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Training Course

for

...

Presented by:

Feb 2001

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1 Trio DataCom
1.1 Company Description 1.2 Company Capabilities 1.3 Product Development 1.4 Market Involvement

1 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 8 9 9 10 10 12 12 12 14 14 14 14 15 16 17 17 18 19 20 21 21

2 Communication Mediums
2.1 Overview 2.2 Radio 2.2.1 Advantages of using Radio Data Transport 2.3 RF Paths 2.3.1 Propagation 2.3.2 RF Paths Interference and Noise 2.4 Frequency Allocations 2.4.1 Protection from Other Users (Interference) 2.4.2 Unprotected Operation 2.5 Licensing

3 Trio - D Series DATA Radio Modems


3.1 Overview 3.2 Unique Features 3.3 System Topologies 3.3.1 Dedicated Point to Point (PTP) Application 3.3.2 Point to Multi Point (PTMP) - Single User System 3.3.3 Point to Multi Point, Multi User System 3.3.4 Point to Multi Point, Multi Microcell System 3.4 Equipment Reliability 3.5 Data Transmission Security 3.6 Basic Operation of Radio Modem 3.7 Physical Characteristics 3.8 Electrical Characteristics ( Modem ) 3.9 Data Radio Modem Programmability 3.10 Radio Modem User Indications 3.10.1 Visual Indicators

3.10.2 Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI)

22 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38

4 Base Station
4.1 Introduction to Base Station 4.2 Product overview 4.3 POWER supply 4.4 general description 4.4.1 TC-450/900DB - 450/900MHz Full duplex base station 4.4.2 TC-900DH - 900mhz full duplex Dual Redundant (Hot Standby) base station 4.4.3 tc-900dh/2 full duplex, fully duplicated, base station 4.5 TC-900DB series Base Station Specifications- all models 4.5.1 Radio 4.5.2 Modem 4.5.3 Radio & Modem 4.5.4 Protection 4.5.5 Power Consumption, Size and Weight 4.5.6 Connections 4.6 Reasons for using a Base Station 4.7 Basic Operation 4.8 Base Station Functional Blocks 4.8.1 Display Board 4.8.2 Hot Standby Control Logic Board 4.8.3 TC-900DX Exciter/Receiver/Modem Description 4.8.4 Transmitter Power Amplifier Module 4.8.5 Dual Low Noise Amp 4.8.6 900 MHz - Bandpass Cavity Diplexer 4.9 Programming of Base Stations

5 Programming of D Series data radio modem


5.1 Introduction 5.2 Installation 5.2.1 Modem Connection 5.2.2 Programmer Software 5.3 Operating Instructons 5.3.1 Main Menu 5.3.2 Pull Down Menus and Toolbar Buttons

5.4 Port settings 5.4.1 Port A Settings 5.4.2 Port B Settings 5.5 RF Parameters 5.5.1 Transmit Frequency 5.5.2 Frequency Trim (Transmitter) 5.5.3 Receive Frequency 5.5.4 Frequency Trim (Receiver) 5.5.5 TX Power 5.5.6 Minimum RX Signal 5.5.7 PTT Time-out 5.5.8 Transmitter Lead in Delay (LID) 5.5.9 TX Power Alarm Limit 5.6 System Parameters 5.6.1 SID CODES 5.6.2 Supervisory Functions 5.6.3 PTT Control 5.6.4 Status of Radio Modem 5.7 Status Bar 5.7.1 Serial Number 5.7.2 Firmware Revision

40 40 45 46 46 46 47 47 47 49 50 50 51 52 52 55 59 59 60 60 60 61 61 62 63 63 63 64 64 65 65 68 71 72 73 77

6 Remote Diagnostics and Network Management


6.1 Introduction 6.2 Features 6.3 Installation 6.3.1 Modem Connection 6.3.2 Controller Software 6.4 Operating Instructions 6.4.1 General 6.4.2 Menu Selection 6.4.3 File Menu 6.4.4 Status Polling 6.4.5 Viewing History 6.4.6 Trending 6.4.7 Tools - message utility 6.5 Networking

7 The TC-95MSR6/9 Stream Router


7.1 Trio D Series Stream Routing - A Primer 7.2 Specifications 7.2.1 Physical 7.2.2 Electrical 7.2.3 Operational 7.3 General Description 7.4 Technical Description 7.4.1 CPU 7.4.2 Interconnections 7.4.3 Power Supply 7.5 Hardware 7.5.1 Disassembly

81 81 83 83 83 83 84 85 85 86 86 87 87 88 88 89 91 91 91 91 92 93 93 93 94 94 95 95 95 96 96 96 98 99 99

8 Installation
8.1 Basic Rules 8.2 Installation Overview 8.3 General 8.3.1 Data Connection 8.3.2 Mouting 8.3.3 Power Connections 8.3.4 COAX Cable Connection 8.4 Antenna Installation 8.4.1 Yagi Antennas 8.4.2 Omni Directional Antennas 8.4.3 Antenna Placement 8.4.4 Reflections and Output Power 8.5 Commissioning - RSSI Level 8.5.1 Checking Data Communications 8.5.2 Bit Error Rate (BER) Testing 8.5.3 LoopBack Mode 8.5.4 Outpur Power - VSWR 8.5.5 Data Connection 8.6 General Checklist

9 Maintenance
9.1 Maintenance

9.2 Performance Checking 9.2.1 Transmitter 9.2.2 Receiver 9.3 Fault Finding 9.4 Spares 9.5 General Board Level Maintenance

99 99 100 101 102 102 103 105

10 APPENDIX A Interpreting Frequency Poll Results on the Diagnostics Package 11 APPENDIX B Additional Information

IMPORTANT NOTICE COPYRIGHT - ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

This manual is for use in training courses on Trio D Series products given by Trio personnel The specifications described are typical only, and are subject to normal manufacturing and service tolerances. Trio DataCom Pty Ltd reserves the right to modify the equipment, its specifications or this manual without prior notice, in the interest of improving performance, reliability or servicing. At the time of publication all data is correct for the operation of the equipment at the voltage and/or temperature referred to. Performance data indicates typical values related to the particular product. This manual is copyright by Trio DataCom Pty Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of the documentation or the information supplied may be divulged to any third party without the express written permission of Trio DataCom Pty Ltd. Same are proprietary to Trio DataCom Pty Ltd and are supplied for the purposes referred to in the accompanying documentation and must not be used for any other purpose. All such information remains the property of Trio DataCom Pty Ltd and may not be reproduced, copied, stored on or transferred to any other media or used or distributed in any way save for the express purposes for which it is supplied. Products offered may contain software which is proprietary to Trio DataCom Pty Ltd. However, the offer of supply of these products and services does not include or infer any transfer of ownership of such proprietary information and as such reproduction or re-use without the express permission in writing from Trio DataCom Pty Ltd is forbidden.

MODIFICATIONS

Issue 2 Issue 3 Issue 4

February 1999 June 1999 February 2001

Additional features including Diagnostics for Windows. Removal of original A`ppendix A Change of Company Name

Training Manual for D Series Products

TRIO DATACOM

1.1

COMPANY DESCRIPTION Trio DataCom is an Australian communications company formed in 1991, specialising in the design and manufacture of wireless data communications products. The company offers a complete design and manufacturing service with access to some of the best radio and system engineering capabilities in Australia. All Trio employees have extensive background in the design, manufacture and commissioning of radio communications products, systems and networks. Each has a field of expertise which assures the customer of this company's ability to fill a need in the communications industry for a highly motivated team dedicated to development and manufacture of innovative communications and data products and systems. The company is located in Carrum Downs Victoria, a southern outer suburb of Melbourne.

1.2

COMPANY CAPABILITIES Trio's business direction is the development of technology and products that will satisfy the requirements of the rapidly growing and diverse data communications marketplace. In addition to our systems design expertise, we have a standard product range of data radio modems and base stations. The installation of our radio modems and microwave links can provide permanent data connection links for far less cost than data services over wired lines. There are many applications for short term connection or to areas where it is impractical to install cables. UHF radio distribution is an ideal medium for the transmission of data with such advantages as, ease of installation, versatility, low infrastructure and terminal costs. We are the only Australian manufacturer of such equipment.

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1.3

PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT In 1992, Trio DataCom were awarded an Industry Research and Development Grant by the Federal Government to assist in the development of a Data Radio Modem for use in the new Point to Point and Point to Multi Point 900 MHz Band Plan. The results of this research and development are a range of highly versatile yet keenly priced products which are wholly Australian designed and manufactured. Trio's products are developed using innovative design techniques, with strict attention to quality control and costing, making maximum use of digital signal processing, surface mount and printed board RF technology, and employing modern, quality components from reputable manufacturers.

1.4

MARKET INVOLVEMENT Trio's products have been successfully used in a very wide range of applications including : { Coal and Gold Mining { Petroleum and Gas { Aluminium Smelting and Refining { Power and Energy Authorities { Water Authorities { Ports and Harbours { Telecom { Meteorology { Security { Inventory Control

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COMMUNICATION MEDIUMS

2.1

OVERVIEW In modern society there is an ever increasing need for data communications to enable automation to reduce labour costs, improve product quality control, implement new and innovative manufacturing processes and services. The public demand better and cheaper products and services from companies, government and quasi-government authorities. To transport this data from one location to another there are a number of options, each with their own set of advantages and disadvantages.

2.2

RADIO Radio can provide data transport without permanent wiring over distances ranging from tens of metres to thirty kilometres or more. Various types of radio equipment design and radio channel selections are available, some applications require short range high data rates of 2-10 Mb/s or more, and others require longer range slower rates of 4800 to 9600 b/s. Applications range from : { Local Area Networks (LAN) for data collection, control, and telemetry, inside buildings or within the bounds of individual property. to { Dedicated single circuit data links across towns or cities. to { Large private or common carrier, city wide, multi terminal, multi host thin route data networks.

2.2.1

ADVANTAGES OF USING RADIO DATA TRANSPORT


Page 3

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(Refer to Trio Technical Note TN-1) { In general, radio connected data services can be connected more easily than hard wired circuits, as the radio circuit can terminate directly at the data generating or receiving terminal equipment, thus requiring in most cases no building data cabling infrastructure. { It offers greater portability and mobility, whereby the user can move terminals around in his plant, or even his whole plant without the need for major rewiring or waiting for leased line connection. { A Radio installation is generally equivalent in capital costs to a leased line { The user owns the data transport equipment, and has to pay only the radio licensing fee, or in the case of a common carrier network, a modest infrastructure fee. For applications requiring economical, flexible, data links over distances of metres to tens of kilometres, radio data transport can provide the solution.

2.3

RF PATHS

2.3.1

PROPAGATION When receiving a radio signal, the strength of that signal is reduced by several factors. Primarily, the signal suffers an attenuation which is dependent on the distance from the transmitter, referred to as the 'Free Space Path Loss'. Refer to Fig 1. Other factors can then take their toll to increase the loss of signal. Anything which obstructs the passage of the signal will introduce an attenuation that depends on the nature of the obstruction. There are many things that will do this, such as mountains and hills, buildings, trees, and the earth bulge itself for long path distances.

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Received Signal Strength vs Distance

0
Received Signal Strength (dBm)

Free Space Path Loss only at 900 Mhz. Tx power 1 watt

-20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -120 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000
Radial Distance (metres)

Figure 1 - Received Signal Strength As well as the loss due to distance, many other factors have to be considered in the planning of a radio bearer path. The effective radio path is 'bent' by the presence of layers or pockets of air of different temperature, pressure, and humidity, which change the refractive index of the air. There is also an extra loss due to the presence of rain along the path, which can introduce very large attenuations at high frequencies. The degree of path 'bending' is seasonally variable and location dependent, and all these variables must be considered in fully characterising the proposed radio path. The bulge of the earth must be factored into any path calculation, as this sets the distance to the horizon when observed from a particular altitude. Refer to Fig 2. Another factor to be considered in the planning of a radio path, is the possibility that the radio receiver may receive signals which have been reflected from buildings, mountains or vehicles etc. and which arrive at the receiving antenna with different time delays due to their different path lengths. These signals will cause distortion and even complete loss of the data. Such effects must be minimised by good system design.

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Figure 2 - Radio Horizon Distance vs Antenna Height.

1,000
Mast Height (metres AGL)

Radio Horizon Graph


'k' = 4/3

100

10

1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140


Radio Horizon (km)

Where there is a need for communication over radio paths that are obstructed by high ground or other major topographic or man-made features, a solution may be found from the following methods, :1. Use of low radio frequency bands which will traverse the obstruction. 2. Propagation via diffraction or 'scattering' in the upper atmosphere. 3. Use of repeater or translator stations mounted on midrange vantage points. A single Trio D Series Radio Data Modem can be used as a Digital Repeater (digipeater), and because of its low power consumption and high reliability, is 4. Back to back antenna passive repeaters. 5. AN-D8).

Low frequency transmission is often ruled out due to the severe lack of radio spectrum in HF and low VHF bands. HF bands suffer interference and propagation caused distortions, and have poor end to end data rates.

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Diffracted paths require high antenna gain and suffer random transmission loss for periods of seconds or occasionally hours. Scatter propagation, either forward or reverse, requires high power and suffers from very deep and more or less continuous transmission degradation and is only useable in very specialised applications. Passive back to back antennas are a very simple way to "bend" a radio transmission path around or over an obstacle, however they are useful only on very short paths due to the nature of radio propagation loss with distance, whereby the attenuation is very high over the first few meters and proceeds more slowly thereafter. In a multi hop path with a passive repeater somewhere near the middle, we have a path loss which approaches twice the normal path loss in decibels for the total distance. The passive linear gain repeater decreases the overall path loss in a multi hop transmission to useable levels by placing a linear, dual directional amplifier in the feeder cable connecting back to back passive antennas. This system uses few active components, draws little power, is simple to install and maintain, but is not suited to locations in close proximity to other radio transmitters on the same band. Refer to Trio Application Note AN-D8). Trio DataCom can carry out detailed path analysis on behalf of a customer with the aid of complex calculations contained in a propriety spreadsheet program, as exampled in the following Figure 3.

Path Profile
350 effective terrain height (m) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 Distance along path (km) 60 80

Figure 3 - Sample Radio Path Evaluation Spreadsheet.

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2.3.2

RF PATHS INTERFERENCE AND NOISE (Refer to Trio Technical Note TN-5) The efficacy of data transmission over narrow band FM radio systems has two basic criteria :{ The error rate at the receiver due to the attenuation of the signal over the radio path. This error rate is essentially zero up to the point where the signal strength of the received signal nears the thermal noise floor of the receiver input amplifier circuits. It is affected in the main by the propagation loss due to distance and obstructions in the path, and to a minor degree by transmitter power level, receiver design, and modem design. Gain antennas can decrease the propagation loss and hence can increase the range at which error rates rise to unacceptable levels. This onset of errors is quite sudden with decreasing received signal strength. The effect stated in this paragraph assumes a noise free radio environment. { The degradation of received signal due to Electrical noise arriving at the receiver antenna. Both man made and natural radio noise which is picked up by the receiving antenna will override the received data signal to a degree depending on how strong the noise is and how small the received data radio signal is. Natural noise is created by many sources including thermal radiation, solar, and cosmic activity. Natural radio noise can generally be ignored for terrestrial radio links at UHF. Man made noise sources come in the main from other radio users on nearby channels, and to a lesser degree from electrical appliances and transmission lines. It is the man made radio interference which is of the greatest concern as it is by far the greatest threat to low error rates in the fixed data service radio bands, and thus should be understood. The quality of signal due to path loss is to a degree under our own control as we can position our antennas free of obstruction, use high gain Yagi antennas at remote stations, and use digital repeaters to extend high quality radio signal service areas. Interference from other radio channel users however is totally out of our control as there is NO restriction on placement of master or remote stations relative to our own radio installations. It is expected therefore that the majority of errors on a point to point service will arise from adjacent channel users, and NOT from any inability to successfully transmit the data over our own channel. Good engineering in the design of the data radio receiver is paramount to achieve the best rejection of this unwanted interference. A most important figure of merit for a data radio product then is the error rate produced by an adjacent user employing a similar transmission modulation method to our own. This information is normally conveyed by a Bit Error Rate signature curve which shows the ratio of unwanted interfering signal level, to the wanted data signal, for a given error rate . The BER signature shows the measured signal power ratios for the error rate at a number of frequencies offset from our own nominal channel frequency. The BER signature can thus give an appreciation of the interference protection from adjacent channel users for any frequency offset (or channel separation). Using the BER signature curve for a product and a propagation loss curve, we can see how far distant a user on the adjacent channel must be to produce an acceptable error rate in our wanted signal. Refer to Figure 4 for a typical BER signature curve for a Trio radio.

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Figure 4 - BER Signature Curve for a Trio Radio Receiver

2.4

FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS Radio equipment for data communication is subject to rigorous regulation regarding its performance and usage, and the spectrum segments allocated for its use are tightly controlled by the Communication Authorities. The Communication Authorities have the responsibility for planning and regulating the channels which can be used, the purposes for which each can be used and the specification of the equipment to be used, and can ensure that the channels allocated to a particular user in a specified location will be free of interference by other services using the same channel. (Refer to Trio Technical Note TN-1, TN22)

2.4.1

PROTECTION FROM OTHER USERS (INTERFERENCE) The band planning process employs primary and secondary user and protected and unprotected concepts. Basically the primary user is the one who has assignment priority in a segment and a secondary user application is one who may have to vacate his assignment (generally within a reasonable time frame) should the primary user require more spectrum. The concept of protected / unprotected assignment comes from the original technical rationale for the spectrum segment signal planning, the type of equipment used and methods used to assign the channels to the users. For example the point to point channels from 852 to 853.5 MHz are allocated with the aid of a computer program which has a data base of all users including their exact fixed location equipment and antenna types. New allocations are made on the

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assumption that the present users and the new user will cause each other NO INTERFERENCE of any consequence and everyone can operate with a high grade of service (save equipment faults or other natural phenomena). The fixed point to point data application on these channels is also a primary allocation, ie. they will not be required to change frequency unless a totally new band plan is introduced.

2.4.2

UNPROTECTED OPERATION In contrast to primary, protected application and their channel assignments, other services such as fixed and mobile spread spectrum data applications may occupy the frequency band 915 to 928 MHz. Table 1 of the Schedule to the 1992 900MHz Band Plan Statute shows the primary operation for this segment as Department of Defence - Radio Navigation. Schedule 2 of the same document shows the spread spectrum fixed and mobile application as being secondary users. In addition there is no assignment method or technology employed to ensure users do not interfere with one another, and the user must be aware that he operates at his own risk without guarantee of grade of service and without causing interference to others. In the UHF segment, there is provision for low power class licensed operation. There is 100KHz of bandwidth starting at 472.0125MHz for operation at a maximum of 100mW EIRP.

2.5

LICENSING There are various forms of licensing and in this time of deregulation even more are under discussion, however at this time the following are the norm. For Point to Point application the user must apply for a specific license for each link, and must give the exact location of both ends. The Communications Authority will then allocate a frequency and may require that certain directional antennas be used and / or the transmitter power be decreased so as not to cause interference to other installations. A license fee is payable for both pieces of radio equipment payable on an annual basis in the name of the user. For Point to Multi Point operation when a master radio (generally at a high location) services a number of remote slave radio data terminals a license fee is payable for the entire installation. If the number of remotes is such as to require more than one radio channel then the license fee is payable for each radio channel. For the purpose of licensing the service radius is assumed to be 30 Km and any other master station erected outside this area to cover other populations of remote units will themselves attract licence fees in their own right (even though they may share the same radio channel assignments). In densely populated areas it is imperative that the radio spectrum is used efficiently and effectively and as such the requires that in general each channel is highly utilised. This means that in the major CBDs it would be unlikely that a low capacity user with only a few remote units would qualify for his own radio channel in the point to multi point band and as such would be restricted to sharing a channel with other users. This restriction predicates the existence of a common

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radio channel provider who holds the licence and the central radio equipment and then rents access to his network. Accordingly the Communications Authority will licence either owner / users or common carrier service providers. Such common carrier operators may be the equipment distributor, a radio tower operator or the equipment manufacturer or a major common carrier operator. For unprotected secondary applications such as spread spectrum data equipment operation in the 915 to 928 MHz band no formal licensing is required and depending upon the application either a normal fee or no fee at all is applicable.

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TRIO - D SERIES DATA RADIO MODEMS

3.1

OVERVIEW The Trio DataCom TC-900DR is a Full Duplex 900 MHz Radio including a fully integrated 4800/9600 bps Data Modem and Antenna Diplexer. The entire unit including diplexer is housed in an attractive yet robust metal enclosure, providing a compact and reliable data distribution product which is both cost effective and easy to install. This complete package forms an attractively priced product for the transmission of data over Radio in fixed applications thus providing a viable alternative to costly networks of buried media such as cable or fibre for data transmission. The TC-900DB, and TC-900DH products are complimentary base station, and hot standby base station products respectively. The TC-450 Series products offer similar functionality and variants to the TC-900 series but operate in the lower (450-520MHz) band segments. The TC-450DR does not offer full duplex operation due to the size of the required inbuilt diplexer.

3.2

UNIQUE FEATURES The Trio D Series of Data Radio Modems were designed specifically for 400-520MHz and 800-960MHz thin route 9600bps point to point and multi-point data networking and provide packet transport protocol based on the world standard HDLC synchronous link layer protocol. Summary of Unique Features { Fully Integrated Full Duplex Radio, 9600bps Modem and Diplexer { Available in the 400-520MHz and 800-960MHz Frequency Bands { AFC Automatic Frequency Tracking of incoming received signal (+/- 4KHz) { TRANSPARENT Remote Diagnostics which can run simultaneously with applications without the need for add on modules { Packet Delivery- In built Error Detection of HDLCs CRC16 algorithm { Stream Routing / Port Addressing / Ability to multiplex different data streams and protocols over the one radio channel allowing for future expansion and shared communications resource

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{ Capable of Data Stream Splitting/ Store & Forward/ On-repeating of individual streams. { Programmable Addressing Schemes for each unit/port(Stream Identifier Codes) { Full Duplex Internal OPERATION) Repeater Configuration (TRUE DIGIPEATER

{ Single Chip Digital Signal Processing Modem { User Port Interface capable of supporting 110 to 19200 bps and various I/O configurations - on board RAM (8K RAM standard/32K RAM option) { The use of Microwave Stripline Technology to minimise components and in turn the likelihood of failures { In-built Collision Avoidance Mechanism used in Multi point configurations { Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) output for installation and commissioning aid { Built in Bit Error Rate (BER) tester to assist in measuring link performance { Automatic Temperature Foldback to low power output at 650 C { Intelligent Processor Controlled Frequency Stability (Better than 1ppm) { Exceptional Bit Error Rate performance due to Digital Signal Processing techniques { Every unit is Environmentally Tested from -10 to +650 C { Excellent electrical noise immunity - minimal if any effects from external equipment (EMI/RFI etc.) { Fast transmitter keyup (<1mS) and synchronisation times DESIGNED AND MANUFACTURED IN AUSTRALIA

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3.3

SYSTEM TOPOLOGIES

3.3.1

DEDICATED POINT TO POINT (PTP) APPLICATION

Port A

TC-900DR

Unit #1

TC-900DR

Port A

Unit #2

Point to Point Link


Figure 5 - Point to Point Link This is the simplest application where data is required to be passed only between two fixed locations. These locations may be separated by tens of metres to tens of kilometres. Even further distances are possible by the use of a Trio Radio Data Modem operating as a "digipeater". Trio Data Radio Modems can be configured for a variety of Point to Point link applications such as simple data communications

3.3.2

POINT TO MULTI POINT (PTMP) - SINGLE USER SYSTEM This is a very common type of application, where a single host computer or data processor needs to communicate with a number (small or large) of user field terminal equipments. The field terminals may be regularly polled by the host, or request the attention of the host data processor and then transmit when necessary. When used in the latter fashion, the collision avoidance techniques employed by Trio Radio Data Modems can ensure that the users vital data is reliably handled. If needed, such a system can be set up to allow data to be transferred between field terminals. This system topology can cover a very large geographical area, with widely separated field units, by employing a Prime Repeater installed on an elevated location such as a high building or a mountain, or even extra Supplementary Repeaters to ensure that all the field terminal units can be accessed. Trio Data Radio Modems can then be used to link the Prime Repeater back to the host data processor.

3.3.3

POINT TO MULTI POINT, MULTI USER SYSTEM This system is very similar to the previous PTMP Single User System except that more than one data network may be overlayed on the one data distribution system. An example of this could be :

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That a host data collection computer could be monitoring a system of stream water flow sensors and dam water level gauges, with controls to a system of pumps and valves, and that a second host computer could be used as a file server etc. which services several out-station depots each with their own PC. All this can be handled over the one PTMP Multi User System using Trio Full Duplex Data Radio products.

Figure 6 - Point to Multi Point System

3.3.4

POINT TO MULTI POINT, MULTI MICROCELL SYSTEM This type of network is very popular and has a huge range of applications. It is characterised primarily by having very localised, short range cells. Typical applications are : A large warehouse with data terminals and Data Radios on forklift trucks used for picking materials from stock. On completion of the picking list, the appropriate documentation has been prepared by the data processor and has been forwarded to a printer in the goods dispatch bay to be attached to the assembled goods when they are delivered by the picker. A petroleum delivery company with depots in different towns or cities can have a data terminal and Data Radio in each tanker which presents the deliveries to be made that day. This vehicle terminal is loaded with data by the central dispatch computer operating via a Data Radio in the depot before it leaves the depot in the morning, and on return uploads the days transactions for account preparation.

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3.4

EQUIPMENT RELIABILITY All of Trio's Data Radio Products are designed and manufactured with particular emphasis placed on the following points : { Start of the art design techniques. { Simply assembly / disassembly. { Minimal alignment requirements. { Manufactured using quality components. All units have been manufactured using automated assembly procedures. This assures attention to detail and a high level of quality control, and removes the possibility of human error. All components used are of high quality, and conform to Trio DataCom's required specifications. The component suppliers provide batch, date and manufacturing Each unit is individually tested with an inbuilt self diagnostic program, it then passes through a set of automated test procedures with minimal human intervention, ensuring a consistently manufactured and performing product. Most of the alignments are factory set and should not require realignment in the field. Trio DataCom's quality control does not finish here. Once each unit has passed its individual tests, it is placed in a cyclic environmental chamber. This chamber is then automatically cycled twice from -20o C to + 65o C, over a twenty hour period. During this time, the modem controller monitors and stores frequency stability and temperature data utilising external precision test equipment referenced to an in-house atomic frequency standard. The D-Series uses this data to achieve its temperature compensated frequency stability of 1 ppm over the entire temperature range. As well as frequency stability, other parameters, including power output, are measured during the temperature cycling process. This is achieved, by having the unit connected to a computer and the appropriate test equipment by a GPIB. Any units that do not achieve Trio's stringent performance specifications are reported by the computer, and corrective action taken before undergoing the complete cycle once again. Each unit shipped from the factory comes with a factory alignment printout which details : Configuration. Transmit Frequency. Receive Frequency. Transmitter Output Power. Receiver Sensitivity. Transmitter Modulator Deviation.

It is this care and quality control that ensures that the purchaser of a Trio Radio Data Modem obtains a consistently manufactured and performance specified product, which has been "burned in" to minimise any operational failures. The Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) is typically 30,000 hours.

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3.5

DATA TRANSMISSION SECURITY The radio modem transmission method employs 17 bit data scrambling as part of its internal protocol for spectrum management, and hence provides a modicum of data privacy. However, this algorithm is widely known, and can NOT be changed by the user, and in the case where high level data security is required, the user application must provide this facility.

3.6

BASIC OPERATION OF RADIO MODEM The unit is primarily assembled in an aluminium extrusion with a central metal circuit board mounting deck that is fixed to the front panel. The data modem is mounted on one side of this deck, and the radio transmitter / receiver mounted on the other side. The modem and the radio printed circuit boards are interconnected via a short length of ribbon cable and header. The antenna diplexer is mounted on top of the radio section PCB. The radio module accepts data from the modem in the form of time varying DC signals which are directly applied to a frequency modulator, hence applying the data signal directly to the radio carrier wave. This signal is amplified and applied to the antenna via a diplexer which serves to isolate the strong transmitter signal from the very weak incoming receive signal. The wave shape of the applied modulation signal coming from the modem is very carefully controlled to assure minimum transmission of spurious signals in the adjoining radio channel, and compliance with statutory regulations. The incoming radio signal is received by the antenna, passed through the diplexer where out of band signals are removed to the receiver, where it is amplified and filtered, then converted from frequency variations back to time variant DC waveforms (demodulated to a serial data stream). This serial data stream is supplied to the modem for reconstruction into useable data. It should be noted that the data stream applied to the radio transmitter needs to be essentially continuous, and random in nature to preclude very low modulation frequencies, and to provide a uniform transmission spectrum. For this reason the data needs to be synchronous at the radio link level. This requirement is met by the by the data encoding and decoding system within the modem module. Further details on the Modems Data Protocol handling are contained in the Trio DataCom Technical Note TN-6 (see Appendix A)

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3.7

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS The Trio DataCom D-Series Data Radio Modem is comprised of two distinct modular functions. { A Full Duplex Modem to provide the interface to and from the users data. { A Full or Half Duplex Radio Transmitter and Receiver to provide wireless communication to a remote location. Incorporates an internal antenna diplexer to enable full duplex operation with a single antenna. The whole unit is contained in a single, substantial metal housing, with dimensions of length 241 mm , width 161 mm and depth of 65 mm, and weighs 1.3 Kg. It may be mounted in any position, and is required to be mounted in a cool, dry, vibration free environment. The D SERIES has been designed with the serviceability of the unit in mind. The construction of the unit is robust yet easily dismantled. The front panel contains the RS232 data ports 'A' and 'B' , the power connection and function display LED's. The antenna connection is located at the rear panel. Connectors used for the various functions are :Host RS-232 connections (2 off) Synchronous Connection Antenna Connection DC Power Connection Supervisory Audio Handset : : : : : DB9 female wired as a DCE (modem). DB25 female via synchronous adapter cable assembly, part no TC-SYN-ADP. BNK/SMA coaxial female bulkhead. 2 pin male locking type. Requires mating cable end female. 6 pin modular jack. Mates with Trio Handset.

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3.8

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS ( MODEM ) The two data ports are completely independent of each other in asynch mode. Each may be set up for different data speeds as noted below. In synchronous mode, both data ports are utilised for the one data stream, with data in / out from one port, and clocks from the other port. Host Serial Port 'A' : : Configuration Host Data Speed : : EIA RS232, DCE wired, always enabled. 110 -19K2 bd asynch. Max speed of 19k2 is possible if Port B is disabled, otherwise a maximum speed of 9600 bps. 4800 - 9600 bd synch. RTS/CTS/DTR/DCD handshake or XON/XOFF

: : Protocol :

Host Serial Port 'B' :

Configuration

EIA RS232, DCE wired, and may be optionally enabled. 300 - 9600 bd asynch XON - XOFF

: :

Host Data Speed Protocol

: :

Data Transfer Rate Synchronisation Delay Bit Error Rate (BER)

: : :

4800 or 9600 bps full duplex. 32 bits maximum. Better than 1 in 10-6 @-105dBm

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3.9

DATA RADIO MODEM PROGRAMMABILITY The operation of the Radio Modem can be fully programmed by the optionally available Trio DataCom TC-DRPROG programmer software. If the full flexibility that this offers is not required by the user, Trio can supply Radio Modem Units pre-programmed to the users requirements. All of the parameters that a user might need to set are programmable with this software, and hence no access into the radio modem will ever be needed other than repairs. A detailed coverage of all the programming facilities will be covered later, but a brief resume is included here. Radio Module : : : : : : Transmit Frequency. Receive Frequency. Transmit Output Power. Minimum usable RSSI signal level ( data mute ). PTT timeout. Frequency drift correction.

Modem Module

: : : : : :

User Data Port 'A' Speed. User Data Port 'B' Speed. User Data Port 'A' Stop Bits, Parity, Data Bits. User Data Port 'B' Stop Bits, Parity, Data Bits. Data Flow Control. Hardware or Software. User Port 'A' & 'B' protocol. PAD, SLIP, KISS.

System Parameters : : : : : :

Lead In Delay. Stream Identifier (SID) Codes. PTT Activation. Collision Avoidance. Repeater Operation (Data Stream). Repeater Operation (Diagnostics only).

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3.10

RADIO MODEM USER INDICATIONS

3.10.1

VISUAL INDICATORS

The front panel of the Radio Modem Unit has four LED indicators to report the units basic functions. POWER (green) TXMIT (red) SYNCH (yellow) RXSIG (yellow) : : : : Indicates the presence of power. Indicates that the transmitter PTT is active. Indicates when a valid data stream is received. Indicates a radio signal of usable level is present.

The Synch and Rxsig indicators are also used to indicate error conditions in the Radio Modem unit. TRANSMIT POWER : While the modem activates the radio transmitter, it periodically checks the transmit power. If this is lower than a value set in NVRAM, then the SYNCH and RXSIG LEDs flash alternately approximately four times per second. The TXMIT led will also be on during this process. As soon as the transmission ceases then the LEDs resume their normal function. The Radio Modem has a Non Volatile Memory (NVRAM) that is used to store its operating parameters. If the communication protocol with this memory is violated or its CRC checksum is found to be incorrect then the modem will flash the RXSIG and SYNCH LEDs twice alternately. ie. one led flashes twice then the other led flashes twice. A total of five cycles of this occurs, then the modem restarts its initialisation sequence from scratch.

NVRAM READ ERROR :

SYNTHESISER LOCK ERROR : If at any time the frequency synthesiser drops out of lock, thereby trying to cause the radio to transmit or receive on the wrong frequency, the operation of the radio is inhibited and an error condition is indicated on the SYNCH and RXSIG LEDs. One led is turned on, LEDs are swapped, then both turned off, giving a sweeping motion between the LEDs. The following table shows all the error condition displays for comparison.

Indicates LED on. Indicates LED off.

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LOW TRANSMIT POWER ERROR RXSIG SYNC

NVRAM ERROR

FREQUENCY
SYNTHESISER OUT OF LOCK ERROR

RXSIG

SYNC

RXSIG

SYNC

Continue Sequence

Repeat Sequence

Repeat Sequence

3.10.2

RECEIVED SIGNAL STRENGTH INDICATOR (RSSI)

The strength of the received radio signal can be measured in two fashions. Firstly by use of the diagnostics or secondly by monitoring the DC signal present on pin No 9 of User Data Port 'B'. Signal levels are usually expressed in dBm, which is a logarithmic scale of electrical power with a reference level of 1 milliwatt into 50 ohms. A change of 10 dB represents a change of level of 10 times power level, and a change of 20 dB represents a change of 100 times power. Refer to following drawing.
RSSI LEVEL cf RECEIVED SIGNAL (typical
'D' Rev PCB 853 or 929 MHz
5

Sample curves - 4 stock units


4 RSSI LEVEL (volts)

0 -120 -100 -80 -60 RECEIVED SIGNAL LEVEL (dBm) -40 -20

Figure 7 - RSSI cf Received Signal

The diagnostics will report the actual received signal strength in dBm.

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The DC voltage on pin 9 of the Port B DB9 connector is a logarithmic representation of the received radio signal. This voltage will vary from approximately 1 volt for -110 dBm input signal, to approximately 4 volts for a -50 dBm signal, this gives a sensitivity of approx 20 dB per volt. The RSSI indicator is also used internally by the radio section to provide an audio mute for handset operation, and by the modem section as a data qualifier signal. Connection of a load to the RSSI output pin 9 of Port 'B', which has a source impedance of approximately 47 Kohms, will not effect the internal operation. To measure or use this signal the load resistance must be high to prevent measurement errors.

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BASE STATION

4.1

INTRODUCTION TO BASE STATION All the Base Stations in the Trio range feature : { A Trio Base Station is a rack mounted, rugged, high reliability unit based on the field proven D Series Data Radio Modem. { High 4-5 Watt Transmit Output Power. { Low Noise Receiver Pre-Amplifier. { Front Panel Bar Graph Status Display. { Lightning Protection. { Over Voltage and Reverse Polarity Protection. { Built in Redundancy. { Rack Mounting. { Inbuilt Diplexer. { Easily Serviced.

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4.2

PRODUCT OVERVIEW The three versions of this product are all built from the same generic modules. The basic differences are as follows: 1. TC-450/900DB does not provide hot standby and therefore does not include the hot change over logic module. It is fitted with a single TC-450/900DX exciter module and single diplexer and antenna port. 2. TC-900DH contains two TC-900DX exciter modules and provides hot changeover logic and dual redundant hybrid coupled LNA and PA connected via an antenna diplexer to a single antenna connector. 3. TC-900DH/2 provides totally duplicated base T/R circuits through to the dual antenna correction. It contains two TC-900DX exciters. Both LNA and Tx PA modules are internally configured as fully duplicated (separate and non hybrid coupled) amplifier pairs. Both Tx PA and Rx LNA circuits are coupled to separate antenna ports with two separate antenna diplexers. NOTE: The LNA and PA modules in this model are configured differently to TC-900DB and TC-900DH and are NOT INTERCHANGEABLE. Standard frequency configuration is 929MHz Tx (Rx = Tx -76MHz). Optionally the unit can be supplied in the reverse frequency split of 853 MHz Tx (Rx = Tx + 76MHz). NOTE: Consult factory for other frequency models.

4.3

POWER SUPPLY All versions of this base station series provide dual power supply inputs. Each input supplies power to half of the RF amplifier, half of the RF pre-amplifier. For the Hot Standby and duplicated versions, supply input #1 feeds power to Exciter #1 and supply input #2 feeds power to Exciter #2. For the standard version which contains only one Exciter the two supply inputs are "diode ORed" to feed the Exciter power input. If the installation provides only one power source, then both Supply Inputs should be connected together to the source.

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4.4

GENERAL DESCRIPTION

4.4.1

TC-450/900DB - 450/900MHZ FULL DUPLEX BASE STATION Ruggedised 5 Watt Base Station { The Trio TC-450/900D Series base station is a ruggedised 5 Watt rack mounted version of the highly reliable D Series product { This unit features dual hybrid coupled PA power modules in the transmitter, and low noise bipolar transistors in the receiver preamp module. { Overvoltage and reverse polarity supply protection { "Bar Graph" L.E.D. display panel. { Dual Power Supply Inputs The base station is made up the following modules the details of which may be obtained from the Base Station Users Manual :{ TRIO TC-450/900DR fully integrated data radio modem product as the basic radio and modem platform. The TC-450/900DR, running at low transmit power provides a highly reliable exciter. This special version is type numbered TC-450/900DX. { The RF Power amplifier module is constructed from a pair of high reliability linear hybrid power modules running at 25% of their rated nominal power. { Low noise receiver pre-amplifier { A display panel mounted behind the front panel houses solid state LED array indicator units. { The antenna diplexer is purpose designed for the Australian band plan.

4.4.2

TC-900DH - 900MHZ FULL DUPLEX DUAL REDUNDANT (HOT STANDBY) BASE STATION Additional Features { The Trio TC-900DH hot standby base station is designed to provide a high reliability data radio modem installation with a single antenna system. { It is purpose designed to minimise common components which could cause total failure conditions. { Microstrip hybrid combining networks are used to ensure maximum reliability of Radio Frequency changeover circuits to ensure 'soft fail' operation rather than relays.

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4.4.3

TC-900DH/2 FULL DUPLEX, FULLY DUPLICATED, BASE STATION Additional Features { The Trio TC-900DH/2 is designed to provide hot standby operation right through to dual antenna systems and hence can provide a totally duplicated base station facility. { Ideal for applications in cyclonic and high storm areas when loss of an The fully duplicated base station is made up from similar modules as the Dual Redundant base station, but with modifications to eliminate all common components.

Figure 8 - Hot Standby Base Station Front Panel

Figure 9 - Base Station Front Panel

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4.5

TC-900DB SERIES BASE STATION SPECIFICATIONS - ALL MODELS Unless otherwise stated V Supply = 12-16VDC, Tamb = 0 to 60Oc, Df = 1kHz

4.5.1

RADIO Rx Frequency Range Tx Frequency Range 400-520MHz and 800-960MHz 400-520MHz and 800-960MHz NOTE: Refer to Trio for specific frequency models Fully synthesized 6.25kHz raster [opt 7.5kHz) Frequency Stability Aging Tx Power Output 1 PPM (-10 to 60oc amb) [opt -30 to 70oc] <= 1ppm/Annum Power output at Antenna connector +37 dbm +1/-2dbm (switchable under software control 700mW / 5W) Continuous <= 1mS (1dB) -113 dBm for 12 dB SINAD 70 dB spur free dynamic range <= -70 db <= -75 dbc (ref unmodulated carrier)

Duty Cycle Tx Key Up Time Rx Sensitivity Rx Intermodulation Rx Spurious Responses Tx Spurious Emissions

4.5.2

MODEM Host Serial Port #1 DB-9 connector, EIA RS232, DCE, Serial Async,110-19K2 baud, or 4800/9600 synchronous - hardware handshaking. DB9, 300-9600 asynchronous XON/XOFF 4800/9600 BPS full duplex 20 ms maximum.

Host Serial Port #2 Data Rate (Channel) Synchronisation Delay

4.5.3

RADIO & MODEM


Bit Error Rates 4800/12.5kHz 9600/25 kHz 9600/12.5kHz - 1e-6 @ -109dBm - 1e-6 @ - 106dBm - 1e-6 @ - TBA (see note 1)

Occupied Bandwidth - Meets SMA SP 4-89 guidelines for point to point & point to multipoint assignments. Narrow band digital filtered binary FSK Modulation, using

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Trio DataCom's DFM4-9 digital modem chipset, including Trio's unique supervisory channel C/DSMA collision avoidance.
Note 1 - Due to the very low modulation index required to meet the spirit of the SMA SP4-89 recommendation at 9600 in 12.5kHz and the high levels of adjacent channel interference experienced, the SMA/SAA are presently re-considering the requirements of this configuration. Trio DataCom do not recommend this configuration at this time!

Figure 9 - Typical Base Station BER and S/N Curves

4.5.4

PROTECTION { Internal gas discharge coaxial lightning arrestor. { Power Supply Surge arrestors. Rated at 18 volt, 45 amp, 1500 Watt. { Reverse Polarity Protection.

4.5.5

POWER CONSUMPTION, SIZE AND WEIGHT Power Receive Current : : : NB Standard TC-450/900DB Dual redundant TC-900DH Fully Duplicated TC-900DH/2 1.5 A 1.7 A 1.8 A : 11 to 16 V DC.

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Transmit Current : : : Standard TC-450/900DB Dual redundant TC-900DH Fully Duplicated TC-900DH/2

Low Pwr 2.5 A 2.7 A 2.8 A

High Pwr 4.5 A 4.7 A 4.8 A

NB: Current quoted is with Display OFF. Add 0.5A with Display ON. Size Weight : : : : : 485 mm Width, 180 mm Height, 490 mm Depth. Build Dependent. Standard TC-450/900DB 9.2 Kg.

Dual Redundant TC-900DH 10.6 Kg. Full Duplicated TC-900DH/2 11.8 Kg.

4.5.6

CONNECTIONS Host RS-232 Connection. Synchronous Connection. Antenna Connector. : : : DB9 female wired as DCE (Modem). DB25 female wired as DCE (Modem). Coaxial type "N" female bulkhead. Note that fully duplicated version has 2 antenna connectors. Each antenna connection fitted has lightning protection. 6 pin male locking. 2 x 6 way modular jack.

DC Power Connector.

Supervisory Audio Handset :

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4.6

REASONS FOR USING A BASE STATION Generally a Base Station would only be used in a Point to Multi Point network where, for reasons of topography and distribution of Remote Stations, the Base Station is located at a central point where it has radio access to each of the Remote Stations. Licensing is not normally available for using high power for Point To Point links, however, if the added reliability that a TRIO Base Station provides due to its duplicated components and modules is necessary, then a Base Station with reduced output power could be provided. Also the improved receiver In a Point To Multi Point system, the Base Station antenna would normally be an omni-directional type, and so an increase of transmitted power and increased receiver sensitivity is necessary to achieve reciprocity with standard D SERIES Data Radio Modems using gain antennas, as the remote units. In this case the Base Station may be situated in a remote location where access is limited, and so the use of a Duplicated or Dual Redundant Base Station with its extra reliabilityand

4.7

BASIC OPERATION The available data rates, host protocols, and programmability are identical to those of the D Series Data Radio Modems previously discussed.

4.8

BASE STATION FUNCTIONAL BLOCKS Detailed description of each of the base station functional blocks is available in the Base Station User Manual. A brief description of these blocks follows:

4.8.1

DISPLAY BOARD All the display devices and driver circuitry are located on this board, as well as power distribution and monitoring. This board presents a LED "bar-graph" display of several important operating conditions. These are:{ The voltage of each power supply input. { Power supply current drawn by each half of the RF transmitter final amplifier. { RF transmitter output power. { RF drive power from each exciter. { Received Signal Strength (RSSI) from each exciter. { Received signal frequency from each of the TC-450/900DX exciter/receivers.

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{ For each exciter/receiver/modem, three LEDs indicate PTT, RxSIG, and SYNC status. { Two LEDs indicate the "failed" status of each power supply input. { A two position toggle switch is used to switch on/off the "bar graph" display, to conserve power if this is a consideration. { Four LEDs These four LEDs are driven by the Hot Standby Control Logic (HSCL) board, which mounts "piggy back" style on the display board. The non-redundant version of the base station, type TC-450/900DB, does not include the HSCL board, and contains only one TC-450/900DX exciter/receiver/modem. For this version, the MODE switch which passes through the display board, is replaced with a momentary action toggle switch (mounted on the display board), used to reset the Supply Fail LEDs.

4.8.2

HOT STANDBY CONTROL LOGIC BOARD

4.8.2.1

GENERAL

The TC-900DH base station includes "hot-switched" standby operation. It includes two independent full duplex signal paths, consisting of TC-900DX exciter/receiver/modems, a dual Low Noise Amplifier (LNA), a dual linear RF amplifier producing seven watts of RF power, and an "Inter-Digital Filter" diplexer. A non-microprocessor based, intelligent logic system controls the standby switching operation. Normally, only one TC-900DX exciter/receiver/modem is "OnLine". The HSCL (Hot Standby Control Logic) module controls the routing of the RS232 data and control signals to the TC-900DX units. This board is mounted as a daughter board on the display PCB. NOTE: this control circuit is the same for both the dual redundant and fully duplicated modules.

4.8.2.2

OPERATION OF LOGIC CARD

The Hot Standby Control Logic board has two basic modes of operation. Either "channel" can be manually selected, or the module may be placed in an automatic operation mode. A three position toggle switch is mounted on the PCB, which physically protrudes through the display board, and metal front panel, to be accessible from the front of the cabinet. The left and right positions select "channels" one and two respectively. The centre position selects the automatic mode. Manually selecting either channel, will put the selected TC-900DX unit "OnLine", regardless of any error conditions that may arise. The two front panel "FAIL" LEDs

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will show the current error status of each unit. They are unlatched indicators in manual modes. Selecting Automatic Mode, by moving the toggle switch to centre position, will "OnLine" unit.

4.8.2.3

MECHANISMS THAT PRODUCE AUTO CHANGEOVER

{ Transmit Power Failure. RTS of "OnLine" unit is ON, AND TxPwr from transmitter is LOW; or (select with link on HSCL PCB) Exciter PTT of "OnLine" unit is ON, AND TxPwr from transmitter is LOW. { RSSI Difference RSSI of "OnLine" unit << RSSI of "OffLine" unit (12 - 15dB difference). { Data Error The Frame_Error_Rate line from the "OnLine" unit goes active.

4.8.3

TC-900DX EXCITER/RECEIVER/MODEM DESCRIPTION The TC-900DX is a modified version of the "standard" D SERIES. It has the internal diplexer removed, separate RF input and RF output cables/connectors fitted, and an extra 10 way connector fitted above the normal position of the TxMIT, SYNC, RxSIG, and PWR LEDs, and small software modifications. The modem is normally programmed to run the transmitter at "High" power, but the actual RF output power is set at 600mW.

4.8.4

TRANSMITTER POWER AMPLIFIER MODULE The transmitter P.A. module is an RF power amplifier mounted in a metal enclosure which boosts the nominal 600mW power output from the Exciter module to a level of around 7 Watts. The separate DC supply inputs to each half of the PA module include DC surge protection by 45 Amp 1500 Watt, transient absorbing devices, and are voltage regulated for additional protection. The power amplifier also includes forward and reflected RF power output monitoring facilities. The PA module is designed for high reliability, and consists of a pair of 15 Watt power amplifier IC's each of which is operated well below its maximum power capability.

4.8.5

DUAL LOW NOISE AMP There are two different circuit configurations of the LNA depending on model.

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In both configurations the LNA is a stand alone module providing around 8dB of broadband gain with a low noise figure and high reliability, and is housed on a double sided printed circuit board, inside a metal enclosure. The DC supply to the LNA has inline filtering, and has surge protection devices fitted to the supply rails and a very low impedance DC short circuit on the input circuitry. All impedance matching, and hybrid coupling is provided by computer designed printed stripline circuitry. The single antenna models of the base station (TC-450/900DB and TC-900DH) have an LNA which has a single antenna input connector which is hybrid coupled to a pair of separate Low Noise transistor amplifiers, the outputs of which are resistively coupled and distributed to both TC-900DX receiver/exciter modules so that a failure in either single LNA device will not cause a complete loss of received signal. The splitting and combining circuitry is designed such that a failure of one device or its attendant power source will not adversely affect the other and cause complete receiver failure, there would however be a very slight degradation in gain and noise figure only. Due to the static microwave coupling techniques used there is no changeover circuitry to fail, and therefore very high redundancy and reliability. In the fully duplicated base station model (TC-900DH/2) the LNA has 2 separate input connectors which are fed from separate antennas via separate antenna diplexers to the two completely isolated LNA transistor amplifiers. The outputs of each amplifier circuit are fed separately to each TC-900DX receiver/exciter module.

4.8.6

900 MHZ - BANDPASS CAVITY DIPLEXER The ID4N12MF-852-930-X100 Diplexer facilitates full duplex operation of Australian channelled Point to Point and Multipoint 900MHz Radio Communication equipment from a single Antenna installation. The ID4N12MF-852/930 is a 3 port Antenna Diplexer, with high Qu cavity filters and integral combiner in a single compact and rugged extruded Aluminium housing. The filter sections are of interdigital construction and are computer designed for a Maximally Flat, Minimal Loss bandpass characteristic in a 50 OHM system. The diplexer should never require adjustment over its lifetime, but field alignment instructions are given in the Base Station Users Manual.

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4.9

PROGRAMMING OF BASE STATIONS All model Base Stations Connect programmer to Port A connector on base station rear panel, using "programming lead" (with DSR pin connected to COM).

Apply power to base station, SYNC LED for Exciter_1 will "wink" on/off until programmer sends password. Follow normal programming procedure as per D SERIES units. Now remove power from base station. For models TC-900DH and TC-900DH/2 proceed to configure the standby unit as follows; Set Select switch to position #2, and apply power. SYNC LED for Exciter_2 will "wink" on/off until programmer sends password. Follow normal programming procedure as per D Series units.

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PROGRAMMING OF D SERIES DATA RADIO MODEM

5.1

INTRODUCTION The programmer is used to set configuration parameters within the TC-900DR and TC-450DR data radio modems. (Firmware V2.2.x or later) as well as D series base stations. Configurations can be saved to a disk file for later retrieval, or used for clone programming of other modems. The programmer is a PC based program, that can be run on any IBM compatible computer running Windows 95, Windows98 or Windows NT. All programming parameters are held in non volatile memory (NVRAM) on the Data Radio Modem. Configuration of the modem is fully programmable via Port "A" which avoids the need for disassembly of the unit for any reason other than for servicing. If more detailed information on the parameter characteristics and their use than given by this manual is required, then please refer to the "Operational Description" section of the user manual for the particular radio modem or base station being programmed.

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5.2

INSTALLATION

5.2.1

MODEM CONNECTION The modem to be programmed connects to the programmer PC via "Port A" on the modem and one of the serial ports on the controller PC. (The Com port, Com1 - Com4 is selectable from the Com Ports pull down menu from within the programmer). The modem must have the supplied programming lead attached for programming to be achieved. Should the PC have a 25 way connector, then the standard RS232, 25 way to 9 way conversion should be used. Note that some cables supplied with the previous DOS Version 2 programmer for the TC-900DR are not suitable for use with the current V3 programmer (no DTR connection) so please use the cable supplied.

5.2.2

PROGRAMMER SOFTWARE To install the software on the PC: - Close down all other programs currently running. - Place the CD-ROM or Floppy Disk (Disk 1) into the PC - Select RUN from the start menu. - Type X:\setup.exe in the dialogue box. (Where X = CD-ROM or Floppy Drive ) - Click OK. - Follow directions.

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5.3

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

5.3.1

MAIN MENU The main menu will appear on starting the program. The layout of the main menu is shown below:

When the program is first started many of the options will be blanked out. To get started you must first load configuration parameters either from an already programmed radio or from a file. The procedures for doing this will be described below. The parameters can then be changed as required and written to the radio and/or written to a file. Note: Changing any item on the menu will not take effect until data is written back to the radio using the WRITE RADIO function. The procedure to follow is Read Radio (or Open file) Change Parameters Write Radio (or save to file for future use)

5.3.2

PULL DOWN MENUS AND TOOLBAR BUTTONS The items on the pulldown menu can be selected either directly with a mouse or using the ALT key in combination with a HOT KEY (eg ALT-F to select the file menu). Some of the main functions are also available on the toolbar (click once to select).

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5.3.2.1

FILE MENU

The file menu allows the user to load (open) or save configuration data as well as to quit the program. The files are saved with a .DAT file extension. All the items in this menu can also be accessed with the Toolbar buttons.

5.3.2.2

RADIO MENU

The radio menu allows the radios configuration data to be read and written to the radio. Before these operations can be performed the correct serial port must be set (see below).

5.3.2.3

COMM PORTS

This menu allows the selection of the ports COM1 to COM4 to be used for communications with the radio and must be set before attempting to read or write to the radio. This setting is saved between sessions.

5.3.2.4

WIZARD (ALSO AVAILABLE ON TOOLBAR)

This menu item invokes the wizard to allow setting up of standard configurations.

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5.4

PORT SETTINGS Two user data ports are available for use on the modem. These can be used individually, or together in a multiplexed environment. These ports are designated as Port "A" and Port "B". Both ports employ RS232 as the physical transmission medium. Port "A" supports full hardware handshaking as well as XON/XOFF and end-to-end flow control (see later section). The handshaking on port A can also be turned off if supported by the radios firmware (Firmware revisions from 2.4 onwards support this option). Port "B" supports XON/XOFF only. Port "A" is always enabled, but port "B" can be turned off if not required. When Port "B" is operational, at least one extra octet of data (8 bits at the primary channel data rate) is required to be transmitted over the radio link for each frame of data. This is the multiplexer address used internally in the modems. (In systems that have a high throughput of data, this additional octet may become significant). Otherwise the ports operate in the same manner.

5.4.1

PORT A SETTINGS This section of the screen allows editing of parameters for port A and is divided into sections for the Character layer (Data speed, No of data bits, No of stop bits, parity), Packet layer and Flow control.

5.4.1.1

CHARACTER LAYER

There are two standard settings that can be selected simply by clicking the mouse on the appropriate button, these are: 9600,N,8,1 (Data Speed = 9600 bps, No Parity ,8 Data Bits , 1 Stop bit) 4800,E,7,2 (Data Speed = 4800 bps, Even Parity, 7 Stop bits , 2 stop bits) To select any other combination of parameters: Click on the custom button to enable the rectangular custom button to become active . Click on the rectangular custom button.

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The following dialogue box will then appear:

Each of the parameters (Data Speed, Parity, Data Bit, Stop Bit) can be set independently. Note: The option of 19200bps is not available when port B is enabled. When the selection is made click the exit button to return to the main screen.

5.4.1.2

PACKET LAYER

The user port can be set up to operate in two basic modes of operation. The first is the "Standard PAD" protocol, (where PAD stands for Packet Assembler and Disassembler), and the second is the "SLIP" protocol. The packet layer section of the main screen sets the PAD used and in the case of the standard PAD, the PAD parameters. The following options are available in the main screen. Standard Live Framing MODBUS Custom

Standard Live Framing With Standard Live Framing data received from the host by the modem is immediately placed into a frame and transferred onto the radio channel. This avoids placing "store and forward" delays in the data transmission. If a stream of characters is received by the modem, then several characters at a time may be placed into the same frame. The number of characters in the frame depends mainly on the respective baud rates of the user port and the primary

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channel baud rate of the modem, as well as the level of overheads experienced on the radio channel and the user data stream. For example a constant stream of 300 baud user data placed onto a 9600 baud channel will result in 1 character per frame being transmitted. If the user baud rate was lifted to 9600 with a continuous data stream, then the frame size would settle to about 12 characters. If the radio channel overhead was lifted by enabling SID codes, then the average frame size will be 16, if the supervisory channel is turned on set with 1 bit per octet, then the average frame size will increase to 24. If both SID codes and supervisory is enabled, the average frame size will increase to 32. The first character of the data stream will always be carried in its own frame. The next frame will hold the average value of frame size. The number of data bits associated with the user data stream will also have an effect on the average size of a frame. For instance the number of stop bits, and number of data bits per character. Again the system designer must choose the best compromise of all the above .

MODBUS This option uses the standard PAD driver with options automatically set to implement the MODBUS protocol. Custom By selecting the Custom button, the following sections are available.

5.4.1.2.1 SLIP / TRIO DIAGNOSTICS The SLIP protocol is a method of transferring binary data packets over a data link. It is supplied in the D series products as a preconfigured option for the user to select if required. Each data packet is enclosed within <FEND> characters, and a substitution mechanism exists that allows these characters to be included with the packets data stream. Appendix A holds a definition of the SLIP protocol. The protocol is used extensively in UNIX(tm) based systems, and is closely associated with TCP/IP networks. The diagnostics controller package (Supplied by Trio DataCom) uses the SLIP protocol to communicate with the base modems. 5.4.1.2.2 MODBUS Uses the standard PAD driver to implement the MODBUS Protocol. 5.4.1.2.3 DNP-3 / IEC 870 Uses the standard PAD driver to implement the DNP-3 / IEC 870 Protocol.

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5.4.1.2.4 Selecting from the Pull Down Menu A range of protocols that can be implemented with the standard PAD driver can be selected here. 5.4.1.2.5 User Selectable All the options described so far except for SLIP and Trio Diagnostic use the Standard PAD driver but set the parameters automatically. This option allows the standard PAD driver to be used with user selectable parameters and thus For the modem to successfully transmit its packets (or frames) of data, it must be told how to ascertain that one packet of data has stopped and a new one has begun. In the standard PAD mode, this is done in a number of ways. An End Of Message (EOM) character can be used to close the frame of data. For instance an ASCII carriage return is often used to do this. Data input will be accepted into the modem (but not transmitted yet) until the EOM character is detected, only now will the whole frame be transmitted to the receiving modem at the other end of the link. An input timer can be enabled. This timer can be used to close a frame of data after a specified period of no more data. This method enables packets of data to be delineated by a timing gap between the packets. The range of times available is from 2 to 255 ms. Typically the time would be set to reflect the absence of a couple of characters in the data stream at the specified user port baud rate. Again the data is not physically transmitted over the radio link until the frame has been closed. Another method is to limit the maximum number of characters allowed within one frame. The maximum limit that can be set is 255 characters. The setting of this parameter enables the system designer to optimise the data throughput over the radio channel. Each data frame has an amount of overhead associated with it. This consists of checksums and SID codes if they are enabled. The smaller the data frames are forced to be then the greater the overall level of overhead. However, the larger the data frames are forced to be, then the greater the delay time before transmission of the completed frame. The system designer must determine the best compromise between allowed overheads and data packet delay time. When User Selectable is used three parameters are set in the custom select fields at the bottom of the dialogue. These parameters are: Char Input timer disable. Set the input timer value in ms or enter zero to

Maximum Frame Size Set the max. number of characters or enter zero to disable. E.O.M CHAR (End of Message Character) Enter the end of message character as a decimal value or disable the function by using the DIS button to the right of the field.
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5.4.1.3

HANDSHAKING

If the standard PAD is selected (i.e. any settings apart from SLIP and Trio Diagnostic), then flow control can be either hardware handshaking or XON/XOFF protocol. The XON/XOFF flow control is not possible when using either the SLIP or the Trio Diagnostic protocols The Handshaking section of the screen allows the selection of either of the handshaking methods as well as allowing handshaking to be disabled. Details of the two handshaking methods are given below. 5.4.1.3.1 Hardware Handshaking The modem acts as Data Communications Equipment (DCE). It supplies to the host controller the following interface signals : Data Set Ready Data Carrier Detect Clear To Send Receive Data Output (DSR) (DCD) (CTS) (RXD)

The host controller must act as Data Terminal Equipment (DTE). It supplies to the modem the following interface signals : Data Terminal Ready Request To Send Transmit Data Input DCD DCD is set to TRUE when data is being transferred from the modem to the host RXD line active. The signal is asserted approximately 500s before the start bit of the first character in the data stream and remains for approximately 1 character after the last bit in the data stream. DSR DSR is permanently set to TRUE. CTS The CTS is a signal from the modem to the host informing the host that the modem is able to accept incoming data on the TXD line. The CTS can be made to operate in one of two modes. It can be "tied" to the actions of the RTS line similar to the operation of a "standard" line modem, or act fully independently, so it can be used in conjunction with the supervisory signalling If the CTS is tied to the RTS line, then the CTS is FALSE if the RTS line is FALSE. Once the RTS data to the modem on the TXD line), then the CTS will be set TRUE within 850s, if the modem is capable of accepting more data. The CTS line will be set to FALSE if the transmit buffer in the modem exceeds half capacity, or the number of queued frames exceeds 12. This to ensure that no (DTR) (RTS) (TXD)

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overflow condition can occur when the end-to-end flow control mechanism is operational (See later section). RTS The RTS line is used for two reasons. The first is to assert the CTS line in response to RTS ( if the CTS is tied to the RTS operation), the second is to validate the incoming data stream on the TXD line. If RTS is FALSE, then no data will be accepted by the modem. The RTS line can also be used to key up the transmitter stage of the modem. (See later section). DTR The DTR line is used for flow control of data being sent from the modem to the host controller. When the host is able to accept data it sets this line to TRUE, and if data is available within the modem, it will be sent to the host. If the host cannot accept any more data, then it sets the DTR to FALSE, and the modem stop all transmissions to the host. 5.4.1.3.2 Xon/Xoff Handshaking If the flow control mechanism is XON/XOFF then the modem uses the standard ASCII control codes of DC1 {^Q=11(Hex)=17(Dec)} for XON and DC3 {^S=13(Hex)=19(Dec)) for XOFF. Note : There is no substitution mechanism employed in the XON/XOFF protocol, so care must be taken when transferring binary data to ensure that invalid flow control characters are not generated. The hardware control lines operate as described in the previous section with the following exceptions. RTS no longer validates the input data stream on TXD, so if RTS is FALSE, data will still be accepted by the modem. The DTR input line is totally ignored.

5.4.2

PORT B SETTINGS This section of the screen is identical to the PORT A settings section with the following exceptions. An option is provided to enable the port. The port is disabled when shipped from the factory. To enable PORT B the SID codes must be turned on and Port A line speed should be set at 9600bps or lower. No hardware handshaking is available. The only signalling lines on PORT B are DCD and DSR lines which operate as per PORT A. The maximum line speed on PORT B is 9600bps.

As the SID codes must be enabled for using Port B, the user should ensure that the assigned SID code values are correct for the particular system setup, for both Port A and Port B (Setting up SID codes is described later in this document).

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5.5

RF PARAMETERS This section of the screen allows adjustment of Transmitter and Receiver Frequencies, Transmit power level and other RF parameters.

5.5.1

TRANSMIT FREQUENCY Enter the required transmit frequency in MHz in this field. The programmer checks that frequency is in the range for the particular model of radio as determined by its build type.

5.5.2

FREQUENCY TRIM (TRANSMITTER) Clicking on the Adjust button beside Frequency Trim bring up the following dialogue.

This option allows a frequency offset to be placed onto the transmitter carrier. This permits a correction facility for drifts in frequency performance of the transmitter due to ageing of circuitry components. For example, a standard crystal may vary in fundamental frequency operation over 1 year by one part per million. It is believed that over the lifetime use of the modem 3 kHz tolerance will be sufficient. If more than this is required, the unit should be sent in to the dealer/factory for service and re-calibration. Note: 1. On all D series radio modems the receive frequency trim is also set by the transmit frequency trim. Only on TC-DS series base stations is the transmit and receive frequency trim independent. 2. The frequency offset displayed is approximate. Actual frequency trim must be changed with calibrated test equipment.

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5.5.3

RECEIVE FREQUENCY TC450DR and TC-DS series base stations When programming the TC-450DR radio modem or TC-DS series base stations enter the receive frequency in MHz in this field. TC-900DR When programming the TC-900DR the receive frequency cannot be set independently of the transmitter and this field is provided for information only. The receive frequency is 76 MHz below the transmit frequency for a type 6 radio (formerly referred to as a HIGH transmit radio). The receive frequency is 76 MHz above the transmit frequency for a type 7 radio (formerly referred to as a LOW transmit radio).

5.5.4

FREQUENCY TRIM (RECEIVER) This option is only used for TC-DS series base stations that have separate references for the transmitter and receiver. The option is blanked out for all other radios. The dialogue is identical to the frequent trim for the transmitter. It will be necessary to sniff the receiver VCO with a coupling loop and sensitive receiver to use this option.

5.5.5

TX POWER This option is used to set the power level of the Transmitter. The option works differently depending on the type or radio modem. The TC-900DR has two factory preset levels of power, a HIGH power level of 1 watt and a LOW power level of 200mW. The programmer sets the power level to either HIGH or LOW. The TC-450DR and TC-DS series base stations allow the power level to be set by

5.5.5.1

TX POWER (TC-900DR)

Clicking TX Power -Adjust brings up the following dialogue box. Simply click on High for 1 Watt or Low for 200mW and exit.

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5.5.5.2

TX POWER (TC-450DR AND TC-DS SERIES BASE STATIONS)

Clicking on the TX Power - Adjust brings up the following dialogue.

The power can be adjusted by clicking on and dragging the slider, then clicking finish. The approximate power level is displayed for reference but is not calibrated (i.e. variations in coupling of the power sensor between individual units are not allowed for).

Using a Power Meter To set the power level accurately the power should be set with an accurate power meter. The programmer has a facility to adjust the power level while observing a power meter. Connect a power meter capable of handling at least 10 Watts to the modem. If a low level power meter is to be used then a high power attenuator must be inserted between the radio modem and the power meters sensor. Clicking the Test with Power Meter button brings up the following dialogue box.

This message warns the user to ensure the transmitter is terminated with a load / power meter that can handle the power. Clicking on OK brings up the following dialogue box.

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Clicking on the slider and dragging it causes the radio modem to automatically transmit. The power level on the power meter can then be observed while making the adjustment. The transmitter will remain on while dragging the slider and will remain on for 5 seconds after letting it go. Clicking the Finish button will end the dialogue and turn off the transmitter straight away. Note: The radio modems TXMIT LED will not illuminate during this procedure.

5.5.6

MINIMUM RX SIGNAL The modem is capable of receiving extremely weak radio signals, and successfully extracting the data content from the waveforms. The weaker the signal becomes, and the closer to the noise floor it goes, the error rate of the extracted signal increases. A Bit Error Rate (BER) of better than 1 in 1000 bits in a data stream, is usually required by most systems to ensure reliable and efficient operation. The D series products achieves this at a receive signal level of approximately -108dBm ( 0.89uV). The lowest received signal strength that the modem is allowed to extract data from the received waveform is set by the parameter. A level of -105dBm would suit most applications which equates to a BER of approximately 1 in 1,000,000 bits. In areas where there is a high level of background noise or interference, a higher level can be set. This will assist the operation of the modem in two ways. Firstly, the system maintenance personnel will be able to detect the wanted signals from the noise, as the "RXSIG" indication on the front of the modem chassis is illuminated only when signal is received above the minimum RSSI level. Secondly if the collision avoidance mechanism is operational in a point to multipoint system, the detection of "noise" instead of a valid transmission from the remote modems, at the base site, will effectively "lock out" all of the remote units from accessing and using the channel. Due to variations in components used within the modems, the actual level of RSSI will vary from unit to unit by up to 5dB. So a setting of -90 dbm may actually be -85dB.

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To set the Minimum RSSI approximately simply click on and fill in the field.

The Minimum RSSI parameter can be set more accurately by applying a signal of the required threshold level from a signal generator to the radio modems antenna connector. No modulation is required for this procedure unmodulated carrier will do. Click the auto button next to the field and the following message will appear.

Click OK and a progress indicator will appear briefly while the measurement is being made and the parameter will then be set automatically.

5.5.7

PTT TIME-OUT The Press To Talk (PTT) time-out is used to kill the transmitter if it exceeds the designated time. It can range from 1 to 655 seconds, and would be set according A typical application is in a point to multipoint environment, where protection is wanted from a remote unit remaining in the keyed up condition, thereby locking out all the other users. Another is in a low power supply capacity system, where again if a modem stays in a keyed up condition for a long period, the power supply will be depleted. To set this parameter simply click on and fill in the field.

5.5.8

TRANSMITTER LEAD IN DELAY (LID) Whenever the radio transmitter is activated a timer is started. No data frames are transmitted until this timer terminates, so that the transmitter can ramp up to full power, the destination unit receiver has time to settle it's AFC and synchronise it's data receiver before frame data is begun. The LID is only used in cases where the transmitter needs to be key on to send the user data. When the transmitter is already active, then no delay is applied to the data. The range of settings depends on the primary channel baud rate, and the setting of the supervisory channel bits.

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For 9600 baud, the range is 0 to 212ms with no supervisory channel running, and 0 to 239ms if the supervisory channel is active. For 4800 baud, the range is 0 to 425ms with no supervisory channel running, and 0 to 478ms if the supervisory channel is active. The supervisory channel is used to implement the standard collision avoidance method, and the end to end flow control mechanism. It adds one bit per octet (8 bits) to the data stream during the LID period. The unit is shipped from the factory with the lead in delay set to a default value to allow synchronisation to occur before data frames are sent under and viable path conditions. The D series programmer allows this value to be changed (the parameter is specified in milliseconds). Although it is possible to set the lead in delay below the factory default this is not recommended as the margin for changes in path conditions and equipment variations with environmental conditions will be reduced.

5.5.9

TX POWER ALARM LIMIT This parameter sets a value of minimum transmitter output power . Should the power fall below this value, then the error indication of flashing "RX SIG" and "SYNC" LED's will occur. This setting can range from 0 to 1000mW. This is a useful indication for maintenance personnel, when tracing a fault in a system. It would indicate a faulty or wrongly adjusted radio modem, or installation. Note that this value is uncalibrated and the actual power level where an error indication occurs may vary from unit to unit.

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5.6

SYSTEM PARAMETERS This section of the menu is used to set how data is routed, setting up the diagnostics and supervisory functions.

5.6.1

SID CODES The modem includes a feature that provides data stream switching or stream routing. This allows simultaneous operation of both Port "A" and Port "B" over the one radio link, along with the inclusion of a diagnostics data stream. Stream IDentifier (SID) codes are used by the modem as the addressing mechanism. A SID code is placed at the start of each data frame as it is sent over the radio channel. The modems use this code to determine whether or not to act on the data message. To turn on and off the SID codes simply click on the on or off button. To set up the SID code parameters click on the EDIT SID button and the following dialogue will appear.

Note that the port B parameters are greyed out when port B is not enabled

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For each port one of four options can be chosen as described below.

5.6.1.1

USER PORT

This option is selected by clicking on the User Port button and filling in the RXSID and TXSID fields to the right. In the User Port mode (Referred to in the previous programmer as MUX/DEMUX mode) all SID code operations are performed transparently to the user. Data placed into a user port which has been assigned a specified SID code, will only be received by a modem at the other end of the radio link that has a user port assigned with the same SID code. In this way, Port "A" and Port "B" can be assigned different SID codes, thereby separating the data streams. Two SID codes values are available for each user port RXSID and TXSID. The RXSID codes apply to the data being received by the modem, and the TXSID codes apply to the data being transmitted by the modem. This allows for different transmit and receive codes if required, but generally they would be both the same. A situation where Tx and Rx SID codes may be different is in a repeater configuration. In this type of application all data messages sent to the repeater will be "repeated". Thus by having different Tx and Rx codes a control unit will not "hear" its own transmission. If the diagnostics facility is installed in the modem, then it too has a pair of receive and transmit SID codes. The diagnostics data simply uses a different data stream to the user data, but is processed internally by the modem. If access to the diagnostics core is required, as when the diagnostics controller is connected to the modem, then the user port concerned and the diagnostics stream, must have the same SID codes assigned to them. (Previously TXSID was referred to as SIDA2 or SIDB2 and RXSID was referred to as SIDA1 or SIDB1 for ports A and B respectively).

5.6.1.2

TRUNK STREAMS

In the TrunkStreams mode, data that is input into the modem for transmission must have a SID code appended to the start of the data packet by the user. The modem does not automatically do it as in the User Port mode of operation. When a data packet is received by the modem, it is passed through a SID code filter which is bounded by a lower and upperlimit of SID codes. The SID code is not stripped off from the user data. For instance the lower bound is 03 and the upper bound is 07. If a message is received with a SID code of 02 appended it would not be passed to the user. If a message is received with a SID code of 04 then it is passed to the user, with 04 at the start of the frame. Port "A" is tested for a match of SID address before Port "B", and if a match occurs, then the data is passed out port "A". Therefore the range of Port "A"

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addresses can be a subset of Port "B" addresses, allowing a "hole" in the Port "B" range of addresses to be passed out of Port "A". The SID codes can range from 0 to 255, and physically consist of the byte value of To select the Trunk Streams option click on the Trunk Streams button of the port to be used and fill in the fields to the right. The From field is for the lower SID code limit and the To field for the upper SID code limit.

5.6.1.3

REPEAT STREAMS

The modem is capable of operating in a repeater mode. Each user port can be configured as a separate repeater. The associated user ports are effectively disconnected to the "outside world" when in repeater mode. Data received from the radio channel is passed directly to the transmitter, and placed back onto the radio channel. The repeater must receive a complete frame of data before it is retransmitted. In some systems this store and forward delay may be significant, and careful selection of maximum frame sizes must be considered to minimise the delay. If Port "B" is to be used the repeaters will run in the "stream routing" mode. This allows separate ranges of streams to be routed through the repeater port, at the same time. This also extends to allow a certain "range" of streams to be repeated while a stream is "dropped off" on Port B for "local use". To enable the mode for the port click the Repeat Streams button and select the range of SID codes on frames to be repeated.

5.6.1.4

TRANSLATE STREAMS

This option is only available for if the radio being programmed has firmware version 2.4 or higher. This is essentially a hybrid of the Mux/Demux and Repeater functions available on a port. Whereas the latter repeats a range of streams, this function instead translates one stream to another, by demultiplexing One stream (defined by SID1), SID2)."

5.6.1.5

TRIO DIAGNOSTICS PROCESSOR

The Trio Diagnostics Processor is an option that must be installed before this section of the menu will become active. The RXSID and TXSID fields are used to set the streams the diagnostics controller uses to receive diagnostics commands and to send back responses containing diagnostics data.

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5.6.1.5.1 Diagnostics Repeat This option can be toggled on and off simply by clicking the button. Some applications will require that the master unit in a point to multipoint system repeats diagnostics frames only. (i.e. the master modem is not set up as a repeater). This will be the case when the system diagnostics controller is connected to a remote unit in the system, and it polls the system population from this point. The master unit must retransmit any diagnostics frames that are not addressed to itself to the remainder of the population.

5.6.2

SUPERVISORY FUNCTIONS In a point to multipoint system, one master unit connects to a number of remote units on the same radio channel. The master unit can transmit at any time and all the remotes will receive the signal. However, if more than one remote unit transmits at a time, then a collision will occur between the two transmissions, Two collision avoidance mechanisms have been included in the modem to alleviate this loss of data that will occur. The standard method employs the use of the Supervisory Signalling Channel (SSC), whilst the minimum RSSI method does not. The second method is especially useful, if the SSC is used for end to end flow control. The SSC is the addition of at least 1 bit of data to each octet of transmitted data. This bit can be used as a method of signalling a data state from one end of the radio link to the other, without interfering with the user data stream. This bit can be added in either the transmit or the receive data streams The SSC can also be used for end to end signalling when this is selected the standard method of collision avoidance cannot be used. The Supervisory section of the main menu allows one of four options to be selected. One option is to turn off the supervisory functions altogether the other three options are described below.

5.6.2.1

COLLISION AVOIDANCE

This menu item refers to the standard method of collision avoidance. The standard method of collision avoidance uses the SSC. (This means that end to end flow control cannot be used). It uses the SSC to signal the onset of a potential collision in a system. This mode of operation is selected by clicking the collision avoidance button and the following dialogue appears.

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The user must then select whether the unit is to be a master or remote unit. If remote is selected various parameters may be selected by clicking the Advance button and the following dialogue appears.

The meaning of this menus parameters and the mechanism for standard collision avoidance is explained below. The master modem is configured to transmit SSC bits, and the remote modem to receive SSC bits. When the master is receiving no signal, it sets the SSC bit to low, signalling to the remote units that the channel is clear to transmit data on. When the master detects signal, it sets the SSC bit to high, signalling to all the other remotes that the channel is busy, and that they cannot transmit until the SSC bit is set back to the low condition. It takes the base station a finite time to detect a signal from a remote modem, and set the SSC bit to the BUSY condition, thereby stopping other remotes from transmitting. During this time a data collision can still occur. This collision window is in the order of 5ms in length, and is unavoidable. If a remote is ready to transmit data but it finds the SSC bit from the master set to BUSY, then it holds back its transmission for a "backoff" time. At the expiry of this time, it tries to transmit its message again. The backoff time consists of two parameters, the "maximum number of slots" and the "length of time per slot". The max. number of slots can range from 1 to 16 and

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the length of time per slot can vary from 1 to 255ms. The "backoff" time is calculated by multiplying the slot time by a random number between 1 and the maximum slot number. For example : If the slot time is 30ms and the maximum slot number is 4, then the backoff This ensures that modems that are waiting to be allowed transmissions do not attempt to retransmit at the same time as each other at every attempt. If for any reason, the master modem stops transmission (or has not as yet started), then the state of the SSC bit can be set to a default value. This value is used by the remote units whenever it loses contact with the master. For a remote unit this bit would normally be set to a 1, indicating that the channel is BUSY. This means that the remote units will not transmit any data until the master comes on line. The actual data rate of the SSC can be set. Normally a rate of 1 bit per octet would be used, but for systems that wish to reduce the overheads of the transmitted data, a setting of between 1 and 15 octets per bit is available. For instance, if 11 is selected, then after every 11th octet of user data 1 bit of SSC data will be inserted. The backoff delay as described above would normally operate after the radio channel has been found busy by the remote unit. There is an option on the menu above (firmware versions VA2.3.x and above) that allows the backoff delay to occur before the transmission is attempted. This is especially useful for systems where a degree of randomness is required on the remote units transmission, to alleviate synchronous runs of data "locking out" the remotes from using the channel. When the collision avoid mechanism is chosen, several default values are set in the programmer. These are as follows :

The SSC transmit channel rate is set to 1 if a master unit is selected, and the receive channel is disabled. The SSC receive channel rate is set to 1 if a slave unit is selected, and the transmit channel is disabled. The default last state of the SSC bit is set to 0 if the unit is a master. (The bit is not actually used as the receive channel is disabled, but just set to an initial value.) The default last state of the SSC bit is set to 1 if the unit is a slave. These settings can be changed if the user requires something different. Trio DataCom has a software package available that simulates the collision avoidance mechanism described above. This can be used by the system designer to determine the collision rates between messages, the maximum usable size of the remote population, and average message delivery times. Contact Trio DataCom or your dealer for more information on this product.

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5.6.2.2

RSSI COLLISION AVOIDANCE

If this method of collision avoidance is chosen, then the SSC channel is left free for use by the end to end flow control mechanism. The option is chosen by selecting the "Min RSSI Collision Avoid Mode" checkbox. The user must select whether the unit is to be a master or a slave. If the unit is a master, then when a valid synchronised signal is received from a remote unit, then the PTT will be activated. (Of course if the master has data to send, it will also activate PTT). If the unit is a remote, then it will not transmit data until it stops receiving a signal from the master. The level that the remote decides this is set by the minimum RSSI level setting described above. The "backoff" mechanism employed is the same as that used in the standard method of collision avoidance. One disadvantage of this method is that the master modem cannot be permanently keyed, which requires each of its data transmissions to be preceded by a Lead In Delay. In some systems this may be significant. To select RSSI Collision avoidance click the button on the main menu and use the following dialogue to select Master or Remote. (There are no other options to set for RSSI collision avoidance).

5.6.2.3

END TO END SIGNALLING

The end to end signalling control mechanism allows flow control signals to be passed from one end of a data link to the other, rather than just using local flow control, where the state of the remote modem is unknown. End to end signalling utilises the SSC. The standard method of collision avoidance cannot be used, when end to end flow control is active. The mode is selected by accessing the "System Functions" button, and the "Select Signalling Functions" dialogue box. The end to end signalling only operates on Port "A", Port "B" employs local flow control only. At start up the transmitted SSC bit is set to 0. This reflects that data can be transferred over the link successfully. Once the SSC bit is received by a modem

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as a 1, then flow control must be enforced, to stop the data flow and avoid an overrun situation occurring. When hardware handshake lines are employed, the DTR line from the host regulates the flow of receive data out of the modem. If the host cannot receive any more data it sets the DTR line to FALSE. If data is still being received over the radio link by the modem then its internal buffer will begin to fill. When it reaches half capacity, the modem transmits over the data link an SSC bit of 1, telling the other end to stop sending any more data. In the case where XON/XOFF flow control is used, the DTR line input is replaced with the state of the last received XON or XOFF character

5.6.3

PTT CONTROL PTT refers to the process of activating the transmitter (PTT stands for push to talk). The transmitter can be activated in either of the following ways.

5.6.3.1

PTT FROM DATA ONLY

The radio Press To Talk (PTT) is activated when the transmitter section of the modem has a frame of data transmit. This occurs when the user port PAD has closed the frame and passed it to the transmit section. The mechanism that closes the frame is determined by the setup of the user port as described above. When PTT is active, the "TXMIT" indication on the modem chassis is illuminated, and RF power is being fed to the antenna.

5.6.3.2

PTT FROM RTS SIGNAL

The RTS signalling line on Port "A" can be used to set the PTT on. Applications that rely on establishing a point to point link before data is transferred generally require this method of activating the radio transmitter.

5.6.4

STATUS OF RADIO MODEM The bottom right hand corner of the menu displays some information about the Radio Modem. These items are displayed for information only and cannot be changed. Whether the modem is Half Duplex or Full Duplex The build type of the radio. Each type number defines the Transmit and Receive frequency range as well as other RF parameters of the radio modem. For DS series base stations there are two radios one for TX and one for RX and the build types are indicated separately. All other Radio Modems have only one radio for transmit and receive, in this case the type number is indicated under the TX Radio Type entry. Whether the optional Diagnostics have been installed or not.
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5.7

STATUS BAR The status bar at the bottom provides further information on the radio modem.

5.7.1

SERIAL NUMBER The serial number is set within the modem at time of production. Each modem has a unique serial number, and a label is fixed on the modems case detailing the number. This number is used as an identification aid, and in systems where the diagnostics feature is employed, as a system address.

5.7.2

FIRMWARE REVISION The modem control chipset used within the data radio modem defines the internal operation of the unit. This number describes which chipset is installed within the modem.

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REMOTE DIAGNOSTICS AND NETWORK MANAGEMENT

6.1

INTRODUCTION The Diagnostics controller is a Windows 95/98/NT based program, that can be run on a standard desktop or laptop PC. Trio's Diagnostic software runs in the 32 bit Windows environment and offers many options and configurations which are easily accessible via pop-up windows. These include group or timed polling, remote programming of all units, remote switching of duplicated base stations, viewing of databases, logging and trending of real time parameters etc. The diagnostic facilities allow retrieval of packet statistics from each radio modem. These statistics are used to calculate Packet and Bit Error Rates, a units condition/health, network efficiency and bandwidth utilisation. The use of the diagnostics facilities provided by the controller gives the radio modem system designer and operator a powerful tool for both the maintenance and continuing reliability of their system. The general operating parameters that can be obtained from remote modem units are : - Current RSSI level. - Last transmitted power level. - Receive frequency offset. - Power supply voltage level. - Current temperature. These are displayed on the controllers screen in a "quick read" format of bar graphs, as well as detailed response listings. For the D Series of radio modems to operate with the diagnostic controller, they must be factory preset to include the diagnostics response facilities. The diagnostics data stream operates "alongside" the main user data stream. No interference between the two streams occurs, so as far as the primary user of the

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6.2

FEATURES

32 Bit Windows 95/98/NT Based User Software. Full graphical presentation. Full SCADA style features such as database, trending, networking etc. Able to interrogate and display important operating parameters of each radio modem. Ability to remotely reconfigure any data radio modem within communications range. Provides performance data of any unit - good frames received, bad frames received,

Provides statistical Bit Error Rate (BER) performance calculations for any unit. Provides powerful network tools such as channel occupancy statistics, average

received transmission duration etc.


Can be set to background poll radio system for continuous system monitoring &

logging.
Provides full time/date stamped Status and Alarm logging/reporting. A relational

database is created and managed using Microsoft Jet database engine Ver3.5. The database file, which is an .mdb file, can be accessed with external programs such as Microsoft Access.

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6.3

INSTALLATION

6.3.1

MODEM CONNECTION The diagnostics controller normally connects via COM1 on the controller PC and Port B on the radio modem (Port "A" can be used if required). NOTE: The controller can connect to any port of any data radio modem within the system as long as the data radio port is configured accordingly. The modem must have its SID codes enabled, and have the SID code set to "00". The data format used is the SLIP protocol, running at 9600 baud, No parity, 8 data bits and 1 stop bit. Appendix C "SLIP Protocol" contains a detailed definition of the SLIP Protocol. The modem must have its Port configured detailed in the previous Section. COM1 of the controller PC is to be directly connected to the 9 way D-Min of the modem. Should the PC have a 25 way connector, then the standard RS232, 25 way to 9 way conversion should be used.

6.3.2

CONTROLLER SOFTWARE The Remote Diagnostics Controller and Network Management Software is supplied on a CD. To install the software, insert the CD into the drive. From the Start menu, select "Run" and type in "d:\setup.exe" (where d: is the CD drive number), and follow the screen instructions. The installation procedure copies some support files to the \WINDOWS\SYSTEM directory, and the specified drive/directory which can be changed at installation time. NOTE: The controller software is NOT a shareware product and may NOT be freely distributed to other users. Its operation is allowed only by the original purchaser of the product. Files that are created by the diagnostic controller software, will reside in the same directory as that which the controller software is located.

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6.4

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS

6.4.1

GENERAL When the controller starts, a presentation screen is displayed which will then lead you into the main diagnostics screen. This is where all the major functions of the controller are accessed. The main screen presents the operator with the typical Windows pull down type menu bars - File, Settings, etc. Icons of the most commonly used selections are also provided across the top of the screen. .

This screen is basically broken up into three main sections; Section One is the Status Polls screen which displays all poll results obtained. Section Two is the Alarms screen which displays any alarms that occur and Section Three is the Base Station Activity screen which displays any the system. The bottom row of the screen also displays a summary of the configured parameters such as which com port is being used, whether SID codes are on or off, whether polling is enabled or disabled, current database path and file name, and etc.

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6.4.2

MENU SELECTION

6.4.3

FILE MENU To utilise Trio Remote Diagnostics facilities, a database must be created which includes the individual serial numbers ,alarm parameters, and various other parameters. The file menu allows the operator to create a New database, Open an existing database, Add/Edit/Delete a database or View an existing database. All such database tools utilize standard Windows type formats for file selections as shown.

Selected Unit: Is a pull down selection box, for selecting a unit to view or edit. Unit Name and Location: are fields which allow the user to enter descriptions of sites and there locations. (Optional) Unit Serial Number: is the factory preset unique serial number of the unit. This is obtained from the bright orange warranty number located on all units. SID Code: (Diagnostic Stream Identifier) is the SID code address number being used by the unit for the diagnostics stream. This is normally set to 0. Check the radio units programmed configuration for confirmation. Poll Response Timeout: is the time in seconds the Diagnostic controller will wait for a response from the remote unit. When a time out occurs, the controller will retry. If three poll attempts fail then the poll request is terminated, and a No Acknowledge (No Ack) message will appear in the alarms window. One second is usually more than enough wait time. In a multilayer system, longer response times may occur. Alarm limits: allow the user to set thresholds for each unit which when exceeded will report an alarm. Default settings are provided for remote devices and base stations. These are selected by clicking on the appropriate buttons presented. If the controller receives a status poll parameter result which is outside any of the threshold settings, it will immediately retry, in case it was an erroneous measurement. If the next received poll result is still outside the threshold, the

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retries will continue until it has received a status poll within the threshold settings, or three status polls. If three polls outside the required threshold are received, the average of these polls is displayed in the status poll window and the offending parameter(s) appear as alarms in the Alarms window. Hot Standby Base Pairing: is used when a Hot Standby Base is employed within the system. The exciter-modems contained in each base unit need to be "paired" together. Since only one of the exciter-modems can be active (on-line) at any time, only one can answer a poll. Thus the two should be paired together so they are treated as mutually exclusive. This selection allows the user to pair the two radio modems by Enabling Hot Standby Base Pairing and then selecting the other exciter with which the currently selected exciter is to be paired with. The two units must of course exist in the database as independent units before they can be paired. Add New Button: Click this button to add a new radio modem to the database. The Selected Unit, Name, Location, Unit Serial numbers and Hot Standby Base Pairing fields will be cleared, ready for the entry of a new unit. After filling in the details click the Apply button to add to the database. Apply Button: Applies changes to selected units or adds new radios to the data base. Delete Button: Allows deletion of units from the database. Note: Deleting a unit from the database will delete all its associated status poll and alarm history. FILE - VIEW (view only) The View Screen shows the unit alarm limits, current control states, calibration constants, and last poll results.

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SETTINGS The settings menu allows the user to configure various setup parameters. These include;

Communications Port:: Select the required PC serial communications port. Controller Address: Normally set to 0. Networks which have multiple controllers active, should use different controller addresses. SID code: Enabled or disabled (Default disabled). In some systems, external application of SID codes is used as a method of giving the modems in the system specific data addresses. Such a system is described in Application Note AN-D4. The modems are placed into the "stream routing" mode, and the user (eg. Diagnostic controller) supplies the SID code at the start of each data packet to be transmitted. In this way the user can "steer" the data flow through the given network. Should the diagnostics controller be used in such a network then it too needs to append the data addresses or SID codes to the beginning of all data messages sent. In the controllers database record for each modem, a field is supplied where the user can select the SID code for that particular modem. By selecting the Diagnostic SID code that suits the system topology, the diagnostics data Auto Logging ON when enabled will automatically turn on Status Poll logging and Alarm logging when polling (Group or Timed) is enabled. Alert Tones when enabled will emit a tone from the PC speaker when Status poll alarms occur and/or Base Station change overs occur.

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6.4.4

STATUS POLLING In order to obtain diagnostics information, the diagnostics controller provides a number of automatic polling facilities, including; Group polling, Timed Polling, and Individual polling. The Group and Timed poll facilities will automatically cycle through a selected group of units at a predetermined interval (in seconds). The Individual poll facility permits intensive polling of a single unit at a selectable rate, When the modem is polled for the first time, the controller will poll (ask) the radio for its calibation constants and firmware revision (These can be viewed in the View window under the File menu). When this initialization procedure is complete, status polling can commence. If the radio were to perform a cold boot for what ever reason (eg. loss of power, cold boot command recieved, etc), the controller will detect this, and initiate the above initialisation procedure again. If Hot-Standby base stations are employed in the system, then only the "on-line" unit will be polled. If a hot standby changeover occurs at the base, then the new "on-line" modem will be polled and the off-line unit removed from the poll sequence. A "Changeover" alarm will be displayed in the Base Station Activity screen. The status polls requests that are reported and displayed on the main screen are; Temperature Received Signal Strength Transmitter Power DC Supply Volts Received Frequency Error

POLL SETTINGS

Under the Polling menu option, choose Setup... The Poll Settings dialog box will appear. Here you can set : Poll Repetition time (1 to 65 secs): Is the time in seconds between each status poll of the group poll cycle. Each unit in the poll group will be polled in turn, at the this time interval.

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Start Time: Time at which the Timed poll cycle will commence. Number of cycles: This is the number of times the controller will cycle through the poll group when the Timed Group poll commences. Each unit in the poll group will be polled this number of times. Apply Button: Click Apply to initiate any changes made in this dialog box.

Poll Group Select Under the Polling menu, select Poll Group Select... This dialog box enables Adding/Removing of radios to/from the automatic poll group. Units in the Selection list box are avaliable for adding to the poll group. These units will not be polled during a group poll cycle. Units in the Poll Group list box will be polled during a group poll cycle. Clicking the Save

Group Polling: This is the standard mode of operation. The diagnostic controller will continuously cycle through the poll group unit by unit at the poll interval (1 to 65 secs). Timed Polling: Allows the user to schedule a period when the group poll will commence. This is a useful feature for systems that have times of little traffic loading such as the early hours of the morning. NOTE: By selecting the Bar Graph option under Polling menu item, any units poll results can be displayed as a bar graph.

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Individual Poll
Allows intensive polling of a single unit, independantly of any group polling that may be active. The individual poll window provides a bar graph display for rapid visual recognition of the radio modems parameter levels.

Polling: The selected unit will be removed from the poll group. Then can be polled at selectable Poll Repetition Time: Is the rate at which individual status polling will occur. Click on the Apply button to apply any change made to the poll repetition time. Switch Exciter: If the selected unit is a Hot Standby Base station then a switch base facility is provided for remote switching of the exciter units. With polling on, click on the Switch Exciter button. The changeover may take a number of seconds. The active unit will be displayed in the Active unit field. Note: The hot standby base station has a minimum "toggle" time of 1 minute. This is to avoid rapid switching between exciter units, should a fault be detected in both modems.

DATA LOGGING Status poll and Alarm data can be logged to a database file for viewing at a later date. A relational database is created and managed using Microsoft Jet database engine Ver3.5. The database file, which is an .mdb file, can be accessed with external programs such as Microsoft Access. You have the option of enabling logging of Status polls only, Alarms only or both. Log Status Polls: To log Status polls either select Log Status polls under the Data Logging menu item or click the corresponding toolbar button. Log Alarms: To log Alarms either select Log Alarms under the Data Logging menu item or click the corresponding toolbar button. Note: If Auto Logging ON is enabled in the settings dialog box, then Status Poll logging and Alarm logging will automatically be turned on when Group polling is turned on.

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6.4.5

VIEWING HISTORY Status poll history may be viewed using the Status Poll & Alarm History window.. This window has three tables; Status Poll History, Alarm History and Base Station Activity. You may select ALL to see every units poll results, or view an individual units poll results.

From: & To: fields: These fields determine the time span you wish to view. For example, if you have collected several months of data, and only wish to view a 24 and select the unit. When the History window first appears, the From: field will contain the time of the first recorded status poll or alarm in the database, and the To: field will contain the last recorded poll or alarm in the database. Note: The smaller the time span you select, the faster the database search will be. This will also depend on the poll rate that was used during that time span. Sorting: Each of these tables can be sorted in ascending order by; unit, by date, or by poll parameter. To sort, just click on the required column header. Printing: A printout of each table is possible by clicking on the associated Print button. The table data will be sent to the default printer and formated as per your default printer configuration set up.

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6.4.6

TRENDING The logged status poll data can be viewed in graph format, which allows viewing of status trends over selectable time spans. This provides a very effective and fast method of analyzing a units opperating parameters over time. Select View Trend under the Data Logging menu item or click the associated toolbar button.

Features available include: Scaling of graph(s). View individual poll results using the cursor. Automatically scroll through and graph each unit in the database at a selectable time interval.

Vertical scale setting: Manually set the vertical scales by simple typing in the new level(s), then either Click the Default Ranges button to set all the vertical scales back to the default levels. Click the Set Ranges to Alarm Limits button to set the vertical scale limits to the selected unit alarm limits.

From: & To: fields: These fields determine the time span you wish to view. For example, if you have collected several months of data, and only wish to view a 24 When the Trending window first appears, the From: field will contain the time of the first recorded status poll or alarm in the database. The To: field will contain the last recorded status poll or alarm in the database. Note: The smaller the time span you select, the faster the database search and draw. This will also depend on the poll rate that was used during that time span. Use the Update button to set the To: field to the most recent database entry. Group Poll Cycle: When toggled ON, will step through each radio in the database and display the trend grap

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Cursor: Use the slider control, found at the bottom of the display to move the cursor. The cursor box displays the parameter data of the status poll at the current cursor position. Use the Set From button to set the From: field to the current cursor position. Use the Set To button to set the To: field to the current cursor position.

6.4.7

TOOLS - MESSAGE UTILITY Warning: Sending an incorrect message to a remote unit can render the unit inoperative, and may require visiting the site to rectify. The Message Utility provides a powerful advanced diagnostic tool for remotely manipulating any radio modem in the diagnostic communications group. The message utility allows you to utilise the full diagnostic command set (See Appendix A), to perform such functions as; remotely reprogramming all configuration settings, changing frequencies, cold/warm boot(reset), hot standby base station exciter switching, and etc. Note: The hot standby base station has a minimum "toggle" time of 1 minute. This is to avoid rapid switching between exciter units, should a fault be detected in both modems.

Tx Message
Description: Since most of the commands are criptic and difficult to recognize, unless used often, the Description text field is provided for the user to put in a simple description of the function of the message. Code: This is the command code pull down selection box. See Appendix A for a description of each command code. The D, C and S commands are not available, simply because they are sent using the Individual poll window, or during group polling.

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Parameters: If parameters are required, they are placed here in Hexidecimal number format. Some commands dont require parameters, if so, this field is disabled. Where params. are required, each byte is contained in <>. eg. <FF> = 255 decimal. At least one of the <> must contain a byte value. The T Watchdog timer command requires a word value. Send: Use the send button to send the diagnostic message.

Rx Message
The incoming message response consists of a string of bytes, commensing with the message response code, followed by parameter bytes (if any). Each byte is separated by a space. The recieved message response is displayed in two formats; ASCII: where each byte is converted to an ASCII character. Hex: where each byte is converted to a Hexidecimal number.

PreSet messages
Eight programmable message buttons are available for storing commonly used diagnostic command strings. Editing the Preset message buttons Click on the Edit buttons button to edit the pre-set buttons. Scroll through the eight available buttons to the one you wish to edit. Enter a description, which will be displayed in the button help text when the mouse is placed on the button. Select the command code, and enter any parameters that may be required. Click on the Apply button to save the changes.

Using the Preset buttons Click on a button to transfer the diagnostic command string to the Tx message window. Click the Send button to send the diagnostic command code message.

STATISTICAL PERFORMANCE - NETWORK ANALYSIS TOOLS The diagnostic core of each radio stores packet statistics for later retrieval. The Diagnostic controller software uses these statistics to calculate packet and bit error rates, network efficiency, bandwidth utilisation, and radio link integrity. These network analysis features are an invaluable tool for larger networks.

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In the transmit direction, each radio modem can report the number of; data bytes transmitted (TxByteCnt). frames transmitted (TxFrameCnt). With these counters one can then calculate average frame size, average frame rate, and channel utilisation. In the receive direction, each radio modem can report the; data bytes recieved (GoodByteCnt). good frames recieved (GoodFrameCnt). bad frames recieved (BadFramCnt). total time the radio has received signal. (RSSIgoodTicker) lost synchronization count (LostSynchCnt) lost RSSI count (LostRSSICnt) These counters can be used to calculate average frame size, average frame rate, channel occupancy, channel utilisation, and link integrity. Radio modems with Firmware Revisions 2.4.x and above have the advanced statistical counters as noted above. Firmware revisions below this (ie 2.3.x) only have Good Frame count, Bad Frame count, Lost RSSI count, and Lost Synch Count available. The diagnostic controller will detect which firmware the radio has, and only report the available counters.

Statistical Performance Counters Window

Selected Unit: When a unit is selected, the controller will confirm that the firmware revision has been recieved. If not, it will attempt to poll the radio for it. Status: Repor occured.

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Performance Counters tab: This is the main statistical performance tool used for assessing network performance. Click the Reset Counters button to reset a remote units counters to zero. Click the Update Counters button to retrieve the current statistical performance results. Click the Auto Poll OFF/ON button to automatically update the counters every 5mins. Click the Log Counters OFF/ON button to log the counters every time they are updated. These can be viewed

Notes: - The controller will attempt a series of polls when either reseting or retrieving the counters. You should monitor the status window to ensure that the poll process completes. If errors occur, they may be due to conditions like, packet collisions on a buzy network, diagnostic controller trying to perform too many poll functions (ie group polling, individual polling), and etc. - To get meaningful results you should ensure that you reset the counters when commencing testing on a unit for the first time. The diagnostic controller keeps an internal record of a units last counter values in order to keep a running total of performance statistics. - The radio modem counters will roll over at 65536. This means you should update counters every 10mins to maintain data integrity. An Auto poll facility is provided for that purpose. Live System Performance This provides an automatic test facility which will automatically reset all the radio modems counters, and then after a 10min period retrieve the new counter values. View the Performance counters tab to see the result. Indicative Bit Error Rate This Tab provides a simple link test facility. When this is running, continuous diagnostic messages will be transmitted to the remote unit and records Bit Error Rate results. If the system is live, collisions are likely and may effect Bit Error results. Counter Poll History This is a database viewing facility. When logging is enabled, each time the counters are retrieved they will be written to the database. Adjust the From: & To: fields to view a specified time span.

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6.5

NETWORKING Monitoring the radio network from other workstations on a LAN network is made easy with the networking facilities provided by the Trio Diagnostics Controller. The radio network controller can be configured as either a Client Server or Client. When in Server mode, upto twenty five Clients can be connected at any one time. The Server will send poll information to each attached client, depending on their access rights. Client groups can be set up. Each Client can be assigned to one client group. A default Client group called ALL is automatically set up containing all radio units in the database. Client Groups Example: All Test Unit 1 Test Unit 2 Test Unit 3 Pump 1 Pump 2 Pump 3 Pumps Pump 1 Pump 2 Pump 3 Trio Test Test Unit 1 Test Unit 2 Test Unit 3

In the above example, there are three client groups, ALL (the default), Pumps, and

Client Examples: Trio Central - This is the Diagnostic Server which is attached to the radio network. Trio Test Client - This is a Diags controller in client mode Pump Monitor - This is a Diags controller in client mode. In the above example, the Trio Central workstation, running Trio Diagnostics in Server mode, is polling all the radios in the network and distributing the received messages to the attached clients. The Trio Test Client and Pump Monitor are recieving Status poll and alarm information from the Trio Central server. The Trio Test Client will only receive poll information for radios found in the Trio Test Client Group. ie Test Units 1, 2 & 3. The Pump Monitor will only receive poll information for radios found in the Pumps Client Group. ie Pumps 1, 2 & 3.

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Networking Setup The Server should be configured properly first before any connection attempts are made by clients. It will always be safer to stop any polling that may be in progress when making changes to the Server client set up. Setting Up the Server It is assumed that the workstation is running Win95/98/NT, and has been configured with the TCP/IP network protocol. Open or create a radio database. Select Networking from the menu bar. In the Networking window click the Server button. The Server settings window will appear, which contains the Server Host Name and IP address. These fields are view only. Adding Client Group(s) In the networking window, click Add/Delete Group(s). The Add/Delete Client Group(s) window will appear. Deleting a Client Group In the networking window, click Add/Delete Group(s). The Add/Delete Client Group(s) window will appear. Select the group you wish to delete. Click on the Delete button to delete the group name from the database. Enter the group name in the field provided.

Adding a Client A client can be any workstation on the LAN that can be seen in the Network Neighborhood (see windows desk top or Explorer). When adding a client, it is important that the client name is entered exactly as shown in the network neighborhood.

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In the networking window, click Add/Delete Client(s). The Add/Delete Client(s) window will appear. Enter the client name, password, and select a group. Click the Add button to add the client to the database.

Deleting a Client In the networking window, click Add/Delete Client(s). The Add/Delete Client(s) window will appear. Select a client to delete. Click the delete button to delete the client from the database.

Adding Radio(s) to a client group In the networking window, click Add/Delete Radio(s). The Add/Delete Radios window will appear. Select a Client Group. Using the Add and/or Remove buttons to add or remove radios from the Client Group.

The Diagnostic Controller Server is now ready for connections from client workstations.

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Setting Up a Client In Client mode, the diagnostics controller becomes view only. That means poll information can not be stored locally, polling functions are disabled, and most of the tools normally provided are disabled. The controller basically just mirrors the display of the server. It is assumed that the workstation is running Win95/98/NT, has been configured with the TCP/IP network protocol, and has been added to the Trio Diagnostic Servers Client Groups. Select Networking from the menu bar. In the Networking window click the Client button. This will place the diagnostic controller into client mode. The Client settings window will appear, which contains the Client Host Name and IP address, which are view only. Enter the Client password as stored at the Diagnostic Controller Server. Enter the Diagnostic Servers Host name or IP address in the Remote Host name field. Before clicking the apply button, ensure that the Diags Server is operating in Server mode. Click the Apply button. The Client will initiate a connection to the server. If successful the status window will indicate that, and the server will then send status poll information, which will be displayed in the main window.

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THE TC-95MSR6/9 STREAM ROUTER

7.1

TRIO D SERIES STREAM ROUTING - A PRIMER The D Series of data radio modems employ a synchronous HDLC data transport mechanism at the radio transport level which allows for the inclusion of embedded packet addressing headers. These radio modems also provide internal HDLC packet addressing routers and port multiplexers which will steer addressed packets to either of the two external ports or the internal radio diagnostics handler. They also provide inbuilt programmable port drivers which can provide a single synchronous interface or dual port stream routed asynchronous interfaces for the users data applications. The D Series of products can thus be used stand-alone to form a modestly complex network providing multiple virtual circuit data connections each of which is independent of, and separate from the others, and thus can transport diverse and/or incompatible data applications. The limiting factor in network complexity is the limit of 2 physical ports on the D Series radio modem product and its limited program space. Fortunately the radio modems can be configured so that the data packets received on the radio channel are delivered to the physical radio modem ports verbatim including the addressing headers, and hence makes this stream routing information available to external processing devices. The Trio Stream Router / Mux is designed to (optionally) route on TRIO D Series type stream addressed packets and hence can be used for much more complex addressing and interconnection schemes than can be accommodated by data radio modem products alone. It thus can extend the range of applications available to the system designer. As the stream address headers are included only at the beginning of each packet of data, it is necessary to use a packet communication protocol between the radio modem and the external stream router / mux to ensure that packets are conveyed intact and unbroken. The well known Serial Line Interface Protocol (SLIP as used in Unix and TCP/IP networks) is recommended as it is a standard interface option on the D Series series products, and also the Stream Router. Interfaces between the router and external applications however can be many and varied depending on their operational requirements and in addition to the SLIP driver, Trio provide a general purpose Packet Assembler / Dissasembler with the Stream Router which is similar in operation to the D Series radio modem PAD facility.

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When used with the Trio D Series range of data radio modems, the router product can be configured to provide a direct connection between external physical ports and the radio modems internal stream routed data transport mechanisms, AND it can be used to route radio transport streams between two or more radio links at a hilltop repeater or distribution node.

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7.2

SPECIFICATIONS

7.2.1

PHYSICAL
{ Length { Height { Width { Weight { Mounting 250 mm 80 mm 60 mm 6 channel 10 channel 1500 g 1700 g

4 x 4mm holes (225 x 120mm rectangle)

7.2.2

ELECTRICAL
{ Supply Voltage { Supply Current 10 to 18VDC max (Zener protected) 6 channel 10 channel { Fuse 1A max @ 13.8V (nom 1.25A @10V, 700mA & 18V) 1.25A max @ 13V8

2A class T (anti-surge 20mm x 5mm barrel)

7.2.3

OPERATIONAL
{ Number of Ports { Port Types { Handshaking 6 (opt 9/10) DB9 - RS232 RTS/CTS/DTR (for others contact factory)

{ Port Protocols PAD, SLIP (for others contact factory) { Port Speeds Up to 19,200 baud

{ Port Buffering 8K byte per direction, per port { Routing Capacity { Processor { Temperature 200k baud Continuous 386SX-40MHz 0 to 50O C

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7.3

GENERAL DESCRIPTION This product provides extended facilities for systems using the stream routing capabilities of the D Series of radio-modem products by providing means of routing many streams of data from different applications around large or complex network structures. The stream router is essentially a multi-port packet switch which routes incoming packets on a any given port to another port (or ports) dependent upon their stream headers, and the router configuration instructions stored in a special configuration file read by the router during power up. The router is supplied in a smart but rugged extruded case which houses an industry standard PC386 embedded PC card with associated modular PC/104 RS232 Serial I/O cards running under embedded Microsoft MS-DOS The router is normally supplied pre-configured by TRIO with the various driver modules and batch loader files stored in the "Flash RAM-DISK" for a pre-determined application, however it can also be configured externally, for those who wish to write their own configuration scripts or modify the routing configuration tables from time to time. The product houses an integral high efficiency switched-mode regulated power supply operating from a nominal 13.8Volt DC input.

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7.4

TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION

7.4.1

CPU The router consists of a half length PC-AT '386' card fitted with two on board serial ports, and up to two plug in serial port cards conforming to the PC/104 format and each containing four serial ports. Power is provided by a switched-mode regulator module attached to the rear of the case. The PC runs an embedded application in that it has no Keyboard or Screen (standard DOS Console), and no physical floppy or hard disk drives (A: or C:). On board 'Flash' memory with special driver firmware emulates a physical disk from which the computer boots and loads the runtime application programs. If supplied with ROM memory of course the 'disk' is read-only. In all other respects the PC looks like any other normal PC-AT, in as much as it has configurable CMOS RAM, DOS and programs on 'drives', 1MB of Dynamic RAM, COM1 & COM2 ports, etc. The main card has two serial ports configured by default to COM1 (base address 0x3F8/IRQ4) and COM2 (base address 0x2F8/IRQ3). These are labelled as CH:0 and CH:1 respectively on the front panel. The main card serial ports can be configured by the BIOS/CMOS setup for COM1 through COM4. CH:0 is always RS232 but CH:1 can be configured electrically as an RS232 port (standard) or as either RS422 or RS485. This selection is made by links on the board. Note - access to CMOS setup requires a keyboard to be attached so that the 'DEL' key can be pushed during re-boot, and as a screen is the default CON device for setup a CGA/EGA/VGA monitor is required. As the card has no video driver on board, this requires that the card be placed into a passive back plane with a video card and attached monitor. The extra serial ports are contained on industry standard PC/104 style cards which are supported by the PC motherboard, and plug into the main board 'piggyback' fashion. These ports have hardware linkable IRQ and base addresses so that the application programs can access them. The physical serial ports are interconnected by an internal microprocessor software program running under Microsoft MS-DOS which controls the distribution of data between these ports in accordance with a pre-defined packet addressing scheme. Each port is serviced by a software 'device driver'. After loading a driver for each port, the router software module is then executed. All software modules are launched at startup by including them via the AUTOEXEC.BAT file along with a number of command line parameters. The actual routing instructions reside in a text file 'SRMUX.CFG' which is scanned by the router at startup. In complex systems this file is often location manned. To minimise the probability of an internal error or power surge from causing the device to seize or operate in an erroneous manner, the software includes a

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repetitive internal 'sanity' checking algorithm, and a physical watchdog timer guards against the software 'going to sleep'.

7.4.2

INTERCONNECTIONS In normal operation the 386 CPU board has no peripheral devices attached except the piggy back PC/104 serial I/O card(s). Power (+5VDC and +12VDC) is supplied from the switched-mode regulator via a cable assembly and four pin connector as found on a 3.5" floppy drive. The power on lamp is also supplied from the switched-mode -12VDC regulator output via a hard wired cable assembly. For certain testing or software reloading it may be necessary to install disk drive units or a printer. The main CPU card includes interfaces for hard disk drive, floppy disk drive and printer which are available via the headers along the top edge of the card Note the position of the ribbon tracer as indicated on the drawing by a triangle. These external peripherals will need a supply of +5VDC and +12VDC which is available at the power connector on the CPU however it requires a floppy disk power extension cable assembly (3.5" floppy drive to 3.5" floppy + 5.25" floppy) to break out the connections.

7.4.3

POWER SUPPLY The power module is a switched-mode type for high efficiency, and is internally filtered and noise suppressed. The supply operates from a DC input of 9 to 18VDC and supplies +5VDC, +12VDC, and -12VDC outputs. On this product only the +5VDC is required by the PC cards, however the -12V supply is used to power the front panel Power LED. To ensure the maintenance of regulation on all outputs including 5V, the -12V supply must be loaded to a minimum of 30mA which is provided by the LED and the parallel resistor.

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7.5

HARDWARE The Router is housed in an extruded cover with the PC Cards mounted to an internal chassis which slides in grooves in the extrusion. The ends are of sheetmetal and have feet which can be used for mounting the product.

7.5.1

DISASSEMBLY The sheetmetal end opposite to the power supply is attached to the PC card and sliding chassis, the other end simply supports the power supply module which is attached to the PC card by flying leads. In the ten port version, the rear panel also supports four extra 'Dmin' port connectors which are attached to the computer hardware by ribbon cables. To gain access to the power supply 1. Remove power from the device 2. Remove the five pan head self tapping screws and nylon washers around the perimeter of the rear end panel housing the power module, and remove the end foot as far as the internal wires will allow. Be careful not to stress the cables or internal components by putting unnecessary strain on the cables. To gain access to the PC card and internal jumpers etc Ten port type 1. Remove the rear cover as above. 2. Remove the six pan head self tapping screws and nylon washers around the perimeter of the front end panel, and withdraw the chassis slightly. 3. Rotate the rear end panel so that it will pass through the extrusion. 4. Extract the chassis from the front whilst carefully sliding the rear panel through the extruded case. NOTE - In the six port type there are no rear 'Dmin' ribbon cables (even though the panel may be fitted with connectors) and the unit can be withdrawn fully without sliding the rear panel through the case. IF the CPU card must be removed however, proceed as above OR as follows- 1) extract the front panel as above, 2) remove the front panel from the CPU by removing the 4 'Dmin' pillars from CH:0 and CH:1. 3) withdraw the chassis 4) remove the left hand chassis rail from the CPU by removing the 3mm fixing screws front and rear. 5) Disconnect the +5/+12 volt power cable from the right hand front of the CPU. CAUTION - when reconnecting the power cable to the CPU be extremely careful to orient the plug correctly. The plug has the pins closer to one edge AND the +5Volt RED cable should be closest to the outer side of the PCB.

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INSTALLATION

8.1

BASIC RULES Probably the most basic of all rules is :Ensure that the installation is SAFE, with particular emphasis on lightning protection, and mains power cabling. There are two sets of Australian Standards Specifications that apply to typical installations of this kind : { { AS1417 Part 1. This covers antenna installations. AS3000 This covers mains wiring and earthing specifications

Installations play a critical role in network performance. Although this is a well known fact, installations are often performed poorly or quite often given little regard. The frequencies in use are around 450/900 MHz, and installation methods appropriate to this frequency MUST be used. It is essential that the installation is performed in a professional manner with careful attention and consideration to the following items :{ Adequate sizing of the primary power cable, relative to the length of cable to minimise voltage drop with the transmitter active. { Shielded data cabling between the Data Radio Modem and external data equipment. { Low loss coaxial cable to be used for the antenna feedline. It should be mentioned here that all cables of similar type numbers, eg RG213, RG214, or RG58 etc, are NOT equal in performance. Use only performance guaranteed cable. { Careful termination of RF connectors. { A suitable antenna for the equipment and application. It should be noted that the D series and TC-S Series have been designed to operate

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8.2

INSTALLATION OVERVIEW Refer to the following Basic Installation drawing. In this basic installation drawing shown over are the following parts 1. D Series data radio modem. 2. 12Volt DC power supply for the D Series to run from 240Volt power mains. 3. Interface Cable(s) to interconnect the data equipment to the modem. 4. An antenna which can take a number of forms depending on distance, system topology. 5. Where the antenna is external to the modem housing a coaxial antenna feeder cable is needed which is generally a stiff rugged exterior quality cable with type 'N' radio frequency connectors. Due to its rigidity it is not generally suited to direct mating with the radios miniature connector, and should have a flexible tail lead (see 6) 6. Antenna tail cable 300mm, for connecting the N type male antenna feed to the miniature SMA/BNC RF connector on the radio unit. 7. Exterior Antennas are generally Yagi types like small TV antennas which are purpose designed for the 450/900MHz data band. A short version having 6 elements (or rods) is applicable on line of sight paths up to 20km and the longer 15 element type is applicable to longer or obstructed paths. These antennas are generally supplied with a female Type N RF connector, on a short coax cable tail. 8. In almost all configurations an Antenna feed cable is required to connect the antenna to the radio port of the modem with minimal loss of signal. This cable is always of the coaxial type and generally RG213 model although others can or must be used in certain circumstances. The cable usually requires to be fitted with type N male connectors at both ends. 9. An antenna mast (for major, long range installations), or external barge pole for medium ranges will probably be necessary to mount the antenna clear of thick trees or local buildings. For short ranges, internally mounted antennas may be acceptable. 10. Some hardware such as cable clamps, antenna mounting brackets, wall glands for cable entry, etc will be required for a neat and tidy installation.

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Figure 17 - Basic Installation

The TC-DR is a 400-520MHz or 800-960MHz UHF radio device and needs to be properly installed and commissioned in order to function reliably. It is important that installers who are not familiar with the product read the User Guide which comes with the product and Section 5 of the relevant TC-DR "User Manual" before planning an installation. This sheet is intended as a short form checklist to ensure important tests are made and recorded at each site to give some information on link integrity testing. Installers should check that each data radio has been programmed to suit their specific requirements before installation. The Factory default settings on D Series Data Radios are as follows: Port A only enabled (Port B disabled) Port A supporting full hardware handshaking @ 9600, N, 8, 1 data format PTT (Tx) control - automatic with data input 1 Watt RF Output No other options are enabled as standard and if necessary require the use of a TC-DRPROG programmer. All Data Radio Modem devices needs to be properly installed and commissioned are familiar with RF products / installations and are geared up with appropriate tools necessary to confirm the ongoing reliability of a communications system. such radio devices are installed correctly and that important tests are made and recorded at each site for future reference should a problem eventuate. Installers should check that each data radio has been programmed to suit their specific requirements before installation.

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8.3

GENERAL Installations play a critical role in network performance. Although this is a known fact, installations are often performed poorly or given little regard. It is essential that the installation is performed in a professional manner with careful attention and consideration to the following items : 1. Adequate primary power cable - relative to the length of cable to minimise voltage drop. 2. Shielded data cable between the unit and any external data equipment. 3. Low loss coax used for antenna feed line. 4. Careful termination of RF connectors. 5. A suitable antenna for the requirement. 6. Suitable placement of the antenna. 7. Adequate signal strength from the base station / other radio communications device

8.3.1

DATA CONNECTION In industrial environments connection to any external device should be by shielded data cable with the shield connected to the connector shell to minimise data corruption, and/or radio interference.

8.3.2

MOUNTING The radio modem should be mounted in a cool, dry, and vibration free environment. Mounting of the unit should be in a location providing easy access to screws and all connections.

8.3.3

POWER CONNECTIONS The power required for 5 Watt (Tx) at 13.8VDC, is typically 2.0 Amps. As the Tx key up current is significant, the gauge of primary power wiring should be considered. It is suggested that a minimum of 18 gauge stranded copper wire be used for distances of up to two metres and a minimum of 14 gauge for longer distances up to 5 metres. Ensure correct polarity to avoid costly repairs.

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8.3.4

COAX CABLE CONNECTION It is important to select the correct cable and connectors for each application as a poor selection can seriously degrade the performance of the unit. As an example, for each 3dB of cable and connector loss, half the transmitter power is lost and twice the receiver signal power is required to produce the same bit error rate. In some installations where strong signals are present, a compromise of cable and connector cost may be acceptable. It is essential that all connector terminations are performed as per the manufacturers specifications (especially at 900MHz and above) and if connectors are to be used outside, it is essential that a sealant such as amalgamating tape be used to seal connectors. DO NOT use acetic cure silicon to seal the connectors. It is also important that coax cables are not stressed by tight bends, kinking or excessive flexing. Ensure that coax cables have sufficient strain relief and are secure. If large diameter rigid or semi rigid cable is used, it is recommended to use a short length of high quality RG58 or RG223 cable between the unit and main cable feed. The following chart is a guide to losses in various types of coaxes at 400MHz and 900MHz
Cable Type
RG58C/Um RG223/U RG213/U Heliax LDF4-50A Heliax LDF5-50A

1 dB
450MHz 2.3 3.1m 6.1m 19m 38m 900MHz 1.6m 2.3m 4m 14m 25m

Loss Relative to Distance 3 dB 6 dB


450MHz 7m 9m 18m 57m 114m 900MHz 5m 7m 12m 43m 75m 450MHz 14m 18m 37m 114m 229m 900MHz 10m 14m 24m 87m 150m

9 dB
450MHz 20m 28m 55m 171m 343m 900MHz 15m 21m 37m 130m 225m

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8.4

ANTENNA INSTALLATION The selection of antennas and their placement is one of the most important factors it is like putting square wheels on a Mercedes Benz..... very true comparison. Antennas are generally mounted to a vertical pole with either vertical or horizontal polarisation as per the licence requirement. Antennas should be mounted as high as practical and away from metal surfaces which can cause reflections. Determining the type of antenna is very important and as a typical generic example, Point to Multipoint (PTMP) systems generally employ high gain (3, 6, or 9dB gain) omni directional antennas at the base station sites and either omni directional whips (unity gain) or preferably high gain directional yagi antennas (9 or 14dB gain) at the remote sites.

8.4.1

YAGI ANTENNAS Yagi antennas not only provide signal gain and directivity, but also provides protection from interfering signals which are outside the beam width of the antenna. Yagi antennas are essential when communicating over very long distances. Yagi antennas are polarised and must be mounted either vertically (elements pointing from the ground to the sky) or horizontally (elements in parallel with the horizon). As a general rule, Point to Multipoint remote units are vertically polarised, while Point to Point links are horizontally polarised. When mounting yagi the dipole (loop section of antenna) has a drain hole. The small drain hole on one end of the dipole must be pointed towards the ground so that water will drain out of the antenna.

8.4.2

OMNI DIRECTIONAL ANTENNAS Omni directional antennas provide a radiation pattern of equal strength through 3600 in the horizontal plane. This makes them ideal for base antennas in point to multipoint systems because they can reach the remote antennas. Omni directional antennas are also used at remote sites (although yagi antennas are preferred) and are typically ground independent whip type antennas. The main reason for using whips at remote sites is for aesthetics as they are far less obtrusive than a yagi. Regardless of the type, antennas need to be mounted properly and in a suitable location as covered below.

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8.4.3

ANTENNA PLACEMENT Antenna placement is of paramount importance and plays a big part of the antennas and in turn systems performance. When choosing antenna locations the aim is to find the largest path of unobstructed space and locate the antennas within that space. It is important to locate antennas as high as possible and definitely clear of any moving obstructions. Where possible it is important to avoid mounting antennas: 1. Against or adjacent to steel structures. 2. In an area which will have constant intermittent obstructions - people walking past, vehicles driving past etc. That is, mount antennas well above such moving obstructions. 3. Near any electrical equipment. 4. Near metal beams, structures etc. 5. Inside any metal enclosures, tin sheds / warehouses etc. - note meshed wire fences act like a brick wall to RF transmissions. 6. Away from guard rails or support beams. Note: Sometimes installations in such environments are unavoidable and where this is the case, certain care can be taken to still ensure a reliable installation. Please consult Trio for assistance on a case by case basis. If tests indicate poor signal strength then the antennas at one or both ends of the link should be raised, and/or moved clear of obstructing objects, or if directional antennas are employed they should be checked for correct directional orientation

8.4.4

REFLECTIONS AND OUTPUT POWER

The biggest problem with UHF radio when used within steel buildings or obstructed paths is the large presence of signals randomly reflected from the surrounding obstructions or steel walls. These signals cannot be eliminated, but by maintaining a 10 to 20dB margin between the wanted and unwanted signals, problems should not be experienced. These antennas will provide attenuation to all signals arriving from a direction other than the direct path. Where steel walls or structure exist immediately behind the antenna location, the high front to back ratio of such antennas will negate such high level reflections. Power output should be set at the minimum level required to achieve a 25dB fade margin, in order to minimise the amount of RF being reflected, and to avoid saturating the receiver front end and therefore reducing the margin between wanted and unwanted signals.

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8.5

COMMISSIONING - RSSI LEVEL When commissioning a data radio network, it is important to ensure that the incoming received signal strength (RSSI) is adequate to provide reliable communications. Note: A good signal path should allow for approximately 30dB fade margin. Received signal strength (RSSI) of the incoming signal is available as an analogue output on Trio data radio modems. This RSSI output ranges from 0 to approx 4 Volts, where 4 Volts indicates the strongest signal. The actual values of received signal strength can be determined by comparing the output voltage against the calibrated graph supplied in the handbook. By referring to the RSSI greatest signal strength (highest output voltage). Note: Be sure to stand clear of aerials when measuring this output voltage, touching or standing in close proximity to aerials will give inaccurate readings.

8.5.1

CHECKING DATA COMMUNICATIONS If the host computer and remote equipment are capable of performing data integrity tests then connect the host and terminal data equipment to the radio modems. Remove and re-apply power to each radio modem to ensure they are both in data comms mode, and run data tests on the link.

8.5.2

BIT ERROR RATE (BER) TESTING If the connected data equipment is NOT capable of running data integrity tests then the TC-450DS modems can be put into a BER test mode, whereby the data channel can be tested in each direction to a reasonable level without external test equipment. To run a link test with the radio modems themselves, they must BOTH be put into BER test mode. To place the unit in BER mode connect pin 6 and pin 9 of port A together and apply power. The transmitter can be activated by driving the RTS pin (7) of port A positive. The unit will then send a predefined pseudo random sequence which is tested for accuracy by the receiving unit and any errors displayed on the front panel 'SYNC' lamp. Each error bit will illuminate the lamp for approximately 1000 bits duration, therefore error rates above 1 in 1000 will show an almost constant error indication. To return the unit to normal data transmission mode simply power it up without pin 9 connected to pin 6.

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For further information on radio path problems please contact Trio DataCom for detailed advice. Note : BER testing is not viable in an operational point to multi-point environment as the BER test will interfere with other operative units.

8.5.3

LOOPBACK MODE Fit one end of the link with a loopback connection as shown in the diagram. Fit loopback to Port A connector and enable "RTS for PTT Control". If Port B is enabled, it can be used for loopback testing whilst the application is running on Port A. To loopback Port B, join pins 2 and 3 only. For more information on loopback mode, refer to Technical Note TN-11. At the opposite end of the link, your application software can be tested "side by side" with linktest or a suitable comms' program (i.e.. Procomm) can be used.

8.5.4

OUTPUT POWER - VSWR Upon installation of equipment an output power measurement should be done using a suitable power meter. Forward and reflected power should be measured at the antenna port and recorded for future reference. The reflected power measurement should be as a minimum 3:1 of the forward power. If this is not the case, investigate possible causes such as poor terminations, faulty antenna etc.

8.5.5

DATA CONNECTION The data connection is via a DB9 connector labelled 'Port A', which is wired as a DCE as shown below. The port labelled 'Port B' is not used for the standard configuration but can be enabled by the programmer for use as a totally independent second data channel. In industrial environments connection to the modem should be by shielded data cable with the shield connected to the connector shell to minimise data corruption, and radio interference. Typical 3 wire Interface lead.

- User Serial "Port A" Pin Assignment

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PIN NO. & FUNCTION 1. DATA CARRIER DETECT (DCD) 2. RECEIVE DATA OUTPUT (RXD) 3. TRANSMIT DATA IN (TXD) 4. DATA TERMINAL READY (DTR) 5. COMMON (COM) ___ 6. PROGRAM PIN (PGM) 7. REQUEST TO SEND (RTS) 8. CLEAR TO SEND (CTS) 9. BIT ERROR RATE PIN (BER)

EXTERNAL VIEW OF `PORT A'

NOTE: Pin 6 and pin 9 provide a dual function which depends on the mode that the TC-450DR is operating in.

- User Serial "Port B" Pin Assignment. Port B of the TC450DR is essentially unused in its standard configuration but can be enabled by the Programmer for use as a totally independent second data channel. This port is essentially used for specific applications and only has one connection that may be of use for installation purposes. This connection (Pin 9) is Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) output. This RSSI output ranges from 0 to 5 Volts, where 5 Volts indicates the strongest signal. It is important to note that this Port output has a high impedance of around 10K ohms and loading will decrease accuracy of the recorded measurement. PIN NO. & FUNCTION 1. DATA CARRIER DETECT 2. RECEIVE DATA O/P (RxD) 3. TRANSMIT DATA O/P (TxD) 4. DATA TERMINAL READY (DTR) 5. COMMON 6. DATA SET READY (DSR) 7. REQUEST TO SEND (RTS) 8. CLEAR TO SEND (CTS) 9. RECEIVE SIGNAL STRENGTH EXTERNAL VIEW OF `PORT B'

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8.6

GENERAL CHECKLIST The following is a simple commissioning checklist which should be used at every site not only to ensure correct installation, but also as a reference list for problems which may eventuate.

TRIO SITE COMMISSIONING CHECK LIST / RECORD


Company: Site Location: Link to: Radio Type: Antenna Type / Gain Tx Power at Radio Reflected Power VSWR Tx Power at Antenna Site QA Inspection: Operator: Date: Serial #: Config File Name: Path Distance Measured RSSI Volts Fade Margin Line of Site to Base DC volts at Radio (Tx)

Notes:

Signed

Date

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MAINTENANCE

9.1

MAINTENANCE The D Series of Data Radio Modem equipment has been specifically designed to operate reliably over a wide range of environmental conditions with a minimum of maintenance. There are a few measurements and adjustments that may be carried out in the field with suitable test equipment. For any other more detailed work the units should be returned to the Dealer or Factory .

9.2

PERFORMANCE CHECKING The simplest method of checking the performance of a D Series product is to monitor its vital parameters using the Diagnostics Program if it is implemented on the system. This will monitor Power Supply Voltage, Transmitter Output Power, Received Signal Level, Internal Temperature, and Receive Signal Frequency Offset. These parameters may be measured on any unit connected into the system from a single location without having to visit each remote site. The first level of performance checking can be simply carried out in the field. More detailed test procedures are covered in the relevant equipment handbooks.

9.2.1

TRANSMITTER Measure the power supply voltage, it should be between 11 and 16 volts DC. Connect an RF Power Meter to the Antenna Port of the D Series Product. Activate PTT using either the Handset or connecting Pins 5 and 6 of Aux Audio Port. The RF output power should be in the range +/- 10% of rated output power. Sample the RF output with a RF Frequency Counter. It should read the nominal transmit frequency 1 kHz.

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If a deviation meter is available, tune it to the Tx output frequency. It should report a deviation of 1.5 kHz for 4800 bps units or 2.75 kHz for 9600 bps units. The measured deviation should be within 15% of these nominal values. (Note these speeds are the RF data transfer protocol speeds, not the user port speeds).

9.2.2

RECEIVER Check that the power supply voltage is between 11 and 16 volts DC. If the unit under test is receiving a signal from another D Series unit, and the signal level is adequate, then the yellow RXSIG and SYNCH LEDs on the front panel should be lit. If errors in the incoming data stream are detected, the SYNCH led will flicker. The BER available. If not a simple method is available to carry out a two way BER test over an existing RF data link. The TC-DR has an inbuilt "BER" test mode which allows bit errors detected across the link to be displayed on the front panel "SYNC" LED and or output . To access "BER" mode connect Pins 6 and 9 (and Pin 7 for Transmitting (BER must be enabled at both ends). An errored bit will flash the "SYNC" LED at the received end. Error rates of >1 in 1000 will show an almost constant indication ("SYNC" LED on constantly).

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9.3

FAULT FINDING More detailed fault finding procedures are available in the D Series handbook. Briefly however, conduct such simple checks as needed to determine if the failure of the link is due to a transmitter or receiver, and at which end of the link. If the receive signal level is low or non existent (or error rate high) at one end of a link and OK at the other, the problem may be the receiver at that end or the transmitter at the other end. Carry out further checks with test equipment or replacement of Data Radio Modem with a spare unit (with the same programming). If the receive level is low (or error rate high) at both ends, then some element common to both transmit and receive may be involved. Things to check here are : { Power supply problem at one end. { Fuse blown in Modem at one end, and / or voltage regulator damage in modem at one end. { Antenna damage or mis-alignment. { Antenna and feedline VSWR. Should be better than 1.5 : 1. Note that a long feedline cable with high loss can disguise a faulty antenna if VSWR is measured at the transmitter end. { Antenna feed line damage, or ingress of water. { RF connectors for tightness, corrosion, or water ingress.

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9.4

SPARES The holdings of spares is an issue that should be addressed by the managers of a data transmission network. The quantity of spares held will depend on many factors. Some of the important factors are : { The size of the network. How many units of each type are used in the network. { The remoteness or accessibility of the units in the network. Consideration must be given to the time required to transport a faulty unit back to workshop or Dealer / Trio factory. A faulty unit may take 3 days to repair at the factory plus transport to and from site. { The availability required of the data network. Can the User afford to have the system off the air, and if so, for how long. { The cost of purchasing and storing of spare units. For a network that is required to be available for the maximum amount of time, then a minimum of 1 unit of each type in the network should be held as spares. For a big network utilising a large number of similar units, then more units of that type should be held.

9.5

GENERAL BOARD LEVEL MAINTENANCE All of the Trio D Series of Data Radio Modem products are designed for a minimum amount of alignment and maintenance. Under normal conditions there are no adjustments to be made on the PCB level. System parameters can all be adjusted with software programming. If units have to be realigned or adjusted in the workshop, the Equipment Handbooks should be consulted for these procedures. If work must be carried out that requires more detailed instructions than are available in the Handbooks, the unit should be returned to the Dealer or Factory.

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10

APPENDIX A INTERPRETING FREQUENCY POLL RESULTS ON THE DIAGNOSTICS PACKAGE

The frequency measurements made by a TC-900Dx node in a network, and reported to the diagnostics controller when polled, is a measurement of the AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) feedback voltage within the TC-900Dx, and not a direct measurement of frequency. The final apparent frequency is the result of three components, each of which has implicit errors. The TC-900DR uses a double conversion receiver, with IF frequencies of 45MHz and 455KHz. The incoming signal (900MHz) is mixed with the first local oscillator to produce the 1st IF frequency of 45MHz. This is then mixed with the second local oscillator to produce the 2nd IF frequency of 455KHz. The first local oscillator is temperature compensated to within 1ppm or approximately 1KHz. There is thus an initial error of up to 1KHz in the 1st IF frequency. The AFC system attempts to maintain a nominal DC voltage at the receiver output, by trimming the frequency of the second local oscillator. This will operate over a +/-5KHz range, and any frequency offset in this oscillator will be trimmed out by the AFC operation. This includes any temperature induced drift of the oscillator. This error can be up to 1KHz, thus the AFC is required to track internal frequency errors up to 2KHz, and so any measurement of the AFC feedback voltage includes adjustments for internal errors up to 2KHz. The incoming signal, is derived from a first local oscillator in the sending unit with similar frequency accuracy specifications (1KHz), so will be in error by up to 1KHz. Thus the indicated frequency error will be the sum of the error in:1. 2. the first local oscillator frequency of the receiving unit, and 3. the second local oscillator frequency of the receiving unit.

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In a Point To MultiPoint system, where a base station transmits RF carrier continuously, the Frequency reported by remote units is related to the RF signal they receive continuously from the base station, and periodically measure. However, the Frequency reported by the base station when it is polled, is related to the signal it last received from a remote. In the system topology presently under consideration, the source (which remote) of the signal cannot be determined and so polling of the base station will produce "wildly" varying frequency indications, as the last signal it has received (and measured the frequency of) has probably come from a different remote each time. This will be case where the Diagnostics Controller is physically connected to the base station via one of the user data ports. Another system topology, puts the diagnostics controller behind a remote unit, from where it polls the base station, and the rest of the remotes in the system. (This requires appropriate configuration of the base station modem). Again, all remotes including the diagnostics node, receive a continuous RF carrier from the base station, which they periodically measure. However, when the base station is interrogated by the diagnostics controller, it is via the RF path from the diagnostics remote unit, so the "last received signal" when the diagnostics command is processed by the base station modem is probably (though not necessarily) from the same remote each time.

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Training Manual for D Series Products

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APPENDIX B ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

BER / SINAD Vs Signal Graph

Technical Notes TN-1 TN-5 TN-6 TN-8 The Basis of Data Transport via the Radio Medium Adjacent Channel Interference Levels in the Point to Point Data Transport Protocol Firmware A Definition of SLIP

TN-11 Loopback/Repeater Configurations

Application Notes AN-D4 Trunked Multi-Stream Applications of the D Series Product Range AN-D8 Multi-Hop Propagation using Linear Gain "Passive" Repeaters.

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