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NET Evaluation

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LOW-CYCLE V. R.

## R. Z. Shron, and R. K. Balashova

UDC 620.178.3:621.774

Pipes operating under cyclic loading conditions are damaged most often on bent sections where high local stresses occur. The pipe cross section deformed when manufacturing the bend tries to take a round form under the effect of internal pressure and secondary bending stresses occur in the wall of the bend along with the primary tensile stresses. The magnitude of the local stresses from internal pressure is usually determined by assuming the pipe section to be elliptic. In this case the maximum stresses act at the vertices of the ellipse (points A, B, and C in Fig. i) and can be found by the equations given in [I, 2]. Meanwhile, measurements show that the actual sections of bends have an irregular shape which often differs considerably from an ellipse. As a consequence of this the maximum stresses from internal pressure can differ appreciably from the values calculated on the basis of an elliptic form of the section. To evaluate the effect of the cross sectional form on stresses, we measured about 400 sections of pipe bends measuring 32 x 4 mm (radius of the bend R = 60 mm) and 108 x 4.5 mm (R -- 500 mm) made with and without the use of a mandrel. From the measurement data we determine the ovality of the seckion Drnax-- Dmin 100%, (1) == Dn and by m e a n s of the method given in [3] we calculated the s t r e s s e s f r o m the internal p r e s s u r e in the bend wall. In Eq. (1) Dmax, Dmin a r e the m a x i m u m and m i n i m u m outside d i a m e t e r s of the section; Dn is the nominal outside d i a m e t e r of the pipe. A c o m p a r i s o n of the m a x i m u m bending s t r e s s e s A a in the zone of point A of the m e a s u r e d pipes with the s t r e s s e s A a e l at point A of a bend of elliptic section having the same ovality is shown in Fig. 2. As we see f r o m the figure, the s t r e s s e s in bends of the r e a l f o r m can exceed c o n s i d e r a b l y those in the bend of e l liptic section, e s p e c i a l l y in the case of small ovality when local i r r e g u l a r i t i e s of the c r o s s sectional profile become essential. In the case of ovality to 8% the s t r e s s e s calculated with consideration of the actual f o r m of the section can exceed by a f a c t o r of two and m o r e the values obtained on the assumption of an elliptic profile. The upper limit of the 99% confidence interval in Fig. 2 i s approximated by the equation
A~

## h%l Fig. i. Characteristic points and dimensions of bend.

-- 0,9 9 .

(2)

The known r e s u l t s of s t r a i n gauge m e a s u r e m e n t s of the bends of pipes with a d i a m e t e r f r o m 32 to 550 m m [1, 4, 5, etc. ] also fall within the limits of this region. Prochnosti, No. i0, pp. 121-124, October, 1973. Original

## Chelyabinsk. Translated from Problemy article submitted February 17, 1972.

9 J974 Consultants Bureau, a division of Plenum Publishing Corporation, 227 West ]7th Street, New York, N. Y. 10011. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, without written permission of the publisher. .4 copy of this article is available from the publisher for \$15.00.