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Advance Network Optimization Solution Findings NPO Refresher Course July, 1 st to 3 rd 2010
Advance Network Optimization
Solution Findings
NPO Refresher Course
July, 1 st to 3 rd 2010
Vodafone MS – RoB
Jignesh Parmar
jignesh.parmar@nsn.com
Nokia Siemens Networks
National NPO, Ahmedabad, India
NSN Internal Document
1 © Nokia Siemens Networks
Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1st to 3rd July 2010 @ VF RoB

Performance Optimization - Introduction

Typical performance problems which have to be improved

CS / PS Capacity problems

Indoor coverage problems

Downlink coverage problems Downlink interference problems Uplink Signaling (access) problems
Downlink coverage problems
Downlink interference problems
Uplink Signaling (access)
problems
interference problems Uplink Signaling (access) problems Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 st t o 3 rd

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Performance optimization - basic CS/PS flows

Paging

Optimization

Accessibility

SDCCH

Optimization

Accessibility

Signaling

TCH

Optimization

Retainability

Quality

Traffic / TSLs allocation

Data rates

CS – Basic Call Flow

PCH

AGCH

RACH

• Data rates CS – Basic Call Flow PCH AGCH RACH Get SDCCH Establish SDCCH connection

Get

SDCCH

rates CS – Basic Call Flow PCH AGCH RACH Get SDCCH Establish SDCCH connection Establish immediate
rates CS – Basic Call Flow PCH AGCH RACH Get SDCCH Establish SDCCH connection Establish immediate

Establish

SDCCH

connection

AGCH RACH Get SDCCH Establish SDCCH connection Establish immediate assignment PS – MO Uplink TBF

Establish

immediate

assignment

SDCCH connection Establish immediate assignment PS – MO Uplink TBF Ready Send State RACH Get
SDCCH connection Establish immediate assignment PS – MO Uplink TBF Ready Send State RACH Get

PS – MO Uplink TBF

Ready

Ready Send

Send

Ready Send

State

RACH

Get

TCH

– MO Uplink TBF Ready Send State RACH Get TCH Get PDCH phase Call phase Release
– MO Uplink TBF Ready Send State RACH Get TCH Get PDCH phase Call phase Release

Get

PDCH

TBF Ready Send State RACH Get TCH Get PDCH phase Call phase Release Establish TCH connection

phase

Call Ready Send State RACH Get TCH Get PDCH phase phase Release Establish TCH connection Requested

phase
phase

Release Send State RACH Get TCH Get PDCH phase Call phase Establish TCH connection Requested TSLs to

Establish

TCH

connection

PDCH phase Call phase Release Establish TCH connection Requested TSLs to Allocate Session TBF phase Release

Requested

TSLs to

Allocate

TCH connection Requested TSLs to Allocate Session TBF phase Release NSN Internal Document 3 © Nokia
TCH connection Requested TSLs to Allocate Session TBF phase Release NSN Internal Document 3 © Nokia

TCH connection Requested TSLs to Allocate Session TBF phase Release NSN Internal Document 3 © Nokia

Session

TCH connection Requested TSLs to Allocate Session TBF phase Release NSN Internal Document 3 © Nokia

TBF

connection Requested TSLs to Allocate Session TBF phase Release NSN Internal Document 3 © Nokia Siemens

phase
phase

Release

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Document 3 © Nokia Siemens Networks Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 st t o 3 rd July

Performance optimization

Performance optimization will include here:

CS

Accessibility

Signaling problems

Retainability

TCH Dropped calls

Quality

interference

Traffic

Traffic handling

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Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1

PS

MM and SM Signaling

GPRS Attach PDP Context activatios

RLC/MAC TSL data rate

TBF Failure

E2E Data Rate

Throughput

Multislot usage

Territory downgrades/upgrades PS Blocking

Mobility

Cell reselection

st to 3 rd

July 2010 @ VF RoB

Territory downgrades/upgrades • PS Blocking • Mobility • Cell reselection st t o 3 rd July

Performance optimization – Accessibility Signaling

CS
CS

If problems with RACH, AGCH, PCH capacity

Check if combined signaling is existing. If it is existing, it should be removed

is existing. If it is existing, it should be removed Here is combined sdcch in TSL0

Here is combined sdcch in TSL0

Should be

TSL0 = BCCH TSL1= SDCCH

Check if TRXSIG is big enough, default value for TRXSIG is 32k.If lots of SMS traffic + HR is used 64k should be used.

Check if there are any bad interference problems

Bad interference problem can cause lot of repetitions => more blocking

Check CCCH related parameters

Check if location areas are optimized

Sizes

Borders

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Performance optimization – Retainability TCH drop

CS
CS

Most Common TCH drop reasons can be seen here

Drop Reason

Drop Reason

Counter

Counter

Description

Description

TCH radio fail call

TCH radio fail call

c1013

c1013

Transactions ended due to radio failure.

Transactions ended due to radio failure.

TCH radio fail old

TCH radio fail old

c1014

c1014

Transactions ended due to old channel failure in HO.

Transactions ended due to old channel failure in HO.

TCH tc fail call

TCH tc fail call

c1029

c1029

Transaction failures due to transcoder failure.

Transaction failures due to transcoder failure.

TCH tc fail old

TCH tc fail old

c1030

c1030

Transaction failures due to transcoder failure on old channel during HO.

Transaction failures due to transcoder failure on old channel during HO.

Lapd fail

Lapd fail

c1046

c1046

Transaction failures due to Lapd problems.

Transaction failures due to Lapd problems.

BTS fail

BTS fail

c1047

c1047

Transaction failures due to BTS problems.

Transaction failures due to BTS problems.

user act

user act

c1048

c1048

Transaction failures due to user actions.

Transaction failures due to user actions.

BCSU reset

BCSU reset

c1049

c1049

Transaction failures due to BCSU reset.

Transaction failures due to BCSU reset.

cnfg act

cnfg act

c1050

c1050

Transaction failures due to radio network

Transaction failures due to radio network

Act fail call

Act fail call

c1081

c1081

Channel activation failures during call.

Channel activation failures during call.

Abis fail call

Abis fail call

c1084

c1084

Abis failures during call.

Abis failures during call.

Abis fail old

Abis fail old

c1085

c1085

Abis failures on old channel during TCH HO.

Abis failures on old channel during TCH HO.

A

A

if fail call

if fail call

c1087

c1087

A

A

if failures during call.

if failures during call.

A

A

if fail old

if fail old

c1088

c1088

A

A

if failures on old channel during TCH HO.

if failures on old channel during TCH HO.

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CS
CS

Performance optimization – Retainability TCH drop

TCH DROP Distribution

Retainability T C H d r o p TCH DROP Distribution Excersise What can be typical

Excersise

What can be typical reason for TCH radio drops?

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Performance optimization – Quality RX Quality – Level Distribution

CS
CS

NOTE! Same level – quality distribution for both UL and DL

HW Problem:

Bad Quality

for all Rx Levels

Rx Quality x Rx Level

Good Quality

Coverage Problem: Bad quality and Low Rx Level HW Problem All samples below - 100dBm
Coverage Problem:
Bad quality and
Low Rx Level
HW Problem
All samples below -
100dBm
CL10 <-100dBm
High Rv Level
Interference Problem:

NWD report 204 model

Bad quality and

High Rx Level

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Performance optimization – RX Quality - Level C S Here are some RX quality –

Performance optimization – RX Quality - Level CS

Here are some RX quality – level distribution examples

Like Normal distribution Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 CL10 10645 8516 6813
Like Normal distribution
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
CL10
10645
8516
6813
5450
4360
3488
2791
2232
CL15
47043
37634
30108
24086
9865
7543
5643
2345
CL20
56204
44963
35971
28776
6574
10324
345
65
CL30
200863
160690
128552
102842
17654
9876
145
28
CL40
12785
10228
8182
6546
456
112
24
23
CL63
4583
1123
583
452
261
76
26
2
HW problem, Q4 amount of samples is strange
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
CL10
5323 4258
3406
2725
2180
1744
1395
1116
CL15
23522 18817
15054
12043
18765
3772
2822
1173
CL20
1 22482
28102
17985
14388
36542
5162
173
33
CL30
67544
54035
43228
34582
150073
4938
73
14
CL40
6393
5114
4091
3273
9876
56
12
12
CL63
2292 562
292
226
6756
38
13
1
HW Problem, TRX/combiner etc is broken
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
CL10
200863
160690
128552
102842
17654
9876
7865
6543
CL15
16543 13234
10588
8470
6776
2822
1173
234
CL20
2654
2123
1699
1359
1087
173
33
65
CL30
4543
3634
2908
2326
1861
73
14
28
CL40
2 4091
5114
3273
2618
2095
12
12
23
CL63
24
54
8
87
7
0
0
0
HW Problem, TRX/combiner etc is broken Q0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 CL10
HW Problem, TRX/combiner etc is broken
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
CL10
5323
4258
3406
2725
2180
1744
4563
9765
CL15
11761
9409
7527
6022
9383
1886
65432
7675
CL20
3
14051
11241
8993
7194
18271
2581
65438
63562
CL30
33772
27017
21614
17291
75037
2469
18765
14523
CL40
3196
2557
2046
1636
4938
28
3659
2648
CL63
1146
281
146
113
3378
19
100
174
Interference problem
Q0
Q1
Q2
Q3
Q4
Q5
Q6
Q7
CL10
5323
4258
3406
2725
2180
1744
1395
1116
CL15
23522
13234
10588
8470
13234
10588
8470
6776
CL20
28102
2123
1699
1359
2123
1699
1359
1087
CL30
4
67544
3634
2908
2326
3634
2908
2326
1861
CL40
6393
4091
3273
2618
4091
3273
2618
4532
CL63
9987
7543
4323
3454
2275
1187
876
654
1. Lots of Q4 samples. Distribution is not OK HW problem. Site reset will help
1. Lots of Q4 samples. Distribution is not OK HW problem. Site reset will help
2. Lots of bad signal level samples. TRX/Combiner is broken. If no HW problem
Site is totally in wrong place, site is like transferring traffic to another cell ( cause
level HO). Typically a HW problem
3. Lots of Q6 and Q7 samples. Distribution is not OK, no Q5 samples HW
problems. Site reset or broken TRX
4.
Typical normal interference problem., lots of q4…q7 samples in good signal level
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Performance optimization – Interference, UL

CS
CS
q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 -100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488
q0
q1
q2
q3
q4
q5
q6
q7
-100dBm
10645
8516
6813
5450
4360
3488
2791
2232
-95dBm
47043
37634
30108
24086
9865
7543
5643
2345
-90dBm
56204
44963
35971
28776
16574
5676
845
65
-80dBm
200863
160690
128552
102842
17654
3653
145
28
-70dBm
1234
987
790
632
505
404
323
259
-47dBm
24
19
15
12
10
8
6
5
q0
q1
q2
q3
q4
q5
q6
q7
-100dBm
10645
8516
6813
5450
4360
3488
2791
2232
-95dBm
47043
37634
30108
24086
9865
7543
5643
2345
-90dBm
56204
44963
35971
28776
16574
5676
845
65
-80dBm
200863
160690
128552
102842
17654
3653
145
28
-70dBm
1234
987
790
632
505
404
323
259
-47dBm
24
19
15
12
10
8
6
5
q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 -100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488
q0
q1
q2
q3
q4
q5
q6
q7
-100dBm
10645
8516
6813
5450
4360
3488
2791
2232
-95dBm
47043
37634
30108
24086
9865
7543
5643
2345
-90dBm
56204
44963
35971
28776
16574
5676
845
65
-80dBm
200863
160690
128552
102842
17654
3653
145
28
-70dBm
1234
987
790
632
505
404
323
259
-47dBm
24
19
15
12
10
8
6
5
MS power control can be seen here. If Power is reduced → no bad UL
MS power control can be seen here.
If Power is reduced → no bad UL
problems. BSC border is increasing
good level samples
Bad interference problems. By POC parameter interference can be decreased, how power is adjusted etc.
Bad interference problems. By POC
parameter interference can be
decreased, how power is adjusted
etc. Also optimum MS power feature
improves UL interference, no full
power is sent after HO.
Bad quality sample due to signal level problems. Diversity should be checked, also possibilities to
Bad quality sample due to signal
level problems. Diversity should be
checked, also possibilities to use
LNA to improve UL signal level.
Antenna place should be also
checked if there are some obstacles
near the antenna.

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Performance optimization – Interference

UL examples

CS
CS
UL_q0 UL_q1 UL_q2 UL_q3 UL_q4 UL_q5 UL_q6 UL_q7 -100dBm 490 137 368 605 1014 1378
UL_q0
UL_q1
UL_q2
UL_q3
UL_q4
UL_q5
UL_q6
UL_q7
-100dBm
490
137
368
605
1014
1378
1830
2586
-95dBm
8410
3768
3225
3023
2767
2304
1561
1859
-90dBm
38512
5249
3066
2323
1692
1570
1191
1268
-80dBm
219137
4600
2453
2311
1470
1724
1864
1221
-70dBm
509591
2504
1812
3050
1271
1465
1649
337
-47dBm
244302
582
711
1363
1713
873
671
87
Some UL interference in good signal level. UL power control is not working properly. Ul
Some UL interference in good signal
level. UL power control is not
working properly. Ul power control is
good indicator, if power is adjusted,
there are no big problems in UL
direction
UL_q0 UL_q1 UL_q2 UL_q3 UL_q4 UL_q5 UL_q6 UL_q7 -100dBm 70004 5020 3500 2564 2232 1946
UL_q0
UL_q1
UL_q2
UL_q3
UL_q4
UL_q5
UL_q6
UL_q7
-100dBm
70004
5020
3500
2564
2232
1946
2190
2579
-95dBm
80339
392
286
461
328
250
275
92
-90dBm
106883
233
318
602
199
146
234
64
-80dBm
246892
227
314
860
298
338
395
60
-70dBm
254875
155
298
935
203
135
166
15
-47dBm
23288
21
27
103
109
11
41
0
There is no UL interference, or just a little. MS is adjusting power properly, there
There is no UL interference, or just a
little. MS is adjusting power properly,
there are only little samples in good
UL signal level.
UL_q0 UL_q1 UL_q2 UL_q3 UL_q4 UL_q5 UL_q6 UL_q7 DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6
UL_q0
UL_q1
UL_q2
UL_q3
UL_q4
UL_q5
UL_q6
UL_q7
DL_q0
DL_q1
DL_q2
DL_q3
DL_q4
DL_q5
DL_q6
DL_q7
-100dBm
251992
30668
20552
18417
18156
18286
16983
12478
27862
5537
5529
6069
6109
6107
5389
4119
-95dBm
123653
1151
403
692
519
351
221
72
89094
4236
3853
3576
2893
2264
1372
584
-90dBm
62938
247
144
288
353
129
62
29
142228
2732
2550
2356
1510
1114
774
404
-80dBm
27005
51
65
149
177
82
40
16
222462
1523
1355
1552
716
812
1081
343
-70dBm
2831
3
9
28
87
10
6
0
44504
91
123
151
81
101
191
88
-47dBm
751
0
4
10
25
1
0
0
5994
49
17
17
12
29
65
10
Huge amount of UL bad samples. Cells is not working properly, it is like transferring traffic, UL quality/ UL level HO’s are
triggering immediately. These kind of cells must be investigated.
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Performance optimization – Interference, DL

CS
CS
q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 -100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488
q0
q1
q2
q3
q4
q5
q6
q7
-100dBm
10645
8516
6813
5450
4360
3488
2791
2232
-95dBm
47043
37634
30108
24086
9865
7543
5643
2345
-90dBm
56204
44963
35971
28776
16574
5676
845
65
-80dBm
200863
160690
128552
102842
17654
3653
145
28
-70dBm
12785
10228
8182
6546
456
112
24
23
-47dBm
4583
1123
583
452
261
76
26
2
 

q0

q1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

q7

-100dBm

10645

8516

6813

5450

4360

3488

2791

2232

-95dBm

47043

37634

30108

24086

9865

7543

5643

2345

-90dBm

56204

44963

35971

28776

16574

5676

845

65

-80dBm

200863

160690

128552

102842

17654 3653 145 28 456 112 24 23 261 76 26 2
17654
3653
145
28
456
112
24
23
261
76
26
2

-70dBm

12785

10228

8182

6546

-47dBm

4583

1123

583

452

 

q0

q1

q2

q3

q4

q5

q6

q7

-100dBm

10645

8516

6813

5450

4360

3488

2791

2232

-95dBm

47043

37634

30108

24086

9865 7543 5643 2345 16574 5676 845 65 17654 3653 145 28 456 112 24
9865
7543
5643
2345
16574
5676
845
65
17654
3653
145
28
456
112
24
23

-90dBm

56204

44963

35971

28776

-80dBm

200863

160690

128552

102842

-70dBm

12785

10228

8182

6546

-47dBm

4583

1123

583

452

261

76

26

2

Really bad interference problem → signal level is really good (<-70dBm) and usually no better
Really bad interference problem → signal level is really
good (<-70dBm) and usually no better cell available → no
HO → samples can be seen in the table. Interference is
causing drops.
Bad interference problem → signal level good (<-80dBm) and sometimes no better cell available. If
Bad interference problem → signal level good (<-80dBm)
and sometimes no better cell available. If better cell
available and quality samples are 4 or worse → HO (reason
quality or interference, depends on the parameter)
Interference is causing drops.
Situation is “network is working properly” If there are quality 4 or worse samples →
Situation is “network is working properly” If there are quality
4 or worse samples → quality HO. Most of the samples are
q4 samples. If lots of q5
q7
samples → interference
problem and interference must be analyzed / removed. If
quality HOs but no q5
q7
samples → better cell is available
→ no interference problems. In these signal levels
overlapping exists and if handover reason is no PBGT, it will
be quality HO. By parameter amount of quality HOs can be
adjusted
q0 q1 q2 q3 q4 q5 q6 q7 -100dBm 10645 8516 6813 5450 4360 3488
q0
q1
q2
q3
q4
q5
q6
q7
-100dBm
10645
8516
6813
5450
4360
3488
2791
2232
-95dBm
47043
37634
30108
24086
9865
7543
5643
2345
-90dBm
56204
44963
35971
28776
16574
5676
845
65
-80dBm
200863
160690
128552
102842
17654
3653
145
28
-70dBm
12785
10228
8182
6546
456
112
24
23
-47dBm
4583
1123
583
452
261
76
26
2
Bad quality samples due to signal level problems. If PBGT overlapping is not existing →
Bad quality samples due to signal level problems. If PBGT
overlapping is not existing → lots of quality HOs + level
HOs (margin are lower than in PBGT).
Not interference problem, more coverage problem.

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Check how much samples vs. HOs are better cells available or not.

samples vs. HOs → are better cells available or not. Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 s t

Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 st to 3 rd July 2010 @ VF RoB

CS
CS

Performance optimization – Interference

DL, examples DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7 -100dBm 12057 2827 3108 3952
DL, examples
DL_q0
DL_q1
DL_q2
DL_q3
DL_q4
DL_q5
DL_q6
DL_q7
-100dBm
12057
2827
3108
3952
4783
6200
7013
8156
-95dBm
44818
4811
5041
5866
6587
7223
7259
6781
-90dBm
98587
7107
7400
8334
8470
8781
7825
6162
-80dBm
225919
7450
7731
8445
7726
7441
5695
3369
-70dBm
88708
1014
971
998
751
688
689
367
-47dBm
15881
84
109
122
104
167
199
184
There are almost as much samples Q5 and Q7 samples as Q 4 samples →
There are almost as much samples Q5 and Q7 samples as
Q 4 samples → even interference is really bad or there is
no better cell available ( no ho’s after bad quality samples).
These kind of interference cells should be optimized,
otherwise there are lots of drops etc
DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7 -100dBm 8006 1636 1681 2197 2379 2510
DL_q0
DL_q1
DL_q2
DL_q3
DL_q4
DL_q5
DL_q6
DL_q7
-100dBm
8006
1636
1681
2197
2379
2510
2025
1290
-95dBm
24951
1636
1627
1767
1037
431
175
53
-90dBm
57559
2171
1884
1651
781
330
161
47
-80dBm
200602
5771
4686
4130
1736
566
254
97
-70dBm
304206
5464
4310
3796
1315
350
153
105
-47dBm
108047
2134
1908
1623
689
230
129
64
There are no as much Q5…Q7 samples as Q4 samples → after interference samples Quality
There are no as much Q5…Q7 samples as Q4 samples →
after interference samples Quality HO is done or the
interference situation is not so bad, for example sampling is
Q0,Q2,Q4,Q2,Q5,Q0,Q2,Q3,Q4,Q2 → quality HO is not
triggering
DL_q0 DL_q1 DL_q2 DL_q3 DL_q4 DL_q5 DL_q6 DL_q7 -100dBm 7055 1398 1374 1906 2163 2003
DL_q0
DL_q1
DL_q2
DL_q3
DL_q4
DL_q5
DL_q6
DL_q7
-100dBm
7055
1398
1374
1906
2163
2003
1468
832
-95dBm
20109
1307
1274
1161
694
332
211
84
-90dBm
34531
1053
745
587
273
131
94
41
-80dBm
107539
875
518
630
161
98
113
47
-70dBm
177614
283
316
663
61
32
29
9
-47dBm
58718
78
91
198
54
40
54
32
There are bad quality samples only due to signal level problems.
There are bad quality samples only due to signal level
problems.

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Performance optimization, Interference

(internal / external) Internal Interference

CS
CS
– Interference can be seen from stats or can be measured by scanner. – Neighbor
– Interference can be seen from stats or can be measured by scanner.
– Neighbor cells (DL) or mobiles (UL) are causing interference.
– By frequency / network planning interference can be decreased.

External Interference

Interference can be seen from stats or can be measured by scanner. External radio frequencies
Interference can be seen from stats or can be measured by scanner.
External radio frequencies are causing interference
Military use
In the border area, interference is coming from other country.
Some external wireless system (for example some wireless industry system)
is causing interference
Increased I level can be also due to external interference

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Performance optimization – Traffic Traffic handling

CS
CS
How to balance traffic between other cells in same site? •HO parameters Blocking in cellA
How to balance traffic
between other cells in same
site?
•HO parameters
Blocking in cellA
cellA
– PBGT
– Quality /interference margins
– Level margins
•HO Features
Traffic will be
pushed to neighbor
cells
cellB
– Umbrella
– Traffic reason HO
– DR
•Traffic layers
cellC
– 1800 (dual band)
– CBCCH
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Performance optimization – Traffic Traffic handling

CS
CS
How to balance traffic between other sites? cellA • HO parameters Some blocking in cellA
How to balance traffic
between other sites?
cellA
• HO parameters
Some blocking in cellA
– PBGT
– Quality /interference margins
– Level margins
Traffic will be pushed
To neighbor cells
• HO Features
– Umbrella
– Traffic reason HO
– DR
cellB
cellC
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Performance optimization – PS

Before PS Optimization basic GSM optimization should be done

1. As high signal level as possible

It means that even the indoor signal level should be high enough to have MCS9 for getting the highest data rate on RLC/MAC layer.

2. As low interference as possible

The aim of having high C/I is to avoid throughput reduction based on interference.

3. Enough capacity

Enough BSS hardware capacity (interface and connectivity) is needed to provide the required capacity for PSW services in time. Both CSW and PSW traffic management should be harmonized with the layer structure and long term plans.

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Performance optimization – GPRS Attach

Typical failures outside BSS

User subscription

PS
PS

non-GPRS users and users from other operators with no roaming agreement

Protocol error

Mainly caused by MS not responding during attach, some possible reasons:

Radio contact lost MS out of coverage

Collision of signaling message – MS sends Attach Request or Detach Request when the previous Attach Request is still in process

Typical recommendations:

PS Core settings

Further RF optimization

GPRS detach feature

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PS
PS

Performance optimization – PDP Context Activation

Typical failures:

PS Core

Subscribers use incorrect APN during PDP Context Activation Request

Subscribers/MS keep reattempt with the incorrect APN can badly affect overall PDP Activation Success Rate

APN of other operators often seen, could because of subscribers using the same MS with different SIM

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Performance optimization – TBF Failure

PS
PS

Typical reasons for TBF failures Radio reasons

Bad coverage

Interference problems

Blocking

Parameter discrepancies

TBF Failures

MCA parameters

POC

GPRS_POC

IFP, TFP

SGSN problems

Establishment Establishment No No CSW CSW Flush Flush Suspend Suspend Failures Failures Response Response
Establishment
Establishment
No
No
CSW
CSW
Flush
Flush
Suspend
Suspend
Failures
Failures
Response
Response
Traffic
Traffic
Normally
Normally
TBF
TBF
Ended
Ended
Attempts
Attempts
TBFs
TBFs

Gb, Gn traces will be needed

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Performance optimization – Throughput

PS
PS

Radio reasons, throughput / timeslot is bad

Bad coverage

Interference problems Decreased coding scheme => less throughput even many timeslots used

TSL allocation problems, total throughput is bad

Check territory usage

Check downgrades due to CSW traffic and PSW rejects

Add more dedicated timeslots for data if possible

Check TBF sharing

If lots of TBF/ TSL => check that CDED parameter <>0

Too much sharing => territory not big enough. If possible, add more dedicated timeslots

Transmission problems

EDAP congestion

Gg congestion

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Performance optimization – Multislot Usage

PS
PS

Territory downgrade and upgrade

Territory downgrade due to CSW traffic rise (c1179)

CS traffic handling

Territory downgrade due to less PSW traffic(c1181)

Territory optimization, territory is perhaps not big enough

CS Traffic handling

Territory upgrade request rejection beyond default territory Upgrade request beyond Default territory for additional resources (c1174), which can be rejected because of:

1. No (E)GPRS capable resource left (No (E)GPRS enable TRX or the maximum (E)GPRS capacity reached)

Default territory Default territory 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5
Default territory
Default territory
0 0
1 1
2 2
3 3
4 4
5 5
6 6
7 7
1174 1174
1179 1179
1181 1181
1180 1180
4 5 5 6 6 7 7 1174 1174 1179 1179 1181 1181 1180 1180 2.

2. PCU and EDAP capacity limitation (256 Abis TSL per PCU)

3. High CSW load

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Performance optimization – PS Blocking

PS
PS

Hard blocking – no resources available

More TSLs for data must be available

Check unavailability in the cell More dedicated timeslots for data Amount of CS traffic must be reduced (traffic handling with features)

RF optimization => better throughput => less blocking

Sof blocking – TSL allocation problems

Check parameters

Territory parameters, CDED, CDEF

Check also also (E)GPRS parameters Check also timers

Too much delays => more blocking

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Performance optimization – Cell Reselection

Typical main causes:

Bad overshooting

Dominance areas are not clear

Too much cell reselections

Link balance problems

UL / DL

PS
PS

Cell reselection parameters are not properly planned

Check C1,C2, NCCR parameters

Check IFP, TFP parameters

BSC / PCU area optimization is not properly done

Delays will be increased if areas are not properly planned

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization NSN Internal Document 25 © Nokia Siemens Networks Advance Network
Traffic and Capacity Optimization
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Traffic and Capacity Optimization GSM Architecture

Traffic and Capacity Optimization levels

Ater, Transcoder (TC), A-interface

BSC level

Site level

TRX level

• Timeslot level • Signaling TC TC MSC A Ater Air interface BTS BSC BSC
Timeslot level
Signaling
TC
TC
MSC
A
Ater
Air
interface
BTS
BSC
BSC
BSC
2G
2G
2G
Abis
Gb
SGSN
SGSN
SGSN
BC SU
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Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Introduction

Ater, TC, A

Capacity and pools

BSC

BSC Type, BSC load, Gb links

BCSU, capacity

EDAP/PCU Type, Load

Site

Antennas, BTS HW/SW BTS configuration, Dual band, CBCCH, SDCCH traffic etc

TRX

Where capacity will be needed

Timeslot

FR/HR, AMR FR/HR, territory, CMAX, SDCCH traffic

Signaling

CCCH, TRXSIG, SS7 links

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Ater, TC, A

Abis

interfaces

Ater Interface

All traffic from BSC must be transferred to transcoders. Number of E1’s in Ater / Asub interface is depending on:

TCH Traffic from all abis IF’s

CCS7 traffics

O&M links

Utilization rate

1 PCM timeslot in Ater/Asub interface:

64Kbit/s

1 PCM timeslot in Abis interface :

FR= 16 kbit/s

HR = 8 kbit/s => 4 or 8 PCM timeslots in abis = 1 PCM timeslot in Ater

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Ater, TC, A

Traffic and Capacity Optimization Ater, TC, A Required transcoding (TC) capacity is derived from • Total
Traffic and Capacity Optimization Ater, TC, A Required transcoding (TC) capacity is derived from • Total

Required transcoding (TC) capacity is derived from

Total number of required Ater Channels.

Number of Ater channels is based on total Erlangs in BSC and blocking in A-interface

Configuration options for TCSM3i for standalone installations can be seen below

TCSM3i units (capacity step)

ETSI channels

ANSI channels

ET 16

ET 16

TR3E

(16 E1

(16 E1

PCMs)-1

PCMs)

BSC

several

BSCs

1

960

760

3

3

8

2

1920

1520

5

6

16

3

2880

2280

8

9

24

4

3840

3040

10

12

32

5

4800

3800

13

15

40

6

5760

4560

15

18

48

7

6720

5320

18

21

56

8

7680

6080

20

24

64

9

8640

6840

23

27

72

10

9600

7600

25

30

80

11

10560

8360

28

33

88

12

11520

9120

30

36

96

© Nokia Siemens Networks

Note. In some solution Transcoder can be implemented to Media Gateway MGW

solution Transcoder can be implemented to Media Gateway MGW NSN Internal Document 29 Advance Network

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization

Ater, TC, A

A Interface

Number of required A- Interface PCMs is derived from total number of required Ater Channels. 4:1 multiplexing

For Example

Total Erlangs in BSC = 3920 Erl

Blocking in A-interface =0.1% ErlangB table(3920,0.1QoS ) 4042 Ater Channels

1 : 120 4:1
1 : 120
4:1

ETSI Channels

Ater interface PCMs

A interface PCMs (4:1)

960

8

32

1920

16

64

2880

24

96

3840

32

128

4800

40

160

5760

48

192

6720

56

224

7680

64

256

8640

72

288

9600

80

320

10560

88

352

11520

96

384

Ater Interface PCMs A interface PCMs(1:4)

= 4042(ETSI) / 120 = 34 = 34*4 = 136

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization BSC

Example of BSC capacity evolution

Static limits

BSC2i

BSC3i 660

BSC3i 1000/2000

BSC3i 3000

     

1 cab

2 cab

 

#

TRX

512

660

1000

2000

3000

#BTS

512

660

1000

2000

3000

#BCF

248

504

1000

2000

3000

#BSCU

6

6

5

10

6

#SS7L

16

16

16

16

16

#LAPD

992

1236

2240

4480

5760

# (logical) PCU

16

24

50

100

30

# abis 16k chann

4096

6144

12800

25600

30720

#E1/T1 lines

144

256

384

800

800

Erlangs

3040

3920

5940

11880

17820

How Erlangs are calculated?

This depends on used traffic profile

Different traffic profile => different results

Example, How to calculate BH call attempts

= (Total_Erl x 3600s) / mean_holding_time(s)

Traffic Profile example

Mean holding time

120s

Mobile originated calls (MO)

70%

Mobile terminated calls (MT)

30%

Handovers per call

1.5

Location updated per call

2

IMSI detach per call

0.1

Paging response

63%

SMS (req(subs/1 hour)

1

Terminated SMS 80%

80%

QoS

2%

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization BSC - Example of Utilization

BSC Utilization • TRX Usage • TCH Usage
BSC Utilization
• TRX Usage
• TCH Usage

ActualActual TRXTRX utilizationutilization

ActualActual TCHTCH UtilizationUtilization

utilization Actual Actual TCH TCH Utilization Utilization If If utilization utilization values values are are too
utilization Actual Actual TCH TCH Utilization Utilization If If utilization utilization values values are are too

IfIf utilizationutilization valuesvalues areare tootoo highhigh

=>=> BCSBCS CapacityCapacity optimizationoptimization willwill bebe neededneeded

Utilization analysis can be used for long term BSC optimization Capacity management vs. configuration optimization

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization

BSC - EDAP / PCU / Gb

EDAP capacity can be optimized based on KPI values

DL / UL MCS selection limited by EDAP (dap_7a, dap_8c)

DL / UL MCS selection limited by PCU (dap_9, dap_10)

Peak DL EDAP usage (c76004)

Peak UL EDAP usage (c76005)

Territory upgrade rejection due to lack of PCU capacity (blck_32)

Not too much capacity nor too less capacity

EDAP / PCU performance can be decreased due to Gb link size

UL/ DL Gb load: frl_7a/ frl_8a

This should be checked always with EDAP / PCU optimization

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization

BSC - EDAP / PCU EDAP blocking

If EDAP utilization is below 100 => increasing EDAP does not provide any help => PCU optimization needed

As a rule of thumb the following estimation may be used to calculate number of E1’s.

 

Nbr of TRX

Amount of E1s

12

TRX GSM / GPRS

 

9 TRX GSM / EGPRS

1

E1

6 TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS

 

18

TRX GSM / GPRS

 

15

TRX GSM / EGPRS

1.5 E1

12

TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS

24

TRX GSM / GPRS

 

21

TRX GSM / EGPRS

2

E1

18

TRX GSM / Heavy EGPRS

 

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Note!

Can be used also T1s E1:32 channel T1:24 channel

Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 st t o 3 rd July 2010 @ VF RoB Note! Can be used

Traffic and Capacity Optimization

BSC - Gb Gb utilization

If values near thresholds, it is recommended to increase Gb link size OR Implement Gb over IP

Maximum received load % ( DL)

Gb bandwidth

Restricting Gb link utilisation [%]

[kbps]

128

25

256

61

384

68

512

68

640

70

768

75

896

85

1024

90

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization Site - Indoor solution

Indoor solutions

Before

After

4 TRX, 20Erl
4 TRX, 20Erl
2 TRX, 5Erl
2 TRX, 5Erl

Indoor Site 4TRX, 15Erl

Note! Indoor solution is collecting traffic inside (heavy traffic) office => Less frequencies is needed outside the building

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization Site - Dual Band Network

Before

GSM 900 layer (4TRX:24Erl (Bad blocking),

Network Before GSM 900 layer (4TRX:24Erl (Bad blocking), GSM 900 layer (2TRX:2Erl) Actions: • 1800 layer

GSM 900 layer (2TRX:2Erl)

Actions: • 1800 layer was added • From 900 layer traffic to 1800 layer •
Actions:
• 1800 layer was added
• From 900 layer traffic to 1800 layer
• 3 TRX was removed from 900 layers
• Total traffic was increased

After

GSM 900 layer (2TRX:7Erl (no blocking) GSM 1800 layer (4TRX:21Erl)

GSM 900 layer (1TRX:1,5Erl

GSM 1800 layer (4TRX:21Erl) GSM 900 layer (1TRX:1,5Erl Note! Dual band layers can be also GSM

Note! Dual band layers can be also GSM 900 and WCDMA

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization Site – Traffic layers

Traffic layers

3G Layers

Site – Traffic layers Traffic layers 3G Layers • 2100 Macro • 2100 Micro • 2100

2100 Macro

2100 Micro

2100 Indoor

3G Layers • 2100 Macro • 2100 Micro • 2100 Indoor Note! Traffic between layers can

Note! Traffic between layers can be handled by parameters

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2G Layers

900 Macro

1800 Macro

900/1800 Micro

900/1800 Indoor

1 st t o 3 rd July 2010 @ VF RoB 2G Layers • 900 Macro

Traffic and Capacity Optimization TRX – capacity where it is needed

Site configuration 2+2+2 in all sites

Bad Blocking area 8Erl 3Erl • More capacity is needed 5Erl 9Erl 2Erl 1Erl 4Erl
Bad Blocking area
8Erl
3Erl
• More capacity is needed
5Erl
9Erl
2Erl
1Erl
4Erl
5Erl
5Erl
6Erl
1Erl
4Erl
1Erl
Extra capacity
4Erl
3Erl
• 2 trx / cell is too much
•=> TRX can be transferred
to the cells where these are
more needed
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Traffic and Capacity Optimization Timeslot – AMR FR/HR

Half rate (HR) is recommended to use when:

More capacity will be needed but additional TRXs can not be added

Interference problems, Frequency reuse

HW limitations

Temporary needs for additional capacity

Special events

Due to daily traffic profile, additional capacity will be needed just for short time

Big cruise is passing by, tens of calls during short time

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Traffic and Capacity Optimization Timeslot – AMR FR/HR

Channel Mode Adaptation is an HO algorithm that aims at select the correct channel rate (FR or HR).

The selection of the channel rate depends on 2 main factors: load and quality

AMRAMR FRFR

AMRAMR FRFR

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CodecCodec GoodGood loadload QualityQuality packingpacking AMRAMR HRHR unpackingunpacking AMRAMR HRHR BadBad
CodecCodec
GoodGood
loadload
QualityQuality
packingpacking
AMRAMR HRHR
unpackingunpacking
AMRAMR HRHR
BadBad
QualityQuality
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Traffic and Capacity Optimization Timeslot – FR/HR & PS territory

Strategy – which timeslots for data and which for speech?

BFG –parameter

Whether the BCCH TRX or other TRXs are preferred in GPRS channel allocation .

FRL –parameter

With this parameter the percentage of full rate TCH resources that must be available for traffic channel allocation is defined.

FRU –parameter

With this parameter the percentage of full rate TCH resources that must be available for traffic channel allocation is defined.

Note! Territory and dual rate in same TRX(HR just after territory) => not good, should be changed

TRX1

tsl0

tsl1

tsl2

tsl3

tsl4

tsl5

tsl6

tsl7

bcch

sdcch

           

tsl0

tsl1

tsl2

tsl3

tsl4

tsl5

tsl6

tsl7

TRX2 NSN Internal Document 42 © Nokia Siemens Networks Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 st to
TRX2
NSN Internal Document
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st
to 3
rd
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How to allocate CS and PS channels?

Networks Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 st to 3 rd July 2010 @ VF RoB How to

Traffic and Capacity Optimization –

AMR and PS interworking, CS TCH Allocation Calculation CS TCH allocation calculation (CTC)

Defines how the GPRS territory is seen when calculating FR resources.

x

x

x

x

x

EGPRS

               

used/default

MBCCHC

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

CDEF

5 CS calls

CTC 0

CTC1

CTC2

     
 

Free FR TCH resources

1

1

2

Territory downgrade due to CS traffic

Working FR TCH resources 6

 

7

7

% of free FR resources HR Preferred?

16.7%

14.3%

28.6%

   

N

Y

N

 

x

x

x

x

x

x

EGPRS

             

downgrad

 

downgraded

MBCCHC

 

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

TCHD

   

TCHD

 

ed

6 CS calls

 

Free FR TCH resources Working FR TCH resources % of free FR resources HR Preferred?

1

1

1

7

7

7

14.3%

14.3%

14.3%

 

Y

Y

Y

NSN Internal Document

 

43 © Nokia Siemens Networks

 

Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1

st

to 3

rd

July 2010 @ VF RoB

 

CTC Value

0 = Only CSW used RTSLs are used to calculate resources

1 = CSW and PSW used

RTSLs are used. PSW used RTSLs are seen as occupied

resource when calculating PSW RTSLs

2 = CSW used and PSW

used RTSLs are used. PSW used RTSLs are seen as idle resource when calculating resources

FRL = relative amounts of free FR TCH resources in proportion to working FR TCH resources

FRL = 15% in this example

FRL = relative amounts of free FR TCH resources in proportion to working FR TCH resources

Traffic and Capacity Optimization Timeslot – AMR FR/HR

HR will be allocated when there are few free FR TCHs available.

The purpose is to avoid congestion / blocking

HR => FR when there are again enough free FR TCHs

Thresholds are set by parameters (FRL, FRU)

Free FR TCHs Free FR TCHs Upper limit for free FR TCHs Upper limit for
Free FR TCHs
Free FR TCHs
Upper limit for free FR TCHs
Upper limit for free FR TCHs
Lower limit for free FR TCHs
Lower limit for free FR TCHs
Time
Time
No packing of
No packing of
Packing of
Packing of
No packing of
No packing of
FR calls
FR calls
FR calls
FR calls
FR calls
FR calls
NSN Internal Document
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Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1
st
to 3
rd
July 2010 @ VF RoB

Traffic and Capacity Optimization signaling -paging

Paging

TRXSIG can be dimensioning based on following table:

After implementation paging capacity KPIs and occurrence of LAPD overload must be checked

TRXSIG

Comments

16k

Can be used if 32k is not possible to use

32k

Default value. Must be used if HR is used or high

64 k

Must be used if HR is used and high SMS traffic

Note! If the cell is part of the large location area, high paging load is expected. Thus small signaling links (16kbps) shall be avoided.

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Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1

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July 2010 @ VF RoB

Document 45 © Nokia Siemens Networks Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 st t o 3 rd July

Traffic and Capacity Optimization signaling -sdcch

Capacity of SDCCH in the cell is depending on the amount of TRX’s in the cell Capacity of SDCCH in the cell is also depending heavily on Traffic profile, for example amount of SMS’s

Number of TRX in the cell

   

SDCCH Traffic (Erl)

 

Number of SDCCH in the cell

Erl

mErl/subs subs

1 sms/subs/hour 5 sms/subs/hour 10 sms/subs/hour

1 sms/subs/hour 5 sms/subs/hour 10 sms/subs/hour

1

2.2

25

88

0.4

0.8

1.3

1

1

1

2

8.2

25

328

1.6

3.1

4.9

1

2

2

3

14.9

25

596

3.0

5.6

8.9

1

2

3

4

21

25

840

4.2

7.9

12.6

2

2

3

5

27

25

1080

5.4

10.2

16.2

2

3

4

SDCCH blocking KPIs should be monitored & avoided

And reason for blocking, SMS, LU, paging etc should be known.

Note! Exceptions are cells that cover ports of entry, such as airports, where a large number of subscriber location updates are expected

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Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1

st to 3 rd

July 2010 @ VF RoB

Document 46 © Nokia Siemens Networks Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1 st t o 3 rd July

Traffic and Capacity Optimization signaling - sdcch

Increased Dynamic SDCCH

SDCCH resources are used for call establishment, location updates and short messages (SMS)

Dynamic SDCCH allocation feature configures additional SDCCH resources according to the traffic situation in a cell

When a BTS needs temporarily larger SDCCH capacity, then idle TCH resources are configured for the SDCCH use

When the congestion situation is over extra SDCCH resources are configured immediately back to TCH resources

By using Increased Dynamic SDCCH Capacity, you can use up to 32 SDCCHs per non-BCCH TRX and 24 per BCCH TRX

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Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1

BCCH

SDCCH/8

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

 
 

BCCH

 

SDCCH/8 SDCCH/8

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

TCH

• In case of S DC C H congestion, one free traffic channel can be
• In case of S DC C H congestion, one
free traffic channel can be
changed dynamically to S DC C H/8
• When S DC C H/8 is no longer
needed it is changed dynamically
back to TC H

st to 3 rd

July 2010 @ VF RoB

• When S DC C H/8 is no longer needed it is changed dynamically back to
Coverage Optimization NSN Internal Document 48 © Nokia Siemens Networks Advance Network Optimization/JP/NNPO/ 1st to
Coverage Optimization
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Solution finding – coverage optimization

20 km away from site

20km SiteA
20km
SiteA

Signal level -95dBm?

Are both cases critical ones?

Are both cases coverage problem cases?

20km
20km

Bad coverage – what does it mean?

NSN Internal Document

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July 2010 @ VF RoB

SIGNAL LEVEL