Sei sulla pagina 1di 9

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science

Ohio Northern University


EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2

EECS 261: Digital Electronics


Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2
March 21, 2006
Lab Report due: March 28, 2006
1. Purpose
This lab has three main objectives. First, students are to review the usage of a digital
oscilliscope. Second, students will be exposed the HP 8082A signal generator devices. Third,
styudents will explore the propagation effects TTL digital logic in a laboratory environment.

2. Introduction

HP 8082A

Test Point A

Test Point F Test Point G

Test Point D
Test Point B

Test Point C

Test Point E

Figure 1 Lab 3 Schematic.

Page 1 of 9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
Ohio Northern University
EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2
3. Safety Considerations
The same safety concerns apply to this lab as the first lab. Excepting the 110 Volt outlets, the
voltage and current levels are safe to work with.

4. Equipment Required (Quantity)


• (1) 5 Volt DC fixed power supply
• (1) 7486 Integrated Circuit Chip (Quad 2-Input XOR Gate)
• (4) 7404 Integrated Circuit Chip (Hex Inverter)
• (1) Tektronics Digital Oscilliscope
• (2) Scope problems (10x)
• (1) HP 8082A Signal Generator.
• (1) .047 µF Capacitor
• (1) .224 µF Capacitor
• Jumper Wires

5. Lab Procedure
1. Begin by wiring the circuit as is shown in Figure 1. The circuit is logically quite simple,
though there are quite a few connections to make. (Unfortunately, the characteristics that
are to be characterized are somewhat difficult to detect on an individual basis, so they
must be magnified many times before being detectable.) For the first test, instead of
connecting to the HP device, connect to the function generator on the digital board.
2. Setup the scope such that the horizontal scale is set to 10ms per division, the veritical
scale is set to 5 volts per division, and the trigger is setup for channel 1, 2.5 volts rising,
and the trigger occurs between the left and center of the display on the scope.. It may be
wise to verify this using the calibration signal output on the front of the oscilliscope. If
the amplitude of the signal is very low, it is likely that the scope is not calibrated
correctly for a 10x probe and the probe gain factor needs to be configured through the
scope menu.
3. Set up the function generator on the digital board to generate a 50 Hz square wave. To
set this to 50Hz, connect a scope probe to point A and adjust the frequency knob so that
the frequency is 50 Hz. If a 50 Hz signal is present, one period of the waveform should
occurpy two divisions on the oscilliscope.
4. Connect the second probe (Channel 2) to the ouput to test point C. The output should be
a 5V square wave at 50Hz which is in phase with Channel 1. If not, something is wired
incorrectly.
5. Connect the second probe (Channel 2) to the ouput to test point B. The output should be
a 5V square wave at 50Hz which is exactly opposite of Channel 1. If not, something is
wired incorrectly.
6. Connect the second probe (Channel 2) to points D and E. The output should be fixed at
5V and 0V respectvly (though there may be a slight blip when the square wave
transitions between 0 and 5v and 5v and 0v.
7. Now that this has been verified, turn off all power and disconnect the signal generator on
the digi board and connect to the HP 8082A device. Configure the 8082A device to

Page 2 of 9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
Ohio Northern University
EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2
generate a 5V square wave at 50 Hz. Make certain that the BNC output cable is
connected to the Hi-Z output (as opposed to the 50 ohm) output and that the amplitude is
set for 5V. When making the connection, make certain that the red lead is connected as
an input to the NOT gate and that the black lead is connected to a ground signal. When
connecting the signal generator, make certain the power to the logic board is
disconnected and the signal generator is turned off before connecting the device. When
turning the device back on, make certain that the power to the circuit board is turned on
before the signal generator is turned on.
8. Repeat steps 2-6 with the HP signal generator. The behavior should be identical.

Figure 2 Sample Scope trace of signal transitions showing propagatioon delay.

9. With Channel 2 connected to test point C, begin zooming in on the transition point until
there is a distinct delta between the transition on channel 1 and channel 2. This may
require a significant adjustment to the horizontal scale; the vertical scale should not
require adjustment. If the display begins to jump and scroll, it may be necessary to adjust
the trigger point. Measure the propagation delay between channel 1 and channel 2 using
the cursors. (The signal should be similar to that shown in Figure 2, though the exact
appearance may differ significantly.) A hard copy can be printed by pressing the print
button on the scope. What percentage of the waveform period is this propagation delay?
TPr opagation
(Hint: The would be expressed as Percentage = .) How does the delay
TWaveformPeriod
correspond to the parts specification provided in the back of this document. (Hint: Since

Page 3 of 9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
Ohio Northern University
EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2
you are measuring the delay of 22 gates in a row, you will actually need to divde the
numbers you obtain by 22 to obtain meaningful results.)
10. Move Channel 2 to test point B and repeat step 9. Is the measurement the same? This
change should not require any adjustment to the scope other than the connection point on
the circuit.
11. Without adjusting the scope, view the waveforms at points D and E. Are the signals
solidly 5V and 0V or is there a “blip” present within ther signals? What is the duration of
this blip and how does it correspond to the propagation delay?
12. Now that the experiment has been completed with a 50Hz square wave, adjust the
frequency on the waveform generator to 500 kHZ. Place the Channel 2 scope probe at
point C. In doing this, adjustments to the scope configuratin may be required, especially
the trigger voltage and the horizontal scale. When properly adjusted, there should be a
square wave present on the scope. Repeat steps 9 – 11 with a 500kHz signal being
generated. Has the delay changed in any manner? Has there been a significant change in
the delay in terms of the percentage of the waveform period?
13. Modify the trigger control so that the trigger is set up to trigger off of channel 1 at 2.5 V
falling. This will allow the measurement of the propagation delay when the input
transitions from a high signal to a low signal. Is it the same?
14. Re-adjust the tigger setup so that the scope triggers off of channel 1 at 2.5 volts rising.
(This is essentially the configuration before step 13.)
15. Turn off the signal generator and the logic board. Connect a .047 µF capacitor between
point F and ground. Turn the board back on and then turn the signal generator back on.
What is the propagatioon delay now? (Note: If the scope does not stabolize with the
capacitor in this location, move the capacitor to point G.)
16. Place the channel 2 scope probe on test point F or G, whichever ended up bveing used.
What does the signal look like? Is there a significant rise time and fall time on the
transitions between high and low?
17. Place channel 2 of the scope at test point C. Is the propagation delay resulting in a
significant waveform from the XOR gate?
18. Adjust the signal generator to 1MHz. Now what is the relationship between the
propagation delay (as is indicated by the output of the XOR gate) and the period of the
signal measured as a percentage?
19. Replace the .047 µF capacitor with a . 224 µF capacitor. Repeat steps 15-18 with the
larger capacitor. Now what is the effect? If the propagation delay remained the same, yet
the frequency of operation changed to 5MHz, what would be the impact?

6. Lab Report
The results of this lab shall be documented in a lab report. The lab report should include the
following section:
(1) Introduction -> This section shall provide an overview of what is going to be
described in this lab report. This section shall be written IN YOUR OWN
WORDS. DO NOT copy directly from the assignment.
(2) Procedure -> This section describes what was done during the lab. Be descriptive
yet concise.

Page 4 of 9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
Ohio Northern University
EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2
(3) Results -> This section shall include the results of this lab. Data should be
displayed in the appropriate format, either tables or graphs depending upon the
data item being displayed.
(4) Things gone right / Things gone wrong -> This section shall discuss the things
which went correctly with this experiment as well as the things which posed
problems during this experiment.
(5) Effort -> How much time did you expect to spend writing up this lab report?
(Hint: Write this down before you start writing.) How long did this lab report
actually take to write? Was it less than you expected, about what you expected,
or longer than you expected?
(6) Conclusions -> This section shall discuss what has been learned from this
laboratory experience.

All lab reports shall be typed and follow the appropriate departmental guidelines.
Spelling, grammar, and presentation matter.
Reports are due at the start of lab on March 28, 2006. One report per lab group.

7. Device Pinouts

Page 5 of 9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
Ohio Northern University
EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2

Page 6 of 9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
Ohio Northern University
EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2

8. Specification Sheets

Page 7 of 9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
Ohio Northern University
EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2

Page 8 of 9
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Computer Science
Ohio Northern University
EECS 261: Digital Electronics
Lab Assignment 3: Analog Characteristics of Digital Devices - Part 2

Page 9 of 9