Novel, FourSwitch, ZSource ThreePhase Inverter
Róbert Antal ^{1} , Nicolae Muntean ^{1} , Ion Boldea ^{1} , Frede Blaabjerg ^{2}
^{1} Politehnica University of Timisoara/Department of Electrical Engineering, Timisoara, Romania
^{2} Institute of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, DK – 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark email:aroberrr@yahoo.com;
AbstractThis paper presents a new zsource three phase in verter topology. The proposed topology combines the advan tages of a traditional fourswitch threephase inverter with the advantages of the z impedance network (one frontend diode, two inductors and two X connected capacitors). This new topol ogy, besides the selfboost property, has low switch count and it can operate as a buckboost inverter. In contrast to standard fourswitch threephase inverter which operates at half dc input voltage the proposed fourswitch zsource inverter, by self boost ing, brings the output voltage at same (or higher) value as in six switch standard threephase inverter. The article presents the derivation of the equations describing the operation of the con verter based on space vector analysis, validation through digital simulations in PSIM and preliminary experimental results on a laboratory setup with a dsPIC30F3011 digital signal processor.
Index Termszsource threephase inverter, four switch in verter, shootthrough time ST, space voltage vector
I.
INTRODUCTION
Zsource threephase converters (Fig. 1) with six power switches have been proposed recently [1] with different con trol strategies [36]. In essence they are selfboosting unidirectional dcac con verters with only six power switches (unless used in multi
level topologies [7]), which are used with some PWM strate gies to shortcircuit (Fig. 2b) the zsource and thus produce dc voltage boosting. In between shortcircuits the same six power switches produce the required output voltage wave forms. It can be seen in Fig. 2a that during the shootthrough in
. The average dclink volt
terval the dclink voltage
age is equal with the voltage across the capacitors in the z
impedance network [1]
V in
= 0
V 
= 
V 
= 
V 
= 
V 
= 
1 − D ST 
; D 
= 
t ST 

in 
C 
1 
C 
2 
C 
1 − 2 D 
ST 
ST 
T s 
(1)
where D _{S}_{T} is the shoot – through duty ratio and T _{s} is the switching frequency. The selfboosting attribute of Z converters is “paid for” by some voltage and current over rating. On the other hand lower count four switch threephase inverters with split dc link capacitor are characterized by half dc input voltage used for output voltage PWM and thus a 2/1 current overrating of switches is necessary. To alleviate this situation, while bring ing back full dclink voltage utilization, a novel, fourswitch threephase zsource converter topology is proposed in this
paper. This way the over current rating in comparison with the six switches threephase inverter is small, though some notable voltage over rating remains. However this demerit should be justified by the additional voltage buckboosting attributes that can be indispensable for voltage sags handling in safety critical applications. Among applications we enumerate here renewable dcac interfacing of photovoltaic panels, fuel cells, batteries and
electric drive with frequent voltage sags. This proposed novel
off
inverter topology can be also used for small (1
grid wind energyelectrical energy generation systems with permanent magnet synchronous generators. The paper is organized as follows: first the equations de scribing the operation of the inverter are derived, after that the shootthrough time generation and the gating signals are pre sented and finally digital simulations and preliminary experi mental results validate the theory.
10kW)
Fig. 1. Zsource threephase inverter with six switches.
a)
b)
Fig. 2. Equivalent circuits of the Zsource network in (a) shoot through state (b) non shootthrough state.
II. THE PROPOSED FOURSWITCH ZSOURCE THREEPHASE INVERTER
As we could see in case of a zsource inverter with six switches Fig. 1, 2 the voltage across the inverter bridge is zero when the voltage boost is applied by shortcircuiting at least one of the three inverter legs. So the shootthrough state of the inverter limits the available maximum output voltage of the inverter [6]. Hence to fully utilize the voltage boost and to limit the voltage and current stresses of the inverter bridge without affecting the output voltage, the placing of shoot through states during the zero voltage vector time intervals (no voltage seen by the load) seems to be a practical solution
[4,6].
A. Principle of Operation
Fig. 3. Fourswitch zsource threephase inverter.
The proposed fourswitch zsource threephase inverter is shown in fig. 3. In essence, the novel topology shows that one of the ca pacitors in the Z network is split into two and the middle point is connected to one phase of the load. This 50% voltage drawback of conventional fourswitch threephase inverter is eliminated by the proposed fourswitch Zsource inverter because the shootthrough state produces not only the voltage boost but it produces also an active volt age vector, thus generating nonzero output voltage Fig 4. The equivalent scheme of the shootthrough state of the proposed inverter (when all four transistor are conducting) in Fig. 4 clearly shows that during the shootthrough state the voltage seen by the load is equal with the voltage across ca pacitor C _{2} .
Fig. 4. Shootthrough state equivalent circuit of the 4switch zsource three phase inverter.
Fig. 5. Phase terminal voltages referenced to ground 0.
TABLE 1
SWITCHING _{P}_{A}_{T}_{T}_{E}_{R}_{N}
V 
1 
V 
2 
V 
3 
V 
4 
V ST 
T 1
T 2
T 3
T 4
0 
1 
0 
1 
1 
0 
0 
1 
1 
0 
1 
0 
0 
1 
1 
0 
1 
1 
1 
1 
By averaging the voltage across one inductor during one switching period in steady state the same relationship can be obtained between the input dc voltage V _{D}_{C} and the average dc link voltage V _{i}_{n} as in (1). The average dclink voltage is equal
with the voltage across C _{1} or across C _{2} and C _{3} as for a three phase zsource inverter with six switches. Before we step further into the analysis of the proposed to pology we make the following assumptions:
• The average voltages across C _{2} and C _{3} are equal with each other.
• The frontend diode D1 is always conducting when the converter is in the nonshoot through state, thus the pseudoactive state is avoided [4].
B. The Space Voltage Vectors of the FourSwitch ZSource
ThreePhase Inverter For the threephase load in Fig. 3 the voltage space vector can be defined as follows
v
UN
+
e
− j
2 π
4 π
3 v
VN
+
e
3 v
− j
WN
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎟
⎠
(2)
where v _{U}_{N} , v _{V}_{N} and v _{W}_{N} are the instantaneous phase voltages. With the four switches in Fig. 3 five voltage vectors can be obtained, as in Table 1. All voltage vectors are active voltage vectors as we will see in the following section. Although two more shootthrough states can be obtained by turning on T _{1} and T _{2} or T _{3} and T _{4} in the same time, these states were neglected because the maxi mum current flowing through the inverter bridge would only flow through one leg of the inverter bridge which would lead to a bigger kVA transistor bridge. The wye connected three phase load terminal voltages referenced to ground are shown, with respect to the switching pattern in Table 1, in Fig. 5.
In order to derive the phase voltages we will consider
using the expression of the space voltage vector (2) the five voltage vectors can be derived as
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
⎞ ⎟
⎟ ⎠
V
DC
V
DC
(5)
The relationship between the average capacitor voltage
V
C
and the input dc voltage
V
C
V
DC
can be expressed as
= k ⋅V
DC
k
=
1
−
D
ST
1
−
2 D
ST
;
k >
1
(6)
(7)
Rewriting (5) using (7) the voltage vectors can be derived as
1
kV
DC
1
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
)
+ 1
V
DC
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
)
V
DC
(8)
Fig. 6. Locations of the voltage vectors in the complex plane.
Notice that in (8) the boost factor k influences the ampli tude as well the direction of the six voltage vectors. For k=2 the six voltage vectors in the complex plane are il lustrated in fig. 6.
The voltage vector generated by the shootthrough state V _{S}_{T}
has the same amplitude and direction as the V _{3} voltage vector. The voltage space vector expressed in (2) can be rewritten in the complex plane as
(9)
v
s
= v
sα
+ jv
sβ
The average voltage space vector over one switching cycle should be equal with the sum of the five average voltage space vectors (V _{1} …V _{4} and V _{S}_{T} ) over one switching cycle T _{s}
v 
s 
= 
( t V 1 1 
+ 
t 
2 V 2 
+ 
t V 3 3 
+ 
t 
4 
V 4 
+ 
t ST 
V ST 
) 
/T s 
(10) 

t 
1 + t 
2 
+ t 
3 
+ t 
4 
+ t ST 
= T s 
(11) 

v 
sα 
and 
v 
sβ (9) the expres 
where
To obtain the expressions of
sions of the five voltage vectors (8) are introduced in (10)
4
)(
k
)
1
− −
(
t
3
+
t
ST
)
k
]
(12)
Given (1)(12) in this section it is possible to derive several
algorithms that can be implemented in a digital signal proces sor which, for a prescribed input space voltage vector,
∗
v
s
=
v
∗
sα
+
jv
∗
sβ
(13)
calculate the duty ratios for the four transistors and generates the four gating pulses.
III. SHOOTTHROUGH PULSE IMPLEMENTATION AND PWM SIGNAL GENERATION
One easy way to generate the gating signals for the four transistors is to use three synchronized PWM units in com plementary mode of a DSP with some additional circuitry.
Fig. 7. Block diagram of the PWM signal generation implementation.
Two of the three PWM generation units yield the two com plementary signals for the two phase legs of the inverter bridge based on the prescribed duty ratios D _{V} and D _{W} . The third PWM unit generates the ST signal from D _{S}_{T} . The four outputs from the two units are ORed with the ST signal thus obtaining the PWM signals for T _{1} …T _{4} .
Fig. 8. PWM signal waveform generation for T _{1} , T _{2} , T _{3} & T _{4} .
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
In the first step of the validation, the proposed fourswitch
zsource threephase inverter was simulated in PSIM. The circuit parameters were as follows
V
DC
C
2
=
=
=
mH C
90
=
C
3
60
L
470
k
∗
V
=
;
V
;
1
=
L
2
F
μ
=
2;
R
;
f
=
L
1
6.4
=
R
L
2
∗
=
50
Hz
;
=
=
0.9
1
10
kHz
235
Ω
uF
;
A threephase wye connected RL load was used with the
following parameters
R
L
U
U
=
=
10 .5 ; R
Ω
V
20 .1mH ; L
V
=
10 .6 ; R
Ω
W
=
18 .4 mH ; L
=
W
10 .2 ;
Ω
=
17 .7 mH
Only open loop performance with imposed output voltage vector amplitude, to derive commutation sequences and the required shootthrough time for the dclink voltage boost, was investigated both in simulations and experiments. The simulated waveforms are shown in Fig. 9Fig. 13.
Time [s]
Fig. 10. Simulated load currents (zoom).
Time [s]
Fig. 11. Simulated voltage waveforms across C _{1} , C _{2} , C _{3} and the input dc volt age at startup.
The shootthrough time was linearly increased from 0 to its nominal value in 0.120s to avoid the high inrush current Fig.
11. In Fig. 10 it can be seen that the load currents are not
perfectly symmetrical due to the connection of phase U to the
common node of capacitors C _{2} and C _{3} which causes the volt
age potential at this terminal to vary around
The simulated inductor currents (which flow through both inverter legs during shootthrough states) are shown in Fig.
2 Fig. 11.
12, and they are less than 150% the peak load currents (Fig.
The boost dclink voltage is shown in Fig. 13 (input dc
10).
voltage is 90V dc).
_{V}_{.} EXPERIMENTAL WORK
A laboratory setup was built to experimentally validate the proposed fourswitch Zsource threephase inverter. The con trol algorithm based on equations (1)(12) was implemented
on a dsPIC30f3010 digital signal processor from Microchip
with a clock frequency of 120MHz. The experimental wave
forms are shown in. Fig. 14Fig.18.
The laboratory setup data are the same as for the digital simulations. The experimental load currents in Fig. 14 are close to those from digital simulations (in Fig. 10) though a bit more asym metric. The inverter starting experimental transients of Fig. 1517 are similar to those obtained for same transients by
digital simulations in Fig. 11 and 9 respectively.
The test and simulation load phase current transients (Fig.
17 and Fig. 9) fit rather well; the same observation is valid for
V _{C}_{2} , V _{C}_{3} which pulsate around input dc voltage of 90V dc.
The dclink (boosted) voltage V _{C}_{1} in experiments (Fig. 15)
pulsates around 160V while in simulation is around 180V dc,
while the experimental inductor currents (Fig. 18) are smaller
than the digital simulations (Fig. 12). These discrepancies
require further insight.
Time [s]
Fig 14. Experimental load currents.
Time [s]
Fig. 15. Experimental voltages across C1 and C3 capacitors at startup.
Time [s]
Fig. 16. Experimental voltages across C2 and C3 capacitors at startup.
Time [s]
Fig. 17. Experimental current waveform through phase U at startup.
Time [s]
Fig. 18. Experimental Zimpedance inductor current waveforms I _{L}_{1} and I _{L}_{2} .
VI. CONCLUSIONS
This paper has proposed a novel four switch zsource three
phase inverter topology which links together the advantages
of a four switch inverter (low switch count) and a zsource
inverter (selfboost ability). The shootthrough state not only boosts the input dc voltage but also produces an active volt
age as well, while in case of the zsource inverter with six
switches the shootthrough state only boosts the input dc volt
age. By voltageboost, the new fourswitch zsource three
phase inverter eliminates the need to redesign the electric
motor in terms of terminal voltage, as needed for conven tional fourswitch split capacitor threephase inverters. The equations of the new converter were derived and the theory was verified through digital simulations and experiments.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This work was partially supported by the European Eco
nomic Area (EEA) project RO 018 “Improvement of the
Structures and Efficiency of Small Horizontal Axis Wind
Generators with NonRegulated Blades”.
REFERENCES
[1] 
F. Z. Peng, “Zsource inverter”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Appli 
cations, Vol. 39, MarchApril 2003, pp.504510. 

[2] 
Mauricio Beltrao de Rossiter Correa, Cursino Brandao Jacobina, Edison 
Roberto Cabral da Silva, Antonio Marcus Nogueria Lima, “A General 

[3] 
PWM Strategy for FourSwitch ThreePhase Inverters”, IEEE Transac tions on Power Electronics, Vol. 21, November 2006, pp.16181627. Boldea Ion, Robert Antal, Muntean Nicolae “Modified ZSource Sin Power Electronics, Vol. 55, January 2008, pp.8996. 
[4] 
glePhase Inverter with Two Switches”, Proc. ISIE 2008, pp.257263. Miaosen Shen, Fang Z. Peng, “Operation Modes and Characteristics of 
the ZSource Inverter with Small Inductance”, IEEE Transactions on 

[5] 
Poh Chiang Loh, Na Duan, Chao Liang, Feng Gao, Frede Blaabjerg, 
“ZSource B4 Inverters”, Proc. PESC 2007, pp.13631369. 

[6] 
Fang Z. Peng, Miaosen Shen, Zhaoming Qian, “Maximum Boost Con 
trol of the ZSource Inverter”, Proc. PESC 2004, pp.255260. 

[7] 
Feng Gao; Poh Chiang Loh; Blaabjerg, F.; Vilathgamuwa, D.M, “Per 
formance Evaluation of ThreeLevel ZSource Inverters Under Semi
conductorFailure Conditions”, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applica
tions, Vol. 45, MayJune 2009 pp.971981.
Molto più che documenti.
Scopri tutto ciò che Scribd ha da offrire, inclusi libri e audiolibri dei maggiori editori.
Annulla in qualsiasi momento.