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ANALOG ELECTRONICS

COURSE OBJECTIVES: After taking this course, the student should be able to analyze, simulate, and design single and multistage amplifiers. Design of single, multistage, and op-amp amplifier are covered in detail including analysis of biasing techniques, frequency response compensation, feedback, stability, noise, and nonlinearity. An introduction to advanced analog techniques is presented including topics on PLL, VCO, data converters (ADC/DAC), mixer/multipliers, and switch capacitor circuits. SYLLABUS Introduction to Analog Design Notes Basic CMOS device physics, modeling, and technology Current mirror biasing Voltage and Current References Single stage amplifiers, active loads, differential amps Amplifier frequency response Op Amps: Single Ended, Fully Differential, CMFB Stability, Compensation, Slew Rate Feedback Analysis and Circuits Noise Advanced Analog Concepts UNIT 1: DIODE CIRCUITS (6 HOURS) Diode Resistance, Diode equivalent circuits, Transition and diffusion capacitance, Reverse recovery time, Load line analysis, Rectifiers, Clippers and clampers. UNIT 2: TRANSISTOR BIASING (7 HOURS) Operating point, Fixed bias circuits, Emitter stabilized biased circuits, Voltage divider biased, DC bias with voltage feedback, Miscellaneous bias configurations, Design operations, Transistor switching networks, PNP transistors, Bias stabilization. UNIT 3: TRANSISTOR AT LOW FREQUENCIES (7 HOURS) BJT transistor modeling, Hybrid equivalent model, CE Fixed bias configuration, Voltage divider bias, Emitter follower, CB configuration, Collector feedback configuration, Hybrid equivalent model. UNIT 4: TRANSISTOR FREQUENCY RESPONSE (6 HOURS) General frequency considerations, low frequency response, Miller effect capacitance, High frequency response, multistage frequency effects. UNIT 5: (A) GENERAL AMPLIFIERS (3 HOURS): Cascade connections, Cascode connections, Darlington connections. (B) FEEDBACK AMPLIFIER (3 HOURS): Feedback concept, Feedback connections type, Practical feedback circuits. UNIT 6: POWER AMPLIFIERS (7 HOURS) Definitions and amplifier types, series fed class A amplifier, Transformer coupled Class A amplifiers, Class B amplifier operations, Class B amplifier circuits, Amplifier distortions.

UNIT 7: OSCILLATORS (6 HOURS) Oscillator operation, Phase shift Oscillator, Wienbridge Oscillator, Tuned Oscillator circuits, Crystal Oscillator. UNIT 8: FET AMPLIFIERS (7 HOURS) FET small signal model, Biasing of FET, Common drain common gate configurations, MOSFETs, FET amplifier networks.

CIRCUIT I (ELECTRONICS CIRCUIT ANALYSIS & DESIGN)

SYLLABUS Diodes; Diode models; Diode applications Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) MOSFETs; MOSFET circuits Transistor applications; Multi-stage circuits BJT & MOSFET amplifiers; Hybrid- model Single-stage amplifiers; Multi-stage amplifiers Frequency response; Amplifier analysis and design SYLLABUS I. FEEDBACK AND STABILITY Introduction to Feedback, Basic Feedback Concepts, Ideal CloseLoop Gain, Gain Sensitivity Bandwidth Extension, Nose Sensitivity, Reduction of NonLinear Distortion, Ideal Feedback Topologies, SeriesShunt, ShuntSeries, SeriesSeries, ShuntShunt Configurations, Voltage (SeriesShunt) Amplifiers, Current (ShuntSeries) Amplifiers, TransConductance (Series Series) Amplifiers, TransResistance (ShuntShunt) Amplifiers, Loop Gain, Stability of Feedback Circuit, The Stability Problem, Bode Plots, OnePole, TwoPole and ThreePole Amplifiers, Nyquist Stability Criterion, Phase and Gain Margins, Frequency Compensation Basic Theory, Closed Loop Frequency Response, Miller Compensation. II. OUTPUT STAGE AND POWER AMPLIFIERS Power Amplifier, Power TransistorsPower B.J.TS Power MOSFETs, Heat Sinks, Design of Heatsinks, Classes of Amplifiers, ClassA Operation, ClassB Operation, Class AB Operation, Class C Operation, ClassA Power Amplifiers, Class AB Push Pull Complementary Output Stages., Power amplifier designing. III. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS Basics of operational amplifiers, open loop and closed loop response, Application of opamps (Nonlinear applications): viz, inverting and non inverting amplifiers, voltage follower, adder, substractor, differentiator and integrator, Comparators, clippers and clampers, Schmitt triggers, precision rectifiers, peak detectors, Log and Antilog amplifiers, gyrator, Current to voltage and voltage to current converters, Instrumentation and isolation amplifiers, transducer Bridge amplifiers. General opamp circuit design and detailed circuit description. IV. SINUSOIDAL OSCILLATORS USING OPAMPS Phase shift oscillators, Wein bridge oscillators, Tuned circuit oscillators, Colpitts oscillators and Hartely oscillators. V. VOLTAGE REFERENCES AND VOLTAGE REGULATORS

Basics and types of voltage regulators. Performance specifications, voltage references voltage reference applications, linear regulators and their applications, IC 78XX, 79XX, LM317, IC 723, switching regulators and monolithic switching regulators Switching mode power supply, DC to DC convertors. REFERENCES: Electronic Circuit Analysis and Design (Donald A. Neamen) Electronic Devices and circuits (R. Bolystead) OpAmps and linear integrated circuits (R. Gayakwad) Integrated Electronics (Millman Halkias) Opamps and linear integrated circuits, Theory and Applications (James Fiore)

BASIC ELECTRONICS
Unit-I: SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES AND APPLICATIONS (07 Hours) p-n junction diode, Characteristics and Parameters, Diode approximations, DC load line, Temperature dependence of p-n characteristics, AC equivalent circuits, Zener diodes Half-wave diode rectifier, Ripple factor, Full-wave diode rectifier, Other full-wave circuits, Shunt capacitor - Approximate analysis of capacitor filters, Power supply performance, Zener diode voltage regulators, Numerical examples as applicable (T12.1,2.2,2.3,2.4:2.5,2.6,2.9,R1- 20.1, 20.2, 20.3, 20.4, 20.8; T1- 3.5, 3.6). Unit-II: TRANSISTORS (06 Hours) Bipolar Junction transistor, Transistor Voltages and currents, amplification, Common Base, Common Emitter and Common Collector Characteristics, DC Load line and Bias Point. UNIT-III: BIASING METHODS (06 Hours) Base Bias, Collector to Base Bias, Voltage divider Bias, Comparison of basic bias circuits, Bias circuit design, Thermal Stability of Bias Circuits (Qualitative discussions only). UNIT IV: OTHER DEVICES (07 Hours) Silicon Controlled Rectifier (S.C.R), SCR Control Circuits, More S.C.R applications; Unijunction transistor, UJT applications, Junction Field effect Transistors(Exclude Fabrication and Packaging), JFET Characteristics, FET Amplifications, Numerical examples as applicable (T1 -19.1, 19.2, 19.3, 19.7, 9.1, 9.2, 9.4) UNIT V: AMPLIFIERS & OSCILLATORS (06 Hours) Decibels and Half power points, Single Stage CE Amplifier and Capacitor coupled two stage CE amplifier(Qualitative discussions only), Series voltage negative feedback and Additional effects of Negative feed back(Qualitative discussions only), The Barkhausen Criterion for Oscillations, BJT RC phase shift oscillator, Hartley ,Colpitts and crystal oscillator ( Qualitative discussions only) Numerical problems as applicable. UNIT VI: INTRODUCTION TO OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS (06 Hours) Ideal OPAMP, Saturable property of an OP AMP inverting and non inverting OPAMP circuits, need for OPAMP, Characteristics and applications - voltage follower, addition, subtraction, integration, differentiation; Numerical examples as applicable Cathode Ray Oscilloscope (CRO) UNIT VII: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS Block diagram, Modulation, Radio Systems, Superhetrodyne Receivers, Numerical examples as applicable (T2 13.1, 13.2, 13.4, 13.5)

NUMBER SYSTEMS (07 Hours) Introduction, decimal system, Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal number systems, addition and subtraction, fractional number, Binary Coded Decimal numbers. UNIT VIII: DIGITAL LOGIC (07 Hours) Boolean algebra, Logic gates, Half-adder, Full-adder, Parallel Binary adder.