a thermalinSUlation
flowprocesses suchas the heatingand cool- smaller.lt is notpossibleto makegeneralized
ingof walls.The heatpenetration coefficientb statementsas to whichtype of constructionis
is derivedfromthe thermalconductivity1.,the Transparent
betterin termsof heatingenergyconsumption
specificheatcapacityc and the densityp of becauseof the opposingeffectsof a night-time I n c i d e nst o l a r
thematerial concerned : temperature reduction and overheating. radiation
Duringthe warmermonthsof the yearthe heat
O=yTx p x c storagecapacityof the internalcomponentsof
a buildingexertsa compensating influence on Heat radiation
Theb-values of somebuildingmaterials are the internal airtemperature gradient.lf the heat
givenintable2,6.36.Figure2.6.37showsthe fromthe sun is storedin the components
heating andcoolingbehaviour for a changein beforebeingradiatedto the internal air,in
interior
airtemperature of 15 K for two different summerwe enjoya pleasant, balancedinternal
wallconstructions with approximately equal climateevenwhencoolertemperatures
thermal resistance. Rapidheating-up of the alreadyprevailbutside.DINEN 13786stipu-
wallsis desirable fromthe pointof viewof latescharacteristic valuesrelatedto the I n c i d e nst o l a r
comfort - withthe heatingoperatedbriefly, dynamicthermalbehaviour of completecom- radiation
However, the lightercomponentcoolsdown ponentsand specifiesmethodsfor theircal-
quickerafterswitchingoff the heating.Practi- culation.
Heat radiation
calinvestigations of the influenceof the heat Thecharacteristic valuesdefinedin the stan-
storagecapacityall leadto the sameresult- dardcan be usedas productspecifications for
thatthe influenceof the heatstoragecapacity, components or for calculating
especially thatof external walls,on the energy 'the internal temperature in a room,
consumption for the heatingof a buildingis . the dailypeakperformance and the energy
Buildingscience

2.6.35 Solargainfactorsfor commonexternalwalls requirement for heatingor cooling, L = x U i x A , + x Y o xl ^ + E 1 ,


subiectedto averaoeclimaticconditions[2131 . the effectsof intermittent
heatingor cooling.
Orientation Commonexternalwall
Liqhtcolour Dark colour
where:
South 0.04 o.12 L thermalconductionin W4(
Easywest 0.03 0,07 Thermal bridges Ui thermaltransmittance of buildingenvelope
North 0.o2 0.06 Theseare weakpointsin the thermalinsulation componenti in Wm2K
of the buildingenvelopeat which- compared Ai surfaceareaapplicable for U,
2.6.36 Heat penetrationcoefficientsfor some building
to undisturbed, neighbouring sectionsof the Y., thermaltransmittance of continuous ther-
materials
Buildingmaterial Heat penetrationcoefficient comoonent - additional heatlossesand lower malbridgek in WmK
J/sosmrK internalsurfacetemperatures occur.Various 'K lengthapplicable for Y^
Normal-weightconcrete typesof thermalbridgesare possibledepend- x1 thermaltransmittance of discretethermal
dependingon grossdensity 1600 to 2400
Lightweightconcrete
ing on theway in whichtheyareformed: bridgej in Wl(.
dependingon grossdensity 250 to 1600
. Geometric thermalbridgesensuewhenthe
Clay brjcks 1000 to 1300 heat-absorbing and heat-radiating surfaces The thermaltransmittance Y is normallytaken
Timber 500 to 650 of the comoonentare of differentsizes.The fromthermalbridgecatalogues. The examples
Foamedplastics 30 to 45
classicexampleof a geometricthermal of buildingdetailscontainedin thesecata-
2.6.37 Chronologicalprogressionof interiorsurface bridgeis the cornerof an external wall. loguesare essentially basedon fixedparame-
temperatureOoifor various externalwalls with . Material-related thermalbridgesdependon ters(e.9.dimensions and materials) andare
approximatelyequalthermalresistancesafter the construction of the buildingandthe therefore lessflexiblethancalculations. The
increasingor decreasingthe internalair temper-
arrangement and combination of components catalogueexamplesoftendo not correspond
atur€OLiby 15 K ('C) [62]
with materialsof differentthermalconductivi- exactlywiththe componentbeinginvestigated.
R = 1 , 5 0m 2 l ( W the useof Y-valuesfromcata-
ty. Typicalthermalbridgesof thiskindare Consequently,
Wall 1 - 24Omm aerated concrete
roofbearings,parapets,balconyfloorslabs loguesleadsto uncertainties aboutthose
i 500 ko/m 3 and columnsin external walls. details.Nevertheless, the Y-valuefroma cata-
l-
i, = 0.16w(mK) . Detail-related thermalbridgescan ensuein loguecan be used,providedthe dimensions
ooi comoonents dueto mechanical connections and the thermalpropertiesof the catalogue
ou = 5'c I Yri
whichpenetrate or bypassthethermalinsula- examplearesimilarto thoseof the building
tion.Theseincludeanchorsin concretesand- detail,or the catalogue exampleis less
wichwallsand multi-leaf walls,and all con- favourable in thermaltermsthanthe building
structions in metalandtimber. detail.The Y-valuesin a thermalbridgecata-
loguemusthavebeenderivedfromnumerical
Measures for avoidingor reducingthermal calculations accordingto DINEN 10211parI2.
tc
bridgesare certainlynecessaryto avoidcon- Thermalbridgecataloguesoffersolutionsto
O densation on internal surfaces, and such detailsfrom basementto roof- for wall,win-
o measuresare generallytaken.However,the dow,floorand balconyjunctions(seefig.
Ern -
remaining in energyterms weak - pointswith 2.6.38),DIN4108supplement 2 contains
o
o higherheatlossesare usuallynottakeninto designand construction examplesfor thermal
E
o
accountwhenassessingthermalperformance bridgedetails;the masonrydetailsinclude
andthe heatingrequirement of a building.To junctionsfor monolithicexternalwallswith
someextentthe additionalheatlossesvia ther- external and cavityinsulation. Figure2.6.39
mal bridgesare balancedby the fact thatthe showsthe junctiondetailsfor groundslab,
0 5 10
transmission heatlossesof a buildingare cal- basementroof (groundfloor),upperfloorslabs
Heatingup (h)
culatedwith referenceto the outersurface, and flat roofwith parapetfor a monolithicexter-
which is too large,particularlyin the caseof nal masonrywall 365 mm thick.A balconyfloor
F = 1.55 m2KAV p 60 mm polystyrene, 30 kg/m3
l, = 0.040 W(mK)
thick,monolithicmasonryconstructions. As the slab projectingfromthe structureacts likea
Wall 2 100 mm normal-weight concrete standardof thermalinsulation of the building coolingfin owingto the increasein the external
.
2500 kg/m J enveloperisesand the thermaltransmittance surfacearea;figure2.6.40showshowthe bal-
lt ^=21w(mK) valuesdrop,so thethermalbridgesplayan conyjunctioncan be thermallyisolatedfrom
flf is
increasingly significant role.Therefore, the the floorslab.The layerof thermalinsulation
or' = 5"c
[1 Ln
H Is.'
increasedheatlossesmustbe investigated at only penetratedat individualpointsby the rein-
the planningstagewhencalculating the heat- forcingbars.Thiscutsthe thermaltransmit-
ing energyrequirement for the building.This tanceY by 50% comparedto a continuous
can be done in differentways.Thermalbridges concreteslab.A steelcurtainwall construction
due to the structureitself,e,g. edges,corners, connectedto the floorslab by a tensionrod
roofbearings, balconyfloorslabsetc,,can exhibitsa similarreductionin thermalbridge
only be calculatedaccuratelywiththe helpof losses.Applyingthermalinsulation to the top
tc
(_l computertechniques.However,for the pre- and bottomof the cantilevering balconyslab
o liminary designof a buildingand assessment broughtpractically no worthwhile success.In
i.n
of the energyeffectsof the buildingenvelope, termsof the thermalbridgeeffectof a whole
o
o it mustbe possibleto estimatethe effectsof varietyof construction detailsfor baleonyjunc-
E
F
o
' c- thermalbridgeswithoutmajormathematical tions,thereis no differencebetvveen single-leaf
analyses.Withthe helpof correctionvaluesto walls,wallswiththermalinsulation composite
take intoaccountcontinuousand discretether- systemand multi-layer externalwalls.
malbridges,DINEN ISO14683givesthether-
malconduction of the buildingenvelopeas

't72
Thermalinsulation

Thethermal influence rangeof thermalbridges aboutthe extentof thermallosses.Temoera- 2.6.38 Some detailsused in a thermalbridge catalogue
canleadto noticeablylowersudacetempera- (Hauser)for specifyingY- and f-values
ture distribution
and heattransfercan be deter-
turesontheinsideandto condensation, which minedfor faithfulreplicasof components in
mayleadto the growthof mould.Specifying laboratorytestsaccordingto DIN EN ISO8990,
theinteriorsurfacetemperatures in "C deter- in whichthe component is incorporatedas a Walljunction Floorjunction
mines - to a limitedextent- the additional stio- oartitionbetweentwo soacesat differenttem-
ulation of external and internal airtemperature. peratures.The mathematical determinationof
As verydifferentboundaryconditionsmay be the effectsof multidimensional thermalbridges
chosen depending on useand meteorological is carriedout by calculating thetemperature
circumstances, the surfacetemperature is used zoneand heatflowusingthe numerical solu-
i na d i m e n s i o n l ef os rsmb y D I NE N I S O1 0 2 1 1 tionof thethree-dimensional thermalconduc-
part2 according to thefollowingdefinition: tionequaticn.lf adequatefor the particular
case,the calculation for furo-dimensionalplane
f * " ,= ( O "-1O e ) / ( O-iO " ) relationshipsis carriedoutand,in the.caseof
clearthree-dimensional temperature and heat Wndow junction Balconyjunction
where: flowzones,extendedto three-dimensional
f*., temperature factorat locationof thermal slruclures.
bridge
Osi internal
surfacetemperature
oi internalair temperature
fl externalair temperature.

ToavoidthegroMhof mould,accordingto
DIN4108part2, the minimumrequirement fRsi
> 0.70mustbe fulfilledassumingan internal air
temperature of 20"Cand 50% relativehumidity
foran externalair temperature of -5"C* a not
infrequent occurrence in Germanyunderaver-
agemeteorological limits.Inthiscontextthe
minimum thermalresistancefor an external
wallR = 0,55m2KAfimustbe increasedto
R = 1.2m2KMin orderto alsomaintain the
temperature factor0.70at the cornersof ex-
ternal wallsaccordingIo 2.6.41assumingan
internal surfaceresistanceR"i= 0.25.This
meansmaintaining an internal surfacetemper-
atureof O"i> 12.6'Cfor the saidlimits.As a
2.6.39 Junctiondetailsfor a single-leafexternalwall
rule,thestipulation in DIN41OBpart2 thatall
a c c o r d i n gt o D I N4 1 0 8s u p p l e m e n2t
constructional, form-related and material-
related thermalbridgesgivenas examplesin
DIN4108supplement 2 canbe regardedas
providing adequate thermalinsulation formsa
simplecriterion for the avoidance of mouldfor
thedesigner and operatorof a building.Inthe
caseof thermalbridgesin components adjoin-
ingthesoilor unheatedbasementroomsand
buffer zones,we mustassumethe conditions
g i v e ni nf i 7 . 2 . 6 . 4 2 .
fhe establishment of thermalbridgescan be
carried outby experiment or by analytical
means. Thesimplestmethodis the determina-
tionof the internalsurfacetemperatures in the
regionof a thermalbridgeby way of discrete
measurements and referenceto the tempera-
turelimitson bothsidesof the externalcompo-
nent.Thermographic techniques involvethe
useof an infraredcamerato providea thermal
imageof theexterior of a buildingelevation or
theinternal surfacesof individual rooms.This
methodsuppliesimportantinformation about
thecondition and qualityof thermalinsulation.
Defective workmanship or the successof
upgrading the insulation to a buildingcan be
madevisible.However, an infraredphotograph
cannothelpus to makequantitative statements
Building
science

2.6.40 lmprovingthe thermalperformanceof balcony Airtightnessl the caseof masonry,penetration of the internal
floor slab junctions As the requirements for thermalinsulation plaster,windowjunctions,falsewall installa-
+ increase, so the airtightness of the building tionsand roofjunctionsmustbe carefully
envelopebecomesmoreand moreimportant. detailed.DIN4108part7 containsimportant
A highdegreeof imperviousness is necessary and usefuldesignand construction recornmen-
in orderto reallyachievethe desiredreduction dations,and shows- see fig. 2.6.43- detailsof
in heatingenergyrequirement and avoiddam- overlaps,junctions,penetrationsand jointsin
ageto the buildingas wellas a dropin the the planeof imperviousness.
standardof comfort.Uncontrolled leakagefrom
the buildingwrecksall othermeasuresfor Requirements for thermal insulation
increasing thethermalinsulation. Therefore, Thedesign,calculation and measuring stan-
partialoptimization, likeminimizing U-values dards providedin CEN/TC89 "Thermalperfor-
withouttakingintoaccountsuch leaks,are manceof buildingsand buildingcomponents"
totallyineffectivein practicalterms.The air- formthe basisfor the NationalApplication
tightnessof a structuremustbe considered Documentsof the seriesof standardsbelong-
= o.as
7f n", independently of the exchangeof internal and ingto DIN410B"Thermal insulationand energy
externalair.Thisexchangeof air is necessary economyin buildings".Thetype and extentof
to maintain a hygienicinternal climateand is requirements is stilla matterfor the individual
takenintoaccountwhencaiculatingthe heat- countries.In orderto maintainminimumrequire-
ing energyrequirement by way of the ventila- mentsand plan energy-saving measures, the
tion heatlosseswith a definedair changerate. followingpartsof DIN4108mustbe adheredto:
Theair changerateis accomplished naturally parl2: Minimumrequirements for thermal
by openingthe windowsor by way of mechani- insulation
cal ventilationsystems.So, leaksin external part 4: Characteristic valuesrelatingto
componentsrepresentadditionaluncontrolled thermalinsulationand protection
ventilationheatlosseswhichcan be avoidedor againstmoisture
at leastminimizedaccordingto the stateof the oart 6: Calculation of annualheatand
an. annualenergyuse
A non-airtightbuildingenvelopeusuallyresults vorr /. Airtightnessof buildingcomponents
in severalunwantedeffects: and connections; recommendations
and examples for planningand Per-
. Draughtsimpairingthe comfortof occupants formance
. Condensation damageresultingfromwater supp.2: Thermalbridges- examples for
vaoourconvectionof the moistinternalair to planningand performance
cold externalzonesof enclosrngcomponents
' Loweredsoundinsulation againstexternalnoise DIN4108part2 specifies the minimumrequire-
2.6.41 The temperaturefactor at an e)iternalwall corner ' Energylossesthatforma considerable pad of mentsfor the thermalinsulation of components
as a function of the thermal resistanceof the thetotalenergylossesof a building. andthermalbridgesin the buildingenvelope. lt
externalwall for two differentthermal trans-
alsocontainsadvicepertinentto thermalinsu-
mittancevalues
Theairtightness of buildingsas wellas individ- lationfor the designand construction of occu-
ualresidential unitsor roomswithina finished piedroomsin buildings, the useof which
36.5 cm buildingis determined accordingto DINEN requiresthey be heatedto commoninternal
ISO9972 (blowerdoor).This international stan- temperatures (> 19'C).Minimum thermalin-
dardspecifies the useof mechanical overpres- sulationis understoodto be a measurethat
sureor underpressure appliedto buildings. guaranteesa hygienicinteriorclimate;with
Theairtightness is generally definedby the adequateheatingand ventilation assuming a
remaining air changerateof the buildingor conventional usage,at everypointon the
part of the buildingat a pressuredifferenceof lnternal surfacesof the buildingenvelope so
50 Pa (nro-value). The airtightness can be that no condensation formsoverthe whole
assessedon the basisof the nuoair change area,nor in corners.Apartfromthat,the riskof
ratesgivenin table2.6.44.Thresholds for the mouldgrowthis diminished. Majorchangesin
air changeratewerefirstlaiddownin DIN the 2000editioncomparedto the 1981edition
ed 4108part7. The n.o-value for buildings with involvepractically the doublingof the minimum
o naturalventilation is limitedto 3.0 per hour, for value for the thermalresistanceof external
H 0.8 buildings withmechanical ventilation 1.0per wallsfromR > 0.55to R > 1.2m2KNtl, the more
o
= hour,ln additionto the reouirements of the detailedtreatmentof thermalbridges,meas-
6
@ i7 standard,it is consideredadequate,takinginto uresfor avoidingthe growthof mouldand the
o
E
".,
accountpracticalbuildingtolerances, when simplified assessment of minimum thermal
o
F the measuredair flow rate,relatedto the vol- insulation for heavyand lightweightcompo-
umeof air in the room,exceedsthethreshold nents.We nowonly distinguishbetweencom-
0.6
givenin the standardby up to 0.5 per hourat a ponentswith a surface-related totalmassof at
pressuredifferenceof 50 Pa. least100 kg/m3and componentswith a lower
As mightbe mayexpected,masonrybuildings totalmasswithouttakingintoaccountthe posi-
generallyhavea betterairtightness than light- tion of layersof insulationand theireffecton
Thermal R
resistance weighttypesof construction. However,evenin heatingand coolingprocesses.Thefact that

174
Thermalinsulation

lowerstoragemassis compensatedfor by ' Primaryenergyrequirement: the amountof 2.6.42 f emperaturelimitsto DIN 4108 part 2 for thermal
betterthermalinsulationis solvedsimplyby energyrequiredto coverthe finalenergy bridge calculations
Partof buildingor surroundings Temperaturee
applying enhancedrequirements with requirement,takingintoaccountthe addi- 'c
R > 1.75m2K/"N for components< 100 kg/m3, tionalamountsof energyconsumedby up- Basement 10
whichcorresponds to the formermaximum streamprocesschainsbeyondthe system Soil 5
Unheatedbufferzone 10
valuefor lightweight components, In the case boundaryof the buildingduringthe produc-
Unheated roof
frames,the valueappliesonlyto
of structural tion,conversion of thefuel
and distribution
theinfillpanels.Inthesecasesan averageof used.
R > 1.0m'zKAN is to be maintained in addition
forthe entirecomoonent.Fuftherdetailshave Up to now,the heatingrequirement hasbeen
alreadybeendescribedin the sectionson subjectto certainstipulations, but the new
thermal bridgesand airtightness. standardis coupledto the heatingenergy
requirement, i.e,the primaryenergyevaluation, 2.6.43 Examplesof sealingto DIN 4108 part 7
Energy-savings Act in orderto incorporate the efficiencyof the
Puttingfiguresto the requirements for energy- plantandthe energycarrierused.Thismeans
savingthermalperformanceis the objectof thatthe balanceframework,whichpreviously
public-law statutesaimedat energy-saving endedat the radiator,now extendsbackto the
construction, The stipulationof an annualener- powerstationor to the supplyof gas or oil.
gy requirement in the Energy-savings Act cor- Onekeyelementin the Energy-savings Act is
respondsto a oerformanceclassfor different the stricterframeworkof requirements for
methods of energy-saving definedin principal energy-saving construction, the aimof whichis
document No.6 "Energyeconomyand heat to cut consumptionby an averageof 3O7ofor
retention".The EuropeanstandardDIN EN832 newbuildingworkandto bringthe previous
servesfor itstechnicalimolementation. This thermalinsulation andtechnicalolantrequire-
standardrefersto a seriesof furtherdesign mentsand upgradingrules,as appliedto the
standards, suchas the calculationof the spe- existingbuildingstock,up to the currenttech-
cificheatlosscoefficient,heattransferto the nologicallevel.As in theThermallnsulation
soil,dynamicthermalparametersand the treat- Act,thisact coversbuildings withnormalinter-
mentof thermalbridges.The raw datafor the naltemperatures (min.19'C);the definition for
designstandards includesproductfeatures, buildings withlowerinternal temperatures 1 Airtightlayer
4 Urdl rpil rg uorrsr r
e.g.thethermalconductivity of insulationma- remainsunchanged. 3 Compressedsealingstrip
terialsand masonryconstructions. The logical Buildings withnormalinternal temperatures Adhesive
4 lnternalplaster
connection betweenthe variousdesign,pro- mustcomplywithmaximum figuresfor the
ductandmeasuring standardsis illustratedin annualprimaryenergyrequirement (seefig.
Junctionbetweenroof and plasteredmasonrywall
fig.2.6.45.Furthermore, nationalboundary 2.6.46),dependingon thetypeof building
conditions, e.g.climatedata,solargains,inter- Al/e. The specification of the primaryenergyis
nalheatsourcesand air changeratein DIN intendedto createa clearlinkto the political
4108part6, as wellas provisions for dealing objective of reducingcarbondioxideemissions
withtotalheatlossesfroma heatingsystem and avoida distortionof the marketfor com-
andthe heatingrequirement for hotwatersup- petingenergysystems. On the otherhand,the
pliesto DIN4701part 10,stillhaveto be spec- calculated finalenergyprovidesvaluableinfor-
ifiedin orderto finalizethe Europeanmethodof mationfor the useras a standardizedoredic-
analysrs. tion of the consumption to be expectedand at
Experience hasshownthatambiguous desig- the sametimeformsa parameter in an "energy
nationsand confusionoftenarisewhendes- requirement pass"specificto the building. The
cribingthermalinsulation and energyproper- additional ancillary requirement coveringthe
ties.Therefore, the followingdefinitions are maximumannualheatingrequirement is
6 Sealingstrip laminated
intended to provideclarity: intendedto ensurethatthe oreviousstandard with non-wovencloth
' Heatingrequirement: heatto be deliveredto of thermalinsulation to the buildingenvelopeis
the heatedspaceto maintainthe temperature maintained. Junctionbetweenwindowframe and masonrywall
overa periodof time. Requirements forthe imperviousness of ex-
' Heating energyrequirement: the calculated ternalwindowsand glazeddoorsremain
amountof energythat mustbe fed intothe unchanged. Theimperviousness of the build-
heatlngsystemof a buildingto be ableto ing envelopeis dealtwithmoreprecisely by
coverthe heatingrequirement. providinginformation on a suitablemethodof 2.6.44 Au chanqeratesfor airtightnesstesl
' Heating energyconsumption: the amountof measurement and permissible leakagerates. Recommendedvalues
heatingenergy(energycarrier)measured To guaranteeenergy-saving summerthermal Aidightness Air change rate at 50 palh
overa certainperiodwhich is requiredto insulation, the previousprovisions havebeen of building Apartment Detached
maintaina certaintemperaturein a zone. improvedandtightenedup in linewithtech- '1.0-3.0
. Finalenergyrequirement: the amountof nicalprogress. very airtight 0.5-2.0
moderatelyairtight 2.0-4.0 3.0-8.0
energywhichis requiredto coverthe annual A limitto the coolingrequirement hasbeen l e s sa i r t i g h t 4.0-10.0 8.0-20.0
heatingenergyrequirement andthe heating imposedon buildings which,becauseof their Thresholdvalues
requirement for the provisionof hotwater, function,demanda particular typeof facade Buildingwith Air changesper h
determinedat the systemboundaryof the and coolingin the summer. Theminimumener- naturalventilation nso33
buildingunderconsideration. gy requirements for startingup heatingboilers, mechanicalextraction n s o< 1 , 5

't75
Building
science

2 . 6 . 4 5 B r e a k d o w n o f T C 3 9 s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n w o r k a n d l i n k s b e t v v e e n i n d isvtiadnudaal r d s apparatusand hotwatersystems


distribution
stipulatedin the HeatingPlantsAct havebeen
Energy-savings
Act
incorporated essentiallyen bloc.
P l a n n i n ga n d d e s i g ns t a n d a r d s As before,buildings withlowinternal tempera-
Buildings turesonlyhaveto complywitha maximum
annualtransmission heatingrequirement
Thermalperformanceof buildings
becausefor thesebuildings the air changerate
Calculationof heatingenergyrequiremenl and internalheatsourcescanfluctuate quite
considerably dependingon use.
Changesto existingbuildingsnecessitated the
Specifictransmissionheat loss coefficient
previousprovisions to be adjustedto the
E N t S O1 3 3 7 0 requirements for the thermaltransmittance of
Thermaltransmissionvia the soil individualcomponents accordinglo tig.2.6.47,
Tighterstipulations forthermalinsulation mea-
DraftEN 13786
Dynamicthermalproperties suresto be carriedout duringrefurbishment
of components workwerecreatedso that corresponding
improvements affecting energyrequirements
1lparts1and wouldfinda widerangeof applications among
the existingbuildingstock.Withina specified
period,the heatingdistribution pipesof a heat-
ing systemin an existingbuildingmustbe
insulatedandthe boileritselfbroughtup to the
standardof newbuildingwork.

Method of calculation
Thecalculation of the heatingand heating
energyrequirements is carriedout by usingthe
European standardDINEN832 in conjunction
withthe National Application Document DIN
4108part6 and DIN 4701part1O.Themethod
of calculation accordingto DINEN832 is
basedon a stationary energybalancebut
does.however.take intoaccountinternaland
external temperature changesas wellas the
for primaryenergyrequirement
2 , 6 . 4 6 Stipulations dynamiceffectof internal and solarheatgains.
200 Theannualheatingenergyrequirement is cal-
Primaryenergy culatedaccordingto fig.2.6.48by drawingup
requirement with
180 a balancesheetof the lossand gainvariables
hot water heated
6 by electric involved. Apartfromthe heatingrequirement
E 160 Primaryenergy
c
requrrement
dependingon the building, the heatingenergy
? 140 with hot water requirement alsoincludesthetechnicallosses
;
c
heatedby boiler
of the heatingsystem,the energyrequirements
o 12n Primaryenergy
c
o requirement for hotwaterand possiblegainsfromregener-
= 100
o
without hot water ativesystems.The lossesof the systemcan be
o Energy-savings
Act calculated accurately accordingto DIN4701
>80 (Heatingenergyrequirementl
o part10 by way of quantityfiguresfor heat
o
C^^
oou transfer, storage,generation
distribution, and
o
c primaryenergyconversion for eachindividual
o caseaccordingto the plansavailable for the
I
20 technicalservicesor by usinga quantity figure
e^ for the entiresystemrelatedto the primary
0 ehergy.Two methodsare availablefor deter-
0 0,1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1
miningthe heatingrequirement. Thesimpler
, 4 / 1 m -1 periodbalancemethod,alsopossiblewithout
the use of a computerand restrictedto resi-
Act (EnEV):
2.6.47 Enerov-savinos measures
for existinq
buildinq
stock dentialbuildings, usesthe equation
Component U-value
Wm2k
EnEV Q n = Q r ,n p - n H p x Q g , F j e
Externalwalls (internalinsulation,renewingof infillwalls) 0,45
Externalwalls 0.35 where:
Windows 1,70 for the heating
Q^ the heatingrequirement
Floors,roofs, pitched roofs (steep) 0.30
Floors,roofs,pitchedroofs (shallow) o.25 season
Roofsand wallsto unheatedinteriorsor soil (insulationon cold side) 0,40 Q,,n, the heatinglossesduringthe heating
Roofsand wallsto unheatedinteriorsor soil (insulationon warm side) 0.50 season

176
Thermalinsulation

Qn,gpthe heatinggains(internal,solar)during ing system(low-temperature boiler,condens- . The differencebetweenthe air temperature


the heatingseason ingtechnology), withverifiedimperviousness, and the surfacetemperature of enclosing
Tlnp the degreeof utilization. night-time dropin temperature, optimized dou- componentsdoes not exceed2 K.
ble glazingand a highstandardof insulation to . The relationship
betweenair temperature and
Themoreaccuratemonthlybalancemethod roofand basementareas. relativehumiditylies,and is appropriately
takesintoaccountfurthervariables influencing ln such casesthe thermaltransmittance of the balanced,in the rangeof O = 1B-24"C and
theheatingenergyrequirement and broadens external wallshouldnotexceedU = 0.40Wm2K. <P= 40-600/o.
theplanningoptions.Theannualheating Twin-leafmasonrywith additionalthermalinsu- . Theair circulatingin the interiordoesnot
requirement Qnis obtainedby addingtogether lation,single-leaf wallswiththermalinsulation exceeda velocityof 0.10-0.20m/s.
theindividual monthlybalances, provided compositesystemsor thermallyinsulatedcon-
therehavebeen positivevaluesfor each structionswithventilatedouterleavesare all
month,usingthe equation possiblewithoutany problems. Thermal insulation in summer
All the mainenergyrequirement segmentsof a Withsuitableconstruction, mechanical cooling
n _sn
v L! ' - ! v ! ^/ buildingarecoveredby an "energyrequire- systemsare generallyunnecessary in build-
""'' oos
and mentpass"for the followingpurposes: ingscontaining apartments or individual offices
Qn,v=Qr,v-nMxQs,M . To providethe userwith information aboutthe and otherbuildings withsimilaruses.
energyconsumption to be expected. Thermalinsulation in summeressentially
DIN4108part6 containsthe limitsfor the heat- . To improveclarityin the housingand proper- dependson the totalenergytransmittance of
ingdegreedays,the averageavailable solar ty marketwith respectto the qualityof build- transparentexternalcomponents, theircom-
radiationand the averagemonthlyexternal ingsin termsof energyaspects. oassorientation and, in the caseof roofwin-
temperatures and intensityof solarradiation ' To supportthe implementation of the Act by dows,theirinclination. Otherfactorsarethe
necessary for bothmethodsof calculation. An puttingthe userin the positionio checkthe optionsin the rooms,the heatstor-
ventilation
analysis of thermalinsulation accordingto pub- featuresof hisbuildingrelevant to energy, age capacity(particularly internalcompo-
lic-lawrequirements mustalsoapplythe condi- and to investigate unusualaspects. nents),and the heatconductionpropertiesof
tionsdescribedin DIN4108oart6, A simplesummaryshowsthatthe heating opaqueexternal components subjecttonon-
Theadvantagesof the monthlybalance energyrequirement of a buildingis determined constantboundaryconditions.Effectivesun-
methodarethatthe influencesof lighteror by fourfactors: shadesfor transparentexternalcomponents
heaviertypesof construction on the degreeof . Climate:locationof building,external temper- can be integratedintothe construction by way
utilization of the heatgainsand the effectof the ature,incidentsolarradiation of overhangingroofsor balconies,by external
night-time drop in temperature, as well as solar . Building: shape,volume,planlayout,orienta- or internalblindsor by usingsolar-control
gainsvia glazedsections, opaquecomponents tion,construciion of externalcomponents, glass.The purposeof limitingthe ingressof
andtranslucent thermalinsulation can all be type of construction solarradiationin the summeris to guarantee
takenintoaccount.The air changerateof . Heatingsystem:heatgeneration, regulation, comfortableinteriortemperatures, i,e.to avoid
=
n 0.7 per hourfor naturalventilation, and its distribution,hotwatersupply exceedingcertainthresholdtemperatures for
reduction to n = 0.6 per hourif an airtightness . Use:internaltemperature, air changerate, morethan10%of the occupancytime.In order
testis carriedout an$ the conditionn.o < 3 per usablewasteheat. to keeowithintemperature limitsin warmercli-
houris therebyfulfilled, hasa decisiveinflu- maticregions(withsunshades provided), the
enceon the heatlosses.A furtherreductionin followingrequirements havebeenlaid down:
ventilation lossescan be achievedby using Thermal comfort
mechanical ventilation with heatrecovery. Thethermalcomfortin a heatedroomessen- ' summerclimateregionA;
ln the oeriodbalancemethodthe influence of tiallydependson the surfacetemperatures of cool summerregions25'C
thermalbridgesis determined by a globalsur- the surfacesenclosing the roomand on the air . summerclimateregionB;
chargeon the specifictransmission heatloss temperature withinthe room.The velocityand moderateregions26oC
U humidityof the air,the activities of peoplein . summerclimateregionC;
the roomand clothingalsoplaya role.The hotsummerregions27'C
H*r=AU*rxA comfortrangesof the individualfactorsare
linked.Theair and surfacetemperatures influ- Thefixedthreshold of the dimensionless solar
AUwe= 0.05Wm'?Kcan be usedfor con- encethetemperature perceivedby an occu- heatpenetration Srr* mustnot be exceededin
structionscomoarablein thermaltermswith pantsuchthat- withincertainlimits- a lower an analysis.Thisvalueis calculatedfromthe
DIN4108supplement 2. Themonthlybalance air temperaturecan be compensated for by a totalenergytransmittance of the glassg, the
methodalsopermitsthermalbridgelossesto highersurfacetemperature(seefig. 2.6.49). proportionof windowareaf in an elevation,
be calculatedusingthermaltransmittance val- Thereis a connectionbetweenthe desired and the reductionfactorF" for sunshadesas
ues(y-values). humidityof the air and itstemperature, which well as the windowframecomponentFr:
can also be presentedas a comfortrange(see
Inaddition,quickimplementation of DINEN832 fig.2.6.50). Thedegreeof comfortperceived Sru"z S = f x g x F" (1 - FF)/0.7
is madepossibleby meansof globalreduction by an occupantmustbe assesseddifferently
methodsor correctionvaluesderivedfrom for eachindividual. Basedon essentially physi- The thresholdis calculatedfroma basicvalue
comprehensive European standards requiring cal processes suchas radiation exchange, Sofor the applicable summerclimateregionas
intensive mathematical analysis.Thissimplifi- conduction and evaporation, as wellas gener- well as correctionfactorsdependingon con-
cationhas an effecton temperaturecorrection allyapplicable experiences, a favourable inter- structionand useaccordingto table2.6.51:
factorsfor areasin a heatedbasementin par- nal climateprevailswhenthe followingfactors
ticular. are oresent: Sr"" 2 So + x, AS,
Calculations carriedoutfor individual typesof . The externalcomponents- with goodthermal
buildings confirmthatsingle-leaf masonrywalls insulation- havean internalsurfacetempera- valuesapplyfor the design
Thefollowing
arestillpossiblewith a higherstandardof heat- tureof about18"C. valueS^:

177
Building
science

2.6.48 EN 832 (thermalperformanceof buildings):calculationof heatingenergyrequirementQ (finalenergy)and summerclimateregionA So= 0.tB


primaryenergyrequirementQp for residentialbu;lding
summerclimateregionB So= 0.14
summerclimateregionC So= 0.t0

Accordingto DIN4108part2, onlythe basic


valueSo= 0.18for coolsummerregionsis
usedas the minimumrequirement for thermal
insulation in summer,lf the proportion of win-
Q Heatingenergyrequirement \ dows in a westto southto eastorientation is
Q, Heat gain from surroundings lessthan2Oo/o, or lessthan3Oo/o for a north-
(renewableenergy) Transmission
eastto northto north-west orientation, or less
Qn Heatingrequirement
Q* Heatingrequirementfor hot water
than157ofor slopingwindows,an analysis is
supplres nornecessary.
Qr Lossesfrom heating systems
Q p Primaryenergyrequirement
* ?imi" lnlhe differentiated methodaccordingto DIN
4108pad 6, the specifiedthreshold forthe so-
- p Primaryenergy-related
total Q = Qn+ Q,+ Q, ' o, calledstandardized, non-usable heatgains
system cost index Q p = ( Q h+ Q w ) . e p
(whichcan alsobe interpretedas ovenemper-
aturedegreehours)mustnot be exceeded.
2,6,49 Relationshipbetweeninteriorair temperatureand surfacetemperaturewith The methodof calculationmakesit possibleto
respectto the comfortof occupants[ 15] take intoaccountvariousfactors,e.g. internal
heatloads,orientation of facade,air change
30 rateetc.,accurately. The differentiated method
28 is particularly suitablefor buildings withhigh
26 internalloadsor enhancedpassivesolarener-
gy use.Buildings withinteriorcoolingshould
Surface 24
remperalure be initially designedand constructed in sucha
22
way thatthe stipulations for thermalinsulation
20 in summerarecomoliedwithandthe residua
18. heatis removedby usingmechanicalsystems
t oa
( s e ef i g .2 . 6 . 3 6 ) .
1t -

."1
a
1oL
12 20 22 24 26
airtemperature 'C
Interior

2,6,50 Relationshipbetweeninteriorair temperatureand relativehumiditywith respect


to the comfortof occupants[ 16]

22 24 26

airtemperatureu
Interior ("c )

2.6.51 CorrectionvaluesAS for basic characteristicvalueS^for solarheat oenetration


lnfluencingvariablesito be considered As'
Lightweightconstruction:
timberstudding,lightvveight panitions,suspendedceilings - 0.03
Extremelylightweight construction:
primarilyinternalinsulation,large hall,few internalcomponents - 0.10
Solar-controlglassitwith g < 0.4 + 0,04
Increasednight-timeventilation(night n > 1.5,h during 2nd half of night) + 0.03
Proportronof window area in facade > 65% - 0.04
Roomsfacing north(NW-N-NE) + 0.10
Inclinedwindows(00-60"lo the horizontal) - 0.06

178',
moisturecontrol
Climate-related

Climate-relatedmoisture control i.e.saturation,is reached.lf the air coolsfur- 2.6.52 Moistureloadson externalcomponents
ther,the watermustbe separatedout fromthe
Theeffectsof moisturecausedby building air, becausethe air at thattemperaturecan no
work,normallivingconditions, rainand con- longerholdthat amountof waterin vapour
densation remaina problemin the construction form.Mistformsin a gaseousatmosphereor
industry.Therefore,measureshaveto be taken condensation on solidsudaces.Thetempera-
to keepmoistureof any kind awayfromthe ture at whichthis processbeginsis knownas
buildingor reduceit to a safeminimum.Inade- the dew pointtemperature, or simplydew
quatemoisturecontroldecreasesthe levelof ooint.Constructional measuresto avoidthe
thermalinsulationand can leadto laterdam- temperature fallingbelowthe dew pointon
ageto the masonrythroughcorrosion,frost, internal sudaceshavebeendealtwithin the
mouldgroMhand efflorescence. Figure2.6.52 section"Thermal in coniunction
insulation"
ls a diagramnof the moisture loadson a build- withthermalbridges,
ing. Drivingrain

Surface water
Fromoutsidewe havethe effectsof: Hygroscopic moisture
. rain.snow.moistexternalair Porousbodiesabsorbmoisturein the formof
. moistsoil,seepagewater,a build-upof watervapourfromthe surrounding air accord- Seepagewater l Vapourditfusion
water,groundwater ingto theirphysicaland chemicalproperties. Dissolvedsalts
Frominsidewe havethe effectsof: Adsorptionmay causewatermoleculesto col-
' moisturefromnew buildingwork lecton the surfaceof a materialin one or more
. waterin kitchensand bathrooms layers,accordingto the relativehumidity. And
' dampness causedby the household,plants in porousmaterials witha capillary-like struc-
andwashing,and moistureevaporating from ture,watercan alsoaccumulateon internal
theoccupants surfaces.lf the watervapourin thesecapillar-
. moisturecondensingon the internalsurfaces iescondenses, thewatermovesaccordingto
of components or withinthe components. the lawsof capillarity.This processis knownas
capillarycondensation. Thesetwo mechanisms 2.6.53 Variables,symbolsand unitsused in moisture
The physical'variables, symbolsand unitsrele- comeunderthe general headingof "sorption".
vantto the assessment of moistureprotection The hygroscopicpropertiesof buildingmater- Water vapour partial Pressure p
aregivenin table2.6.53. ialsare describedby sorptionisotherms, which Relativehumidity @ 1
on the moisturecontentin Mass-relatedmoisture content kg/kg
orovideinformation u
Water vapour diffusion coefficient D m2h
eachcasedependingon the relativehumidity Water vapour diffusionflow rate
(seefig.2.6.55). of the ambi- Watervapourdiffusionresistance z
s kg/m'?h
Humidity Thetemperature m'?hPa,rkg
Theair in the atmospherealwayscontains entair hasonlya smallinfluence. The hygro- Watervapourdiffusionconduction
watervapourfromthe evaporatlon of water. scopicwatercontentthat becomesestablished coefficient 6 kg/mhPa
Water vapour diffusion
Depending on thetemperature, air can hold undernormalambientconditions is important
resistanceindex !rl
onlya certainamountof watervapour,and this for assessingmoistureratiosin a materialin Water absorption coefficient w kg/m2 ho 5
increases as the temperaturerises(seefig. practice.Thehygroscopic equilibrium moisture Water vapour diffusion-
2.6.54).As moistair cools,the dew point(or contentsof variousbuildingmaterialsare given equivalentair layerthickness sdm
Area-related
saturation value)is reached.The saturation (for
in table2.6.23 reference climaticcondi- kg/m2
condensationmass flw,r
contentof watervapourin the air corresponds tionsof 23"Cand 807orelativehumidity). Area-related
to a saturation vapourpressuredependingon Besidesthe finalvaluesfor sorptionmoisture evaporataon mass flwv kg/m2

temperature. Thisalso increasesas the tem- whichbecomeestablished in the constant


peraturerisesto the samedegreeas the state,the non-constant behaviourof surface
capacityto holdwatervapour. layersis also interestingsincethey act as
Inthe majorityof casesthe air containsslightly bufferzonesfor fluctuating internal humidities.
2.6,54 Watersaturationor dew pointgraph
morewatervapourthanthe respectivesatura- Kunzel[62] has shownthat it is the properties
tioncontentallows.The relativehumidityQ of the outermostsurfacelayersthat are partic-
servesto designatethe watercontentof the ularlyrelevantfor short{ermmoisturechanges,
air.Thisis the ratiobetweenthe actualamount and thatthe substanceof the wall beneath
of watervapourpresentW and the saturation plasteror wallpaperno longerhasany influ-
quantityW" or the ratiobetweenthe prevailing ence.On the otherhand,furnishings witha tr
watervapourpartialpressurep and the satura- hightextilecontent,e.g, upholstery, carpets, tc
tionpressureps,givenby curtainsetc.,havea highsorptioncapacity, 6

whichmeansthatno significant moisture fluc- o


c
0=W/Vs=p/ps tuations should be expected in living rooms o ln
C
and bedrooms,and the sorptionbehaviourof o

Forsaturatedair O= 1.0or 100%.As moistair buildingmaterials is unimportant. o

heatsuo in a roomwithoutthe additionor =s


extraction of air,so the relativehumiditydrops
becausethe possiblesaturationquantityrises
for a constantquantityof watervapour.In the
reversesituation- moistair cooling- the rela-
tivehumidityincreases untilthe valueof 100%,
Buildingscience

2.6,55 Rangesof sorptioncurves Capillarity out occurrence of condensation is easilyillus-


In water-filledporesand tube-likematerial component(seefig.
tratedfor a single-layer
structures in buildingmaterials, capillary
ten- 2.6.57).Thewatervapourdiffusionflow rateg
sileforcesoccur due to the surfacetensionof in kg/m'zhthrougha componentin the constant
- water,dependingon the concaveradiusof the stateis calculated usingthe equationbelow.
b meniscusand the wettabilityof the solidmater- To do this,we mustknowthe watervapourpar-
! r(
ial.Thecapillarysuctioncan haveeithera pos- tialpressures p;and p" in Pa on bothsidesof
itiveor negativeeffecton the building,depend- the componentas well as the watervapour
C
o ing on the moistureloadand the associated diffusionresistanceZ of the component.At a
c moisturemovement.The absorptionof water referencetemperatureof 10"C,Z can be
o 1n
o-
o and conveyance by capillaryactiondueto dri- calculated from
l
vingrainor moistsoiimustbe avoided.On the
>c otherhand,the capillarity of a buildingmaterial Z=1.5xl06xpxd
promotesthe transportof waterfromwithina
buildingcomponent to the surface,whereit Consequently, the diffusionflow rateis indirect-
0 then hasthe chanceto evaporate.Thisaccel- ly proportionalto the diffusionresistancegen-
eratesthe removalof moisturefromthe build- erallyapplicable and thethickness of the build-
Relativehumidity(%) ing process frommasonry.In the caseof con- ing material.Thedimensionless materialprop-
Clay bricks,gypsum
densationformingwithinthe masonrydue to ertyp specifiesby how muchthe diffusion
B Normal-wei ght concrete,lightweight concrete,auto- watervapourdiffusion,the amountof conden- resistanceof a materialis greaterthanthe sta-
clavedaeratedconcrete,calciumsilicate sationcan be reducedby capillaryactionand tionaryair.The ;r-valueof air is therefore1. As
c Timber,organicfibrousmaterials the chanceto dry out improved.A standard- the thicknessis of courseimportantfor calcu-
izedtestin DINEN ISO15148is suitablefor latingthe diffusionresistanceof a component
2,6.56 Capillarywaterabsorptionof variousbuilding
establishing the waterabsorptionof a capillary- or layerof a component,in practicewe usethe
materialsin relationto the square root of the type porousmaterial.In thistest a samplesur- diffusion-equivalentair layerthickness
time (afterKLinzel) face is immersedin waterand the increasein
massdeterminedas a functionof the absoro- so=pxd
,/ tiontime.Thewaterabsorptionincreaseslin-
,, earlyin proportionto the squarerootof the Thisunitis specifiedin m. In somecasesthis
immersion time(seefig.2.6.56). the diffusionpropertiesof a
t/
F Thecurve characterizes
o correspondsto the waterabsorptioncoefficient buildingmateriallayerbetterthanthe p-value
E,u specificto the material: on its own.Thisis particularly truefor thin lay-
3
b. ersand vapourbarriers(seetable2.6.59). The
€6 -r o
4 W = wxrf diffusion-equivalent air layerthicknesses of thin
o
6
3s t/
t/u*
-'t-
5
where:
W = the quantityof waterabsorbedfor a unit
layershaverecentlybeendefinedin DIN4108
oart 3 as follows:

- open diffusionlayerwith sd< 0.5 m


surfaceareainkg/m2
t = the absorptiontimein h - diffusion-resistant
layerwith
0 1 2 3 45 6 7 8 I 10
w = the waterabsorptioncoefficientin 0.5 m < so< 1500m
Time (h)
1: Gypsum1390kg/m3 kg/m2h{5 - closeddiffusionlayerwithso > 1500m.
2: Solidclay bricks 1730 kg/m3
3: Autoclaved aerated concrete 640 kg/m3
4: Calciumsilicate1780kg/m3 Table2.6.58givesw-values for materials
typic- Watervapourdiffusionresistances for building
5: Pumiceconcrete880 kg/m3 allyusedfor buildingwalls. materialsand masonryarespecifiedin DIN
4'108oart 4 and DIN EN 12524.Twovaluesare
givenin DIN4108part4 in orderto take
Water vapour diffusion accountof the scatterfor type of materialor
in physicalterms,air is a mixtureof gasesin type of masonry.In calculatingthe diffusion,
whichthe nitrogen,oxygenand watervapour the lessfavourablewatervapourdiffusion
2.6.57 Walervapourtransportthroughan externalcom- molecules circulateindependently. Eachindi- resistanceshouldalwaysbe usedfor the con-
ponent
vidualgas exertsthe samepartialpressureit densingperiod.Thismeansthatwhenconden-
a temperaturegradient
p Watervapourpartialpressuregradient wouldexertat the sametemoeratureif the sationoccurswithina type of structure,the
othergaseswere not present.Existingmois- lowerp-values shouldbe usedfor calculating
ture differencesin tvvoblocksof air are bal- the quantityof condensation on the inner
ancedby watervapourdiffusionin the direc- (warm)sideof the condensation.plane or con-
tionof the potentialgradient.Thisdiffusion densation zone,and the higherp-values forthe
shouldnot be confusedwitha flowwhich outer(cold)side.However,the valuesusedfor
occursas a resultof a totalpressurediffer- calculatingthe massof condensation should
ence.In diffusionprocesses,the sametotal be retainedfor calculatingthe evaporation
pressureis generallypresenton bothsidesof options.Table2.6.60providesan overviewof
a separatinglayer.The externalcomponentsof the watervapourdiffusionresistances for
heatedinteriorsare subjectedto watervapour masonryand plastergivenin DIN4108part4.
diffusionprocessesbecausetheyseparate In contrast,the EuropeanstandardDIN EN
blocksof air with differenttemperatures and 12524distinguishes betweenwatervapourdif-
moisturecontents.The diffusionorocesswith- fusionresistancesdeterminedaccordinqto the

180
moisturecontrol
Climate-related

dryand moistzonemethodof DIN EN ISO 2.6.58 Waterabsorptioncoefficientof buildingmaterials(afterKunael)


Mate{bl Gross density Water absorption
12572.ln the firstcasethe materialis essen- coefficient
tiallydry duringthetestbecausethe humidities
on bothsidesof the sampleare approx.0%
and50%,but in the secondcaseabout50% solid 2.9
verticallyperforated 8,3
and95%,so thatfor hygroscopicmaterialsan
vertrcallyperforated 11
appropriaiemoisturecontentbecomesestab- e 1635 7' 7
lishedand influences the p-valuethroughthe normal-weighl solid calciumsilicate 1760 5.5
transport of the sorbedwater(seefig. 2.6.61). lightweightconcrete solid calciumsiiicate 1920 3.2
pumiceconcrete alq 2.9
Conesponding figuresfor buildingmaterials pumiceconcrete 1085 1.9
canbe foundin table2.6.62.lt can be seen autoclaved aerated concrete 535 4.0
thatthe ;r-values for the moistzonewiththe autoclaved aerated concrete 600 4.2
greaterflowof sorbedwaterare lowerthan autoclaved aerated ooncrete 630
normal-weight concrete 2290 1,8
thosefor the dry zone. concrete 2410 1.1
normal-weiqht

Calculating the quantity of condensation within


components
Thequantityof condensation accumulating
withina component andthe chanceof drying
outcan only be estimatedand not accurately
calculatedowingto the assumptions concern-
ingtheclimaticboundaryconditions and the air layerthicknessto DIN EN 12524of thin layers
2.6.59 Watervapourdiffusion-equivalent
Producvmaterial water vapour
widescatterof materialparameters. Evensub- diffusion-equivalent
sequentcalculations, carriedoutwithinthe air laYerthickness
scopeof assessingdamage,arefraughtwith Dd
m
uncertainties.Thewatervaoourdiffusionresis- 50
Polyethylene 0.15 mm
tanceis the mostimportantmaterialproperty Polyethylene 0.25 mm 100
butcanvaryconsiderably in practicedueto Polyestersheet0.2 mm 50
effects.In the caseof hygroscopic
utilization PVC sheet 30
Aluminium f o i l0 . 0 5m m 1500
materials the watervaoourdiffusionis con- 8
Polyethylene sheet(stacked)0,15 mm
cealedby sorptionprocessesand flowsof Bitumenizedpaper 0.1 mm 2
adsorbatefilms. Aluminiumcompositefoil 0,4 mm 10
Severalmethods- with differentclaimsto Roofingfelt for walls o,2
0.1
accuracy- are knownfor investigating the pos- Coatingmaterial
3
High-glosslacquer
siblesaturationof componentsby the forma- 2
tionof condensation, whichresultsfromthe dif- Note:The watervapourdiffusion-equivalent air layer of a productis specifiedas the of a stationary
ferencebetweenthe amountof wateraccumu- layerof air with the samewatervapourdiffusionresistanceas the product.The thicknessof the productin the table is
not normallymeasuredand can be relatedto thin productswith a watervapourdiffusionresistance.The table speci-
latingand the amountable to dry out.The
fies nominalthicknessvaluesas an aid to identifyingthe product
Glasermethodis coveredby a standard.This
is a simplegraphicmethodfor estimatingpos-
siblemoisturebleedingwithinthe cross-sec-
tionof a wallandthe possibledrying-out
basedon a constantstatefor the temperature
zoneandthe vapourpartialpressuregradient.
Withconstantclimaticconditionsfor the con-
densingperiodovertwo wintermonthsand the
evaporating periodoverthreesummermonths, 2.6.60 Recommendedvaluesfor diffusionresistanceindexesto DIN 4108 paft 4; upper and lowerlimitsof material
we alsospeakof the blockmethod.Figure scatter
Material Recommendedvaluefor water
2.6.63is a schematic presentation of a simple vapour diffusion resista!eelnqell0l)
diffusiondiagramwitha condensation plane Plasters
betweenlayers2 and 3, as wouldbe the case, Plasteringmixesof lime,lime-cemenl I 5/35
for example,in a twin-leafmasonrywallwlth and hydrauliclime
Plasteringmixesof lime-gypsum,gypsum,anhydriteand lime hydrite 10
cavityinsulation.However, owingto the misun- Lightweightplasters 15/20
derstandings whichoftenoccur in practice,it Gypsumplasters 10
mustbe emphasized thatthe DINmethodis an Thermalinsulationplaster 5/20
svnthetic resin Dlaster 5o/2oo
estimateof the accumulation of condensation
Masonryof
andits possibledrying-out as wellas a check- solid engineeringbricks,verticallyper{oratedengineeringbricks 50/1Qo
provedoverdecades- of the absolutesafety high-strengthengineeringbricks
of a componentsubjectedto standardcondi- solid clay bricks,verticallyperforatedclay bricks 5/10
tions.Theclimaticboundaryconditions and the lightweightverticallyperforatedclay bricks
calciumsilicate,grossdensity1.0-1,4 5/10
methodof analysisare describedin detailin calciumsilicate,grossdensity1.6-2,2 15/25
DIN4108part3. The basicrequirement is that granulatedslag aggregateunits 70/100
theformationof condensation withincompo- autoclavedaeratedconcrete 5/10
lightweightconcrete 5/10
nents,whichleadsto damageor impairment of

181
Buildingscience

2.6.61 Diagram of direction


of diffusion
uponmeasur- the function due to the increase in moisture the surrounding air is achieved.
ingthewatervapourpermeability in thedryand contained in building and insulating materials, Moisturetransportin componentstakinginto
moistzones,andspecification of thewatercon-
tentin thesamptes andsorbate watertransDoft should be avoided. This is generally the case accountsorption,diffusionand capillarity effects
fora hygroscopic material withthegivensorp- when the following conditions are satisfied: subjectedto non-constant climaticconditionsis
tioncurve(afterK0nzel) . Building materialsthat come into contact with reflectedinthe KieBlmethod[94].The asso.
condensation should not suffer any damage ciatedcomputerprogram'WUFI'[219]takes
intoaccountthe conditionsof the temperature
5 0 % | 5 -0 % ^ . ( e , g . t h r o u g h c o r r o s i o n , m o u '| d g r o w t h ) '
I 1 Water accumulatingwithinthe component and relativehumidityof the internaland exter-
e3l duringthe condensing periodmustbe ableto nal air as well as the rainloadand the radiation
I I I t I ]
/ fi escapeto the surroundings againduringthe lossaccordingto the inclination and orientation
3olo uo:/ e3%
(^' I I) I|
evaporatingperiod. of the component.Thisinformation can be ob-
)
"
,1 t
&. g lf | __,_ l . T h e a r e a - r e l a t e d q u a n t i t y o f c o n d e n s a t i o ntainedfrom measuredweatherdataor from
shouldnot exceed1.0 kg/m,for roofand wall test referenceyears,Materialdatasuchas
Sorption moisture Sorbatewater Sorption moisture constructions. porosity,specificheatcapacity,thermalcon-
In sampte transport in sample ' lf condensation occursat the contactfacesof ductivity,diffusionresistance,moisturestorage
capillary, non-absorbent layers,the permis- functionand fluidtransportcoefficientare all
siblecondensation massmaybe reducedto put intothe calculation. The computerprogram
0.5 kg/m2;provisionscoveringtimbercom- then determinesthe chronological progression
ponentsare givenin DIN68800part2. of the temoeratureand moisturezonewithin
'An increasein the mass-related moisture the component.
contentu exceeding5% is not permittedfor
2.6.62 Watervapourdiffusionresistanceindicesfor the
timber(3%for timberderivatives); wood-wool
dry and moistzonesto DIN EN 12524 and multi-ply lightweight buildingboardsto Moisture behaviour of masonry
Material Watervapourdiffuson DIN1101areexcludedfromthis. DIN4108paft 3 describescomponentsthat,in
resistanceindex the lightof experience,can be regardedas
p
dry moist
ln contrastto the DINmethod,Ihe Jenisch absolutelysafewith respectto saturation, and
Plasteringmix 20 10 methodlakesintoaccountthe temoerature for whicha'mathematical analysisof conden-
Clay brick 16 10 relationships at the location of the building sationis not required.The conditionfor this is
Calciumsilicate 20 15 Thismakesuseof the meanannualfigure adeouateminimumthermalinsulation accord-
Concretewith expanded
[90].
efAV AdflrAnrlcc 6 4
and the frequencyof the dailyaveragefor the ingto DIN4108part2 and normalinterior clim-
Concretewith lightweight externalair temperaturein certainclimatic ates.Figure2.6.64providesan overviewof
aggregates 15 10 zonesin orderto establishwhetherthe massof externalwall constructions whichare absolute-
Autoclaved aerated concrete 10 6 condensation occurringin a component ly safein termsof the formationof condensa-
can
dry outagainduringoneyear,Thismethodis tioninternally.
slightlymoreinvolved thanthe DINmethodbut
suppliesa moreaccurateannualbalancefor The masonrywallsare made up as follows:
the occurrence of condensation and the
2.6.63 Water vapour diffusionwith condensation . Single-leaf
occurringin one planeof the building
chanceof it dryingout. masonryto DIN1053part1 and
component The COND method l72l enables a moisture walls of autoclaved aeratedconcreteto
profilein multi-layer enclosingconstructions to DIN4223with internalolasterand the
'u be calculated on the basisof the coupledheat, followingexternallayers:
tzo
D.- O watervapourand capillarywatertransport,and - rendering to DIN18550part1
^|sw
ui= hence forms a solid foundation for - in termsof - claddingsto DIN18515parts1 and 2
7t
moisture- a correctand differentiated attachedby mortaror bondingwitha joint
approachto the physicsof the buildingstruc- proportionof at least5%
ture.Startingwith a simpleblockclimatefor - ventilatedexternalwall claddingsto
winterand summer,similarto DIN4108part3, DIN18516part1 withandwithoutthermal
the capillarity and hygroscopicity of the build- insulation
ing materialaretakenintoaccountin addition - externalinsulation to DIN1102or
to the watervapourdiffusion,As the cold sea- DIN 18550part3 or an approvedthermal
son begins,the differencebetweenwater insulationcompositesystem
Diffusiondiagramfor condensationcase
vapourquantitiesdiffusingintoand out of the . Twin-leafmasonryto DIN 1053part 1, also
Al material,initiallywithoutformationof condensa- with cavityinsulation
l tion,is usedto createa hygroscopicloadwith- . Wallsof masonrywith internalinsulation sub-
tzJ
in the component. Once the water vapour satu- ject to the followinglimitations:
p -p,
.SW
I rationpressureis finallyreached,condensation - internalinsulation with a thermalresistance
4 doesformbut,at the sametime,capillaryrelief of the thermalinsulationlayerR < 1.0m2KAiV
begins.The balanceof vapourand capillary as well as a valuefor the watervapourdiffu-
waterflowsleadsto a reducedmoistureload sion-equivalent airiayerthicknessof the
-O
'Ds w e comparedto the purediffusionmethod.During thermalinsulationlayerwith internalplaster
4 the warm partof the yearthe.materialis or internal claddingsdi> 0.5 m
relievedby watervapourand capillarywater - internalinsulationof plasteror clad wood-
transport- untilthe condensation has dried woollightweight buildingboardsto DIN1101
out.Finally, furtherdryingtakesplaceuntil with R < 0.5 m2KAlVwithout anyfudher
Diffusiondiagramfor evaporationcase hygroscopicmoisturecontentequilibriumwith requirement for the so,-value

't82
moisturecontrol
Climate-related

. Externalbasementwallsof single-leafmason- 2,6.64 biternal masonrywallsfor which a mathematicalanalysisof condensationis not necessary
ry to DIN '1053part 1 or concreteto DIN 1045
Single-leafwalls:monolithic,with ventilatedcladding,with thermalinsulation Single-leafwall with
withexternalthermalinsulation. internalinsulation
comDositesvstem

Theseprovisionsin the standardsare based R < 1 . 0m 2k


. Ir - w
l.

r-
on manyyearsof experience and,as a rule,lie
on the safeside. lf a construction deviatesfrom
thedetailsgivenin the catalogues, thisdoes
notnecessarily meanthatthe construction will
fail,A numberof selectedinvestigations of
externalwallsshowthe serviceability of facade
claddings withIimitedventilation, the useof
variouscombinations of materialsfor twin-leaf tl
masonrywith cavityinsulationand the absence
of problems- in termsof moistureprotection-
withinternalinsulation. Thewall protectedby 1 5 62; 0 . 5 m
an externalcladding,with or withoutadditional
thermalinsulation, is a provenformof wall con-
Twin{eafwalls:with cavity,with partialJillcavity,with full-fillcavity Basementwall with
struction. Thetransportof moisturefromthe externalinsulalion
wallto the outsideis achievedas shownin fig.
2.6.65by ventilation to the rearof the cladding
in conjunction withthe formationof conden-
sationon the innerfaceof the cladding,which
thendrainsaway.Themechanism which
-
tl E -
tI
appliesdependson the degreeof ventilation. E E r
Tile-like, small-format elementsalso benefit
froma considerablemoistureexchangeby
E
E E E
E
wayof the perviousness
Therefore,
according
of the cladding[131].
if a claddingis notventilated
to DIN18516,thisdoesnotrepre-
E
lt
E r
fl
senta defect,providedthe condensation on
therearface of the claddingcan drainaway
and doesnot leadto damageto the load-
bearingconstruction [130]. masonrywith differenttypesof internalinsula- halvethe thermaltransmittance valuesoften
ln a full-fillcavity wall,thermalinsulationmater- tion in laboratorytestsunderthe climaticcon- encountered in old buildings.A diffusion
ialswithanywatervapourpermeability can be ditionsaccordingto DIN4108part3 [a]. resistanceU = 5 allowsthe construction to
combined withall relevantbuildingmaterials Masonry wallsmadefromno{ineslightweight remainopento diffusion. Possible conden-
forthe innerleafand an outerleafof clay or concrete, calciumsilicateand claybrickswith sationbehindthe insulation is dispersedand
calciumsilicatefacingbricksl5l. diffusion-permeable materials
insulating such relievedby the highcapillaryactionso that
Whencalculatingthe diffusionaccordingto as mineralfibres,eventhosewithoutvapour diffusion-resistantlayersare unnecessary.
DIN4108part3, the amountof condensation barrier,are absolutelysafewith respectto sat- Apartfromthat,the pH valueof calciumsili-
according to figure2.6.66liesbelowthe urationin winter.Thethermalinsulation cate makesit resistantto mouldgrowthand
maximumoermissiblecondensation massof remainsdry duringthe condensing period. its hygroscopicity the
is a helpin regulating
1000g/m'z, evenfor the mostunfavourable However,the increasein the watercontentof internalclimate,i.e.moisture loadpeaksin
caseof thermalinsulation opento diffusion the masonryexceedsthe limitof 1.0 kglm'z the interiorare buffered.
(e.9.mineral wool,looseinsulation) and a thin accordingto DIN4108part3. The necessary
innerleaf.Onlyfor an outerleafof engineering drying-out duringthe evaporating periodis
bricksmustwateroccurringwithinthe compo- achieved.Theoreticalstudieswith a constant
nentduringthe condensing periodbe ableto internalclimateand practicalexternalclimate
escapeagainto the surroundings duringthe [95] confirmthis assumptionfor certaintypes
evaporating period(m*:m* < 1) notfulfilled - of masonry.As in the laboratorytests,they
on paper- for insulatingmaterialsopento dif- producehighermoisture in the
fluctuations
fusion(seefig.2.6.67). Takinglntoaccount masonrycomparedwiththe use of denser
laboratory testson samplesof wall in a insulationmaterialsor vapourbarriers.Butt
Munich-based thermalinsulation researchcen- jointsnearthe coveringon the innerfacein
tre,furtherpracticalinvestigations [53] and the conjunctionwith rigid expandedfoamsor min-
factthatthe condensation that occursis onlya eralfibre boards,with vapourbarriersinterrupt-
fractionof the amountof drivingrainthat pene- ed at the buttjoints,haveno measurableeffect
Vatesan outerleaf,a full{ill cavitywall can be on the watercontentof the masonry.Investiga-
regardedas absolutelysafe,evenwhen using tionscarriedout on existingstructuresconfirm
engineering bricks,with respectto the forma- the laboratorymeasurements, Insulatingma-
tionof condensation withinthewall. terialswithactivecapillaries,e.g.calciumsili-
Practical studiesof the formationof condensa- cate,haverecentlybeenfavouredfor the inter-
tionwithincomoonentswith internalinsulation nal insulationof buildingswithfacadesworth
havebeencarriedout on commonformsof preserving [73].A thicknessof just40 mm can

183
Building
science

2.6.65 Schematicpresentationof moistureloss in ex- Water vapour convection wind conditionswouldotherwisecausethemto


ternalwallswith claddings.With idealventilation Wallsand roofsmustbe airtightto preventthe to the lowdrivingrainloadinggroup.
be allocated
(O"= 4),the wall moistureis carriedaway with
the air (right).With lessthan idealor no ventila-
through-flow and convection of internal
humidi-
tion (Oa< O,),some moisturediffusingout of the ty, whichcan leadto the formationof conden- Loadinggroup lll - high drivingrain load
wall can condenseand drain away (left)[7] sation.Specialattentionshouldbe paidto the As a rule,thisloadinggroupappliesto regions
airtightness of junctionswith othercomponents with annualprecipitationlevels> 800 mm or to
and servicepenetrations. Transverse flowsin windyregions,eventhosewith lowerlevelsof
ventilationlayerswithina constructionbetween precipitation(e.9.coastalareas,hillyand
roomsheatedto differenttemperatures should mountainous of theAlps),
regions,thefoothills
alsobe avoided.Facingmasonryand timber or buildingsin
as wellas to tallbuildings
frames,as wellas masonryto DIN1053part1, exposedpositionsin regionswherethe local
,$i
are not airtightwithoutfurthertreatment. These rainandwindconditions wouldotherwise
typesof wallsmustbe givena coatof plaster causethemto be allocatedto the moderate
to DIN18550part2 on onesideor madeair- drivingrainloadinggroup.
tight by othersuitablemeasures.Plastersto
DlN 18550 DarL2 or 1B55Bare classedas air- Externalwallswith rainprotectionprovidedby
tightlayers. rendering or coatingsareassessed usingthe
waterabsorptioncoefficient w for water
absorptionduringrai,nfall and the diffusion.
Protection against driving rain equivalentair layerthicknesssd of the layer
Drivingrainloadson wallsarecausedby the providingrain protectionfor the lossof water
simultaneous effectof rainand wind blowing duringdry periods[106].In orderto limitthe
againstthe facade.The rainwatercan be short{ermincreasein moistureduringrainfall,
absorbedby the wall by way of the capillary the waterabsorotioncoefficientshouldnot
actionof the surfaceor entervia cracks,gaps exceeda certainvalue,evenwhendrying-out
2.6.66 Condensationmass mwr in relationto diffusion-
equivalentair layerthicknessof innerleaf or defectivesealsas a resultof the oressure is guaranteedin the longterm.The lowerthe
Thermalinsulationlayer:mineralfibre boards build-up.lt mustbe ensuredthatthewater diffusion-equivalent air layerthicknesssdof the
Outer leaf:clay facing bricks enteringthe construction can escapeagainto surfacelayer,the morequicklythe component
the outsideair, Providinga wallwith proteciion loseswater- whichenteredduringdrivingrain
againstdrivingrainin orderto limitthe absorp- - in the dry period.So such a surfacelayer
tion of waterby capillaryactionand to guaran- shouldbe water-resistant or water-repellent
m 800
tee evaporation opportunities can be achieved with respectto rainprotection,but at the same
in
g/m' throughconstructional measures(e.9.external timeremainas permeable as possiblefor
600 cladding,twin-leaf masonry) or throughrender- watervaoourto allowthe moisturewhichhas
,l .\--:___=-=- ing or coatings.The measuresto be taken penetratedto escapequickly.The require-
l dependon the intensity of the drivingrainload, mentsfor rainprotectionprovidedby rendering
400 whichis determined by the directionof the and coatingsare definedin DIN4108part3
I
windandthe levelof precipitation as wellas (seetable2.6.69).
200 the localsituationand typeof building.Accord- The rainorotectionis confinedto the outerleaf
ingly,threeloadinggroupsare definedin DIN in the caseof twin-leafwallswith an air space
4108part3 in orderto assessthe behaviourof or masonrywith a ventilatedcladding.Aittight-
0.5 1.0 1 . 5m
external wallssubjectedto drivingrain.A rain- nessand thermalinsulation are the tasksof the
Diffusion-equivalentair layerthickness jnnerleaf.ln a full-fill
fall map of Germanyprovidesgeneralinforma- cavitywall,the cavity
tion aboutprecipitation levels.However,this is insulation shouldnotimpairthe resistance to
onlythe startingpointfor assessing drivingrain drivingrain,and moisture shouldnotbe ableto
0.1 0.2 0.3m (u=5)
becausethe localcircumstances, altitudeand reachthe innerleafviathe insulation. Thecavi-
Thickness of innerleaf
formof the building(roofoverhang, heightof ty insulationmustbe coveredby a standard,
building)must alsobe takenintoaccount(see otherwiseits serviceability will haveto be veri-
fig.2.6.68).Therefore, the loadinggroupsfor fied in accordance withbuildingauthority regu-
Germanyare definedwith associatedexplana- lations.Loosematerialsand mineralfibre
tions: boardsmustpossesshydrophobicproperties
to repelthe water.An overlappingstepped
Loadinggroup I - low drivingrain load jointis adequatefor plasticfoamsin orderto
As a rule,thisloadinggroupappliesto regions guaranteethatthe waterdrainsto the baseof
withannualprecipitation levels< 600mm but the wall. lf loosecavityinsulation materialsare
alsoto locationswell protectedfromthe wind employed,suitablemeasuresmustbe takenat
in regionswithhigherlevelsof precipitation. the openingsat the baseof the externalleafin
orderto preventmaterialfromescaping.As
Loadlnggroup ll - moderatedrivingrain load with a cavitywall,a damp proofcoursemust
As a rule,thisloadinggroupappliesto regions be providedat the baseand aboveall open-
with annualorecipitation levelsof 600-800mm ingstogetherwithweep holesto allowdriving
as well as to locationswell protectedfromthe rainwhich has penetratedthe outerleafto
windin regionswithhigherlevelsof precipita- drainaway.
tionandto tallbulldings or buildingsin exposed Whenusingthermalinsulationcompositesys-
positions in regionswherethe localrainand tems,cracksin the rendering couldendanger

184
moisturecontrol
Climate-related

thedrivingrainprotection and impairthether- 2.6.67 Drying-outoppodunitiesin relationto the diffu- 2.6.68 Allocationof drivingrain groupsaccordingto
air layerthicknessof insulation positionand form of building
malinsulation mainlyprovidedby the external sion-equivalent
materialwhen using outerleavesof clay facing
thermalinsulationlayer,The effectsof cracks bricksand engineeringbricks
in renderinghavebeen investigated on exter-
nalwallssubjectedto naturalweathercondi- m*/m*
tionsat the open-airtest centreof the Fraun-
hoferInstitutefor BuildingPhysics[14].After t12
threeyear,sof exposureto the weather,it can
generally on rigid
I
be saidthatfor rendering
expandedpolystyrene and polyurethane
sheetsas wellas hydrophobic
foam
mineralfibre
l" 0.8
Xi"to'
Engineering

boards,crackswith a widthof approx.0.2 mm ;r;l


do notimpairthefunctionof the rendering as
0.6
E3E
rainprotectionto any significantextent,pro- ____-,,"i< :l:
videdthe substratedoes not conductthrough ll Efii tt*ttt
capillaryactionor is water-resistant.As a o.4
simpleplanningaid,DIN4108part3 gives
examplesof the classificationof standard
typesof wall accordingto the threeloading
0.2
--{1---- I bricks
groups(see2.6.70).However, thisdoesnot
ruleoutthe useof othertypesof construction
provedby yearsof practicalexperience.
Diffusion.equivalentair layerthickness
u x s of insulationmaterial

for rain protectionto renderingand coatingsaccordingto DIN 4108 part 3


2.6.69 Requirements - -
Diffusion-equivalent Product
requirement coefficient air layerthickness wxsd
sd kg/m6os

<w<2.0

2,6.70 Examplesof the allocationof standardwall types and loadinggroupsaccordingto DIN 4108 part 3
Loadinggroup I Loadinggroup ll Loadinggroup lll
low drivingrain load moderatedrivingrain load high drivingrain load
Renderingto DIN 18550pt 1 Water-resistant rendering Water-repellent renderingto
withoutspecialrequirements to DIN 18550pt 1 on DIN 18550pts 1-4 or syntheticresin
for drivingrain plasterto DIN 18550on
protection
. Externalwalls of masonry,
wall panels,concreteor similar
. Wood-woollightweight
boards (with reinforcedjoints)
. Multi-plylightweightboards . Externalwalls of masonry,wall panels,concreteor similar
(reinforcedover entire surface) 'Wood-wool and multi-plylightweightboards
t o D I N1 1 0 1 , a c c o r d i n gt o D I N 1 1 0 2
t o D I N 1 1 0 1 ,i n s t a l l e d
installed a c c o r d i n gt o D I N 1 1 0 2
leaf Twin-leal
t o D I N 1 0 5 3o t 1 . 3 1 0 m m t h i c k to pt 1, 375mm thick to DIN 1053 pt 1 with partial-
(wjthinternalplasteo (withinternalplaster) or full-fillcavity

wallswithtilesor pan"
Externat
aoolied in thick-or thin-bedmortar t o D I N 1 8 5 1 5p t 1 a p p l i e d
in water-repellentmortar
Externalwallswith dense microstructure outer laverof concreteto DIN 1045 and DIN 1045 pt 1 (draft)as
D I N 4 2 1 9p t s 1 &
with ventilated e)dernal t o D I N 1 8 5 1 6o t s 1 , 3 & 4
with externalinsulationby meansof a thermalinsulationplastersystemto 18550 pt 3 or an approved
thermalinsulation
Externalwalls in timberwith weather tion 8.2 of DIN 68800 pt 2
Note:Drainediointsbetween

185
Building
science

2.6.71 Soundlevelsof varioussources Sound insulation

Soundinsulation is becomingmoreand more


Sound level important throughout the buildingindustry. This
dB(A) primarily concernsquestions relatingto the
healthandwell-being of people.Soundinsu-
Jet engine (at 25 m) - 140 lationis particularly important in housingbe-
causethis is whereoeoplerelaxand restand
130 needto be shieldedfromthe everydaynoises
Jet aircrafttakingoff
( a t 1 0 0m ) of theirneighbours. And soundinsulation is an
120 indispensable partof the buildingsystemif
schools,hospitalsand officesareto be used
D^^
I vv
^r^' '^
v,uuv - 110 properly. Soundinsulation in buildingsbegins
at the designstage.Forinstance, noise-
100 <-- Pneumaticdrill sensitive roomslikebedroomsand living
roomsshouldbe placedwithinthe planlayout
Heavy goods traffic - 90 so thattheyare unlikelyto be affectedby
,..- unacceptable externalnoise;a usefulexpedi-
Average traffic
6U ent is to groupthoseroomswithsimilarfunc-
tionstogether.Besidescarefulplanning, sound
70 insulation measures can onlybe successful
when greatcare is exercisedduringconstruc-
- Office
Conversation ; OU tion,Evenminorflawsin workmanship can lead
to, for example,acousticbridgesfor structure-
50 bornenoise,whichthenpractically nullifythe
entiresoundinsulation measures. Puttingright
Library - 40 < Livingroom suchproblemssubsequently is in manycases
impossible or at bestextremely expensive.
30

Bedroom > Terms and definitions


20
< Forest is the protection
against
Soundinsulation
10 soundwhichis conveyedin variousways
(seefig,2.6.72):
0 L l m i to f a u d i b i l i t y
. Airbornesoundis soundwhichpropagates in
air (a gaseousmedium).Uponstrikinga solid
body (buildingcomponent), part
of the airbornesoundis reflectedand part is
absorbedor attenuated.
2.6.72 Airborneand structure-borne
sound ' Structure-borne soundis soundwhichpropa:
Excitationof airbornesound Excitationof structure-borne
sound gatesin solidmaterials.In buildings
theseare
frequently noisescausedby buildingservices
and machinery whicharethenconveyedvia
the construction.
. lmpactsoundis a specialformof structure-
bornesoundcausedby peoplewalking
*)),), acrossthe floor.

Soundis the mechanical vibrationof an elastic


mediumwhosefrequencylieswithinthe audi-
ble rangeof the humanear (between16 and
20 000 Hz).Frequency f is definedas the num-
ber of vibrationsper second.As thefrequency
increases the pitchrises.A doublingof thefre-
2.6.73 Frequencyranges
quencycorresponds to oneoctave.In building
acoustics we are generally concerned witha
Infrasound A u d i b l er a n g e Ultrasound rangeof fiveoctaves- from100to 3150Hz
(seefig.2.6.73). The periodicsoundvibration
Rrrilrlinn aanr re+inc
generates an alternatingpressurein air or flu-
Speech -----? ids knownas soundpressurep. The sound
pressureis superimposed on the staticpres-
surepresentin the respective mediumand can
be measuredby usinga microphone.
The soundpressurelevelL describessound

186
Soundinsulation

events in buildingacoustics.As the humanear thewallson all sidesas wellas doorframes 2.6.74 Exampleof formationof averagevaluewith the
isina position aid of the evaluationcurve
to perceivea rangeequalto 1 x and servicepenetrations,by a resilient
insulat-
106, thesoundpressurelevel(oftenabbreviat- Inglayer. cdB
edto SPL)is describedusinga logarithmic o
c
scale, Thisis the base 10 logarithm
of the ratio .E
ofthesquareof the respectivesoundpressure Requirements 550
F
p to thesquareof the referencesoundpres- Minimumreouirements for soundinsulation l
c
surepo: havebeenlaiddownin a numberof construc- o
!lo
tionlawdocuments. DIN4109specifies c-"
l
L = 10 log,o(p'/po') requirements for airborneand impactsound o

insulationbefureen individual functional unitsin


Theunitof soundoressure or soundleveldif- buildingsand requirements for protection
ference isthe decibel(dB).Thesoundlevelis againstexternalnoise.lt shouldbe notedhere Displaced
specified usingtheA-scaledB(A);thisis based thatthe requirements applyonlyto the sound
ontheA-weighting network, whichapproxi- performance of separatin g components
matesto a scaleof volumecomoarableto that befuueen differentresidential or officepremis-
ofthesensitivity of the humanear.A soundthat es;thereare no minimumrequirements for
increases by 10 dB is perceived to be twiceas soundinsulation withinresidential or office
loud,Thesoundlevelextendsfromthe limitof premises. Supplement 1 to DIN4109(exam-
0 dB(A)to the painthreshold
audibility . A num- plesof detailsand methodsof calculation) has 0
berof typicalsoundlevelsare givenin fig. beenimplemented by the buildingauthorities. 100 204 400 800 1600 3200 rz
2.6.71.Sosoundinsulation meansreducing the Supplement 2 to DIN4109 (recommendations FrequencY f
1) LSM = alrbornesound nsulationmargin
soundlevelsof soundsourcesto an accept- for enhancedsoundinsulation and sugges-
ablelevelwhentheycannotbe diminished. tionsfor soundinsulation withinoremises) has
Thesoundreduction indexR describes the notbeenimplemented by the buildingauthori-
insulatingeffectof components againstair- ties,and necessitates a specialagreement
bornesound.Thisis calculated fromthe sound betweendeveloper and architect. Bearingin 2.6.75 Transmission paths for airborne sound
leveldifferencebefuueen hryorooms(source mindthe increasing qualityawareness of
Besidestransmlssion throughthe separatingwall (path1),
andreceiving rooms)takingintoaccountthe users,the designershouldcheckwhetherthe the alrbornesound is alsotransmittedvia paths2,3 and 4
absorption surfaceA of the receivingroomand enhancedsoundinsulation measures of sup-
thetestsurfaceof the comoonentS: plement2 can be implemented takinginto
accounttechnicaland economicaspects.A
R=!-Lr+10tog,o(S/A) guideto the contentsof DIN4109and the sup-
plementsis givenin fig.2.6.76.Workon Euro-
fhe airbornesound insulationrndexR* is a peanstandardization is beingcarriedout by
singlevalueforthe simpleidentification of thetechnicalcommittee CEN/TC126"Acoustic
building components. As showninfig.2.6.74, properties of buildingproductsand of build-
a curveB,theshapeof whichtakesinto ings".
account thesensitivity of the humanear,above TheEuropean standardis essentially con-
thelineof measured frequencies M, is dis- cernedwiththe harmonization of testingmeth-
placeddownwards in steosof 1 dB untilthe ods (laboratory and in situ),the evaluation of Flankingtransmission
average undershoot U of the displacedgrade testresultsandthe drawing-up of methodsof
curvebelowthe measuredcurveis max.2 dB. calculation for determining the acousticperJor-
Thesoundreduction indexof the displaced manceof buildingsbasedon the properties of
gradecurveat 500 Hz is takenas the single theircomponents. Thestandardsbeingpro-
identifying value. ducedfor thisby CENwillhavea directinflu-
Inpractice the airbornesoundinsulation index enceon the provisions of DIN4109.TheGer- 2.6.76 Requirementsand recommendations for sound
isspecified takingintoaccountthe sound manbuildingacoustics standardization con- insulation
transmission viaflankingcomponents (seefig. ceptwillhaveto undergoa fundamental over- Designation lmplementedContenl
2.6.75). Flanking transmission is thatpartof the haul.The DINstudygroupsresponsible are by building
authorities
airbornesoundtransmission betweentwo ad- currently working on a standardization concept D I N4 1 0 9 Yes Protectionof occupied
jacentroomswhichdoes nottake placedirect- thattakesthe harmonized codesintoaccount. roomsagainst
lyviatheseparating component but insteadvia BothDIN4109and suoolement 1 willneedto . noisesfrom roomsnot
auxiliary pathsthroughadjoinin g components. be revised. belongingto the same
premises
lmpactsoundis structure-borne soundgener- Theworkto be carriedout essentiallv involves . noisesfrom building
atedby walkingor similarexcitation of floorsor thefollowing areas: servicesand operations
stairs,and is transmittedto the roomsbelow on the same premises
. externalnoiseand the
partlydirectlyas airbornesoundor viaflanking ' A revision of DIN4109whileretaining the cur-
noiseof commercialor
components as structure-borne soundwaves, rentlevelof reouirements.
lmpactsoundinsuiation is usuallyimprovedby . Theproduction of a buildingcomponent Supplement1 Yes Examplesof construction
a two-layerarrangement in the formof the floor catalogue. t o D I N4 1 0 9 detailsand methodsof
finishbeingsupportedby a "floating" construc- . The integration of the harmonized methodof calculation
S u p p t e m e nZt t l o Advice on designand
tionon thestructural floor. calculation in the Germanbuildingacoustics t o D I N4 1 0 9 constructionand
A floating screedis a supporting layerwhichis concept,including the drawing-up of instruc- recommendations for
separated fromthe structuralfloor,and from tions. enhancedsound insulation

187
Buildingscience

2.6.77 Aibo"ne sound insulationfor walls and doors to preventsoundtransmission from other
residentialor workingareas _.__ The necessary workwillinvolvemasonry and
Componenl Fequirements Recommendations
t o D I N4 1 0 9 r ) for enhanced
reinforcedconcrete,steeland otherframes,
sound insulation timberconstruction, elements(windows, doors
etc.)and buildingservices.
cr rnnlomon+ ?zl
3 tt o D I N4 1 0 9h a s
I n G e r m a n ys,u p p l e m e n
ronrl P' r^^d R'

dB dB beenpreparedfor thetransition period.This


1. Multistoreybuildingswith apartmentsand work rooms containsa methodfor converting the airborne
Partywalls betlveen apartmentsand walls betureenseparate soundinsulation indexR* determined in the
worKpremrses 53 >55 laboratory withoutflankingtransmission intoa
Staircasewallsand wallsadjacentto communalcorridors 523j >55
Wallsadjacentto driveways,entrancesto commongaragesetc. 55 valueR'w,whichis stillrequiredat presentfor
Wallsto gamesor similarcommunityrooms 55 the Germansystem.Thereverseprocedure,
Doors i.e.converting R'* to R*, is alsoincludedin the
' which leadfrom communalcorridorsor stairsto corridorsand
su00lement.
hallwaysin apartmentsand residentialhomesor from work rooms; 27 >37
. which lead from communalcorridorsor stairsdirectly The levelof requirements for soundinsulation
rooms - corridorsand 37 in buildingsis notaffectedby the European
2. Semidetachedor terracedhouses standard, Theestablishment of requirements
Partv walls 57 >67 the provinceof national
remainsexclusively
3. Hotelsetc.
Walls betvveen bodiesand can thereforebe adjustedto the
. oeorooms 47 respective national traditions and develop-
. corridorsand bedrooms 47 mentsrnthe construction industry, According-
Doors ly, DIN4109is notthreatened in thisrespect
'between corridorsand bedrooms ac >37
4 . H o s p i t a l sc,l i n i c s by developments at European level.
Wallsbetween >52
' patients'rooms
' corridorsand patients'rooms
. examinationor consultationrooms Sound insulationagainst internal noise
' corridorsand examinationor consultationrooms f able2.6.77liststhe requirements of DIN4109
. patientsroomsand work or nursingrooms and the recommendations of supplement 2 to
Wallsbetuveen DIN4109for a numberof selectedwallsfor
' operatingtheatresor treatmentrooms 42
' corridorsand operatingtheatresor treatmentrooms protectingoccupiedroomsagainstsound
Walls between 37 transmission fromotherresidential or working
' intensivecare rooms premises. Soundinsulation for occupantsis
' corridorsand intensivecare rooms
alsoimportant withinthe sameresidential and
Doors between
' examinationor consultationrooms 37
workingpremises whenroomsservedifferent
. corridorsand examinationor consultationrooms purposes, or differentworkingand restingperi-
' corridorsand patients'rooms ac >37 ods apply,or enhancedinsulation require-
. operatingtheatresor treatmentrooms
mentsaredesirable, Supplement 2 to DIN
: golllqgrs and operating t atm,gn!r,og!lt!
4109 containsrecommendations for standard
5, Schoolsand similarplacesof education
Wallsbetween and enhancedsoundinsulation. Table2.6.79
. classroomsor similarrooms providesan overview of the corresponding
' corridorsand classroomsor similarrooms
suggestions for residentialand officebuildings.
Wallsbetween 52
' stairsand classroomsor similarrooms DIN4109stipulates valuesforthe permissible
Wallsbetween 55 soundlevelin noise-sensitive roomsin orderto
' "particularlynoisy"rooms (e,9,sportshalls,musicrooms, provideprotectionagainstnoise frombuilding
work rooms)and classroomsor similarrooms servicesand operations.In orderto maintain
Doors befureen 32
' corridorsand classroomsor similarrooms thesevalues,requirements are laiddownfor
1) Extractfromtable 3 of DIN 4109 the airborneand imoactsoundinsulation of
2) Extractfrom table 2 of supplement2 to DIN 4109 components between"particularly noisy"
3) The followingappliesto wallswith doors:R'*(wall)= R*(doo| + 15 dB; wall widths< 300 mm are not considered roomsandthosesensitive to noise(seetable
here.
2.6.80).The latterareunderstood to be living
rooms,bedrooms,hospitalwards,classrooms
and offices,"Particularly noisy"roomsare:

. Roomswith"pafticularly noisy"buildingplant
or servicesif the maximumsoundpressure
levelof the airbornesoundin theseroomsfre-
quentlyexceeds75 dB(A).
. Roomshousingcontainers for rubbishchutes
and accesscorridorsto such roomsfromthe
outside.
' Roomsfor craftor commercialactivities,
if the maximum
includingsalesactivities,
soundpressurelevelofthe airbornesoundin
theseroomsfrequently exceeds75 dB(A).
. Restaurants. caf6s.snackbarsandthe like.

188
Soundinsulation

. B o w l i n ga l l e y s 2.6.78 The airbornesound insulationindex R'- accordingto the mass law


' Kitchens for hotelsetc.,hospitals, clinics, can
restaurants; not includedhereare small -:
cvv
Concrete, masonry, gypsum,
glass and similar building
kitchens,preparationroomsand communal cc materials
kitchens. ovv
E
'Theatres .g Sher ST to mm thick
E
"'rt i
' S p o r t sh a l l s A^A

. Musicand workrooms. =
C
;c3 0
Inmanycasesit is necessary to provideaddi- f
o
tionalstructure-borne insulationto machines, @
a20--
c
apparatusand pipesoppositesoffitsand walls nr)er,timbel 0 e n \'atrv3 S
c
ofthe building.No figurescan be specified
herebecauseit dependson the magnitude of
3 4 5 6 I 10 20 30 4050 70 100 200 300 500700
thestructure-borne soundgeneratedby the
machineor apparatus,which is very differentin Area-relatedmass m' (kglm2)
eachcase.Suppldment 2 to DIN4109pro-
videsgeneraldesignadvice.Thereis no
requirement with respectto the airbornesound
insulationindexfor the soundinsulation of
wallsbuiltto concealbuildingservicesand
plantif the area-relatedmassof the wall is at for sound insulationwithinresidentialor t o D I N4 1 0 9
Suggestionsfor
least220 kg/m2- suchwallscomplywiththe standardsound enhancedsound
permissible soundlevelfor noisesgenerated insulation insulation
by waterpipes(including wastewaterpipes). reqd R'* reqd R'*
Wallswith an area-related mass< 220 kg/m2 dB dB
Residentialbuildinq
mustbe verifiedby a suitabilitytestto prove Wallswithoutdoors between"noisy" >47
thattheyare adequate.Excessivenoisetrans- and "quiet"roomswith differentuses,
missionin suchsituationscan be effectively e.g. betweenlivingroom and
reducedby attachinga non-rigid facingof min- child's bedroom.
Officebuildinqs
eralfibreboardand plasterboard on the side Walls between rooms for normal office activities
of the noise-sensitive
room,Modernsystems Walls between corridors and rooms for normal office activities
forsuchwalls,witha facingor claddingthe full Walls to rooms for intensivemental
heightof the room,providevery good sound activitiesor for handlingconfidentialmatters,
e.g. betweendirector'sofficeand
insulation. anteroom
Walls betvveencorridors and rooms for intensivemental
activitiesor for confidentialmatters
Sound insulation against external noise Doors in walls between rooms for normal office
activitiesor in walls betweencorridorsand such rooms
Various noiselevelranges,classified accord- Doorsrn wallsto roomsfor intensivementalactivities 37
ingto the actualor expected"representative or for handlingconfidentialmattersor in walls between
externalnoiselevel",formthe basisof the pro- corridorsand such rooms
visions for the requiredairbornesoundinsula-
tionof externalcomponentsto protectagainst
externalnoise.Differentrequirements have
beenlaiddownfor the bedroomsin hosoitals
andclinics.occuoiedroomsin residential 2.6.80 Requirements for airbornesound insulationof walls and floorsbetween"particularlynoisy"+oomsand those
to be insulated
accommodation, hotelbedroomsand class- Type of room Airbornesound insulation
roomsas wellas offices(seetable2.6.81 ). index R'* reqd
As the enclosing external components usually dB
consisiof severaldifferentsurfaceswith differ-
entsoundinsulation properties, the require- 75- 80
mentsapplyto the resultingsoundreduction with "particularlynoisy" 57
indexR'*,,""calculated fromthe individual or servrces
soundreduction indexesof the differentsurfaces. Roomsfor craftor commercialactivities,
salesactivities
Therequiredsoundreductionindiceshaveto Kitchensfor hotelsetc.,
be increased or decreaseddependingon the hospitals,clinics,restaurants,
ratioofthe totalexternalsurfaceof a roomto snack bars etc.
the planareaof the room.Forinstance,for a Kitchensas above 57
but also in ooerationafter 10 o.m.
standardceilingheightof 2.5m, the require- Restaurantsetc. not occuoiedafter 10 p.rh,
mentsgivenin table2.6.81arealreadyaccept- Restaurants etc. - max.sound level
ablefor a roomdepthof 3 m and reductionsof LAF< 85 dB(A)- also occupiedafter 10 p.m
up to -3 dB maybe exploitedfor greaterroom
Restaurants etc. - max.sound level85 dB(A)< LAF< 95 dB(A)
deoths. e.q. with electroacoustic
Therequirements for the resultingsoundreduc- Note:LAF= time-relatedsound level,which is measuredwith the frequencyevaluationA and the time evaluation
tionindexfor roomsin residential buildinos F (= fast) as a functionof the time.

189
Buildingscience

2.6.81 Noiselevelrangesand sound reductionindex witha standardceilingheightof 2.5m, room of the flankingcomponentscan be assumedto
R'",r""to be maintained depthsof at least4.5 m, and 10-60%window be approx.300 kg/m3.
Noise Critical R'*,ru.reqd for external area,aredeemedto be fulfilledwhenthe indi- Besidesthe fact that soundinsulation generally
level external component
range noise (in dB) vidual soundreductionindicesgivenin tables dependson mass,the internalattenuation
level Bed- Occupied
-
Officesl) in DIN4109 according to the proportionof (materialattenuation) of the materialusedis
dB(A) rooms rooms windowarea- aremaintainedfor the wall and also importantto a certainextent.Thisattenua-
| <55 35 30 wtndow. tion is understoodto be the abilityof the mate-
ll 56-60 35 30 30
ill 61 - 6 5 40 35 30
Thesoundreduction indicesof ventilation rialto convertpartof the vibrationenergyinto
lv 66-70 45 40 35 ductsand rollerblindboxesandthe associat- heatand henceremovesomeofthe energy
v 71-75 50 45 40 ed referenceareashouldbe takeninto fromthe vibration.lnvestigations carriedout by
vl 76-80 ,) 50 45
2) 2) accountwhencalculating the resultingsound the Fraunhofer Institutefor BuildingPhysics
vll > 80 50
r)Thereare no stipulationsfor the externalcomponentsof reduction index.Facilitiesfor temporary haveshownthatthe airbornesoundinsulation
ventila-
roomsin which,owingto the natureof the activitiescar- tion(e.9.openinglightsandflaps)areevaluat- indexcan be set2 dB higherthanksto this
ried out in those rooms,externalnoisewhich enterssuch ed in the closedcondition. thosefor oermanent materialattenuation effectfor plasteredwallsof
roomsmakesonly a minorcontributionto the internal (e.9.sound-attenuated
ventilation ventilation autoclavedaeratedconcreteand lightweight
noiselevel.
2)The reouirementsin these casesare to be established openings)in the operating condition. concretecontaining aggregates of pumiceor
accordingto the local circumstances. The representative externalnoiselevelis deter-expandedclaywithgrossdensities < 800 kg/m3
minedfor the variousnoisesourcesusing and an area-related mass< 250 kg/mz.
2.6.82 Aiborne sound insulationindexof partywalls appropriatemethodsof measurement and Acousticstudiesat Braunschweig University
withoutplaster,afterGosele evaluation. DIN4.109containsa trafficnoise haveestablishedthis 2 dB bonusfor plastered
R'_ tdBl
without with nomogram in whichthe averagelevelcan be wallsof calciumsilicatewithgrossdensities
plaster readoff dependingon thevolumeof trafficand < B0Okg/m3as well.
240 mm vertically perforated the distanceof the buildingfromthe centreof J. Lang11071 showedlongagothatclaybrick
clay bricks 50 53 the road.Specialanalysesfor trafficsituations wallswith comoarablemassesbut different
250 mm in-situconcrete 11 53
240 mm hollowblocksof in whichthe nomogram cannotbe usedas well oerforations exhibiteddifferencesin theirair-
n' rmi^a ^^n^rdf6 16 49 as for railand waterbornetrafficare covered bornesoundinsulation indexof up to 10 dB
200 mm storey-heightaerated by DIN18005part2. (seefig.2.6.83).Goselediscovered oneexpla-
concrelepanets 45 47
Forair traffic,i.e.airports,the "Lawgoverning nationfor this in the effectof thicknessreso-
protectionagainstaircraftnoise"laysdown nances[62].Themeasured deviations were
2.6.83 Differentsound insulationof verticallyperforated noiseprotection zones.The provisionsof this attributedto the arrangement of the webswith-
clay brick wallswith approximatelyequal area- law,or morerigorousnational regulations, in the masonryunits.In onecasethewebs
related mass but different oerforations.after
J. Lang applywithintheseprotectedzones. passthroughthe unitin a straightlineand
The representative externalnoiselevelfor com- serveto stiffenthe unit;in anothertheyare off-
Unit cross-section Web cross-
section mercialand industrialooerationsmakesuse of set with respectto eachotherand worklikea
(schematic) the dailyimmissions valuegivenin the devel- set of springsin series.Morerecentstudies
opmentplanfor the respectiveareacategory haverevealedthatthe soundinsulation of walls
accordingto Germany's NoiseAbatement Act. madefrom perforatedunitsdependsnotonly

WffiNA Single-leafwalls
Thesoundinsulation

theirarea-related
of thick,single-leaf,
geneouswallsdependsin thefirstinstanceon
mass.The relationship
betweenthe airbornesoundinsulation index
on the arrangement of perforations
but alsoon numerousotherfactors,suchas
in the units

the type of mortarbed,thicknessof plasterand


homo- formatof the unit[176].Figure2.6.84shows
the differencebetweenthe measuredand cal-
culatedsoundreduction indicesfor wallsof
perforatedunitswith differentarea-related
R'* andthe area-related massis shownin fig. massesand differentproportionsof perfora'
2.6.78.Theorerequisite for the correlation tions.The effectsof the variousinfluencing
A: m'= 435kglm2, R*= 59 dB betweenthe airbornesoundinsulation and the variables on the soundinsulation aresum-
(continuouswebs from outside to inside) area-related massof a single-leaf wall is a marisedin table2.6.85,
B: m' = 42okglm2, R*= 49 dB closedmicrostructure and sealedconstruction. Positiveeffectsare broughtaboutby:
(webs offset with respect to each other)
lf thisrequirement is notfulfilled,thenthewall . hardermortar
mustbe sealedon at leastonesideby a com- . thickercoatsof plaster
pletecoveringof firmlyadheringplasteror cor- . shortermasonryunits
rou responding coatingto insulate againstdirect . coarselystructuredperforations withthick
X
c) soundtransmission [62], Table 2.6.82shows webs,
c
.5 the difference in the airbornesoundinsulation
c60
.9 indicesfor wallswith and withoutplaster.The The problemsassociatedwith perforated
b curvein tig.2.6.78doesnotapplyto lightweight masonryunitsappearedin clay,calciumsili-
l
o_^ components < 85 kg/m2and, accordingto DIN cate and concreteunits,and - accordingto
r
OCU
o 4109,with an area-related mass> 630 kg/ms currentfindings- are not restrictedto a certain
c
l X can onlybe usedto describethe behaviour of buildingmaterial.
840 twin-leafwallswithcontinuous separating joint f able2.6.87orovidesan overviewof the char-
becausein thisrangethe achievable sound acteristicairbornesoundinsulation indicesfor
30 insulation is limitedby theflankingcompo- masonrywith normal-weight and lightweight
100 500 1000 2000 Hz nents.Thegivensoundreduction indicesare mortarand plasteredbothsides.Thesevalues
'100kg/m3for a gross
Frequency f achievedonly if the averagearea-related mass mustbe reducedby

190
Soundinsulation

density> 1OO0 kg/moand 50 kg/m3for a gross 2.6.84 Differencebetweenmeasuredand calculated 2,6.85 Influenceof masonryunit geometryand type ol
density < 1000kg/m3for wallsof lightweight or (to DIN 4109 supplement1) airbornesound constructionon the sound insulationof wallsof
insulationindicesin relationto proportionof per- oerforatedunits.afterScholl
autoclaved aeratedconcreteoanels.as well as forationsfor variouswallsof oerforatedmasonrv
forgaugedbrickworkusingthin-bedmortar. units,afterScholl
Another possibility of improving the sound AR.u"
c0" I n f l u e n c i nvga r i a b l e
insulationof internal walls- alsosubsequently I Arran gementof perforations 1 0 - 1 5d B
- isto combinethe solidwallskinwitha non- ; Type of mortar approx.5 dB
cc0
rigidcladdingon the "noisy"sideof the separ- oo Thicknessof bed joints approx.5 dB
C Thicknessof plaster 5-10dB
atingwall,We distinguish betweentwo groups o
o-r Unitformat 5dB
depending on the connection to the rigidwall = The figuresgiven here representthe maximumchange in
o
(seefig,2.6.88). Claddingsof group A are sound insulationARmax that occurredupon changingthe
fixedto the heavywall via a supportingframe- respectiveinfluencesfor a constantwall mass in the
work,whilethoseof groupB arefree-standing measurementdata available.
or bondedto the substrate viaa resilientcon-
010203040506070
nection usingmineralfibreboards.Table
Proportionof perforations(7o)
2.6.86 specifies airbornesoundinsulation
indices forsolidwallswitha claddingon one
side.lf,forexample, for thermalinsulation rea-
sons,insulating battswith a high dynamicstiff-
nessareattached to a single-leafrigidwall
eitherfullybondedoverthewholesurfaceor
justat discretepoints,thiscan degradethe
soundinsulation if the insulatinq battsare
coveredby plaster. 2 . 6 . 8 6 A i r b o r n e s o u n d i n s u l a t i o n i n d e x R ' w o f s i n g l e - l e a f r i g i d w a l l s w i t h a n o n + i g i d c l acdhdai rnagc; t e r i s t i c v a l u e s
accordinsto QIN:||Sgjlpplpmg[ 1
Area-related Airbornesound insulationindex R'wr)
mass of without withcladding with cladding
Twin-leafparty walls s o l i dw a l l cladding groupA groupB
Party walls of two heavy, rigid leaves with a kct/m2 dB dB dB
100 37 48 49
continuous separating jointbringabouta con-
200 45 49 50
siderable reduction in the soundtransmission 300 47 53 54
between, for example,adjoining apartments, 400 52 55 56
Thesoundreductionindexof a twin-leafparty 500 55 57 58
1)Appliesto flankingcomponentswith an averagearea-relaledmass m'L.meanof 300 kglm'?The valuesare reducedby
wallwithcontinuous jointis determined from 1 dB for a "riqid"connectionbetweencladdinqand wall.
thearea-related massof bothleaves,including
coatsof plaster, similarly to single-leafcompo-
nents, Thedirectsoundtransmission (without
flanking transmission) wallof solid
of a twin-leaf
leaves is 12 dB higherthancouldbe expected
fora single-leaf solidwallwiththe samemass.
Thejointextendswithoutinterruption fromtop
offoundation to roofcovering(seefig.2.6.90).
A jointpassingthroughthe foundation leadsto 2.6.87 Airbornesound insulationindex R'* of walls plasteredboth sides in relationto the bulk densityclassand wall
thickness
bettersoundinsulationin the basementbut as Gross Wall Airbornesound Gross Wall Airbornesound
thisis a problemin termsof sealingthe build- density thickness insulationindexr)21 density thickness insulationindexr)2)
ing,thisarrangement remainsan exception. class mm R ' w( d B ) class mm R ' w( d B )
The12 dB bonusmayonlybe takeninto Normal Lightweight Normal Lightvveight
mortar mortar mortar mortar
account whenthefollowinq conditions are 0.5 175 40 39 1.0 175 45
complied with: 240 43 42 240 48
300 45 44 300 cl

'The area-related massof eachleafmustbe 365 47 ^ x 365553


1,2 175 3)
0.6 175 41 40 47
at least150kg/m2and the distancebetween 240 44 240 50
the leavesat least30 mm. 300 46 4C 300 52
. Witha separating joint> 50 mm,the area- ----i7s365 48 365
relatedmassof each leafmay be reducedto 0.7 43 42 175 48
240 45 240 52
100kg/m'z, 300 300
'The jointmustbe filledcompletely withtightly 365 49 365 56
jointedresilient
boards,e,g.mineralfibre 03 175 44 43 LO 175 50
240 46 46 240 53
impactsoundinsulation boards.
. Suchfibreboardsare notreouiredwhenthe 300 49 48 300 55
365 cl 50 365 57
area-relatedmassof each leafis > 200 kg/m'?. o.g r 7s 45 44 175 ct

Thejointbetweenthe leavesshouldnot be 240 48 47 240 54


300 50 49 300 57
madetoothinas thiscan veryquicklyleadto
365 52 51 365 59
acoustic bridges.On the otherhand,the opti-
mumleafspacingsin termsof soundinsulation '?)A total of 40 kg/m2has been taken into account for the coats of plaster.
arehigherthanthe minimumvaluesgivenin 3)Thesegross densitiesare not generallycqlbrned with lightweig

191
Building
science

2.6.88 Soundperformanceof favourablecladdinosto DIN 4109 supplement1


Groupl) Wall construction Description
B - o vrduuil'v rvilrvvervr I i,thickness>25mm.
(no connection plastered, gap between wall and timber studding > 20 mm,
,/,/,/./,/,/,/,/,/,/,/,/ ).'i
or resillent free-standingin frontof heavywall, constructionto DIN 1102
Connectlon ffiW _ I
to wall) *> 500 6
nl

o C l a d d i n go f p l a s t e r b o a rtdo D I N 1 8 1 8 0 t, h i c k n e s sl 2 . 5 o r 1 5 m m ,
N constructionto DIN 1818.1(currentlyin draftform),or of chipboardto D lN 68763,
'+
thickness10-16mm, gap betweenwall and timber studding> 20 mm, free-standing'?)
^ in frontof heavywall,with cavityfilled3)betweentimber studding,
o
>5oo x
- Claddingof wood-woollighhveightboardsto DIN 1101,thickness> 50 mm,
,--;- I ? plasteredfree-standingwith 30-50mm gap in frontof heavywall,constructionto
o DIN 1102,a 20 mm gap is sufficientwhen fillingthe cavityaccordingto footnote3
/. nt
A'TIV\NVV\N\7\7
O
o
nl
C l a d d i n go f p l a s t e r b o a rtdo D I N 1 8 1 8 0 t, h i c k n e s s1 2 . 5o r 1 5 m m ,
O
v and fibre insulationboardsa), constructionto DIN 18181
\ (currentlyin draftform),discreteor linearfixingto heavywall.
T
Claddingof wood-woollighhr/eight boardsto DIN 1101, thickness> 25 mm,
(withconnection O
(o plastered,timber studdingfixed to heavywall,
to wall) ^1 1 c o n s t r u c t i otno D I N 1 1 0 2 .

> 500
-
C l a d d i n go f p l a s t e r b o a rtdo D I N 1 8 1 8 0 t, h i c k n e s s1 2 . 5o r 1 5 m m ,
(o constructionto DIN 18181(currentlyin draftform),
or of chipboardto DIN 68763,thickness10-16mm, with cavityfilling3),
"l.r timber studdingfixed to heavywall2).
t

adding claddingsof group B, and by at least10 dB for claddingsof group A.


2)In theseexamplesthe timber studdingmay be replacedby sheetsteelC wall sectionsto DIN 18182pt 1.
3tFibreinsulationmaterialsto DIN 18165pt 1 nominalthicknessbetween20 and 60 mm, Iinearf low resistanceE > 5 kNs/ma.
,
4)Fibreinsulationmaterialsto DIN 18165Dt L aDolicationtvoe WV-s.nominalthickness> 40 mm. s'>5 l\,4N/m3.

2,6,89 Examplesof twin-leafwalls- two leavesemployingnormal-weight mortarwith continuousseparatingjoint betweenbuildings- in relationto gross densityclasses
t o D I N4 1 0 9s u o D l e m e n1t
Airbornesound Grossdensityclass of unit and min. wall thicknessof leavesfor twin-leafmasonry
insulationindex Facingbrickwork 10 mm plasterP lV 1 5 m m p l a s t e rP l , P l l
both sides both sides (lime-gypsum or P lll both sides
(dB) or gypsum plaster) o d e r P l l l ( l i m e l, i m e -
2 x 10 kg/m' cementor cementplaster)
(2x25kg/m2)
Unit gross l\.4in. thicknessoi Unrtgross Min. thicknessof Unit gross Min. thicknessof
density leaveswithoutplaster density leaveswithoutplaster density leaveswithoutplaster
class mm class mm class mm
57 0.6 2 x240 0.6r) 2x240 o.72t 2x175
0.9 2x175 0,82) 2x175 0.94) 2 x 150
1 2x150 1,03) 2x150 1 .24) 2x115
1.4 2x115 1 /5\ 2x115
62 0.6 2x24O 0.66) 2 x24O 0,56) 2x240
0.9 175 + 24O 0,87) 2x175 0.87) 2x175
0.9 2x175 1.07) 2 x 150 0,97) 2 x 150
1.4 2x115 1 A
2x115 1,2 2x115
67 1 2x240 1.0u) 2 x24O 0.9e) 2 x24O
1.2 175 + 240 1.2 175 + 240 1.2 1 7 5+ 2 4 0
1.4 2x175 1.4 2x175 1.4 2+175
1.8 1 1 5+ 1 7 5 1.8 1 1 5+ 1 7 5 t.o 1 1 5+ 1 7 5
2.2 2x115 2.2 2x115 2 2x115
l OOkg/m'?
'?)The grossdensityclass may be 0.3 lesswhen spacing betweenleavesis > 50 mm and weightof each individualleaf is > 100 kg/m',
3)The grossdensityclass may be 0.4 lesswhen spacing betweenleavesis > 50 mm and weightof each individualleaf is > 100 kg/m'?.
atThe grossdensityclass may be 0.5 lesswhen spacing beween leavesis > 50 mm and weightof each individualleaf is > 100 kg/m'?,
s)The grossdensityclass may be 0.6 lesswhen spacing betweenleavesis > 50 mm and weightof each individualleaf is > 100 kg/m'?.
6)For leavesof gas concreteunitsor panelsto DIN 4165 or 4166, as well as lightweightconcreteunitswith expandedclay aggregateto DIN 18151or 18152,the grossdensity
classmay be 0.1 lesswhen spacing betu/eenleavesis > 50 mm and weightof each individualleaf is > 100 kg/m'?.
7 )F o r l e a v e s ogf a s c o n c r e t e u n i t s o r p a n e l s t o D l N 4 l 6 5 o r 4 l 6 6 , a s w
a se l il g h t w e i g h t c o n c r e t e u n i t s w i t h e x p a n d e d c l a y a g g r e g a t e t o D o
l Nr l S l 35 2l , t h e g r o s s d e n s i t y
class may be 0.2 lesswhen spacing betweenleavesis > 50 mm and weightof each individualleaf is > 100 kg/m'?.
e)The grossdensityclass may be 0,2 lessfor leavesof gas concreteunitsor panelsto DIN 4165 or 4166,as well as lightweightconcreteunitswith expandedclay aggregateto
D I N1 8 1 5 1o r . 1 8 1 5 2 .

192
Soundinsulation

thestandard, A twin-leafsolidpartywallcom- slotsin termsof buildingacoustics and rigidity 2.6,90 Jointsbetweenbuildingswith or withoutjoint in
plieswiththeminimumrequirements of DIN of the connection in the senseof DIN4109, foundationand iointat roof level
4.109(R'*= 57 dB)whenthe leavesareeach providedthe buttjointbetweenthewallsis fully
115mmthick.the unitgrossdensityclassis filledwithmortar.Thisappliesto masonryin
1.4anda totalof 20 kg/m2of plasterhas been whichalljointsarefilledwithmortaras wellas
aoplied.To meetthe recommendations of to masonrywithoutmortarto the perpends.The
enhanced soundinsulation withat least67 dB, inclusion of stainless steelanchorsprovides
thethickness of eachleafmustbe increased to additional security, Groundfloor
175mmforthesameunitgrossdensityclass. Anothertypicalcaseof increased flanking
Table2.6.89specifies airbornesoundinsula- soundtransmission occurswhenan external
tionindicesfor variouswallconstructions wallis providedwitha rigid-clad(plaster or
according to DIN4109supplement 1: these plasterboard) of rigid
layerof insulation
havebeencalculated on the basisof the mass expandedfoamor wood-woollightweight
dependency of R'* andthe 12 dB addition. boardson the insidein orderto improvether-
malinsulation (seefig.2,6.93)[5].Theincrease
in flankingtransmission broughtaboutby the Basementfloor
Flankingcomponents resonance effectis on averageabout10 dB.
Theairborne soundinsulation betweenrooms Thismeansthatthe requirements for separat-
dependson the construction notonlyof the ing wallsand floorsbefuveen apartmentsare
separating wallbutalsoof theflankingcom- no longerfulfilled.
ponents andthe connection betweenseparat-
ingwallandflankingcomponents. Thesound
reduction indicesfor separating components External walls
g i v e ni ns u p p l e m e n
1 t o D I N4 1 0 9a p p l yt o Facadesare generally madeup of wallswith
flanking components providedthefollowing windowsand doors.Theresulting airborne
conditions arefulfilled: soundinsulation indexmaybe calculated
. Theaveragearea-related massR'r.r""n accordingto DIN4109 takingintoaccountthe
oftherigidflankingcomponents is approx. totalareaandthe areasof the individual com-
300kg/m'?. ponentsandtheirairbornesoundinsulation 2.6.91 Flankingtransmissionvia flankingcomponent;
.A rigidconnection to the flankingcompo- indicesor - moresimply- designedas shown junctionbetweenpartywall and externalwall
using slot or butt joint
nentsis guaranteed whenthe area-related in the examplein figure2.6.95usingtablesof
massoftheseparating components exceeds values.Theairbornesoundinsulation indices
150kg/m'z. of the windowsare obtainedfromthe test -T
. Theflanking components are continuous from certificates of manufacturers. Recommended
oneroomto the next. valuesfor commontypesof windowswithin-
.Thejointsbetweenseparating LOng-rerm
and flanking i n s u p p l e m e n1t
s u l a t i n g l a z i n ga r ei n c l u d e d reliability
components aresealed. t o D I N4 1 0 9 .
Theairbornesoundinsulation indexof an
lf theaveragearea-related massof theflanking externalmasonry walldependson itsconstruc-
components deviatesfromapprox.300 kg/m2, tion (seefig,2.6.92). Forsingle-leaf external Tension-
thesoecified soundreductionindexof the wallsit is initially thethermalinsulation that resistant
connectton
separating component mustbe corrected(see governswhichwallmaterial of lowgrossdensi-
table2,6,94). Theinfluence of the correction ty is required. Wallthicknesses of 300-365mm Flatanchor
300x 22x 0.75mm
valueKr,,is relatively small.In contrast, the and grossdensities of 500-BO0 kg/m3generally
connection betweenthe separating walland orovidesoundreductionindicesof between45
thesolidflankingcomponents hasa consider- and 51 dB dependingon the massof the exter-
a b l ei n f l u e n c(es e ef i g .2 . 6 . 9 1 T
) .h i si s t h ec a s e nalcomponent. lf a renderedthermalinsulation V4A steel
whena lightweight thermalinsulation external layeris attachedto the outside,then- as has 23651
wallpassesa heavyseparating wallbetween beenknownfor sometime- coatsof plasteron
apartments withoutbeingfirmlyconnected to wood-wool lightweight boardsdegradethe
it.Measurements carriedout by the Fraunhofer thermalinsulation of a wall[61]. Laterstudies
Institute for BuildingPhysicsrevealeda haveconflrmed thistrendfor insulation materi-
degrading of the soundreductionindexof up als of high dynamicstiffness(polystyrene parti-
to 10dB in the caseof non-bonded, i.e.butt- cle foam),whileinsulation materials withlow
jointed, wallswhosejointsubsequently stiffness (mineral wool)bringaboutimprove-
cracked andwas sealedwitha permanently mentsin somecasesbut a worsening in others
Tension-
elastic compound. dependingon theweightof plasterandthe resistant
A fixedconnection betweentheflanking,solid material of the solidwall11661. Investigations connection
components andthe separating wallor floor, haverecentlybeen Flatanchor
provided thisis of a heavyconstruction, is carriedouton I4 different thermalinsulation 300x 22x 0.75mm
desirable. Theexamplein fig.2.6.91shows composite sybtemson a wallof calciumsilicate
twotypesof junctionbetweena separatingwall perforated units[147].lmprovements in the
betweenapartmentsand an externalwall:with insulation soundindexof up to 4 dB were V4A steel
slotandwith buttjoint.The buti jointbetvreen established for insulation materials withlow .1
2 365
masonry wallsis equivalent to toothingand dynamicstiffness (mineral fibreboardswith f f i [
Buildingscience

2,6,92 Examplesof airbornesound insulationindex R'* horizontalfibresor elasticized rigidexpanded


for variousexternalwall constructions polystyrene boards)and rendering witha high
Single-leafexternalwall Single-leafwall with thermal area-related mass.Non-elasticized rigid
45-51dB insulationcompositesystem expandedpolystyrene boardsresultedin a
47_51dB
worsening of -1 to -3 dB, mineralwoolwithver-
300 - 365 175
I-- f t-_| ticalfibres(laminated boards)-5 dB. lnstalla-
tion by way of profiledrailspresentsthe
tl chanceto achievean improvement
evenwitha thincoatof plaster.Basically,
of 2 dB,
an

I externalwallwiththermalinsulationcomposite
systemcan achievea highdegreeof sound
insulation
loadbearing
againstexternalnoisebecausethe
walldoesnotneedto contribute
the thermalinsulationand can thereforebe
builtusinga heavytypeof construction. The
to

Single-leafwall with
airbornesoundinsulation indexof a 175mm
Twin-leafmasonrywith and
ventilatedcurtainwall withoutthermalinsulation thickcalciumsilicateexternal wallwiththermal
57 dB 55-66dB insulationcompositesystemliesbetween47
175 and 51 dB dependingon the particular con-
t struction.
tt Accordingto DIN4109supplement 1, the posi-
tive effectof a ventilatedfacademay not be
rl f':]----J takenintoaccountwhenassessing the sound
II J-t
L------l
insulationagainstexternalnoise.Onlythe area-
relatedmassof the innerleafis assumedto
Pf-_-_l contribute to the soundinsulation. However,
LJ solidexternal wallscan achieveconsiderably
".]---_--] higherairbornesoundinsulation indiceswith
the ventilated facadescurrently available
[167].Depending on thetypeof joints,typeof
insulationmaterial and supporting construc-
2.6.93 Exampleof externalwall claddingdetrimentalto sound performance(rigidthermalinsulationboardson inner
tion,the soundinsulation of solidexternal walls
face),afterGosele
withventilatedfacadesmay be increasedby
Externaiwall 240 mm c. dB
without
up to ARw= 15 dB witha carefulconsideration
masonry,clad internally o
with 12.5 mm -\ ! cladding of all boundaryconditions relevantto building
.g
plasterboardon 30 mm c^^ acoustics.Fora twin-leafexternalwall,the air-
r i g i de x p a n d e d o tiu with
foam boards.
F
o bornesoundinsulation indexis calculated from
= claddjng
c
o
R',* = 47 dB the sum of the area-related massesof both
leaves. Thefollowing amountsmaybe added
6 l
o to the valuedetermined in thiswavfor thetwin-
3 a
(d leaftype of construction:
C
o
U . 5 dB if the area-related
massof adjoining
internalwallsdoesnot exceed5O7oof the
innerleafof the external
wall.
. B dB if the area-related
massof adjoining
internal wallsexceeds50%of the innerleafof
the external wall.

2.6.94 CorrectionvaluesKL,1to DIN 4109 for the airbornesound insulationindex R'*.*for rigid walls at flanking
componentsof averagearea-relatedmass m'r,."un
Type of separatingcomponent K, , in dB for averagearea-relatedmass
m'r,,"un in kg/m2

400 350 150


S i n g l e - l e,arfi g i dw a l l s -1 -1
and floors
S i n g l e - l e arfi,g i dw a l l s +2 +1 0
w i t hn o n - r i g i dc l a d d i n g s

194
Soundinsulation

It is possible to achievean airbornesound 2.6,95 Resultingsound reductionindex R'*,.*.,""(dB) in relationto sound reductionindexof wall,sound reduction
indexof windowand its proportionof the area (%)
insulation indexof 55-66dB for cavity,partial-
fillorfull{illexternalwallsusingthe customary Wall:50 dB
formsof construction. The resultsof investiga- Window:35 dB
tionsintocalciumsilicatewallsshow,for the at 25% windowarea proportion
Facade:40 dB
samewallconstruction, the effectsof the
remaining airspaceandthetypeof insulation
material [92].Usingrigidexpandedpoly- 50 dB
styreneboardsas the thermalinsulation with
anairspaceof 40 mm (padialJill) producesa
result 2 dB higherthanfullcavityinsulation. Soundreduction SoLrndreCuctionindex of window R.^, in dB for a windowarea proportion(%)
"
Ontheotherhand,fillingthe cavitycompletely
OE ID
indexof wall 30dB 32 dB J5 0b

25% 3Oo/o 40% 2 5 % 3Oo/o 4Oo/o 5Oo/o 2 5 % 30% 50o/o


withmineral fibreboardsor hyperlite loose{ill 50o/o
45 35 34 33 32 37 36 35 34 39 39 38 37
material resultsin a 2 dB advantage overrigid 35 35 33 33 37 37 35 34 40 39 38 37
50
exoanded olasticboards. 55 35 35 33 33 37 35 34 40 38 37
andard constructions
Soundred. Soundreductionindexofwindow for a windowarea propoftion
index 37 dB 40 dB 42 dB 45 dB
of wall 254/o 3Oo/o 25% 3ook 4Oo/o 5O/o 25o/o 4OVo 5O/o 257;o 3Oo/o SOa/o
50 a2 a2 a1 ag 45 44 43 43 46 46 45 44 48 48 47
60 43 42 41 40 46 45 44 43 48 47 46 45 51 50 49 48
65 43 42 41 40 46 45 44 43 48 47 46 45 51 50 49 48
b) Externalwalls and windowswith high sound insulation
Building
science

2 . 6 . 9 6 _B u i l d i n gm a t e r i a l cs l a s s e st o D I N4 1 0 2p a r t 1 Fire protection
Buildrngmaterialsclass Buildilg authoritydeslsnglgn
A incombustiblematerials
A1 The chieftasksof fire protectionareto prevent
A2 firesfromstartingand spreading, and should
B combustiblematerials thathappen,to guarantee opportunities to
B1 not readilyflammablematerials
B2 flammablematerials
rescuepersons,animalsand propertyas well
B3 h i g h l yf l a m m a b l em a t e r i a l s - as createthe rightconditionsfor effectivefire-
fighting.Thecompulsory buildingauthority
requirements maybe supplemented by the
requirements of the insurers.Satisfying these
is notcompulsory but doesleadto marked
2.6.97 Fireresistance.classes
F to DIN 4102 reductions in insurance premiums.
Fireresistance Durationof fire Besidesactiveflre-fighting measures, e.g.
ciass resistancein minutes
ffi
FJU >30 sprinkler systemsandfirealarms,the empha-
F60 >60 sis is on maintaining preventive fireprotection
F90 >90 throughconstructional measures(referredto
F 120 > 120
F 180
as structural fireprotectiorl).
Thisincludes
> 180
guaranteeing adequatefireresistance for the
components, usingmaterials thatdo notgener-
ate any,or at leastno excessiveamountsof,
smokeor toxicgasesduringa fire,and reduc-
2.6.98 Comparisonof qerman buildingmaterialsclasseswith futureEuropeanclasses ingthe riskof firethroughcarefulplanning
Firesituation Productpedormance Europeanbuilding DIN 4 j02 building measures. The latterincludesthe arrangement
of firecompartments; the safeguarding of
Extensivefire No contributionto fire escapeand rescueroutes;and meansfor
ln one room VerVlimitedfire
Singleobject Limitedcontributionto fire ventingsmokeand heat.
on fire a!!9p!4!le !e!lr&!119 In Germanythe buildingauthority requirements
No spreadof flame Acceptablebehaviourin fire regarding fireprotection are definedin the
to adjoiningsurfaces
FederalStateBuildingCodessupplemented
of a prod,uct
No performanceestablished by statutes,bye-lawsand directives. The stan-
dardcoveringfireprotection is DIN4102(18
paris),whichcontainsbothtestingstandards
for investigating and assessing firebehaviour
and information on analysingfire protectionfor
classified buildingmaterials and components.

Building material classes


The behaviour of buildingmaterials in fireis
assessedand classified accordingto DIN
4102part1. Buildingmaterials areclassified
2.6.99 Determination
of fire resistanceclass,afterKordina/lvlever
Ottens
accordingto theircombustibility as classA
(incombustible) or classB (combustible) (see
table2.6.96), Theassessment criterionfor
incombustible buildingmaterials of classA1 is
theirbehaviour uponthe outbreakof a fire.lf
buildingmaterials of classA 2 includecom-
bustiblecomponents, the spreadof flame,the
densityof conflagration gasesandtheirtoxicity
mustbe evaluated. Thisis intended to ensure
thatdespitecontaining combustible compo-
Materialbehaviour nentsthe overallbehaviour can be compared
High-temperature
or combustionbehaviour
to the purelyinorganic A 1 materials, Com-
of material, bustiblebuildingmaterials areassessed with
e.g. of concrete, regardto theirflammability and rateof spread
steel,masonry,timber of flame,Buildingmaterials of classB 3 - high-
ly flammable - can makea directcontribution
Durationof fire resistance to the outbreakof fire and so the FederalOut-
lineBuildingCodeprohibits theiruse.Thetest
for B 2 involves a small,definedflame,thetest
Fireresistanceclass for B 1 typicallyan objecton firewithinthe
+ room(e.9.wastepaperbasketin onecorner).
Classof materialused Thebehaviour of the buildingmaterialin fireis
uesrgnaton important for the buildingauthority require-
mentsfor two reasons.First,the materialmust

196
Fireprotection

meetrequirements whenit is usedas the sur- 2,6.100 Standardtemperaturecurve


faceof a component (e.9,walland soffit
- 1200
cladding); second,whenusedas partof the 9-
construction of a component.The essential o
@
6
partsof fire-resistant
componentsmustconsist o
of incombustible materials, .g
o
TheEuropean classesfor thefirebehaviour of f

productshavenowbeenacceptedby 6
building o
o- Rnn
theStandingCommitteefor the Construction
Industry.Theywillbe publishedafterworkon
-o
F
fj
Standard
thestandardand the associatedtest methods
hasbeencompleted. A comparison between 600
theEuropean and Germanbuildingmaterials
classescouldwelllooksomethinq liketable
2.6.98.

Fire resistance classes


Thesafetyof a structureduringa fire depends
notonlyon the combustibility of the materials
butalso- in particular - on the durationof fire
resistance of the components. Thefireresis-
60 90 120 1s0 180
tanceclassof a comoonent is definedas the
Durationof fire ln minutes
minimum durationin minutesfor whichthe
component wlthstands a specifiedfiretest.In a
firetestthe sampleis subjectedto a precisely
2.6.101 Designationof fire resistanceclassesin conjunctionwith materialsused accordingto DIN 4102 paft 2
defined temperature gradient, the international-Fireresistance Buildingmaterialsclassto DIN 4102 pt 1 Designationz) Code
ly standardized standardtemperaturecurve ctass 10 of the materialsused for
(seefig.2.6.100), and is assessedaccording table
to thefollowing chieftestcriteria: 2.2.3-2
' Maintaining essentialpartsr) otherparts not classed
the load-carrying capacity(stabil- of components as essentialpartsr)
-
ity) underloadfor loadbearing components of components
or self-weight for non-loadbearing compo- CompongntsoI
F30 B B Fireresistanceclass F 30 F 3O.B
nents. F 3O-AB
' Maintaining B Fireresistanceclass F 30 and
a maximum permissible rateof with essentialparts made
deflectionin the caseof components on from incombustiblematerials')
statically
determinate supports. Fireresistanceclass F 30 and F 3O-A
. Maintaining made from incombustible materials
the roomenclosure (integrity
and --I OLI-D
F60 Fireresistanceclass F 60
insulation)in the caseof wallsso thatno Fireresistanceclass F 60 and F 60-48
ignitablegasescan escapeand no cracks with essentialpafts made
canformwhichmightleadto ignition. The from incombustiblematerialsr)
Fireresistanceclass F 60 and F 60-A
increase in temperature on the sideremote matelials
made from incombusJible
fromthefireshouldnotexceed140"Con F90 Fireresistanceclass F 90 F 9O-B
averageand 180'Cat individual measuring Fireresistanceclass F 90 and F 9O-AB
pornts. with essentialparts made
from incombustiblematerialsr)
Fireresistanceclass F 90 and F 9O-A
As can be seenin fig.2.6.99,the durationof made from incombustiblematerials
-Fire
fireresistance is essentially determined by the F 120 resisunce class F 120 i :zuB
behaviour of the material and influences spe- Fireresistanceclass F 120 and F 120-AB
with essentialparts made
cificto the component. Inthe caseof masonry, from incombustiblematerialsr)
failuretakesplacedueto the reductionin cross- Fireresistanceclass F 120 and F 120-A
sectionresultingfromtemperature-related made from incombustibrle materials
fatigueof the masonryunitsand dehydration of F 180 a
B Fireresistanceclass F 180 F 180-B
A B Fireresistanceclass F 180 and F 180-AB
the mortar.The durationof fire resistance with essentialpads made
enablesa component to be assignedto a fire from incombustiblematerialsr)
resistance class(seelable2.6.97).Component Fireresistanceclass F 180 and F 1BO-A
classifications can be coupledto material made from incombustiblematerials
1) Essentialparts include:
requirements withrespectto buildingmaterials parts alsothe partsthat contributeto
a) All loadbearingpads and thosecontributingto stability;for non-loadbearing
c l a s s eas c c o r d i ntgo f i g ,2 . 6 . 1 0 1
inindividual theirstability(e.9.framesfor non-loadbearing walls).
cases. b) In enclosingcomponentsa continuouslayerin the componentplanethat may not be destroyedin the test
Thefireresistance classesaredesignated with accordingto this standard,
In floorsthis layermust be at least50 mm thick in total;voids withinthis layerare permissible.
differentlettersdependingon the type of com- Whenassessingthe fire behaviourof materials,surfacecoatingsor othersurfacetreatmentsneed not be
p o n e n(ts e et a b l e2 . 6 . 1 0 2 ) . considered,
2) This designationconcernsonly the fire resistanceof the component;the buildingauthorityrequirements for
materialsused in fittinoout the lnterior,and which are connectedto the component,are not affectedby this.

197
Buildingscience

2.6.102 Codesfor designatingcomponentswhen specifyingthe fire resistanceclass Types and functions of walls
Component Code for designating ln termsof the functionof a wall,for fire protec-
fire resistanceclass
Walls,floors,columns,beams F tionpurposeswe distinguish betweenload-
Externalwalls bearingand non-loadbearing, and between
Fireprotectionclosures,e.g. fire doors T enclosing and non-enclosing walls.Figure
Ventilationducts,fire stops (fireprotectionclosures) L+< 2.6..103 thesetermsusingpractical
illustrates
Glazing G
examples[68].
A non-loadbearing wallis a platetypecompo-
nentthat- also in the caseof fire* is essential-
ly loadedby its ownweightand doesnot pro-
vide bucklingrestraint to loadbearing walls.
However,it musttransferwind loadsactingon
its surfaceto loadbearingcomponents.
A loadbearingwallis a plate-typecomponent
mainlyloadedin compression for carryingboth
verticaland horizontal loads.Wallscontributing
2.6.103 Typesof walls:examplesof plan layoutsfor residentialand industrialbuildings,afterHahn
of the buildingor otherloadbear-
to the stability
ing components areto be considered as load-
bearingwallsfromthe pointof viewof firepro-
tection.
R e s i d e n t i ablu i l d i n g
An enclosingwallis a wall,for example,along
ApartmentI an escaperoute,adjacentto a staircase,or a
l - -
I n d u s t r i abl u j l d i n g partywall or firewall.Suchwallsserveto pre-
+< 1.0i4)
@ L o a d b e a r i n ge,n c l o s i n gw a l l s ventfire spreadingfromone roomto the next
T-
l>1.0(, and are thereforesubjectedto fire on onlyone
R l' + l
@ Loadbearing,non-enclosing
wars
Apartmentll side.Enclosing wallsmaybe loadbearing or -

Lttr A p a r t m e nltl l
@

@
Non-loadbearing,enclosingwarrs

Shortwalls,formerlydesignatedas piers
non-loadbearing.
A non-enclosing wallis a wallsubjectedto fire
on two,threeor foursidesduringa fire.
, f < r . o@ Firecompartments
+ Directionoffloorspan
Requirements
Thefundamentals of buildingauthority firepro-
tectionrequirements are contained in the
respectiveStateBuildingCodesand the asso-
ciatedstatutes, as wellas in technicalbuilding
provisions and administrative rules.Figure
2.6.104explainsthe relationships and mutual
influences. All StateBuildingCodes,the corre-
spondingimplementation actsand administra-
tive rulesmakea distinctionbetweennormal
2.6.104 Overviewof buildingauthorityfire protectionregulations
buildings for normalpurposes, e,g.housing,
and thoseof specialconstruction for special
purposes, e,g.placesof assembly, hospitals,
industrial buildings.
Buildingsand structuresof spe- Normalbuildings for normalpurposesmakea
cial types for specialpurposes distinctionbetweenthe differenttypesof build-
ings.Theclassification in buildingclasses
a c c o r d i ntgo f i g .2 . 6 . 1 0 5
d e p e n d so n l a d d e r
accessfor thefirebrigadeand so is directly
Placesof assembly,garages, relatedto the heightof the building.
businesspremises,hospitals, Buildings of specialconstruction or for special
high-rise b u i l d i n g ss, c h o o l s , purposesaredealtwithonlyin principlein the
i n d u s t r i abl u i l d i n g s
buildingcodes.TheStateBuildingCodesare
complemented by specialactsand directives
thattake intoaccountthe soecialcircum-
stancesof high-rise buildings, placesof
assembly, restaurants, hospitals, business
premises, schoolsand industrial buildings.
Therelationship betweenthe requirements
padlydescribedin the StateBuildingCodes
and the abstractclassification accordingto
D t N4 1 0 2 oart2 and otheroartsof DIN4102is carried
D t N1 8 0 8 1 outon the basisof the definitions contained in
DtN18230
someStateBuildingCodes,or accordingto

198
Fireprotection

thelistof standardbuildingmaterial. Therela- 2 , 6 . 1 0 5 C l a s s i f i c a t i oonf b u i l d i n g si n f i v e b u i l d i n gc l a s s e sa c c o r d i n gt o t h e b u i l d i n gc o d e s


tionshiobetweenconstruction lawand DIN4102 B u i l d i n gc l a s s
is givenin table2,6.106. The primarycom 3
ponentof thefiresafetyconceptin the building Free-standing L o w - r i s eb u i l d i n g s Other High-rise
r e s i d e n t i ablu i l d i n g LadderaccessH<8m buildings buildings
codeis the compartmentation principle: fire H > 8 m
t h o u s i n gu n i t < 2 housingunits > 3 holsing units
shouldbe restrictedto as smallan areaas
possible. Thefirst"firecompartment" is the Firebrigadeaccess possible F o r F F L> 7 m < 2 2 m At least1 occupied
with scalingladderfor FFL< 7 m room > 22 m
functional unit,e.g.a wholeapaftment in an above FFL
apartment block,boundedby the floors,party F F L< 2 2 m
wallsandstaircase walls.At the veryleast,the
fireshouldnotspreadto neighbouring build-
ings,whichcan be achievedby relatively high
requirements beingplacedon thefirewalls.In
addition. theStateBuildingCodesdemand
thatlargebuildings themselves be subdivided
intofirecompartments. However,the compart-
mentation principlecan be fullyeffective only
whentheopeningsnecessary for the useof
building areappropriately closed.Thisapplies
2,6.106 to DIN 4102 and constructionlaw
to buildingservicepenetrations, e.g.electric Buildingauthority
41 designation
cables,pipes,as wellas to openingssuchas
flaps,doorsand gates. Fireresistanceclass F 30 F 30- Fire-retardant
-AB Fire-retardant
A numberof primaryfire protectionrequire- Fireresistanceclass F 30 with
parts made from loadbearingparts made
mentsfor components in residential buildings essential
incombustiblematerials
aregivenin table2.6.107. Theexamplegiven Fireresistanceclass F 30 and F3o4 #tql4s
hereis takenfromthe StateBuildingCodefor made from incombustiblematerials
NorthRhine-Westphalia (thereare sometimes Fireresistanceclass F 90 with F 9O-AB Fire-resistant
essentialparts made from
slightdifferencesbetweenthe codesof the incombustiblematerials
individual federalstatesin Germany); this Fireresistanceclass F 90 and F 9O-A Fire-resistant and
building codewas adoptedin itsentirety for all made from incombustiblematerials made from incombustiblematerials
thefederalstatesof formerEastGermany.
Free-standing residential buildings withone
h o u s i nugn i t( b u i l d i ncgl a s s1 )a r en o ti n c l u d e d
inthetablebecausethereareno requirements
forthefire resistanceclassesof componentsin
suchbuildings. However, the basicrequire- 2,6.107 Summaryof the most importantrequirementsfor structuralfire protectionfor componentscustomaryin
ment,thatno highlyflammable buildingmater- buildingsusingthe NorthRhine-Westphalia BuildingCode as an example
ialsmaybe employed, stillapplies,Conse- C l a s so f b u i l d i n g,
Type of Residential Anybuilding O t h e rb u i l d i n g s
quently, thethermalinsulation materials used apartfrom
building
inwallswithexternal or internal thermalinsula- of low height(FFL< 7 m) from high+ise
tionlayerandtwin-leaf masonry withadditional < 2 h o u s i n gu n i t s , > 3 h o u s i n gu n i t s buildings
Roof 01) Ort 0r)
thermalinsulationbetweenthe masonryleaves Loadbearingwalls F 9O-AB
Other F 3O-B F 3O-ABA
mustcomplywithbuildingmaterials classB 2 Basement F 3O-AB F 9O-AB Fs94E_
or higher. Non-loadbearino externalwalls A or F 30-B
Externalwall 0 B1
Cladding B 2 ->suitable
B u i l d i n ge n d w a l l s F 9O-AB BW
Firewalls (F 30-B) + F 9O-AB
Firewallsaccordingto DIN4102part3 must /tron_R\
complywiththefollowing enhancedrequire- Floors Roof 0rt 0r) 0r)
Other F 3O-B F 30-AB3) F 9O-AB
ments: F 9O.AB F 9O-AB
.Theymustbe builtfrommaterials - Basemenl F 3O-B
of building Parly wails - FgO-AB
F 9O-AB BW BW
materials classA to DIN4102part1. 40m F 9O.AB
.Theymustcomplywiththe requirements Party walls betuueen Roof F 3O-B F 3O-B F 3O-B
qpgg!9q9 Other F 3O-B F 60-48 F 9O-AB
of fireresistanceclassF 90 or higherto 0 0
Staircase Roof 0
DIN4102part2; loadbearing wallsmust Floor 0 F 3O.AB F 9O-AB
satisfy thisrequirement underconcentric Walls 0 F 9O.AB BW
andeccentricloading. itgqt=
. Firewallsmustremainstableandfulfiltheir sat,
flonorallv annocqihla Walls - F 30-B F 30-AB
enclosing functionafterbeingsubjected to an corndorsas F 3O-AB
impactload(3 x 200kg of leadshotin sack). routes Cladding A
Open walkways Walls,floors 0 F 9O-AB
adjacentexternalwalls Cladding 0 A
However,it is not onlyadequateto ensurethat 1)Insideof roof F 30-B for buildingswith gable facing the street
firewallscomplywithtest requirements- they 'z)F 30-Bfor buildingswith < 2 storeysabove ground level
mustbe properlylocatedin practiceand 3tF 30-Bfor buildingswith < 2 storeysabove ground level
properly constructed. F 30-B/Afor buildingswith > 3 s.toreysatlove ground level

199
Bulldingscience

2.6.108 Fireprotectionrequirementsin the vicinityof fire walls Thefire protectionrequirementsfor firewalls


Component ReqLlirements
WAIIS
aresummarized in 2.6.108.DIN4102oart4
+ impact load 3 x 3000 Nm containsdetailsof permissibleslenderness
Loadbearingand bracingcomponents F90 ratiosand minimumthicknesses of firewalls
No. of openings No restriction and theirjunctionswithothercomponents.
Closuresto openings T 90 doors (self-closingmechanism)
F 90 fire protectionglazing
S 90 fire stop to cable penelrations
Complex party walls
nrr"ng Complexpartywallsare merelyreferredto in a
The respectiveFederalStateBuildingCode Betweenbuildingsforminga terrace
must be adheredto
footnotein DIN4102part3 becausethisis an
W i t h i nl a r g eb u i l d i n g s
insurance industryterm,Themainpointto be
Dependingon heightof buildingand roof covering: notedis thatthe provisionsof the insurers,
with
< 3 full storeysextendingto undersideof roof covering limitationson openings,callfor fireresistance
> 3 full storeys at least 300 mm above roof
soft roof covering at least 500 mm above roof
classF 180,Complexwallsmustpassthrough
all storeyswithoutany offsets.Components
Componentsmay intrude,providedthe remainingcross-section may notintrudeintonor bypassthesewalls..
of the wall remainssealedand stableto F 90 standard.

Classification of proven components


DIN4102part4 containsdetailsof building
109 Fire for ventilated c materials,componentsand specialcompo-
Requiredbuildingmaterialsclassto 4 nentswhosefire behaviourhas beenclassified
n<2fullstoreys n > 2 f u l lstoreys, high-rise
buildings on the basisof tests.Theproductsincludedin
Cladding B2 B1 the standardhavealreadybeenverifiedin
S u p p o r t i n g c o n s t r u c t i o nB 2 B 2 1)2) termsof theirbehaviourin fire.Thefire protec-
Thermalinsulation B2 B1 A3) tion classification
of the wallsis carriedout
Means of Aqt A4)
' ) T h e r ea r e n o r e s t r i c t i o nosn u s i n gB 2 b u i l d i n g accordingto:
trame-likesuppofiingconstructions,providedthe gap
betweencladdingand insuiationdoes not exceed 40 mm and window/doorrevealsare protectedby class A build-
ing materials. 'wall material
'?)The BavarianBuildingCode permitstimber supportingconstructionsfor . wallthickness
buildingsup to 30 m high.
3) Does not apply to elementsfor retaininglayersof insulation.
a) Does not apply to anchorsystemscoveredby a buildirigauthoritvcertificate,
. type of fire (fromjust one side or frommore
thanoneside)
' utilizationof the load-carryingcapacityof
thewall

lf a componentis notfullyutilized,its load-car--


2 . 6 . 1 1 0 S i n g l e - a n d t w i n - l e a f f i r e w a l l s t o D l N 4 1 0 2 p a r t . 4 | a b l e 4 5 , P e r m i s s i b l e s l e n d e r n e s s , mt hi ni c. w
k nael l s s ryingcapacityduringa fireis greaterthan
and min, spacingof leaves(fireload on one side).Valuesin bracketsapply to wallswith plaster,Designto whenit is utilized100%.Therefore, in the stan-
.l
DIN 1053 parls and 2 with permissibleslendernessratioho/d.The eccentricitye may not exceed cll3.
dard we distinguishbetweenthe utilization fac-
Type of wall Masonry
tors o, = 1.0 (100% utilization),dz = 0.6 (60%
withoutplaster with plaster
Min,thicknessd (mm) utilization)and c[',= 0.2 (2Oo/o The
utilization).
for single-leal twin-leaf6) classification of walls,shallowlintelsand chan-
construction construction nel blocksfilledwith concretecan be foundin
Wallsof masonry3r to DIN 1053 parts 1 and 2
using normal-weight mortarof mortargroup ll,
tables38-42of DIN4102part4. The informa-
l l a o r l l l ,l l l a . tionin thetablesappliesto masonryaccording
Masonryunitsto DIN 105 part 1 of gross densityclass > 1.4 240 2x175 to DIN1053.Plasteron the sidefacingthefire
.1.0
> 300 2x2OO prolongsthe durationof fire resistance. The
(240) (2 x 175)
DIN 105 pad 2 of grossdensityclass > 0,8
valuesin bracketsin the tablesrelatingto wall
JOC'' 2 x24O
x1 thicknessesreferto olasteredwallsbecause
u n i t st o D I N 1 0 6 p a r t 1 ' )a n d D I N 1 0 6 2 x 1755) certainplastershavea positiveinfluenceon
part 1 A1 " as well as part 2 of grossdensityclass > 1.4 240 2x175 the fire behaviourof masonrywalls.Twin-leaf
> 0.9 300 2 x2OO
(300) (2 x 175)
wallsonlyrequireplasteron the outerfaces.
300 2x240 Thetablesare validfor all typesof perpends
x17 accordingto DIN 1053part1, i.e.for perpends
unitsto DIN 4165 of grossdensityclass > 0.6 300 2 x24O fullyfilledwithmortar,for "tippedandtailed"
> 0.64) 240 (2 x 175)
> 0.56) 300 2x
perpends,and perpendswithoutmortar(inter-
Masonryunitsto DIN 1 18152 and > 0.8 240 X1 lockor tongueand groove).Perforations in
of grossdensityclass (175) (2 x 175) masonryunitsor wall panelsmay not run per-
> 0.6 300 2 x24O pendicular to the planeof thewall.
(240\ (2 x 175)
'r Also with thin-bedmortar. Masonryreadilysatisfiesthe requirements of
2)d = 175 mm when usingthin-bedmofiar and gauged brickwork. fire protection,generallythroughthe wallthick-
3tUtilization factord2 < 0.6 when using lightweightmortar.
o)Appliesto thin-bedmortarand gauged brickworkwith mortarto perpends
nessrequiredfor structural or buildingscience
and bed joints. reasons.Therefore, the extensivetablesin DIN
5)d = 150 mm when usingthin-bedmortarand gauged brickwork.
6)Appliesto thin-bedmortarand gauged brickworkwith tongueand groove
only in the case of mortarto perpendsand
4102parl4 can be considerably reducedby
hcd ininiq specifying fireresistance classF 90 and 100%

200
Fireprotection

Tables2.6.111-1'13 spe-
degreeof utilization. Thermalinsulation composite systemswith wallcladdingsuponwhichdoubthasbeen
cifytheminimum thicknesses requiredto insulation materials of notreadilyflammable castby certaintests[22].
achievefireresistance classF 90 employing polystyrene particlefoam(buildingmaterials Thermalinsulation materialsof buildingmateri-
masonry of standardunits.Besidesthe fire classB 1) and a maximum thickness of 100mm alsclassB 2 maybe usedup to the high-rise
resistanceclass,firewallsmustalsocomply complying witha generalbuildingauthority buildinglimitfor partial-or full-fill cavitywalls.
withtheconditions givenin table2.6,110with certificatemay be usedon masonryup to the In contrastto this,buildingsof mediumheight
regardto slenderness ratioand wallthickness. high-rise buildinglimit.Thermalinsulation (7-22m) requirethatcontinuous layersof F 30-
Claddings maynotbe usedin orderto reduce composite systemsusingmineralmaterials, AB and F 90-ABcomponentsmustconsistof
thesoecified wallthicknesses. Thinnerwalls e.g.mineralwoolproductsof buildingmater- materials.
c l a s sA b u i l d i n g
thanthosegivenin DIN4102part4 havebeen ialsclassA 1 or A 2. areconsidered as a coat Flammable insulation materialsof building
provedfor firewallsof clay,calciumsilicate, of plasterwhenclassifying thewall.In termsof materialsclassB 2 are permittedin the caseo1
autoclaved aeratedconcreteand lightweight fireprotection, the external wallis equivalent internalinsulation for buildingsup Io 22 m
concreteunitsin teststo DIN4102part3 [7, to a plastered wallwithoutthermalinsulation. height.Specialregulations applyto escape
76,134,2091. Reference [67]containscom- Thermalinsulation composite systemswith roules.
prehensive information on fireprotectionin insulation materials of buildingmaterials class
masonrystructureswith practicalexamples. B 2 maybe employedonlyon buildings witha
maximumof two full storeys.The fire protection
Externalwalls with thermal insulation requirements for curtainwallventilated facades
Single-leaf
external
wallswithan external, ren- d e p e n do n t h eh e i g hot f t h e b u i l d i n gt h; e
layer(thermal
deredthermalinsulation insula- requirements withrespectto buildingmaterials
tioncompositesystem)are assessedin fire classesfor facadecomponentsare summar-
protection
termsaccordingto the type of insu- izedin table2.6.109. Thefireprotection
lationmaterial
used. requirements stillapplyfor ventilated external

2.6.111 Loadbearing,enclosingwallsof masonryto 2 . 6 . 1 1 2 M i n .t h i c k n e s sd o f l o a d b e a r i n gn,o n - e n c l o s i n g 2.6.113 Non-loadbearing, enclosingwallsof masonry


DIN 4102 part 4 table 39. Valuesin brackets wallsof masonryto DIN 4102 part 4 table 40 or wall panelsto DIN 4102 part 4 table 38.
apply to walls plasteredboth sides.Utilization (fireload on morethan one side).Valuesin Valuesin bracketsapply to walls plastered
factorcr, = 1.9 bracketsapply to walls plasteredboth sides. both sides
Constructionfeatures M i n .t h i c k n e s s( m m ) Utilizationfactoru, = 1.6 Constructionfeatures Min.thickness(mm)
for fire resistance Constructionfeatures M i n .t h i c k n e s s( m m ) for fire resistance
o. class F 90 for fire resistance class F 90
d1
Z 77-lo'
-d1 m d
dl
class F 90

Walls mm
Walls
Autoclavedaerated concrete Autoclavedaeratedconcrete Autoclavedaeratedconcrete 1001)
Blocks& gauged brickwork 175 B l o c k s& g a u g e db r i c k w o r k t oD I N4 1 6 5 240 Blocks& gauged brickworkto DIN 4165 (75)
t o D I N4 1 6 5 Grossdensityclass> 0.5 ( 17 5 ) Panels& gauged brickworkelements
Grossdensityclass> 0.5 ( 15 0 ) u s i n gr ) 2 ) t o D I N4 1 6 6
1)2) I i^hh^,di^h+ ^^n^r6t6 Lightweightconcrete 95
Lightweight concrete H o l l o wb l o c k st o D I N 1 8 1 5 1 H o l l o w w a lel l e m e n t st o D I N 1 8 1 4 8 (70)
H o l l o wb l o c k st o D I N 1 8 1 5 1 S o l i db r i c k s& b l o c k st o D I N 1 8 1 5 2 240 H o l l o wb l o c k st o D I N 1 8 1 5 1
S o l i db r i c k s& b l o c k st o D I N 1 8 1 5 2 175 Concretemasonryunitsto DIN 18153 ( 17 5 ) S o l i db r i c k s& b l o c k st o D I N 1 8 1 5 2
Concretemasonryunitsto DIN 18153 ( 1 4 0 ) Grossdensityclass> 0.6 W a l le l e m e n t st o D I N 1 8 1 6 2
Grossdensityclass> 0.6 usinqr)3) Concrete u n i t st o D I N 1 8 1 5 3
r)3) Clay bricks Clay bricks ttc

Claybricks Solid& verticallyperforated Solid& verticallyperforated


Solid& verticallyperforated t/c t o D I N 1 0 5p t 1 1 t o D I N 1 0 5p t 1 (100)
t o D I N1 0 5p t 1 Lightweight verticallyperforated
u s i n gr r ( 115 ) t o D I N 1 0 5p t 2
Claybricks Lightweight verticallyperlorated High-strengthbricks& engineering
Lightweight & vefticallyperforated t o D I N 1 0 5p t 2 b r i c k st o D I N 1 0 5 p t 3
t o D I N1 0 5p t 2 Grossdensityclass > 0.8 High-strengthengineeringbricks
Grossdensityclass> 0.8 u s i n g1 ) 3 ) t o D I N1 0 5p l 4
t)3) C a l c i u ms i l i c a L e 11 5
Parfnratinnt\/naaARR ( 11 5 ) types A & B
Perforatjon (115) Solid,perforated,blocks, (100)
hollowblocks& gauged brickwork
Lightweightvertically perforated 124o'\ Lightweight vertically perforated toDIN106ptl&1Al
brickstype W G a u g e db r i c k w o r k t oD I N 1 0 6 p t 1 &
Calciumsilicate 115 Utilizationfactor02 = 1.0 (24o) DIN106 pt 1 A1
Solid,perforated,blocks,hollow ( 11 5 ) eablnm-ilil F a c i n gb r i c k sl o D I N 1 0 6p t 2
r) d > 50 mm when usingthin-bedmonars.
blocks& gauged brickworkto Solid,perforated,blocks,hollowblocks&
D I N1 0 6p t 1 & ' l A 1 gauged brickworkto DIN 106 pt 1 & 1 A1 140
F a c i n gb r i c k st o D I N 1 0 6 p t 2 D I N 1 0 6p t 1 A 1 ( 11 5 )
1)2)4\
Facingbricksto
1)Normal-weightmortar D I N1 0 6p t 2
'ztThin-bedmortar 1t2)
3tLightweightmortar 1)Normal-weightmortar
a)The valuesapply only to masonryof solid bricks, 2)Thin-bedmortar
blocksand gauged brickworkwhen 3)Lightvveight
mortar
3.0<exrsto<4,5N/mm'?. a)The valuesapplyonlyto masonryof solidbricks,blocks
and gauged brickworkwhen 3.0 < exjsto < 4,5 N/mm2.

201
Variables

Units and symbolsfor buildingscience

Symbol Designation Unit


m2
Moisturecorrectionfactor
F^ ReductionJactorfor sunshading
Specifictransmissionheat loss wK
Heatconduction wn<
Heat,heat energy JorWs
O Annualheatingenergyrequiremenl kWh/a
Qn Annualheatingrequirement kWh/a
O" Heat gain kWh/a
Qr Heat loss kWh/a
o Primaryenergyrequiremenl kWh/a
O Energyrequirementfrom renewablesources kWh/a
Q1 Total heat losses due to heating system kWh/a
O* Energyrequirementfor hot water provision kWh/a
Thermalresistance m2KlW
Internal,/External
surface resistance m2KNl
Totalthermalresistance(air-to-airresistance) m2KAA/
Solarheat penetration
U (formerlyk in Germany) Thermaltransmittance W/m2K
Thermaltransmittance,
windowframe W/m2K
Thermaltransmittance,glazing Wm'?K
u,^, Thermaltransmittance,
window W/m2K
Volume m3
Watervapourdiffusionresistance m'?hPa4<g
Temperaturediffusivity m2/s
Heat penetrationcoetficienl J/m'?Kso5
Specificheat capacity J,&gK
Thickness
Cost index relatedto primaryenergyrequiremenl
Temperaturefactor
Solartotal energytransmittance
Watervapourdiffusionflow rate kg/m'h
Thermalsurfaceresistancecoefficient W/m'?K
Mass kg
ffiwr Area-relatedcondensationmass kg/m2
ffiwv Area-relatedevaoorationmass kg/m2
Air change rate No,,tr
P' P" Watervapourpartialpressure,
watervapoursaturationpressure Pa
Pi,P" Watervapourpartialpressure,internal/external Pa
Heat flow rate W/m2
Watervapourdiffusion-equivalent
air layerthickness
Time
Mass-relatedmoisturecontent kg/kg
Waterabsorptioncoefficient kglm2ho 5
'4 (eta) Degreeof utilization
$ (theta) Temperature .C
Air temDerature.
internal/external .C
r1 . Internalsurfacetemperature .C
L (lambda) Thermalconductivity
p (mv) Watervapourdiffusionresistanceindex m mere
p (rho) Gross/bulkdensity kg/m3 Watt
O(phi) Heatflow K Kelvin
Relativehumidity J JOUIe
year
I (chi) Discretethermaltransmittance WiK
v (psi) Linearthermaltransmittance WmK s second
Volume-relatedmoisturecontent m3/m3 h hour
Soundjntensity W/m2 P Pascal
Soundoressurelevel.sound level dB kg kilogram
Soundreductionindex dB d day
R,n, Airbornesound insulationinde^ dB
'c degreeCelsius
Frequency t1z dB decibel
Sound pressure Pa Hz Heftz

202