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Sengupta, M. and Dalwani, R. (Editors). 2008.

Proceedings of Taal2007: The 12


th
World Lake Conference: 304-306
Water and Sediment Analysis of Hussain Sagar Lake, Hyderabad

M.Suneela*, G. Radha Krishna, K. Vamsi Krishna, V. Manga Sai, V. Bhargav, K.Syama Sundara Reddy,
D.S.S.Srinivas, and J.S.Srinivas
Environment Protection Training and Research Institute (EPTRI), 91/4, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 032, A.P.
*Corresponding author: email: suneela72@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

Hussain Sagar Lake was built during 1550-1580 A.D. It was used as drinking water source for the city
during 1894 to 1930. Due to population increase and unplanned urbanization and industrialization, large
quantities of industrial and domestic wastewaters polluted the lake for the past 10 decades. Presently, the
lake serves as a tourist spot. Water and sediment samples were collected in Hussain Sagar Lake and
analyzed for physico-chemical and microbial analysis during April 2005. The present study reveals the
nutrient loading have exceeded the eutrophic condition and leading to a hyper-eutrophic status.

Keywords: Water quality, Sediment, Heavy metals, Nutrient loading,



INTRODUCTION

Hussain Sagar Lake named after Hussain Shaw Wali
is situated in the heart of twin cities of Hyderabad
and Secunderabad, the state capital of Andhra
Pradesh in South India. The lake is located at 15
0
N
and 81
0
E at 510m above sea level. The lake was
built during 1550-1580 A.D. It was used as drinking
water source for the city during 1894 to 1930. Due to
population increase and unplanned urbanization and
industrialization, large quantities of industrial and
domestic wastewaters polluted the lake for the past
10 decades. Presently, the lake serves as a tourist
spot. The relevant hydrological data of the lake is
shown in Table 1. The natural inflows to the lake are
from the catchment area of about 275 Sq.Km. The
inflow by way of domestic wastewaters is about
10.14 mcum/year (HMWSSB, 1992). The depth of
the lake was around 12.2 m (Zafar, 1966), which
gradually reduced to about 5.02 m as on today,
probably because of severe siltation and
sedimentation. The average run-off during normal
year into the lake is about 28-33 mcum/year.


Table 1: Hydrological Data of Hussain Sagar Lake
Water

Parameter Specification
Surface Area (A) of Lake 5.7 x 10
6
Sq.m
Storage volume (V) of the lake (to
spill level)
28.6 x 10
6
Cu.m
Average depth (V/A) 5.02 m
Depth Variation 1-12 m
Maximum operating level 514.93 m
Minimum operating level 513.43 m
Round/bund level 518.16 m


Due to the discharge of untreated domestic
wastewaters through picket nallah (5.7 mld),
balkapur nallah (13.3 mld) and banjara nallah (6.3
mld), and large number of industries located at
Jeedimetla, Balanagar and Sanathnagar through
Kukatpally nallah (domestic 55 mld + industrial 15
mld), the lake is polluted to large extent. These
nallahs contribute greatly to the hydrology of lake
and constitute the only inflows during the dry period
(Sefege Consulting Engineers, 1988). In addition, the
considerable volume of domestic wastewaters is
discharged directly into the lake from surrounding
areas and colonies located on the foreshore of the
lake.

SAMPLE COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

EPTRI has carried out the studies on Lake water and
sediment sampling procedures and analysis during
April 2005, under Study for Hussain Sagar Lake and
catchment Area Improvement Project sponsored
Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC). In
the paper the water and sediment quality is presented.
Five water and sediment samples of Hussain Sagar
Lake (HSL) were collected during April 2005
(Table-2).

Table 2: Sampling Locations in HSL

Site Description Site Code
1 Front of NTR ghat S1
2 Near Boat Club S2
3 Sanjeeviah Park S3
4 Near Rock garden S4
5 Near Budha statue S5



Table 3: Water Quality Data at different sites in Hussain Sagar Lake


Sl. No. Parameter Units S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 S-5
1 PH - 9.3 9.3 9.3 9.4 9.4
2 Electrical Conductivity mhos/cm 1500 1480 1470 1450 1500
3 COD mg/L 120 122 163 165 158
4 BOD mg/L 38.4 40.66 60.66 64 56.22
5 Nascent Oxygen mg/L 25.05 18.8 24.2 20.3 20.4
6 Total Phosphorus mg/L 15.2 5.31 8.00 8.59 9.06
7 Phosphates mg/L 5.17 4.66 5.34 4.9 4.59
8 Total Nitrogen mg/L 6.54 6.33 9 7.92 6.99
9 Nitrogen as NO
3
-
mg/L 3.02 2.44 2.72 2.36 2.34
10 Ammonical Nitrogen mg/L 0.76 0.95 0.57 0.76 0.95
11. Feacal Coliforms (MPN/100 ml) >1600 240 >1600 500 80
12. E.Coli - + + + + +

Sample collection, preservation, physico-
chemical and microbial analysis was carried out as
per standard methods (APHA, 1998 and US EPA
SW-846). Metals were determined for sediment
samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
(AAS 6501F).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Water Quality Analysis

The water quality data at five locations is shown in
Table 3. pH values are in the range between 9.3 to
9.4 in all the sites. EC ranges between 1450-1500
mhos/cm. COD is in the between 120-165 mg/L,
maximum value was observed in S-4 and minimum
value in S1. Total phosphorus values ranged between
4.66 to 5.34 mg/L, and total nitrogen values are in
between 6.33-9.0mg/l, maximum values are observed
in S-3 and minimum values in S-2 respectively.
Ammonical Nitrogen values are in the range between
0.57-0.95 mg/L, maximum value was found in sites
S2 and S5 and minimum value in S-3. Feacal
coliforms and E.coli were detected in all samples
indicating contamination of human sewage or animal
droppings. High Feacal Coliforms are observed at
Sites S-1 and S-3.
The deterioration of lake water quality could be
linked to nutrient loading from domestic sewage. The
raw sewage is the source of nitrates and phosphates
in the water (Aggarwal, Singh and Gupta, 2000).
Washing of clothes with detergents consisting largely
of phosphate also add up to the nutrient load.
Excessive loading of Nitrogen and Phosphorus into
the system may accelerate the rate of Eutrophication
resulting in high algal biomass, dominance by
cyanobacteria, and loss of macrophytes (Jana and
Das, 1995).
The enormous nutrient loads after entering the
lake water are being adsorbed by sediments in the
lake. The accumulated pollutants in the sediment
may risk the aquatic organisms and in turn show
effect on lake water quality.

Sediment Analysis

The sediment analysis data is shown in Table 4. pH
ranged between 7.8-8.1. Conductivity ranged
between 790-1210 mhos/cm. Total carbon values
ranged between 9.68-19.3 % Maximum value of EC
and Total carbon were observed in S-5 and minimum
values at S-1. Total phosphorus values ranged from
60-256 mg/kg and Organic phosphorus between 39-
177 mg/kg, maximum values were observed at S-4
and minimum values at S-1. Total Nitrogen ranged
from 2366 and 8371 mg/kg respectively, maximum
value at S-2 and minimum value at site S-4.
Cadmium ranged between 6.2- 169 mg/kg and lead
in-between 84-161 mg/kg, minimum values of Cd
and Pb were observed at S-1, while Cd maximum
value was observed at S-5 and maximum Pb value at
S-4. Mercury and Arsenic ranged in between 3.3-
13.6 mg/kg and 3.4 163 mg/kg respectively.
Maximum values were observed at S-5 and minimum
values at S-1. Total cyanide ranged in between 0.9-
2.7 mg/kg maximum values observed at S-4 and
minimum at S-2. Feacal coliforms and E.Coli were
detected at all the sampling points.
Sediment samples show very high
concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, leading
the lake into hyper Eutrophic status. The higher
metal concentrations are attributed to industrial
effluents and domestic discharges into the lake. High
mercury concentrations may be due to immersion of
idols (with lots of artificial paints) at the time of
Ganesh Festival.


305

Table 4: Sediment Quality Data at different sites in Hussain Sagar Lake

S.No. Parameter Units S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 S-5
1 PH - 8.1 7.8 8.1 8.0 7.9
2
Electrical
Conductivity mhos/cm 790 1170 814 840 1210
3 Total Carbon % 9.68 18.3 10.7 7.46 19.3
4 Total Phosphorus mg/kg 60 147 109 256 119
5 Organic Phosphorus mg/kg 39 109 74 177 72
6 Total Nitrogen mg/kg 5165 8371 3738 2366 5323
7
Chromium
(hexavalent)
mg/kg
BDL BDL BDL BDL BDL
8 Cadmium mg/kg 6.2 15.0 15.8 33.2 16.9
9 Lead mg/kg 84 140 107 161 112
10 Mercury mg/kg 3.3 8.3 5.7 9.2 13.6
11. Arsenic mg/kg 3.4 81.8 42.5 70.5 163
12. Total Cyanide mg/kg 1.1 0.9 1.5 2.7 1.1
13. Feacal Coliforms (MPN/g) 7.8 x 10
5
9.0 x 10
5
3.0 x 10
5

11.5 x
10
5
2.6 x 10
5

14. E.Coli - + + + + +



CONCLUSIONS

The higher values of physico-chemical analysis of
water and sediment analysis in Hussain Sagar lake
can be attributed to various activities taking place
near and in the lake, like discharge of untreated
domestic sewage and industrial effluents, washing
clothes, vehicles, animals and immersion of idols at
the time of Ganseh festival contributing to the
pollution of the lake. The present study reveals the
nutrient loading have exceeded the Eutrophic
condition and leading to a hyper-eutrophic status.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors wish to thank Director General , EPTRI,
Hyderabad for kind support and for according the
permission to present the findings in the conference.

REFERENCES

Aggarwal, T.R., Singh, K.N., and Gupta, A.K. 2000.
Impact of sewage containing domestic water
and heavy metals on the chemistry of Varuna
River water. Pollution Research, 19(3), 491-
494.
HMWSSB. 1992. Bioregeneration Strategy for
Rejuvenating Hussain Sagar Lake, Hyderabad-
A Project Report Prepared by HMWSSB For
ODA Assistance.
Jana, B.B., and Das, S.K. 1995. Phosphorus in
aquatic systems: An overview. In P.C.Mishra,
N. Behera, B.K.Senapati and B.C. Guru (EDS.),
Advances in ecology and environmental
sciences. New Delhi, India: Ashish Publishing
House.
Sefege Consulting Engineers. 1988. Hussain Sagar
Lake- A Rehabilitation Scheme for the Hussain
Sagar Lake of Hyderabad- Preliminary
Feasibility Study.
Standard Methods for Examination of water and
waster water, APHA, AWWA, WEF, 20
th

edition, 1998
Test Methods for evaluating solid waste, US-EPA ,
SW-846, 1996
Zafar A.R. Pykas. 1966. 5 (1&2), 115-126.


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