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2008 International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation

Design of Main Steam Temperature Cascade Control System Based on Fuzzy Self-tuning PID Controller

ZENG Jing, XIE Youcheng, CHEN Lei

College of Energy and Power Engineering, Changsha University of Science and Technology, Changsha, 410076, China

E-mail:jingzengxiao@163.com

Abstract

To obtain perfect performances of the main steam temperature control system, a new scheme is proposed. The scheme substitutes fuzzy self-tuning PID controller for the main regulator of cascade control system. The controller is composed of fuzzy controller and PID controller. According to the error and error rate of the control system and fuzzy control rules, the fuzzy controller can online adjust the three parameters of the PID controller, then alter the output of the fuzzy self- tuning PID controller to maintain the main steam temperature. The results show that the proposed control scheme has smaller overshoot, shorter settling time, better capacity of anti-disturbance and stronger robustness than the conventional PID cascade control.

1. Introduction

The main steam temperature of the thermal power plant directly affects the security and economy of an operating unit. On the one hand, if the main steam temperature is too high, the metal material of boiler and turbine will be over temperature and heat, which will accelerate metal oxidation and decrease the service life of the material; on the other hand, if the main steam temperature is too low, the efficiency of thermodynamic cycle will be reduced and the temperature of last stage vanes of turbine will be increased, which will also accelerate the corrosion of vanes and affect the operating security of turbine. During the period of the rated power state, it is well known that the temperature of main steam has an allowable range deviating rating temperature from - 10 to +5 . Nevertheless, there are many factors which affect the main steam temperature, such as boiler load, furnace over-air coefficient, feedwater temperature, fuel quality, the pollution of heating surfaces and the operation mode of combustion appliances. Furthermore, the controlled object of main

steam temperature is characterized by long time-delay, large inertial and nonlinear time-variation. Therefore, all the above mentioned factors make it difficult for conventional PID cascade control scheme to obtain satisfactory control effects. Consequently, many scholars have proposed a lot of advanced control strategies concerning the control system of the main steam temperature of the thermal power plant [1-10]. Since E.H.Mandani introduced fuzzy control technology into boiler-turbine firstly, fuzzy control has been widely adopted in industrial process. Based on fuzzy control theory, this paper proposes to substitute fuzzy self-tuning PID controller for the main regulator of cascade control system, at the same time, simulation based on the proposed scheme is carried out. The result shows that the proposed scheme has better performance such as control quality, robustness and anti-disturbance than the conventional PID cascade control scheme.

2. Cascade control

2.1 Conventional cascade control system

Due to long time-delay, large inertial and nonlinear time-variation characteristics of main steam temperature, at present, a great many thermal power plants have adopted the conventional cascade control scheme as shown in Fig.1. Both G 1 (S) and G 2 (S) are the controlled object of main steam temperature which respectively are the transfer functions of inertia section and leading section. PID 1 and PID 2 respective are main regulator and auxiliary regulator of the system. In this paper, the transfer functions of the controlled object on the rating load are as follows:

G 1 (s)=1.125/(30s+1) 3 and G 2 (s)=8/(15s+1) 2 [11]. In the rated power state, optimized by Matlab tools, the parameters of the main and auxiliary regulators are fixed as follows: {K p1 =1.4, K i1 =0.01273, K d1 =20} and {K p2 =2.4, K i2 =0, K d2 =0}. Through the result of

978-0-7695-3357-5/08 $25.00 © 2008 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICICTA.2008.435

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2008 International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation Design of Main Steam Temperature Cascade Control
2008 International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation Design of Main Steam Temperature Cascade Control
2008 International Conference on Intelligent Computation Technology and Automation Design of Main Steam Temperature Cascade Control

Authorized licensed use limited to: Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet. Downloaded on December 4, 2009 at 08:25 from IEEE Xplore. Restrictions apply.

simulation based on those above parameters, relative ideal performance is acquired. But when the load of the unit has been greatly changed, the performance of this cascade control system with those above parameters will decrease obviously.

simulation based on those above parameters, relative ideal performance is acquired. But when the load of

Fig.1 Cascade control system

2.2 Fuzzy self-tuning PID controller

Accounting for the characters of the controlled object, this paper proposes to substitute fuzzy self- tuning PID controller for the main regulator of cascade control system so as to improve the dynamic performance and anti-disturbance capacity when the load has been greatly changed. The structure figure of the control system is shown in Fig.2, the broken line section in Fig.2 is called as fuzzy self-tuning PID controller, which is composed of fuzzy controller and PID controller.

simulation based on those above parameters, relative ideal performance is acquired. But when the load of

Fig.2 Fuzzy self-tuning PID cascade control system

Based on the conventional PID cascade controller

[

u(t)=K e(t)+K

pi

e(t)dt+K

d

de(t)

dt

],

the

fuzzy

self-tuning PID controller has established the function relation between system error e and system error rate de with three parameters: K p , K i and K d . Those parameters relations are as follows: K p =K p0 +f 1 (e,de), K i =K i0 +f 2 (e,de) and K d =K d0 +f 3 (e,de). In those relations, K p0 , K i0 and K d0 are original values of the main regulator parameters, and f 1 (e,de), f 2 (e,de) and f 3 (e,de) are the outputs of fuzzy controller. So the fuzzy self-tuning PID controller can online adjust the three parameters: K p , K i and K d according to different error e and error rate de. When the load of the boiler has been changed, the measure value y of the controller variable will deviate

initialization r, at the same time, the fuzzy self-tuning PID controller will online adjust these three parameters: K p , K i and K d so as to alter the output u(t) of the fuzzy self-tuning PID controller. In this system, as u(t) is the initialization of auxiliary loop, the output of auxiliary regulator PID 2 can be adjusted by u(t) accordingly, then the flux of reducing temperature

water will be adjusted, finally, the main steam

temperature will be stabilized and preserved at

initialization r.

3.

Design

of

fuzzy

self-tuning

PID

controller

  • 3.1 Input variables

Suppose that the fuzzy domain of the inputs e and de of the fuzzy controller is [-3, 3], and the fuzzy subsets of those linguistic variables are described as {NB, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, PB}, and the membership function curves of these linguistic variables are shown in Fig.3.

simulation based on those above parameters, relative ideal performance is acquired. But when the load of

Fig.3 Membership function curves of e and de

In an operating control system, the actual values of error e and error rate de are limited respectively in the region of [-e max , e max ]and [-de max , de max ], which are defined as basic domain of error e and error rate de. Therefore, it is essential to transform by scaling factors K e and K de that are defined respectively as follows:

K e = 3/e max and K de = 3/de max .

  • 3.2 Output variables

Suppose that these three outputs K up , K ui and K ud of the fuzzy controller are defined as follows:

K up =f 1 (e,de), K ui =f 2 (e,de) and K ud =f 3 (e,de), and whose fuzzy domain is also [-3,3] and whose fuzzy subsets are described as {NB, NM, NS, ZE, PS, PM, PB} and

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whose membership function curves are shown in Fig.4. Suppose that the basic domain of K up , K ui and K ud are

defined as follows:[-K upmax, K upmax ], [-K uimax, K uimax ]

and

[-K udmax,

K udmax ].

Based

on

the

conception

of

scaling factor, those scaling factors can be defined as follows:K bp = K upmax /3, K bi = K uimax /3 and K bd = K udmax /3.

whose membership function curves are shown in Fig.4. Suppose that the basic domain of K ,

Fig.4 Membership function curves of the output variables K up , K ui and K ud

3.3 Fuzzy control rule

To obtain perfect performance, it is necessary for fuzzy controller to possess integrated fuzzy control rules which are hard to acquire. Based on lucubrating the function of these three parameters K p , K i and K d , observing the dynamic characteristic of the controlled object, and analyzing a great many of simulation experiments, we have presented three sets of fuzzy control rules as shown in Tab.1, Tab.2 and Tab.3 in this paper[12-13].

4. Simulation experiments

Simulation of the proposed system is carried out, and parameters of system regulators are set as follows:

the parameters of fuzzy self-tuning PID are K p0 =1.4, K i0 =0.01273 and K d0 =20; and the input scaling factors are K e =0.0055 and K de =0.35; and the output scaling factors are K bp =0.1, K bi =0.003 and K bd =10; and the parameters of auxiliary regulator PID 2 are K p2 =2.4, K i2 =0 and K d2 =0. Fig.5 is the simulation result of step input response, Fig.6 is the simulation result of disturbance input response, and Fig.7 is the simulation result of the changing of the dynamic parameters of the controlled object. By analyzing these simulation curves of the proposed control scheme and the conventional cascade control scheme, it is obvious that the former has

smaller overshoot, shorter settling time, better capacity of anti-disturbance and stronger robustness than the latter.

Tab.1 Fuzzy control rule table of K up

 
e k up de
e
k up
de

NB

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PB

NB

PB

PB

PM

PM

PS

ZE

ZE

NM

PB

PB

PM

PS

PB

ZE

NS

NS

NS

PM

PM

PS

ZE

NS

NS

ZE

PM

PM

PS

ZE

NS

NM

NM

PS

PS

PS

ZE

NS

NS

NM

NM

PM

PS

ZE

NS

NM

NM

NM

NB

PB

ZE

ZE

NM

NM

NM

NB

NB

Tab.2 Fuzzy control rule table of K ui

 
k e ui de
k
e
ui
de

NB

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PB

NB

NB

NB

NM

NM

NS

ZE

ZE

NM

NB

NB

NM

NS

NS

ZE

ZE

NS

NS

NB

NS

NS

ZE

PS

PS

ZE

NM

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PM

PS

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PS

PM

PB

PM

ZE

ZE

PS

PS

PM

PB

PB

PB

ZE

ZE

PS

PM

PM

PB

PB

Tab.3 Fuzzy control rule table of K ud

 
k e ud de
k
e
ud
de

NB

NM

NS

ZE

PS

PM

PB

NB

PS

NS

PM

NB

NB

NM

PS

NM

PS

NS

NB

NM

NM

NS

ZE

NS

NS

ZE

NM

NM

NS

NS

ZE

ZE

ZE

NS

NS

ZE

NS

NS

ZE

PS

ZE

ZE

ZE

ZE

ZE

ZE

ZE

PM

PB

NS

PS

PS

PS

PS

PB

PB

PB

PM

PM

PM

PS

PS

PB

5. Conclusion

In this paper, a new cascade control system based on fuzzy self-tuning PID for main steam temperature control is presented. On the basis of the conventional PID cascade control, we have designed a fuzzy self- tuning PID controller to substitute for the main regulator of cascade control system. With the fuzzy self-tuning PID controller, the proposed control system has a better performance than conventional PID cascade control scheme which is demonstrated by the simulation results.

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Fig. 5 Comparison of step response Fig. 6 Comparison of disturbance response Fig. 7 Test with

Fig.5 Comparison of step response

Fig. 5 Comparison of step response Fig. 6 Comparison of disturbance response Fig. 7 Test with

Fig.6 Comparison of disturbance response

Fig. 5 Comparison of step response Fig. 6 Comparison of disturbance response Fig. 7 Test with

Fig.7 Test with parameters perturbation

6. References

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[2] A.Sanchez-Lopez, A.Villavicencio-Ramirez, “Advanced control algorithms for steam temperature regulation of thermal power plants”, International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Volume 26, Issue 10, December 2004, pp. 779-785. [3] R. N. Silva, P. O. Shirley, J. M. Lemos, and A. C. Gonçalves, “Adaptive regulation of super-heated steam temperature: a case study in an industrial boiler”, Control Engineering Practice, Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2000, pp. 1405-1415. [4] G. Arroyo-Figueroa, L. E. Sucar, and A. Villavicencio, “Fuzzy intelligent system for the operation of fossil power plants”, Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence, Volume 13, Issue 4, 1 August 2000, pp.

431-439.

[5] YANG Ping, XU Li-wei, “Focusing variable structure fuzzy control and its application to steam temperature control of a boiler”, Control Theory & Applications, Vol.24, No.1, Feb. 2007, pp. 137-142.

[6]

Cheng Qiming, Wang Yonghao, “Simulation Study of

[7]

Fuzzy/PID Cascade Control System Based on Smith Predictive Estimate on Main Steam Temperature”, Transactions of China Electrotechnical Society, Vol.22, No.3, Mar. 2007, pp. 143-147. YANG Yan-xi, LIU Ding and GAO Yi, “Main Stream

[8]

Temperature Control System in Fossil Fired Power Station Based on Fuzzy Immune PID-Smith Controller”, Acta Simulata Systematica Sinica, Vol.17, No.11, Nov. 2005, pp. 2756-2758. PENG Dao-gang, YANG Ping, WANG Zhi-ping and

YU Hui-qun, “Immune PID Cascade Control ofmain Steam Temperature Control System in Fossil-fired Power Plant”, Power Engineering, Vol.25, No.2, Apr. 2005, pp. 234-238. [9] WANG Guo-yu, MEI Hua, HAN Pu and WANG Dong-

feng, “Fuzzy adaptive predictive functional control in main steam temperature system”, Proceedings of the Csee, Vol.23, No.10, Oct. 2003, pp. 230-235. [10] Zou Ling, Sun Yuqiang, “Research and Application of fuzzy self-tuning PID controller in the Reheat Temperature Control System”, Control & Automation, 2005, pp.25-26. [11] GAO Yun-xia, TIAN Pei, LI Qin, and SU Xi-feng “Research on main steam temperature control system based on H mixed sensitivity”, Journal of North China Electric Power University, 2006, pp.76-79. [12] B.M. Mohan, Arpita Sinha , “Analytical structure and stability analysis of a fuzzy PID controller”, Applied Soft Computing, Volume 8, Issue 1, January 2008, pp.

749-758.

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