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OVERVIEW LESSON DESCRIPTION: This lesson will discuss the key role that leadership plays in an Army correctional facility and how it effects both cadre and prisoners. TERMINAL LEARNING OBJECTIVE: ACTION: CONDITIONS: STANDARDS: REFERENCES: Discuss the key role that leadership plays in an Army correctional facility. You will have this subcourse, pencil, and paper. You must demonstrate knowledge of the task by scoring at least 70 percent correct answers on the subcourse examination. AR 190-47 FM 22-100

INTRODUCTION The term "leadership" is an all-encompassing term which is at the very heart of the military profession. Without leadership, the best men, the most efficient organization, a superior logistics system, and the finest weapons that can be produced by modern technology cannot be meshed to realize full and proper potential as a fighting force. With leadership, inferior forces with obsolete equipment and meager supplies have accomplished "miracles" as the long history of warfare can attest. Leadership, then, is both a necessary and sufficient requisite for any professional military organization. To correctional supervisors, leadership has a very special meaning. Too often we use the more general term "supervision" without knowing precisely what it connotes. Proper supervision is simply applied leadership. The junior enlisted men with whom you come into contact look to you for leadership; it is your responsibility to provide them that guidance which is necessary so they may develop and maximize their own leadership abilities. This is particularly important 6-1 MP 1025

because these junior enlisted men are in close proximity with prisoners. Prisoners themselves are confined in confinement or other correction facilities because no leadership or poor leadership was applied at a critical time in their lives. The proper application of leadership by you and your subordinates is a major factor in correctional treatment. PART A - TERMINOLOGY Leadership traits are the personal qualities of direct value to the leader in obtaining the willing obedience, confidence, respect, and loyal cooperation of his men in accomplishing the mission. Possession of leadership traits alone does not guarantee success, but such traits are to be viewed as guides for the desirable personality development of leaders. Leadership principles are the basic tools to be applied, with working knowledge of human behavior, by the leader in selection and execution of appropriate actions. Attitudes are a person's feelings toward something or someone expressed as likes or dislikes. It is frequently used as a catch-all term for the whole collection or set of one's beliefs, opinions, prejudices, and sentiments. Behavior is the result of an individual's reaction to a situation, group, or leader. An individual's reaction depends on the situation and how he interprets the situation. Attitudes influence behavior, directly or indirectly. Values may be defined as an attitude for or against an event based on the belief that it helps or harms some person, group, or institution; a recognizable, outward display of behavior which is observable and measurable. Morale is the state of mind of an individual, which in turn depends upon his attitude toward everything that affects him. Leader is an individual vested with certain lawful authority by virtue of his office or position who is responsible for influencing or directing others in the accomplishment of some goal or mission. PART B - COMMAND, MANAGEMENT, AND LEADERSHIP In military as well as in civilian usage, the functions of command, management, and leadership are a question of interpretation due to their interrelationship. Nevertheless, it is necessary to understand each of these terms as we define them to have a common foundation with which to begin our study of leadership.

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Command A command is the authority a person in the military service lawfully exercises over subordinates by virtue of his rank and assignment or position. Command, to the NCO, is based primarily on authority delegated through the chain of command. Command provides the legal basis for the exercise of the broad activities of leadership and management. Legitimate authority also carries with it responsibility such that we are all morally and legally accountable for our actions. Guidelines for the responsibility and authority exercised by officers and NCOs come from regulations, manuals, orders, and directives. But these do not cover all situations. Lacking established guidelines, personal judgement and experience come into play so that the effective commander or leader does that which is right and continues to function. Management Management is the process of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, and controlling resources such as men, material, time, and money to accomplish the organizational mission. Of all the resources available to the manager, men are the most important as this resource is central to the employment of all other assets. A manager uses the process of leadership to control men. A commander is therefore both a leader and a manager. Leadership There are many definitions of leadership but all such definitions indicate that it is a process involving both men and a mission or goal. Military leadership is the process of influencing men in a manner to accomplish the mission. Leadership involves the personal relationship of one man to another and the ability to use one's personality to directly influence one's subordinates to accomplish the mission. Ideally, the process of leadership obtains the willing cooperation of subordinates through persuasion. Persuasion does not mean that the leader takes a vote to determine a course of action or that the leader's decision to act is open to argument from his subordinates. It means that, because of the leader's sound judgement, knowledge, and personal relationships with his men, he is able to direct his men's attitudes as well as their behavior towards the attainment of organizational goals. But because of the unique circumstances of the military organization, with particular emphasis on the combat mission as well as the characteristics of subordinates, persuasive leadership alone is not always effective or appropriate. It is sometimes necessary to apply a more authoritarian form of leadership in combination with persuasion. The concept of leadership for the U.S. Army is based on accomplishing the organizational mission while preserving the dignity of the individual. This concept requires that a continuing effort be made toward maintaining a proper balance at all times between fulfillment of the goals of the organization and the needs and goals of its members. It therefore follows that leadership behavior must be both flexible in technique and personal in application to motivate the soldier and to promote and maintain a high state of discipline and responsiveness. While the ultimate objective of leadership is and will always be accomplishment of the mission, the military leader 6-3 MP 1025

cannot afford to focus his efforts entirely on the accomplishment of short-term goals at the expense of his subordinates. In the long run, dealing only with short-term goals will prove to be detrimental both to the soldier and the unit. Leadership, therefore, can no longer be reduced to the simple equation of "the mission and the men" with the requirements of the mission always taking precedence over the welfare of the men. While it may be true in some cases that the mission (even in the short-term) must have precedence over the welfare of subordinates, such are extreme cases. Effective military leadership thus has three distinct components: o Accomplish the mission. o Expend minimum time and effort. o Maintain an appropriate balance between the unit, group, and individual needs and goals. PART C - LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Developing leadership is a twofold task. The first task--that of learning the principles and techniques of leadership and aspects of human behavior--may be accomplished in an academic environment. The second task--that of applying that which has been learned--may take place in a real world environment. The two tasks complement and reinforce each other. At the same time the leader is learning more about human behavior and how to apply that knowledge, he must increase his tactical and technical proficiency. In the long run, professional job competence is an absolute prerequisite to truly effective leadership and to gaining influence with subordinates, peers, and superiors alike. Only through the simultaneous development of these skills can a leader mold the men for whom he is responsible. For any leader to achieve his potential, he must have the opportunity to exercise his skills. The junior leader especially must be given the opportunity to use his own initiative even though mistakes due to lack of knowledge and experience, as well as errors in judgement, may occur. Senior leaders, because of their greater experience and their desire to do the job right the first time, too frequently do the junior leader's job for him. The junior leader, however, will not improve unless he is given an opportunity to perform on his own. This opportunity should be granted initially on routine tasks and progress to tasks that are more complex and demanding. Where serious errors and mistakes occur, the senior leader's knowledge and guidance to his subordinate can and ought to be brought into play. We must remember that leadership is not something that "some of us got and some of us ain't;" leadership is developed and nurtured. The senior leader who fails to grant his subordinates the opportunity to learn by their own experience is, in reality, negligent in fulfilling one of his most important responsibilities--that of developing effective leaders who will eventually replace him.

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Human Characteristics All people are different in varying degrees. Each man's personality is the dynamic product of all his heredity, environment, and experiences as well as the interaction of all his physical, mental, and emotional characteristics. These characteristics vary from person to person. Physical and Mental Characteristics. These characteristics help to determine types of work for which an individual is best suited. They also indicate the types and intensity of physical work he can be expected to perform. Some individuals are better at jobs requiring mechanical ability; others are capable of performing complex mental tasks requiring reasoning, deduction, and application. If a bright individual is given a dull job, he may become bored and resentful. If a man is given a job beyond his capability, he may become discouraged, frustrated, or resentful. A person who is malassigned cannot be expected to make his maximum contribution to the team effort. Emotional Characteristics. These are particularly important parts of a soldier's personality. The way he reacts to a difficult problem, to danger, to hardship--all must be understood by the leader. Under pressure, one man may become angered while another may quit or run away; still another may react very calmly. Each individual's personality is unique and is constantly changing. A man changes physically, mentally, and emotionally as he matures and gains more experience. Factors that tend to shape personality are discussed below. Heredity. Each person inherits many characteristics from his parents. A man may, for example, inherit the intelligence to become a top scientist. He may inherit the potential to grow to be six fee tall. Whether or not he will attain the upper limits of his inherited potential depends upon his environment and life experiences. Environment. Those aspects of the world as the soldier knows them--the family to which he belongs, the churches and schools he attends, the culture of his group--constitute his environment. It has a pronounced effect on his personality. Taking the example of the boy who inherits the potential to be a six-footer, the type of food, amount of exercise, and the health conditions that are a part of his environment may either help or deter him from attaining his potential height. The individual's environment may accelerate or retard the development of inherited mental capacity. Experiences. Identical twins may be reared in the same environment, but still develop different personalities. One encounters experiences different than the other. The unique experiences which each person encounters affect him mentally and physically. In addition, these varied experiences play a definite role in his emotional growth and in shaping his attitudes. Due to these differences in heredity, environment, and experiences (and there are indeed profound differences), each individual must be evaluated and treated according to his needs.


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Human Needs General. For many years scholars have studied human behavior and have offered literally hundreds of explanations of human nature and human actions. While no one explanation of human behavior is completely satisfactory, all behaviorists agree that there are certain factors, elements or needs which cause men to behave in certain ways and to do certain things. The most basic of these factors are the human needs. Human needs are those necessary for a person's existence and for his mental and emotional stability. The human needs required for existence are called physical needs and include food, water, shelter, clothing, and the elimination of metabolic wastes. Those needs required for mental and emotional stability are called learned needs and include safety, social acceptance, and self-fulfillment. Human needs are the same for all men, but they vary in importance of degree from one person to another. Relationship of Needs. Understanding the difference between physical and learned needs, we can now examine the relationship between such needs. One attempt to classify human needs-probably the best known and easiest to understand--was developed by Abraham H. Maslow. According to Maslow's theory (or hierarchy), human needs develop from lower to higher needs with the lower needs having to be satisfied before the higher needs can develop. Discussion. Applying Maslow's hierarchy, a man who has not had water for a long time experiences thirst and his most immediate need is a physical one, namely, gratification of his thirst through drinking. This physical need transcends, in its immediate importance, all other human needs required for mental or emotional stability. The physical needs do not usually cause the leader or follower any problem except under the most trying circumstances such as during combat or a natural disaster. When these physical needs are not satisfied, however, man turns his attention from the task at hand in terms of the organizational mission to his own personal well-being. Above the physical needs are the learned needs which man progresses to when physical needs are fulfilled. First in order are the safety needs. This most basic of learned needs has been developed through man's relationship with man and society in general. As an example, a safety or security need is concerned with protection of one's personal possessions. Law has its origin in this learned need for safety and security. Next in the hierarchy is the need for belonging and social acceptance. So long as an individual perceives himself as not belonging to a group, he is not a productive soldier and cannot progress to the next step in the hierarchy. Esteem needs follow next in the hierarchy and can be realized by leaders being people oriented as opposed to system oriented. The subordinate needs an occasional pat on the back for a job well done to earn the respect of his peers. Likewise, the prisoner in confinement needs to be

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treated as an individual so he feels that you, as a correctional supervisor, respect him as a human being regardless of the circumstances in which he finds himself. Progressing up the hierarchy, the highest human need in Maslow's hierarchy is self-fulfillment. But how do we go about the business of stimulating or encouraging or assisting either our subordinates or military prisoners in confinement to progressively satisfying each human need so they can arrive at the pinnacle of the hierarchy, namely, that of self-actualization where each individual would realize his full potential for becoming that which he is capable of becoming? Read the following discussion on motivation. PART D - MOTIVATION Formal and Information Contracts The task of motivating subordinates and the military prisoner is squarely on the leader's shoulders. His first task in motivating his men is to recognize the existence of both the formal and informal contracts between the soldier and the Army. He must ensure that the terms of these contracts are met. The formal contract is the military obligation the man incurs when he is sworn into military service. The informal contract consists of those implied obligations and responsibilities which the organization and the soldier have to each other. The informal contract is largely based on the individual and organizational expectations and on the necessity for each to satisfy the other. The conflict between expectations and reality poses human problems which the leader must be prepared to deal with on a continuing basis. Motivation and Needs Needs form the basis for men's actions. Needs motivate men to behave in certain ways and to do certain things. Therefore, any attempt to motivate must be based on an understanding of human needs and must be directed at satisfying those needs. Motivation is directly related to performance in daily life and is associated with the higher needs of Maslow's hierarchy as described previously in this lesson. Some of the lower needs of Maslow's hierarchy are related to job environment. Failure to provide these needs creates dissatisfaction. If the environment contains dissatisfiers (such as safety hazards or physical needs), the individual will be concerned with his own well-being to the point of excluding all other activities which do not lead to this satisfaction. Thus, performance is directed only to this end, and organizational needs suffer accordingly. It is interesting to note, however, that elimination of dissatisfiers alone does not create motivation. In the progressive ladder of motivators and satisfiers, the elimination of dissatisfiers causes a neutral situation in which motivation can occur. The satisfaction of needs on the positive side of the scale motivates subordinates and military prisoners alike, particularly the restorable prisoner. Motivation is thus a complete process dependent upon the interaction of all needs. Motivation is achieved based on those needs created by the situation and on a combination of personal 6-7 MP 1025

(individual) and group needs. We might conclude that everyone has some type of motivation to do something, for man is a rational being. The effective leader must work toward eliminating dissatisfiers while simultaneously accentuating the motivators so the complex social process can go forward. Motivating Performance The primary question for the leader is "How can the motives of the individual be channeled toward obtaining objectives?" In answering this question, the following factors influence an individual's motivation to perform well: Motivation to Try. This is simply challenging the individual to experience the feeling that he an succeed if he tries. The leader offers support, encouragement, and assistance to the individual. This is important because, on difficult tasks, the encouraged man will tend to keep on trying until he ultimately succeeds; without encouragement and support, he may simply quit. Expectation of Recognition for Good Work. This is simply encouraging the individual's feeling that he will be recognized, tangibly or intangibly, for his performance. The individual will thus tend to translate organizational or institutional goals into personal goals in which he has a stake. On the other side of the coin, however, a capable individual should never be allowed to escape the adverse consequences of his poor or unsatisfactory performance. Always, however, accentuate the positive rather than the negative. By this process, organizational or institutional goals and personal goals become reinforcing. The Value of Recognition for Good Performance. Praise, an intangible reward, is the most significant motivator as it affords the recipient a degree of prestige in the eyes of his peers. Further, it benefits the individual's ego and tends to improve his self-image. Thus, the individual who is praised for satisfactory performance (or improved performance) begins to experience the feeling that he is worth something as an individual because he has been recognized by those persons in authority. In sharp contrast to this is the supervisor or leader who never praises or compliments the individual's satisfactory or improved performance. Such a course of action destroys motivation because the individual begins to believe that he can never perform well or that his superiors are simply not interested in good performance. The Probability of Punishment. This is the negative motivator which must be judiciously used by the leader but which is effective nevertheless. Prompt and firm punishment at the first occurrence, assuming that the individual knows that punishment is a consequence of his failure to perform beforehand, may salvage the individual and serve to motivate satisfactory performance in the future. In the case of a military prisoner, if prompt, firm, and fair punishment fails to motivate the soldier after repeated trials, the prisoner is probably nonrestorable and serious consideration should be given to eliminating him from the service.

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PART E - VALUES Through an understanding of human behavior, the leader is better able to analyze, predict, and influence the behavior of his men. The military ethic, which is the same as the predominant social ethic in civilized society, states that each individual is responsible for his own actions. By implication, living by this ethic is worthwhile or right, we have just defined (in a roundabout way) what a value system is all about. So what are values and what do values do? A value may be defined more specifically as an attitude for or against an event based on the belief that it helps or harms some person, group, or institution. A value is an outward and recognizable display of behavior that is observable and measurable. Values have also been defined as learned goals which are developed beginning at the moment of birth. Values are man's psychological center and form his character. To truly understand a man, it is therefore necessary to identify and be able to understand a person's value system. How can values be identified? Personal values are those traits that are representative of an individual's moral character. Although the importance of values vary from person to person, examples of personal values commonly include honesty, responsibility, loyalty, moral courage, and friendliness. Social values, which are learned, include loving, interpersonal relationships, social consciousness, equality, justice, freedom, liberty, and pride in country. These learned values accrue through both educational and experimental processes. For example, social values are those which parents teach their children so that their offspring will be able to differentiate "right" from "wrong." Social values are further subdivided into four classes: o Folkways--values people accept out of habit. o Mores--a code of morality that governs social behavior. (The Commandment of the lawgiver Moses of the Old Testament, "Thou shalt not kill," is a more which is universal to western culture.) o Institutional ways--practices established under law (such as the requirement to have a driver's license before operating a motor vehicles). o Taboos--the emphatic "do's" and "don'ts" of a particular society. Although generally associated with nontechnical cultures or so-called primitive peoples, social taboos exist to this day. (The prohibition against incest may be classified as a taboo because it had its origins as a taboo.)


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Economic values are identified through such factors as equal employment, a stable economy, the balancing of supply and demand of productive goods, money, private property, pride of ownership, and taxes. Political values include loyalty to one's country, concern for the national welfare, adherence to democratic principles and the American Way, public service, voting, civic responsibility, and free elections. Religious values are generally characterized by reverence for life, human dignity, and the freedom to worship (or not worship, for that matter) as one pleases. Judeo-Christian values are central to most Americans' religious beliefs. So what is the relationship of values to human behavior? Quite simply, a person's behavior is the product of his values, which have been formulated through a number of institutions such as home or school, peer group and neighborhood, community and employment, and church or house of worship. Through these institutions, a code of behavior is disseminated and, in a sense, is thrust upon the individual in the formative years of his development. Values also change throughout life based on his experience and environment. PART F - ATTITUDINAL DEVELOPMENT Attitudes, which have previously been defined in this lesson, must be viewed in a situational context. That is, if behavior is the result of an individual's reaction to a situation, group, or leader, the individual's reaction is dependent upon what the situation is and how he interprets the situation. Thus, if three people were placed in the same situation, their reactions to the situation would probably vary because each would perceive the situation differently. Such differences are attitudes. Attitudes are learned much in the same way as are values. This learning occurs gradually and over a period of time. Most attitudes are learned from those experiences that cause an impression to be formed. Favorable experiences cause the formation of positive attitudes and unfavorable experiences. Further, we can and do "borrow" attitudes from other such as parents, friends, and peers. As an example, a soldier enters the military service for the first time and finds his first military superior to be concerned with his welfare and interested in him as an individual. Such a soldier is likely to form a positive attitude toward military service. Once attitudes are formed, they make up a frame of reference for the individual for his actions and "color" what he sees. Attitudes, since they are learned, are capable of being changed or reformed. Age, position, education, and experience influence attitudinal development. Therefore, the prisoner with the "bad attitude" is not a lost cause.

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The Functions of Attitudes Adaptation. Attitudes are adaptive in that they help us adjust to the situation. We tend to look forward to those things in our environment that reward us and avoid those things which penalize us. Ego-defense Mechanism. Attitudes help each of us defend our self-image which protects the way we think about ourselves. An Expression of our Value System. The attitudes a person has can serve the purpose of informing his peers, superiors, and subordinates about what makes him tick as a person. Interpretative. The way in which an individual views the world about him and the people with whom he comes in contact is "shaped" or "colored" by the attitudes of the individual. An individual's "reality" is that which he perceives and understands through his own faculties. Good Attitudes Some methods by which a leader can try and create better attitudes within his subordinates include-o Providing information. o Showing concern. o Changing a person's status. o Allowing discussion Relationships of Attitudes As a correctional supervisor working with junior enlisted men and military prisoners, the attitudes that you personally have toward your work is a most significant factor bearing on how successful you will be. A proper set of attitudes will produce tangible and observable results such as-o Enabling your subordinates to maintain proper control of prisoners. o Helping attain desired correctional objectives. o Helping prisoners to change their attitudes and behaviors. On the other hand, improper attitudes on your part may--


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o Cause prisoners to lose a healthy respect for authority. o Compromise the value of services provided by other correctional personnel. o Arouse poor attitudes within prisoners. o Serve to reinforce improper behaviors on the part of prisoners. Some desirable attitudes for correctional personnel are firmness, fairness, confidence, sincerity, personal integrity, and tact. Some undesirable attitudes for correctional personnel are hostility, excessive sympathy, fear, contempt, and harshness. All correctional personnel must continuously strive to think and act in positive terms. Think what you can do for prisoners, not what you can do to prisoners. PART G - STRESS A common problem faced by leaders in the Army is that of dealing with stress. Stress is common in everyday life and it occurs both on and off the job. Stress can be defined as any personal or environmental event that produces an automatic nervous system response. Stress can be positive or negative. ex: Personal changes, family changes, automated nervous responses affect the heart, blood and muscles. Early warning signs: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Rapid mood change Depression Excessive use of alcohol Excessive violence Weight gain/loss Overly suspicious (paranoia)

These are just some of the early warning signs. Some of these could even be combined, causing an automatic response. What are some signs of stress you might face on the job? Shift work is one, usually the day shift is the most hectic. Working long hours can be long and tiring (but someone has to do it, right?), usually 12-24 hour shifts. Work overload or trying to do too much at one time, this causes "burn-out."

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When rotating shifts in 3-5 days, your body never gets a chance to adapt to time changes. Facing stress off the job is basically similar to on the job. Some examples of stress off the job: shopping with spouse, upset with spouse or kids, other distractions. Here are a few ways of coping with stress both on and off the job: 1. Concentrate on one task at a time, avoid that "burn-out" stage. 2. Don't push yourself beyond your limits of achievement. 3. Don't be afraid of failure, drive on. 4. Take one day at a time. 5. Be a good listener and a short answerer. 6. Leave the job at the job. Don't take it home with you. 7. Try getting involved in some type of physical exercise (ex: running, walking, swimming, biking). 8. Make sure you have a balanced diet by: a. Eating three balanced meals daily. b. Avoiding snacks. c. Getting 7-8 hours sleep. d. Keeping weight down. e. Exercising at least three times a week. 9. Get away from the job (pass or leave). 10. Talk your problem over with someone. Everyone is affected by stress--some more than others. Serious cases of stress can cause heart disease. The average life span of men is 74 years and 78 for women. Maintaining your stress level could mean the difference between a long and a short life. PART H - MILITARY LEADERSHIP Nature of Leadership The military profession has no monopoly on leadership. In industry, business, government, the professions, indeed in every phase of human behavior, there are leaders. Progress and success in any worthwhile human endeavor are dependent upon the quality and efficiency of leadership. Elements of Leadership Leadership involves understanding, analyzing, predicting, and controlling human behavior. That is why so much of this lesson has had a decidedly behavioristic flavor. While the leader need not possess an academic degree in the social sciences, he does need some of that knowledge so he can be a student of human nature. Leadership also involves the will to lead, together with the character that inspires confidence. Undoubtedly, there are certain characteristics in each


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person that may aid in his development as a leader. Yet, certain people possessing desirable leadership traits may never attain the stature of great leaders. Likewise, those deficient in certain of these traits may have attained this stature. Leadership is intangible only to the extend that we wish to make it so. Any reasonably intelligent man, no matter how inexperienced, can become acquainted with the component elements of leadership. These elements must be studied, learned, practiced, and applied just as with any other human accomplishment. Leadership is not inborn or inherited; leadership is a skill or an art which can be learned and mastered. Additional detail on the traits and principles of leadership will be found later in this lesson. Leadership Styles Before proceeding to additional, specific material, two styles of leadership that have been alluded to previously need to be mentioned. Broadly speaking, there are two principal styles of leadership: authoritarian and persuasive. Authoritarian. The authoritarian style of leadership is normally recognized by the dogmatic use of authority and power. The archetype military leader depicted in the media is of the authoritarian type. This type of leader is feared as much as he is respected. The use of an authoritarian leadership style is occasionally necessitated by the demands of the situation. This style of leadership, however, should not be cultivated as the primary pattern of behavior. Persuasive. The persuasive style of leadership takes into account the human element with all its complexities and differences in the physical, mental, and emotional capabilities and limitations of the individual. To a very great extent, the persuasive leader bases his skills upon example and ability and sets high standards of discipline and efficiency for both himself and his followers. The persuasive leader is continually aware of the balance that exists between the demands of the organizational mission and the welfare of his subordinates. The persuasive style of leadership should be cultivated as the primary pattern of leadership behavior, with the dignity of the individual continually in mind, and with a proper mixture of decisiveness. Such a leadership style will be effective while avoiding the pitfalls of arrogance. PART I - LEADERSHIP TRAITS Leadership traits are those personal qualities of direct value to the leader in obtaining the willing obedience, confidence, respect, and loyal cooperation of his subordinates in accomplishing the mission. Each individual differs in degree to which he possesses and demonstrates these traits. Possession of these traits alone does not guarantee success, but experience proves that successful leaders possess and develop these traits. Further, these traits can be used to diagnose deficiencies in your subordinates so as to identify appropriate corrective action in their leadership behavior as well as in yourself. It is perhaps the wiser course, though, to first follow the ancient dictum "Know thyself." Which of these traits do you possess and how can you improve yourself? MP 1025 6-14

Bearing The first of the 14 desirable traits is bearing. Bearing, creating a favorable impression in carriage, appearance, and personal conduct at all times, is a quality a correctional supervisor must possess. One's bearing, good or bad, tends to establish the standard which prisoners emulate. Your carriage should be upright. Your general appearance and the condition of your clothing and equipment should set the example for the rest of your unit. You should show alertness and energy in your actions and movements. Your appearance and manner must depict competence and confidence, sometimes beyond what you actually feel. By controlling your voice and gestures, you can exert a firm and steadying influence over those around you. All good leaders know that their apparent confidence in themselves is reflected in their prisoners. Few things can steady the morale of troops more than the realization that their leader, with full knowledge of the difficulties of a situation, neither looks nor acts worried as perhaps he has a right to do. Too much severity and strictness of manner diminish the sympathy and confidence you might have from your prisoners. Frequent irritation and loss of temper indicate lack of self-discipline. One who cannot control himself cannot expect to control others. Language is another of the outward marks by which you will be judged and through which you influence your prisoners. Speak plainly and clearly. Make your sentences short, simple, positive, and direct. If you must use terms that may not be clearly understood, explain their meaning. Avoid talking down to your prisoners. It is the responsibility of the correctional supervisor to make verbal corrections when necessary. These should be direct, dignified, and in moderate language. Immoderate language invariable produces unfavorable results in the individual. To use profane or obscene language, especially in giving orders, is to risk friction, resentment, quarreling, and even insubordination. Men resent being sworn at by their seniors. They feel, and rightly so, that the senior has taken unfair advantage of his authority. The same applies to any immoderate language. A bawling out is commonly resented as a personal attack. It is, in fact, more often an expression of anger than a proper correction. The point at issue is obscured and the matter becomes a personal clash between individuals. Profane, obscene, or other immoderate language must not be used or permitted. Criticism or condemnation of an entire group should be particularly avoided. It is not likely that you will ever have a group that will deserve a wholesale reprimand. Nothing creates resentment so readily in a prisoner as to be included unfairly with others who may deserve disciplinary action. A correctional supervisor should be dignified. Dignity implies a state of being worthy or honorable. It requires the control of one's actions and emotions. A correctional supervisor who


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makes a spectacle of himself through loudness, drink, or lack of emotional control quickly loses the respect of prisoners. To develop bearing, you should-o Require of yourself the highest standards in appearance and conduct. o Avoid coarse behavior and the use of vulgar speech. o If you drink intoxicants, drink moderately. o Apply moderation in all personal activities. o Habitually maintain a dignified manner. Courage (Physical and Moral) Courage is a mental quality that recognizes fear of danger or criticism, but enables a man to proceed in the face of it with calmness and firmness. In simple terms, courage is the control of fear. It is a quality of mind that gives a man control over himself, enabling him to accept responsibility and to act properly in a threatening situation. It is vital to leadership. The correctional supervisor must have moral as well as physical courage. Moral courage means knowing and standing for what is right in the face of popular disfavor. A correctional supervisor who has moral courage will admit his errors, but will enforce his decisions when he is sure he is correct. To help yourself attain and demonstrate courage-o Study and understand your reactions to fear. o Control your fear by developing self-discipline and calmness. o Keep an orderliness in your thought process. Do not exaggerate physical danger or adversity in your own mind. o If you fear doing certain things required in your daily life, force yourself to do these things until you can control this reaction. o Stand for what is right in the face of popular condemnation. o Accept the blame when you are at fault. Decisiveness The leader should have the ability to make decisions promptly and to announce them in a clear forceful manner. Many situations have more than one solution. The wise leader gets all the MP 1025 6-16

facts, weighs one against the other, then calmly and quickly arrives at a sound decision. Decisiveness is largely a matter of practice and experience. To develop decisiveness-o Learn to be positive in your actions. Do not delay; do not bear around the bush. o Get the facts, make up your mind, and then issue your orders with confidence. o Recheck decisions you have made to determine if they were sound and timely. o Analyze decisions made by others. If you do not agree, determine if your reasons for disagreement are sound. o Broaden your viewpoint by studying the actions of others and profit from their successes or mistakes. Dependability Dependability, the certainty of proper performance of duty, is a quality every NCO must develop. The dependable leader can be relied upon to carry out actively, intelligently, and with willing effort the intent of his commander. This willing and voluntary compliance with the plans and will of the senior does not mean blind obedience. Most commanders will listen to suggestions from their subordinates, but once the commander makes the final decision, the subordinate must give it his complete and energetic support. The leader who has a high sense of duty will continually put forth his best efforts in an attempt to achieve the highest standards of performance. He will also subordinate personal interest to military requirements. To develop dependability-o Do not make excuses. o Do every task assigned to you to the best of your ability, regardless of personal beliefs. o Be exact in details. o Form the habit of being punctual. o Carry out the intent, or spirit, as well as the literal meaning of an order. When conflict between the two appears to exist, obtain clarification from appropriate authority.


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Endurance Endurance, the mental and physical stamina measured by the ability to withstand pain, fatigue, stress, and hardship is akin to courage. It is an important quality of leadership which you must have if you are to merit the proper respect from prisoners. Endurance implies the ability to stick to a job and see it through. To develop endurance-o Avoid nonessential activities that will lower stamina. o Cultivate physical training habits that will strengthen your body. Increase your endurance by undertaking difficult physical tasks. o Test your endurance frequently by subjecting yourself to strenuous physical and mental exercises. o Force yourself to continue on occasions when you are tired and your mind is sluggish. o Finish every task to the best of your ability. Enthusiasm Enthusiasm is the display of sincere interest and zeal in the performance of duties. It implies that you work with a cheerful and optimistic attitude, determined to do a good job. Your attitude is an example that will be emulated by those you lead. Enthusiasm is particularly important in instructing and training; where, through example, your interest and enthusiasm are reflected by your men. To develop enthusiasm-o Understand and believe in your mission. o Be cheerful and optimistic. o Explain to your subordinates and prisoners the "why" of uninteresting and distasteful jobs. o Capitalize on success. Enthusiasm is contagious and nothing will develop it more than the success of the unit or individual. o Do not get stale. Set aside a period every day to free your mind of official matters and relax.

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Initiative Initiative, seeing what has to be done and commencing a course of action, even in the absence of orders, is especially necessary in correctional work. Prisoners react favorably to a man who meets new and unexpected situations with prompt action. Encourage initiative among your subordinates and prisoners by assigning them tasks commensurate with their abilities and then allowing them to work out the details and finish the job. This does not mean you can assign tasks and then do nothing else. You must then supervise properly. Closely allied with initiative is the quality of resourcefulness, the ability to deal with a situation in the absence of normal means or methods. Military supply, organization, and training are designed to meet all normal situations, but they sometimes fail. Inactivity or passive acceptance of an unsatisfactory situation because of lack of normal means of coping with it, is never justified. To develop initiative-o Stay mentally and physically alert. o Train yourself to recognize tasks that need to be done and do them without having to be told and without hesitation. o Learn to anticipate by thinking ahead. o Look for and readily accept responsibilities. o Use available resources in the most effective and efficient manner. Integrity Integrity, the uprightness of character and soundness of moral principles, the quality of absolute truthfulness and honesty, is an indispensable trait in any leader. In confinement and correctional facilities, the stakes are too high to place prisoners in the hands of men with questionable integrity. Decisions must be made that affect the future lives of prisoners. There must be the assumption that information and reports submitted concerning prisoners are absolutely truthful. There is no compromise. The military profession does not permit the slightest deviation from the highest standards of personal integrity. To develop personal integrity-o Practice absolute honesty and truthfulness at all times. o Be accurate and truthful in all statements, both official and unofficial. 6-19 MP 1025

o Stand for what you believe to be right. o Whenever you are tempted to compromise, place honesty, sense of duty, and moral principles above all else. Judgement Judgement is the quality of logically weighing facts and possible solutions on which to base sound decisions. It is also known as common sense. Enhance your judgement by being as technically qualified as possible. To improve judgement-o Anticipate situations which require decisions so you may be prepared when the need arises. o Avoid making rash decisions. o Approach problems with a common sense attitude. o Learn as much as you can about individual prisoners so you can better understand them. Justice Justice is the quality of being impartial and consistent in exercising supervision. Justice involves rendering rewards and meting out punishment in accordance with the merits of the case. Anger and other emotions must not enter into a situation. Prejudice of race or creed must be avoided. Few things will disrupt the morale of a confinement facility more quickly than unfairness or partiality toward a certain individual or group. As a correctional supervisor you may be called upon to render recommendations in matters of clemency and punishment. Your decisions are a test of your fairness. It takes a long time to build up a reputation for being fair. One thoughtless error or injustice can destroy a good reputation that took months to establish. To administer justice, you must understand human behavior. Study people with the idea of learning why certain individuals behave the way they do under certain conditions while others behave differently under the same conditions. Analyze the cases that have been decided, and determine what you would have done had you been the one to make the decision. This, of course, is a personal mental process and should never be used as an occasion to criticize the decision of another correctional staff member. To develop the trait of justice-o Be fair, consistent, prompt, and impersonal when recommending punishment. MP 1025 6-20

o Consider each case on its own merits. o Search your mental attitudes to determine if you hold any prejudices; and, if so, make conscious efforts not to permit them to influence your decisions. o Analyze cases acted upon by leaders who have a reputation for being just. o Never punish a group for the faults of an individual. o Be honest with yourself. o Recognize prisoners worthy of commendation or award. Do not be known as one who recommends only punishment. o Always make the individual feel the punishment is temporary and improvement is expected. o Play no favorites. Knowledge Knowledge is acquired information including professional knowledge and the understanding of prisoners. Nothing inspires confidence and respect more quickly than demonstrating this knowledge. The individual who knows his job builds confidence in himself as well as in others. Lack of knowledge cannot be concealed. You cannot bluff your prisoners. If you do not know the answer to a particular question, admit it; then get the information and pass it along to those concerned. Your knowledge should not be limited to military subjects. A broad knowledge of national and international events will give you a more rounded personality. To increase knowledge-o Study field manuals and other military literature such as regulations and training directives. o Read the service periodicals and books on the Department of the Army reading list. o Read the daily newspapers and weekly magazines; try to evaluate current news impartially and correctly. o Form the habit of developing serious conversations. o Evaluate your experience and the experience of others.


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o Be alert, listen, observe, and conduct research on matters you do not understand. Loyalty Loyalty is the quality of faithfulness to country, the Army, your unit, your seniors, prisoners, and associates. This quality alone can do much to earn the confidence and respect of your seniors, prisoners, and associates. Your every action must reflect loyalty to your command. To develop loyalty-o Be quick to defend your prisoners from abuse. o Never give the slightest hint of disagreement with orders from your senior when relating instructions to prisoners. o Practice doing every task to the best of your ability and wholeheartedly supporting your commander's decisions. o Never discuss the personal problems of your prisoners with other prisoners. o Stand up for your country, your Army, your unit, your seniors, prisoners, and associates when they are unjustly accused. o Never criticize your seniors in the presence of prisoners. Tact Tact is the ability to deal with others without creating offense. In the field of human relations, tact is the ability to say and do the proper thing at the right time. Tact involves the understanding of human nature and consideration for the feelings of others. Tact is important in all interpersonal relationships. Criticism must be clear, yet constructive. It should not cause discouragement or detract from the drive and energy of the prisoners. Every leader needs to be tactful when advising those who come to him with embarrassing personal matters. Avoid passing judgement on these matters; your role is primarily that of a counselor. Sometimes the highest degree of tact is simply to listen with understanding interest and permit the soldier to arrive at his own solution. You may confirm his solution or suggest a different one. Courtesy is a part of tact you cannot afford to neglect in your relations with seniors or prisoners. To demand courtesy, and to fail to return it in full measure, indicates either arrogance or a lack of interest. The inexperienced junior leader sometimes feels politeness in a military command implies softness; or worse, that from a prisoner, it smacks of bootlicking. This is not true. Courtesy stems from one's mental attitude and is expressed in both words and actions. One man MP 1025 6-22

may bark out his orders impersonally and abruptly. Another may give his orders in a tone tinged with a courtesy that implies the expectancy of obedience. Either method may get obedience, but the second of the two will get more willing obedience and cooperation. In times of emergency, abrupt rapid-fire orders become desirable because they save time and there is no need to imply expected obedience. There are other times, too, when a forceful tone can well replace a courteous tone; but even then there is no reason for outright discourtesy. Usually, a calm, courteous, though firm tone of speech will bring a quick response. Thus, tact and courtesy are closely related to mental attitude as well as to manner and language. To develop tact-o Be courteous and cheerful. o Be considerate of others. o Study the actions of successful officers who enjoy a reputation for being skilled in human relations. o Study different types of personalities to gain a knowledge of human nature and behavior. o Develop the habit of cooperating in spirit as well as in fact. o Maintain a tolerant attitude. o Treat others as you desire to be treated. Unselfishness The unselfish leader is one who avoids providing for his own comfort and personal advancement at the expense of others. Place the comfort, pleasure, and recreation of prisoners before your own. If a group is commended for outstanding work, pass along the credit for the achievement to the men who made it possible. No one respects a senior who takes sole credit for the accomplishments of his men while failing to assume responsibility for unsatisfactory work. To develop unselfishness-o Avoid using position or rank for personal gain, safety, or pleasure at the expense of others. o Be considerate of the problems, military and personal, of your prisoners and assist them when appropriate. o Give credit to your subordinates and prisoners for work well done.


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PART J - LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES Over the years, certain general rules have been developed to guide leaders in their actions. These generalized rules, or principles, can be specifically applied to correctional work. Correctional supervisors who disregard them are risking failure. These principles will be discussed below. Be Technically Proficient To know your job thoroughly, you must possess not only specific knowledge of its details, but also broad general knowledge concerning its area of interest. To be proficient in correcting men, you must know about the behavior of men. Techniques for application include the following: o Seek a well-rounded military education by attending service schools and through independent reading, research, and study. o Seek out and foster associations with capable leaders. Observe and study their actions. o Broaden your knowledge through association with members of other arms and services. o Seek opportunities to apply knowledge by exercising responsibility. Real leadership is acquired only through practice. o Take every opportunity to prepare yourself for promotion to higher grades. Know Yourself and Seek Self-Improvement Evaluate yourself and recognize your own strengths and weaknesses. No one can become a successful leader until he knows his own capabilities and limitations and is, in fact, the master of himself. Strive to develop the desirable traits of a leader as discussed in the preceding paragraphs. Techniques for application include the following: o Analyze yourself objectively to determine your strong and weak personal qualities. Make an effort to overcome the weak ones and further strengthen those in which you are strong. o Solicit, when appropriate, the honest opinions of others as to how you can improve your leadership traits. o Profit by studying the causes of success or failure of other leaders, past and present. o Develop a genuine interest in people; acquire the human touch. MP 1025 6-24

o Master the art of effective writing and speaking. Know Your Subordinates and Prisoners; Look Out for Their Welfare You will have a better understanding of how your subordinates and prisoners react and function under various conditions when you make a conscientious effort to observe them, become acquainted with them, and recognize their individual differences. Anticipate and provide for the needs of your prisoners. This will assist you in obtaining their willing obedience, confidence, respect, and loyal cooperation. Your prisoners' desire to satisfy certain needs is the basis for their behavior. Whether they put for the their best effort in the performance of duty will depend upon the adequate satisfaction of these needs. By knowing your men and providing for their physical needs while assisting them in satisfying their learned needs, you will increase the productivity of the individuals. When prisoners know you are concerned with their welfare, they will have a better attitude toward the Army and military life. Techniques for application include the following: o Develop an intimate knowledge and understanding of your subordinates and prisoners through personal contact and available records, as appropriate. o Concern yourself with the living conditions of the prisoners including their environment, food, clothing, and billeting. o Make adequate provisions for, and give personal attention to, the various personnel services available, particularly those concerned with personal problems. o Provide for the spiritual welfare of your prisoners by supporting religious activities. o Protect the health of your prisoners by active supervision of hygiene and sanitation. o Determine the mental attitude of your prisoners by frequent informal visits and by using all available source of information. o Ensure fair and equitable distribution of privileges. Keep Your Men Informed Everyone wants to know how well he has done and what is expected of him. Within the limits of security requirements, prisoners must be kept informed because this encourages initiative and enhances morale. the individual who knows the situation and his responsibilities is more effective than one who does not. 6-25 MP 1025

The well-informed prisoner normally has a better attitude toward his situation. He can better understand what is expected of him when he understands the mission of the correctional facility. With this understanding, the individual can establish a goal and adjust his behavior to attain the goal. The individual and the group as a whole appreciate recognition for a task well done. It is usually the unknown that men fear most. By keeping your prisoners informed, you will reduce fear and rumors. Techniques for application include the following: o Explain to your men why any particular task must be accomplished and how you propose they do it. o Be alert to detect the spread of false rumors. Stop rumors by replacing them with truth. o Build morale by making the most of all information concerning successes of former prisoners. o Keep your prisoners informed about current legislation and regulations affecting their pay, privileges, and other benefits. Set the Example Your prisoners will look to you for examples they may follow or, conversely, use to excuse their own shortcomings. Your individual appearance and conduct must bring forth respect, pride, and a desire to meet the standards you set. Set the standard for your entire group by outstanding performance of duty. The correctional supervisor who appears in an unfavorable light before his men destroys the mutual confidence and respect that must exist between them. Techniques for application include the following: o Be at all times physically fit, mentally alert, well-groomed, and correctly dressed. o Master your emotions. The correctional supervisor who is subject to uncontrolled bursts of anger or to periods of depression will have difficulty in gaining and holding the respect and loyalty of his subordinates and prisoners. o Be completely loyal to your seniors. Support your subordinates as long as they perform their duties conscientiously. The leader who seeks to protect an incompetent subordinate from correction by a higher commander is himself being disloyal. Loyalty is an important trait of a leader and demands unqualified support of the policies of senior officers, whether the individual concerned personally agrees with them or not.

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o Avoid the development of favorites. It is sometimes difficult to avoid being partial to particular prisoners. o Be morally courageous. The correctional supervisor who fails to stand by his principles when the welfare of his group is concerned, or who attempts to avoid the responsibility for mistakes of his group, will fail to gain or maintain the respect of his associates or prisoners. o Conduct yourself so your personal habits are not open to censure. Coarse behavior and vulgarity are the marks of an essentially weak and unstable character. Failure to be punctual and tendencies toward selfishness and self-indulgence in luxuries are not available to everyone are resented by all. Ensure the Task is Understood, Supervised, and Accomplished Give clear, concise orders. Be sure they are understood. Then supervise to make sure each order is promptly executed. Men will respond more quickly to orders that are clear, concise, and easily understood. On the other hand, they may become confused if you overstate the order or instruction by giving too many details. Prisoners resent over supervision and harassment. Individual initiative is developed within men when they can use their imagination in developing their own techniques in accomplishment of tasks or missions. Techniques for application include the following: o Be sure the need for an order exists. o Use the established chain of command. o Through study and practice, develop the ability to think clearly and to issue clear, concise, positive orders. o Ask questions to determine if there is any doubt or misunderstanding as to the task to be accomplished. o Supervise the execution of your orders. Your manner of supervision must be firm and you must insist your desires be carried out. o Make every possible means available to your men to assist them in accomplishing their tasks. o Vary your supervisory routine and the points you emphasize during inspections. Make Sound and Timely Decisions


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You must have the ability to make a rapid estimate of the situation and arrive at a sound decision. You must be able to reason logically under the most trying conditions and decide quickly what action is necessary to take advantage of opportunities as they occur. When circumstances dictate a change in plans, prompt action enhances confidence. Constant studying, training, and proper planning will lay the groundwork for professional competence necessary for sound and timely decisions. Techniques for application include the following: o Develop a logical and orderly thought process by constant practice in making objective estimates of the situation. Making an estimate is not restricted to the military. It is employed in the everyday life of all persons. o So far as time and occasion permit, plan for every possible event that reasonably can be foreseen. o Consider the advice and suggestions of other members of the correction staff before making decisions. o Announce decisions in time to allow subordinates to make necessary plans. Seek Responsibility and Take Responsibility for Your Actions You must take the initiative in the absence of orders. By seeking responsibility you develop yourself professionally and increase your leadership ability. Accept responsibility for all your men do or fail to do. The leader who fails to accept responsibility will lose the confidence of his men. Techniques for application include the following: o Learn the duties of your immediate senior and be prepared to accept his responsibilities. o Take advantage of any opportunity that offers increased responsibility. o Perform every task, large or small, to the best of your ability. Your reward will be increased opportunity to perform bigger and more important tasks. o Accept just criticism and admit mistakes. o Adhere to what you think is right; have the courage of your convictions. o Carefully evaluate a prisoner's failure before taking action. Make sure his apparent shortcomings are not due to an error on your part.

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o In the absence of orders, seize the initiative and take the action you believe your senior would direct if he were present. PART K - INDICATORS OF LEADERSHIP There are four characteristics of a unit or an organization which indicate success or failure in the exercise of military leadership. Further, these indicators can be used as a gage for measuring the effectiveness of a unit or organization. Morale Morale is a person's state of mind. It depends on his attitude toward everything that affects him. Morale is closely related to satisfying man's needs. The state of morale in an organization is also constantly changing. A leader can measure morale by close observation of his men in their daily activities. Specific items to note are appearance, personal conduct, standards of military courtesy, use of recreational facilities, care of equipment, response to orders and directives, job proficiency, and motivation during training activities, among many others. Evaluation of administrative reports can also aid in measuring morale. Particularly important are reports that concern military or civil arrests, family problems, indebtedness, AWOLs, requests for transfers, sick call rate, reenlistment rates, and damage or loss of equipment through carelessness. Esprit de Corps This is the loyalty to, pride in, and enthusiasm for the unit or organization as shown by its members. Whereas, morale refers to the attitude or spirit of the soldier as an individual, esprit de corps is the organization's spirit. Esprit de corps provides group solidarity. Indications of good esprit de corps include expressions from the men showing enthusiasm and pride in their organization, the fact that the organization enjoys a good reputation among other units, a strong competitive spirit, willing participation by members of the organization in organizational activities, readiness on the part of the men to help one another, and the belief that the organization is the best of its kind in the Army. Discipline Discipline is the individual or group attitude that ensures prompt obedience to orders and initiation of appropriate action in the absence of orders. Good discipline is constant and functions whether or not outside supervision or pressure is present. Discipline requires both training and leadership. Indications of good discipline include attention to detail, harmonious relations between individuals, devotion to duty, proper senior-subordinate relationships, proper conduct on and off duty, promptness in responding to commands and directives, adherence to the chain of command, and the ability to perform effectively with little or no supervision.


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Proficiency This is the technical, tactical, and physical ability of the soldier and the unit to perform the job or mission. An organization will attain proficiency when its leaders demand high standards of both the individual and the group. Proficiency results largely from training. Indicators of proficiency include the personal appearance and physical condition of the men; the appearance of equipment and the unit area; the reaction time of the unit under various situations and conditions; the professional attitude demonstrated by the organization and its members; the leadership ability displayed by junior leaders; promptness and accuracy in disseminating orders, instructions, and information; and the degree of skill demonstrated when accomplishing tasks. PART L - INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS Interpersonal communications skills directly influence attitudes and behaviors. To develop these skills you must understand what makes people respond to others and behave as they do. A person's response to another person's behavior can be influenced by age, race, experience, training, the behavior itself, and when and where the behavior takes place. Understand your own prejudices and experiences and how they can affect your responses. If, for instance, you have children, you might have a strong reaction to an accused child molester. Make careful observation of a person's visible behavior to become aware of the various types of behavior. Understand Body Language (Nonverbal Behavior) This is silent communication that physically expresses our emotional moods and reactions, often without our being aware we are doing it. Some examples of body language to look for are-o Facial expressions such as smiles, frowns, lips tightly pressed together, and blinking eyes. o Gestures such as tapping fingers, clenching fists, and wringing hands. o Body positions which may include hugging self, crossing arms, and standing with feet braced or continually shifting weight from one foot to the other (fighting stance). o Body distance. For instance, entering another's body space with a jabbing finger or by standing very close while speaking. NOTE: Nonverbal behavior is only a part of the communications process. It must be related to other clues of behavior if you are going to translate accurately. Behaviors that express attitudes and emotions include-o Trust which may be indicated by cooperation, respect, courtesy, and compliance.

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o Hurt which can be expressed by embarrassment, a withdrawn attitude, a show of grief, or crying. o Anger which can be shown by aggression; hostility; sarcasm, loud or abusive language; lack of cooperation; a stiff, stone face; a show of resentment; or frustration. o Fear which can be shown by sweating, sickness, running away, freezing in place, nervousness, being physically or mentally unable to cooperate, being overly cooperative, or being submissive. o Concern which can be shown by offering aid and comfort by word or deed, by listening, and by exhibiting other similar acts of caring. Exhibit Good Listening Skills Listen for practical worthwhile ideas in what the speaker is saying. Do not try to dominate the conversation, but listen for new information. Concentrate on content, not the speaker's delivery. Remember, the message is important, not the way he chooses to deliver it. The prisoner may talk in an excited manner, jumping from one idea to another; but what he says is important, not how he says it. Hear all the speaker has to say before you evaluate what has been said. Do not decide a subject is uninteresting. Screen what is said and hope for something worthwhile. When a prisoner tries to tell you why he committed an offense, do not dismiss his comments as exaggerated or untrue. What he tells you may give you an important key to his future behavior. Listen for concepts and main ideas, not just for facts. A good listener is an ideal listener. Be a flexible note taker. You do not need to outline everything you hear. Adapt your note taking to the organizational pattern of the speaker. Do not write notes while talking to a prisoner if it makes the prisoner nervous. Write your note immediately after the interview if you cannot take them while he or she is talking. Pay attention. Do not listen passively. Tune out distractions and interruptions. If you cannot hear the speaker, move the conversation to a quieter place. Accept the challenge of new and complex ideas. Do not seek to avoid difficult, expository, technical material. Have a positive attitude toward learning experiences. Ignore emotion-laden words or phrases that upset you and disrupt your trend of thought. Do not get upset over something said and miss the rest of the message. For instance, if a prisoner makes an ethnic slur, remain impartial and listen to his story.


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Use your thought rate to your advantage. A person can think at a rate of 400 words per minute; most people speak at about 100 words per minute. Use the timing difference to mentally question and absorb the ideas being presented. Listen intently to both content and feeling in an effort to interpret the underlying meaning of what you hear. True meanings may be implied by-o Tone of voice. o Emphasis or inflection given. o Breaks in the sentence. o Speed of delivery. o Degree of loudness or softness. o The pitch of the voice. Develop and maintain a concerned but calm attitude. This is the right response to any behavior you may encounter. Let a person know you recognize his feelings. Acknowledging the anger and embarrassment of a prisoner who has just failed an inspection may keep the situation from turning into one you would have to report. Apply proper standards of conduct such as-o Do not physically or verbally abuse prisoners. o Do not fraternize with prisoners or their families. o Do not use your position to obtain personal favors from prisoners. o Do not manipulate prisoners. o Do not generate or reward informants. o Do not use prisoners to supervise other prisoners. o Do not bring in contraband or unauthorized items into the facility. SUMMARY Challenge and opportunity characterize the role of the Army leader. He is challenged by the scope and diversity of his assignments and finds continuing opportunity to assume responsibility MP 1025 6-32

and develop resourcefulness. Furthermore, the leader finds an urgent need to use all of his personal resources in perhaps the most demanding of all tasks--the leadership of men. Leadership is a quality of particular importance to the correctional supervisor. Sound and effective leadership is not based on guesswork or on native ability. Its fundamentals can be analyzed and applied by most reasonable, intelligent men. Intuitive leadership alone is not sufficient. A leader can and must improve his performance through the study and analysis of his own behavior; he can and must be a student of human nature; he can and must be aware of his responsibilities for developing the leadership skills of his subordinates. Leadership has been described by some as an art and while that may well be true, one thing is certain--there are no pat solutions to the complex task of directing human behavior toward accomplishment of an organization's goals. This lesson has been an attempt to refresh your memory on many of the leadership fundamentals with which you are undoubtedly familiar and to introduce you to many new concepts and approaches recently incorporated into Army doctrine. The effective military leader never ceases to learn and apply new knowledge. Leadership is our responsibility and we must grow to it.


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LESSON 6 PRACTICE EXERCISE The following questions are multiple choice and/or true/false. You are to select the one that is correct. Show your choice by CIRCLING the letter beside the correct choice directly on the page. This is a self-graded lesson solution sheet until you have finished. To do so will endanger your ability to learn this material. Also, your final examination score will tend to be lower than if you had not followed this recommendation. 1. Which of the following learned needs rates the highest in terms of Maslow's Hierarchy? A. Desire for security. B. Need for belonging and social acceptance. C. Need for self-fulfillment or self-actualization. D. Need for status or prestige. 2. Leadership involves understanding, analyzing, predicting, and controlling human behavior. A. True. B. False. 3. Man lives according to that which he perceives to be right. What do we call this code that each individual lives by? A. An attitude set. B. A value system. C. The law. D. A hierarchy of needs.

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QUESTION COLUMN 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Faithfulness to country, pride in and enthusiasm for the organization. The ability to deal with others without creating offense. The quality of being impartial and consistent in exercising supervision. The display of sincere interest and zeal in the performance of duty. The certainty of proper performance of duty.

RESPONSE COLUMN A. Dependability. B. Enthusiasm. C. Justice. D. Tact. E. Loyalty.


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LESSON 6 PRACTICE EXERCISE ANSWER KEY AND FEEDBACK Item 1. C. Correct Answer and Feedback Need for self-fulfillment or self-actualization. Progressing up the hierarchy, the highest human need in Maslow's hierarchy is self-fulfillment (page 6-7). 2. A. True. Leadership involves understanding, analyzing, predicting, and controlling human behavior (page 6-13). 3. B. A value system. Values are man's psychological center and form his character. To truly understand a man, it is therefore necessary to identify and be able to understand a person's value system. How can values be identified? Personal values are those traits that are representative of an individual's moral character (page 6-9). 4. E. Loyalty. Loyalty is the quality of faithfulness to country, the Army, your unit, your seniors, prisoners, and associates (page 6-20). 5. D. Tact. Tact is the ability to deal with others without creating offense (page 6-22). 6. C. Justice. Justice is the quality of being impartial and consistent in exercising supervision (page 6-20).

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Enthusiasm. Enthusiasm is the display of sincere interest and zeal in the performance of duties (page 6-18).



Dependability. Dependability, the certainty of proper performance of duty, is a quality every NCO must develop (page 6-17).


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