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HIGH INCIDENCES OF ACCIDENTS WHILE WORKING AT HEIGHT Miscellaneous 08% Transport vehicle 16% Electrocution 11%
HIGH INCIDENCES OF ACCIDENTS
WHILE WORKING AT HEIGHT
Miscellaneous
08%
Transport vehicle
16%
Electrocution
11%
Fall of Object
Fall of Person
08%
57 %
WORKING AT HEIGHT We shall discuss about; • Preventing Fall of Materials & Person while
WORKING AT HEIGHT
We shall discuss about;
• Preventing Fall of Materials & Person
while working on:
– LADDERS
– SCAFFOLDS
– WORKING PLATFORM
– WORKING ON ROOFS
– SAFETY EQUIPMENT & DEVICES
LADDERSLADDERS
LADDERSLADDERS
LADDER If the only means of doing the task is using a ladder. ֠PORTABLE ֠STOCK
LADDER
If the only means of doing the task is using a ladder.
֠PORTABLE
֠STOCK (SINGLE)
֠EXTENSION 2
(
or
3
)
֠SECTIONAL
֠STEP (FLAT STEP)
֠TRESTLE (CIRCULAR)
֠BUILT-UP / FIXED
֠ROPE
Stock / Single Ladder ( IS 3696 – 1966 ) • Side rails may be
Stock / Single Ladder
( IS 3696 – 1966 )
Side rails may be parallel or wide spread at
bottom
Length (L) not more than 10 m
Distance between rungs
NOT LESS THAN 250 mm
NOT MORE THAN 350 mm
L
Must support 4 times the maximum load.
250 - 350
Width between side rails;
290 mm - 430 mm
– 290 mm
– +6 mm
- Up to 3 m L
- for every 0.3m L
Sectional Ladder
Sectional Ladder
Sectional Ladder • Overall Length not more than 10 m • Section Length – Bottom
Sectional Ladder
• Overall Length not more than 10 m
• Section Length
– Bottom & intermediate
– Top section
- 2 m
- 3 m
• Connecting joint not less than 30 cm
• Rungs
– Dia
– c/c spacing
> 30 mm
< 300 mm
EXTENSION LADDER • Overall length not to exceed 18 m. • Sliding section not to
EXTENSION LADDER
• Overall length not to exceed
18 m.
• Sliding section not to exceed
two in number.
STEP LADDER • Shape of A, hinged at upper end • Flat step at one
STEP LADDER
• Shape of A, hinged at upper end
• Flat step at one end only & other
strut.
• Overall height not more than 6 m
& chained mid-way & Bottom.
• Do not use the top platform of the
stepladder unless designed
LADDER BUILT-UP / FIXED LADDER • Rung spacing 300 mm c/c max. • Rungs to
LADDER
BUILT-UP / FIXED LADDER
• Rung spacing 300 mm c/c max.
• Rungs to be recessed at least 12
mm into rails
• Cage or well, and multiple ladder
sections, each section not
exceeding 50 feet
• Distance between the inner face of
the fixed ladder.
– 290 mm for 3 m & 6 mm for every 0.3
m increase in length.
ROPE LADDER • Diameter of the rope not less than 25mm. • Planks forming the
ROPE LADDER
• Diameter of the rope not
less than 25mm.
• Planks forming the steps
not less than 38 mm thick.
• Rope to pass through holes
in rungs
SAFE LADDER USAGE • The angle should be between 65 - 75 0 to the
SAFE LADDER USAGE
• The angle should be between 65 - 75 0
to the horizontal (1 : 4) ‘four up, one
down’
• Stiles to extend at least 1 m ( 3 ft)
above the step-off point.
• No rung should be missing.
• It should always be laced at the level
of the platform.
• It should be firm & fitted with a non-
slippery foot hold.
• Rungs shall be clear of oil / grease
etc.,
Contd…. • Make sure that only one person at a time is on the ladder.
Contd….
• Make sure that only one person at a
time is on the ladder.
• Don't stretch or reach beyond the side
rails of a ladder. You could lose your
balance.
• Never stand any higher than the third
rung from the top of a ladder.
• Keep metal and wet wooden ladders
away from live electrical circuits.
• Face the ladder when ascending or
descending.
Contd…. • Secure the top of the ladder, as needed. • In aisles or where
Contd….
• Secure the top of the ladder, as needed.
• In aisles or where there may be the danger of traffic,
have someone hold the ladder. Post a warning sign,
if necessary.
• Secure the top and bottom of a ladder when using it
to access a platform or scaffold.
• Hoist materials or attach them to a belt. Do not carry
materials in your hands
UNSAFE ACTS / CONDITIONS Do not use the top or top ste of a stepladder
UNSAFE ACTS / CONDITIONS
Do not use the top or top ste
of a stepladder as a step
UNSAFE ACTS / CONDITIONS •This ladder is not secured; •Ladder not placed on a stable
UNSAFE ACTS / CONDITIONS
•This ladder is not secured;
•Ladder not placed on a
stable surface;
•The ground not leveled;
•Placed near the aisle.
SCAFFOLDSCAFFOLD
SCAFFOLDSCAFFOLD
Scaffold • Temporary structure that supports one or more platforms; • Support workmen, plant and
Scaffold
• Temporary
structure
that
supports one or more platforms;
• Support
workmen,
plant
and
materials during
the
construction, maintenance,
repairs and demolition.
TYPES OF SCAFFOLD Three basic types: Supported scaffolds -- platforms supported by rigid, load bearing
TYPES OF SCAFFOLD
Three basic types:
Supported scaffolds --
platforms supported by rigid, load
bearing members, such as
St
an
d
ar
d
s,
l
egs,
frames &
,
outriggers
Suspended scaffolds --
platforms suspended by ropes or
other non-rigid, overhead support
Aerial Lifts -- such as “boom
trucks”
Scaffold TTPES OF SUPPORTED SCAFFOLDS • Independent scaffold • Putlog scaffold. • Mobile scaffold. •
Scaffold
TTPES OF SUPPORTED SCAFFOLDS
• Independent scaffold
• Putlog scaffold.
• Mobile scaffold.
• Truss-out scaffold
• Trestle scaffold
• Birdcage scaffold
• Cantilever scaffold ….
Scaffold COMPONENTS OF A GOOD SCAFFOLD – Sole plate – Base plate – Standards –
Scaffold
COMPONENTS OF A GOOD SCAFFOLD
– Sole plate
– Base plate
– Standards
– Ledgers
– Transoms
– Bracings
– Ties
– Guard rails
– Toe guard
– Ladders
– Miscellaneous i.E couplers, planks etc.,
L&T Formwork
L&T Formwork
Safety In Formwork • Formwork Engineer / Site Engineer / Formwork Charge Hand should check
Safety In Formwork
• Formwork Engineer / Site Engineer /
Formwork Charge Hand should check
the arrangement of scaffolding as per
scheme drawing before concreting and
follow tagging system.
• Before erecting the staging check the
availability of components as per the
scheme and system.
Collection of materials Collect & stack required components & tools near the work place before
Collection of materials
Collect
&
stack
required
components
&
tools near the work place before erecting
HOUSE KEEPING
HOUSE KEEPING
Erection Sequence • Mark the Longer & Shorter span dimension of 2.250 M & 1.525
Erection Sequence
• Mark the Longer & Shorter
span dimension of 2.250 M
& 1.525 using measuring
ta e2
p
.
• Place the foot plate at
marked position 2.
Scaffold Support Examples Base plate Mud sills
Scaffold Support Examples
Base plate
Mud sills
Contd… • Assemble the tower spindle with foot plate using spring locked pin • Place
Contd…
• Assemble the tower spindle
with foot plate using spring
locked pin
• Place the tower spindle with
foot plate using spring
locked pin at all the four leg
of tower
Contd… Erect the basic frame 1.80 Erect the basic frame 1.80 at other end
Contd…
Erect the basic frame 1.80
Erect the basic frame 1.80 at other end
Contd… • Place the bracing H225 between the Basic frame • Place the Diagonal bracing
Contd…
• Place
the
bracing
H225
between the Basic frame
• Place the Diagonal bracing D
18.225 at the same direction
Contd… • Place the Horizontal Bracing H 225 between the Basic frame at upper level
Contd…
• Place
the Horizontal
Bracing H 225 between the
Basic frame at upper level
• Follow the Same Sequence
of Placing of the Bracings
at other end
Contd… • Place the plan bracing D12.225 to Check the diagonal of tower at top
Contd…
• Place the plan bracing
D12.225 to Check the
diagonal of tower at top
level
• Check the level of
Tower using water
level
Contd… • Align the tower using line thread • Place the three no’s of Scaffold
Contd…
• Align the tower using
line thread
• Place the three no’s of
Scaffold board top of
tower
Contd… • Tie the Safety Belt at top of the basic frame • Insert the
Contd…
• Tie the Safety Belt at
top of the basic frame
• Insert the HD coupler
top of the basic frame
using spring locked
pin
Contd… • Insert the HD coupler top of the basic frame using spring locked pin
Contd…
• Insert the HD coupler
top of the basic frame
using spring locked
pin all the four legs
• Erect the second unit
of basic frame 1.20
Contd… • Erect the basic frame 1.20 at other end and insert the spring locked
Contd…
• Erect the basic frame
1.20 at other end and
insert the spring
locked pin at four legs
• Place the diagonal
bracing D 12.225 and
Horizontal bracing H
225 between the basic
frame 1.20
Contd… Repeat the said procedures.
Contd…
Repeat the said procedures.
Contd… Elevation of the tower after erection
Contd…
Elevation of the tower
after erection
Scaffold Tag System X Date of Inspection: Signature of Competent Person
Scaffold Tag System
X
Date of Inspection:
Signature of Competent Person
Scaffold Inspection Competent person inspects scaffolds for visible defects before each shift and after any
Scaffold Inspection
Competent person
inspects scaffolds for
visible defects before
each shift and after any
alterations
Defective parts must be
immediately repaired
Deformed bearer
HAZARDS / RISK IN SCAFFOLDING • Improper Planning • Unskilled Doing Skilled Works • Untrained
HAZARDS / RISK IN
SCAFFOLDING
• Improper Planning
• Unskilled Doing Skilled Works
• Untrained Employees
• No Work Permit & Method statement System
• Less Inspection
• Deficient Supervision
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly
Assembly Ensure •That the diagonal, horizontal and plan bracing are position in •Bracings between towers
Assembly
Ensure
•That the diagonal, horizontal
and plan bracing are
position
in
•Bracings between towers /
tower and permanent structure
used, required at every 6.0 m
intervals in height.
•That the couplers are
provided in each basic frame
at every level and they are
secured by the spring lock pin
at top and bottom of each joint.
Assembly •Foot plates / U- Heads are used wherever necessary along with the tower spindles
Assembly
•Foot
plates
/
U-
Heads
are
used
wherever necessary
along
with
the
tower spindles
•The Tower Spindle
Extension should
not
be
more
than
450 mm
Assembly Place Walk way Jally / Scaffold board top of during assembly. tower Horizontal bracings
Assembly
Place
Walk
way
Jally
/
Scaffold board top of
during assembly.
tower
Horizontal bracings should be
locked here
Don’t Place the walk way Jally
over bracings
Don’t use H-Beams
Assembly •Insert HD coupler top of the basic frame using spring locked pin all the
Assembly
•Insert HD coupler top of the basic
frame using spring locked pin all the
four legs.
•Spring locked pins to be provided
on top & bottom of the couplers.
•Tie the Safety Belt
at
top of
the
Basic
frame
with
permanent
Member.
•Don’t
tie
the
Safety
Belt
with
Bracings.
Access Arrangement On Towers
Access Arrangement On Towers
Access Arrangement On Tower
Access Arrangement On Tower
Precaution During Assembly •Ensure diagonal bracings are provided while erecting the HD basic frames. •Square
Precaution During Assembly
•Ensure diagonal bracings are provided while
erecting the HD basic frames.
•Square Towers to be erected alternatively by
rotating 90 degree in each level.
•For Square Towers (1524 x 1524) horizontal
bracings to be provided at bottom and top or next at
6.0M level (Max.)
•For Rectangle Towers (1524 x 2254) horizontal
bracings to be provided in all towers.
•Plan bracings to be provided alternatively in all
Towers like both (1524 x 1524 & 1524 x 2254)
Precaution During Assembly •Rate of rise should be restricted to the level of design assumptions.
Precaution During Assembly
•Rate of rise should be restricted to the level of
design assumptions.
•The formwork needs to be monitored closely at
connections while concreting.
•The needle vibrator should be placed correctly
and should not disturb the supports of formwork
•Never support / touch the concrete delivery pipe to
the formwork
Precaution During Assembly • Every 6m-interval bracing should be fixed with permanent structure or from
Precaution During Assembly
• Every 6m-interval bracing should be fixed with
permanent structure or from one tower to the
other.
• Ground level earth should be compacted well
for better loading.
• Conditions of the components should be
checked and the damaged ones should not
used.
• Tor steel rod should not be used in place of
lock pin.
De-shuttering
De-shuttering
Deshuttering Do not throw the materials from height. It can damage itself or men and
Deshuttering
Do not throw the materials from height. It can damage
itself or men and material underneath.
Hazards in Scaffoldings
Hazards in Scaffoldings
CONCRETE DUMPING EFFECT Rate of rise should be restricted to the level of design assumptions.
CONCRETE DUMPING EFFECT
Rate of rise should be restricted to the level of
design assumptions.
REMOVAL OF BRACING EFFECT No bracings should be removed
REMOVAL OF BRACING EFFECT
No bracings should be removed
HOUSE KEEPING DON’TDON’T DUMPDUMP THETHE MATERIALSMATERIALS
HOUSE KEEPING
DON’TDON’T DUMPDUMP THETHE MATERIALSMATERIALS
Staging Erected on Un Even Ground
Staging Erected on Un Even
Ground
Staging Erected on Un Even Ground This support is not adequate!
Staging Erected on Un Even
Ground
This support is not adequate!
Staging erected in vicinity of drain channel
Staging erected in vicinity of
drain channel
Planks not place at right angle
Planks not place at right angle
Working at the un secured edge
Working at the un secured edge
Working Platform without Mid rail & Toe Guard
Working Platform without
Mid rail & Toe Guard
In sufficient Bracings
In sufficient Bracings
Inadequate support from sturdy structure
Inadequate support from sturdy
structure
Damaged Scaffolding Parts
Damaged Scaffolding Parts
Scaffolding out riggers getting energized by grinding cables
Scaffolding out riggers getting
energized by grinding cables
Scaffold Near TL
Scaffold Near TL
WORKINGWORKING PLATFORMPLATFORM
WORKINGWORKING
PLATFORMPLATFORM
WORK-PLATFORM • Closely board & adequately secured • Not less than 200 mm wide and
WORK-PLATFORM
• Closely board & adequately secured
• Not less than 200 mm wide and & 50 mm thk
• Supported at least over 3 supports
• Minimum width 460 mm
• Overhang
– Minimum 50 mm
– Maximum
4 times the thk of the board.
• Allowable max. Span between supports
– 1.5” thick plank
1.5 m
– 2” thick plank
2.6 m
Guardrails Top Rail Mid- Rail Toeboard • Top rails between 39 and 45 inches tall
Guardrails
Top Rail
Mid- Rail
Toeboard
• Top rails between 39 and 45 inches tall
• Toe boards at least 3 1/2 inches high
WORKINGWORKING ONON ROOFROOF
WORKINGWORKING
ONON
ROOFROOF
Working on Roofs • FRAGILE ROOF • WORKING ON SLOPING ROOFS • INDUSTRIAL ROOFING •
Working on Roofs
• FRAGILE ROOF
• WORKING ON SLOPING
ROOFS
• INDUSTRIAL ROOFING
• WORKING ON FLAT
ROOF
ANY WORK ON A ROOF IS HIGH RISK
Working on Roofs Falls generally occur : • From edge of roofs. • Through gaps
Working on Roofs
Falls generally occur
:
From edge of roofs.
Through gaps or holes in roofs .
Through fragile roof materials & roof lights.
Wind.
THE RISKS ARE SUBSTANTIAL HOWEVER
LONG OR SHORT THE WORK
Unprotected Sides & Edges Unprotected edge Unprotected sides and edges must have guardrails or equivalent
Unprotected Sides & Edges
Unprotected edge
Unprotected sides and edges must
have guardrails or equivalent
Sides & Edges - Improper Guarding This 1/4" nylon rope alone is not a proper
Sides & Edges - Improper Guarding
This 1/4" nylon rope alone is not a proper
way to guard this open floor
Sky Lights and Other Openings • Holes more than 6 feet high must be protected
Sky Lights and Other Openings
• Holes more than 6 feet high must be protected
• This opening could be made safe by using a guardrail, or
strong cover
Floor Holes Improperly Covered • Cover completely and securely • If no cover, can guard
Floor Holes
Improperly
Covered
• Cover completely and securely
• If no cover, can guard with a guardrail
Working on Roofs Precautions for all works: Is the work necessary Risk assessment and method
Working on Roofs
Precautions for all works:
Is the work necessary
Risk assessment and method statements
Getting on and off the roof
Edge protection
Work platforms
Fall arrest equipment
Falling material
Training
Weather conditions
Short-duration work
Working on Roof Prevent fall by • Perimeter edge protection (pitch more than 10 o
Working on Roof
Prevent fall by
• Perimeter edge protection (pitch more than 10 o )
• Flat roof walkway / Crawling board / Roof ladder
• safety nets
• Fall harnesses used with running line system
• short duration ( substitution).
Legal Obligation
The employer shall ensure at a construction site of a building or
other construction work that all practicable measures are
provided to protect the building workers against sliding when
carrying our work on steep roofs.
(BOCWR Rules, 1998 ; Rule 169)
Roof edge protection Max.470 mm Max.gap 470 mm Min 910mm Min. ht 150 mm Min
Roof edge protection
Max.470 mm
Max.gap 470 mm
Min 910mm
Min. ht 150 mm
Min width 600 mm
Walkways and Ramps Guard ramps, runways, and other walkways
Walkways and Ramps
Guard ramps, runways, and other walkways
Fall Protection - Residential Construction In residential construction, you must be protected if you can
Fall Protection -
Residential Construction
In residential construction, you must be protected if
you can fall more than 6 feet
Crawling board •For ascending / egress on the sloped roofs. •With Edge protection. •Shall not
Crawling board
•For ascending / egress on the sloped roofs.
•With Edge protection.
•Shall not carry tools while in travel.
BOCWR, Rules about Crawlers board.
Crawling board
Crawling board
Opening in Flat Roofs •Barricades shall be visible through out the day. •Hazards and anchorage
Opening in Flat Roofs
•Barricades shall be visible
through out the day.
•Hazards and anchorage
points shall be visible.
SAFETY EQUIPMENT & DEVICES
SAFETY EQUIPMENT & DEVICES
SAFETY BELT For more than 2.0 m height. •Lanyard to be anchored to a fixed
SAFETY BELT
For more than 2.0 m height.
•Lanyard to be anchored to a fixed point.
•Free-fall not to exceed 1.80m
•Lanyard not more than 3m.
FULL BODY SAFETY HARNESS
FULL BODY SAFETY HARNESS
LIFE LINE •It is a static line •Used while moving at height. •Nylon / PP
LIFE LINE
•It is a static line
•Used while moving at height.
•Nylon / PP rope of 25 mm minimum.
•Must facilitate shifting of lanyard.
Safety Line Anchorages Must be independent of any platform anchorage and capable of supporting at
Safety Line Anchorages
Must
be
independent of any
platform
anchorage
and
capable
of
supporting at least
5,000 lbs. per
worker
Life line with FALL ARRESTER
Life line with FALL ARRESTER
Use of fall arrester Structural Erection Rope Grab type Fall arrester
Use of fall arrester
Structural Erection
Rope Grab type Fall arrester
•To support a minimum 250 pounds •Minimum 5/8” diameter fiber ( PP / Nylon rope
•To support a minimum 250
pounds
•Minimum 5/8” diameter fiber (
PP / Nylon rope ) having a
breaking strength of at least 6000
lbs
•For height not more than 91 m
•Wind speed less than 10 km / hr
•Seat not less than 12” x 24” & 1”
thick
•Separate lifeline to be tied
SAFETY NET SAFETY NETS PROTECTS; Person from falling Protect person working below Safety net distance
SAFETY NET
SAFETY NETS PROTECTS;
Person from falling
Protect person working below
Safety net distance should not
exceed 7.5 m
Net shall extend
upto
1.5
m
2.40 m
1.5
to 3.0 m
3.00 m
more than 3.0 m
4.00 m
ýTie cord at every 1 mtr
ýBorder rope to withstand 5000 lbs Drop
test - 180 kg from 1 mtr above the
working area
Safety net
Safety net
ACCIDENTS CAN BE PREVENTED BY Fall Prevention :- by analyzing ` SAFETY PLAN ` JOB
ACCIDENTS CAN BE PREVENTED BY
Fall Prevention :- by
analyzing
` SAFETY PLAN
` JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS
Fall Protection :-by
equipment
USING PPE’S
SAFETY NET
FALL ARRESTER.
Preventable Accidents, if not prevented due to negligence, its nothing short of a murder. Dr.S.Radhakrishnan
Preventable Accidents,
if not prevented due to
negligence, its nothing
short of a murder.
Dr.S.Radhakrishnan

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