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Es) Writing Songs of Resistance to Apartheid Writing for Understanding Overview In this Writing for Understanding activity students assume the role of South Afi write songs protesting apartheid, Students are introduced to key forms of resistance by examining a timeline, viewing transparencies, and listening to a recording of an antiapartheid radio broadcast. After listening to an example protest song, students work in pairs and assume the role of a jailed South African to write the lyrics to a song of resistance. Students incorporate into theit songs key words and phrases from “Behind Bars,” a protest song written by a jailed South African, Afterward, students listen to “Behind Bars” and compare their songs to it. Finally, students learn about how acts of resistance led to the demise of apartheid. Procedures at a Glance Before class, divide your students into mixed-ability pairs, Tell students they will assume the role of a jailed South African to write a song of resistance to apartheid. To introduce students to the resistance movement, pass out Student Handout 3.3A and review with students key events on the timeline, Project Transparencies 3.3A through 3.3F and play CD Track 2 to illustrate forms of resistance to apartheid. Then, project ‘Transparency Master 3.3B and play CD Track 3, an example of a song of resistance. Pass out Student Handout 3.3C to each student, project Transparency Master 3.3D, and review the guidelines for writing a resistance song. Have students brainstorm lyrics for their song and then write them. Afterward, project Transparency Master 3.3E, play CD Track 4; “Behind Bars,” and have students compare the song’s lyries to their own, Finally, pass out Student Handout 3.3F to each student, Project ‘Transparencies 3.3G, 3.3H, and 3.31, and review with students how resistance efforts led to the demise of apartheid. (© Teeter’ Curiculan Taste Modem Afi 108, ESI) Procedures in Detail 1. This activity is designed to allow students to learn about forms of resistance to apartheid and to assume the role of a jailed South African to write their own protest songs. 2. Before class, divide students into mixed-ability pairs, Prepare an overhead transparency that shows students who their partners are and how to arrange their desks, Project the transparency, and ask students to move into the correct places. 3. To introduce students to key events and figures in South Africa’s resistance movement, pass out Student Handout 3.3A: Timeline of Resistance to Apartheid to each pair, Have students underline each form of resistance shown on the timeline, and then review the timeline with the class. Make sure they understand that resistance to apartheid took many forms, including the political organizations, armed resistance, nonviolent protest, and international pressure depicted on the timeline, (Note: This timeline is not intended to be an in-depth study of South African resistance to apartheid. Rather, the events included are intended to introduce students to the range of protests and ideas that developed over time and finally brought down apartheid.) 4, Project Transparencies 3.3A through 3.3F, and use the Teacher’s Guide to ‘Transparencies to provide students with more information about various forms of resistance to apartheid. Then, play CD Track 2, which is a two-minute recording of excerpts from a broadcast of Radio Freedom, the banned radio station of the military wing of the African National Congress. 5. Once students have a general understanding of the timeline and forms of resistance, tell them that you are going to play a resistance song. Explain that resistance expressed through musie—which accompanies many aspects of life in South Africa—was an important form of protest because it helped inform people about apartheid and unity blacks in the struggle against it, The song they will hear is called “Here We Are/Khaya Bakulindite (They Are Waiting for You at Home).” It was played on Radio Freedom as part of a broadcast encouraging women to play an active role in the revolutionary movement of the African National Congress, Project ‘Transparency Master 3.3B: Lyrics to a Protest Song. (Note: You may want to play the song once and have students carefully listen to the music before projecting the lyrics.) Tell students to listen carefully to the song’s mood and description of apartheid’s effects. Then, play CD ‘Track 3. 6. Dis + What is the mood of the song? (Angry, determined, proud, longing for a better life) + What are some of the effects of apartheid described in the song? (Poor living conditions, malnutrition, fear, injustice, the separation of family members, murder) cuss the song briefly with students, Center the discussion on these questions: 10 Moder Aiea © Tencers* Cuca Inioe HS 3] + How is this song a work of resistance? (The song describes and speaks out against the conditions of apartheid and calls for support—from the people of South Africa and other nations-—in ending apartheid.) 7. Students are now ready to write a resistance song, Pass out Student Handout 3.3C: Brainstorming Lyrics for a Song of Resistance to each student. Then, project ‘Transparency Master 3.3D: Directions for Writing a Song of Resistance. (Option: You may want to make copies for each pair.) Review the guidelines for the assignment with the class, Once students understand the assignment, have them work in paits to brainstorm ideas for their songs by completing each section of Student Handout 3.3C. Explain that the phrases in the word bank on the handout come from “Behind Bars,” a protest song recorded in 1988 by Mzwakhe Mbuli, a well-known political poet and activist who was jailed for his role in the resistance movement. Tell students that after they have written their songs, they will listen (o a recording of “Behind Bars.” 8. Once pairs have finished brainstorming, have students write their songs, following the assignment guidelines, Encourage them to use vivid and passionate language. After all students have written their songs, you may want to have them share their songs with the class. Wrap Up 1, Next, use the information below to introduce students to Mzwakhe Mbuli and his song “Behind Bars.” The song “Behind Bars” was recorded in 1988 on an album that was banned in South Africa, Mzwakhe Mbuli is a well-known activist poet and performance artist who, due to his antiapartheia works, was forced underground from 1985 10 1989. Though he was sought by the police, Mbuli refused to go into exile and continued to move around South Africa, appearing unannounced at meetings, weddings, funerals, and other events to perform his poems, He was caught and jailed by the South African police in 1988. He was released in 1990, along with other political prisoners. Then, project Transparency Master 3.3E: Lyrics to “Behind Bars,” and play CD ‘Track 4: “Behind Bars.” After students have listened to the song, lead a class discussion in which they compare how the lyries in their songs were similar to or different from those in “Behind Bars.” 2. To help students understand how acts of resistance contributed to the demise of apartheid, give them a copy of Student Handout 3.3F: The End of Apartheid, and have them read it, Project Transparencies 3.3G through 3.31, and use the Teacher’s Guide to ‘Transparencies to review with students the information on the handout, (© Teas Cuesta Taste ‘Moder Aiea 108