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UNIVERSITÀDELLACALABRIA

UNIVERSITÀ DELLA CALABRIA A Modified Elastance Model to Control Mock Ventricles in Real-Time Dipartimento di MECCANICA
UNIVERSITÀ DELLA CALABRIA A Modified Elastance Model to Control Mock Ventricles in Real-Time Dipartimento di MECCANICA
A Modified Elastance Model to Control Mock Ventricles in Real-Time

A Modified Elastance Model to Control Mock Ventricles in Real-Time

A Modified Elastance Model to Control Mock Ventricles in Real-Time
A Modified Elastance Model to Control Mock Ventricles in Real-Time

Dipartimento di MECCANICA

Francesco M. Colacino 1 , Fabio Piedimonte 2 , Francesco Moscato 1 , Maurizio Arabia 1 , Guido Danieli 1 , Salvatore Nicosia 2

Arabia 1 , Guido Danieli 1 , Salvatore Nicosia 2 1 Mechanical Engineering Department, University of

1 Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Calabria Italy; 2 Dipartimento di Informatica Sistemi e Produzione, University of Rome “Tor Vergata” – Italy

AIM

To build a mock ventricle able to reproduce the correct ventricular pressure/volume relationship in order to

obtain the correct interaction between the

mock ventricle and the environment connected to it.

IMPEDANCE MODEL

Based on stress/speed measurements of

the cardiac sarcomere, and on energetic

considerations, resistive and inductive

terms (R(t) and L(t) respectively) are added to the classical Suga-Sagawa elastance model throughout the whole cardiac cycle.

  P  t  P     V t , t

P

t
P
 
V
t
,
t
R

t
V
 
t
L
t
V

t
L V
0
L V
i
L V
i
L V
where
:
 
V
t
,
t
V
 
t
V

t
 
V
t
f

t
L V
p
L V
a
L V
p
L V
iso
and
R

 R
t
sat
K
f

t
, R
i
i
R
iso
i
MIN
i
MAX
1
1
1
sat
,
L
iso
i
L

t
i
L
i
L
MAX
i
MIN
with
:
x
 
t
x
t
 y
 
y x

t
 y

NUMERICAL VALIDATION

The LV volumes (V LV ) calculated from both the classical model and the modified elastance model, in presence of a sinusoidal pressure disturbance of amplitude 1 mmHg, are shown below (solid lines). Dotted lines are for the case

with no disturbance. V LV calculated from the classical model is very sensitive to the

pressure disturbance, especially during the filling phase. The modified model filters out the disturbance effects.

to the pressure disturbance, especially during the filling phase. The modified model filters out the disturbance

NUMERICAL VALIDATION

NUMERICAL VALIDATION
NUMERICAL VALIDATION
NUMERICAL VALIDATION
NUMERICAL VALIDATION
NUMERICAL VALIDATION
NUMERICAL VALIDATION

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Mock Ventricle Rcs, Lcs Cas Rla, Lla Ras, Las Cla Cvs Rvs, Lvs
Mock Ventricle
Rcs, Lcs
Cas
Rla, Lla
Ras, Las
Cla
Cvs
Rvs, Lvs
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP Mock Ventricle Rcs, Lcs Cas Rla, Lla Ras, Las Cla Cvs Rvs, Lvs

CONTROL STRATEGY

The pressure measured into the mock ventricle (P LV ) is feed back into the mathematical model and the calculated reference V LV is used to drive the piston by means of a PI controller.

 17 . 57  46 s C s   s
 17 . 57  46
s
C s 

s
EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION

EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION

 Continuous run experiments based on variations of :

Continuous run experiments based on variations of :

Systemic arterial resistance: Ras Mean circulatory pressure: Pmc

For Physiologic Cases :

Mean circulatory pressure: Pmc  For Physiologic Cases :  For Pathologic Cases :  A

For Pathologic Cases :

A control condition has been reached (HR = 100 bpm) Afterload Decrease: MPao Preload Decrease: Ved

A control condition has been reached (HR = 60 bpm) Afterload Increase Preload Constant : MPao - Ved Preload Increase Afterload Constant : Ved - MPao

– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :
– Preload Constant : MPao ↑ - Ved ↔  Preload Increase – Afterload Constant :

CONCLUSIONS

The presented model is suitable to control mock ventricles in real-time where acoustic-type

vibrations are responsible for sudden pressure disturbances, which on the contrary make the

classical elastance model unsuited unless using mechanical filters.

Advantages:

To be solved:

Device conceived to study the correct ventricle-environment interaction Mock ventricle working according to the elastance mechanism Correct sensitivity to Preload and Afterload Pathologic and physiologic working conditions can be mimicked High pressure drop across the mitral valve (negative pressure during filling)

Better shaping of ventricular pressure waveform (low frequency oscillations) General improvements of hydraulic components (Ras) Closed loop with both systemic and pulmonary circulations

K

f



t

sat

x

t

,

y