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Ensuring the Success of Every Child Every Day: A Comprehensive Plan to Design, Deliver, and

Ensuring the Success of Every Child Every Day:

A Comprehensive Plan to Design, Deliver, and Evaluate Professional Learning in Pitt County Schools

Effective July 1 , 201 5

Table of Contents

Section 1: A Vision for Professional Learning

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FOUNDATIONS FOR PROFESSIONAL LEARNING

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STANDARDS FOR PROFESSIONAL LEARNING

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Section 2: The License Renewal Process

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STATE REQUIREMENTS

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College or University Course

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LEA/School Level In-Service Courses or Workshops

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Classes Approved by DPI/Other Agency

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Completion of Portfolio Process for National Board Certification

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Participation in an Institute/Seminar/Conference

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Serving as a Clinical Teacher

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FINANCIAL CONSIDERATIONS

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ONLINE LEARNING

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PROFESSIONAL LEAVE REQUESTS

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PROFESSIONAL LEARNING COMMUNITIES (PLCS)

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APPLICATION/IMPACT CREDIT

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PROCESS FOR PCS PROFESSIONAL LEARNING

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PROCESS FOR NON-PCS PROFESSIONAL LEARNING

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Section 3: Planning Professional Learning

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LOCALLY SPONSORED ACTIVITIES

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Section 4: Professional Learning Communities

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Section

5:

References & Research

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REFERENCES

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Effective July 1 , 201 5

Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual

S ECTION 1: A V ISION FOR P ROFESSIONAL L EARNING

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Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual

F OUNDATIONS FOR P ROFESSIONAL L EARNING

The term “Professional Learning” is used by Pitt County Schools to escape the deficit model often thought of when one hears the terms “Staff Development” or “ Professional Development ”; where - as professional development is often something that is provided for a teacher, professional learning is something providers facilitate for teacher participants. Killion (2008) writes, “Too many staff development efforts are still focused on selecting and implementing interventions rather than achieving specific results.” Professional learning is on- going, job- embedded, relevant to current classroom needs, results in changes in teacher practice, and leads to improvements in student achievement (Easton, 2011; Moir, 2013 ); it is PCS’ answer to Killion’s observations. High - Impact Professional Development is a term coined by Reeves (2010), and refers to professional learn ing that has three characteristics: “(1) a focus on student learning, (2) rigorous measurement of adult decisions; and (3) a focus on people and practices, not programs.”; in PCS the terms “High- Impact Professional Development ” and “Professional Learning” are synonymous and summarize the philosophy that guides our teacher learning.

Current research concludes that PLCs are the single best method available to schools to improve both teacher instruction and student achievement in a school (Dufour, et al., 2010; Reeves, 2008; Schmoker, 2006; Schmoker, 2011; Zepeda, 2012). As such, Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) form the backbone of our district’s professional learning. Pitt County Schools believes that people and not pr ograms empower students to succeed (Ree ves, 2010). As such, we value, protect, and prioritize time as the primary method for instructional improvement; PLCs are not something we do, rather they are how we do what we do - namely, ensuring the success of ev ery child every day.

Teachers working in PLCs make data - informed decisions based on:

An agreed- on, guaranteed curriculum

Results of common formative assessments given at specified intervals

Data is then used to inform:

Professional learning targeted to the needs of individual tea chers based on data collected from student achievement and teacher performance, and

Schedule students for remediation and/or enrichment based on their unique needs.

PLC’s can not fulfill 100% of the staff development needs in ou r district, and, as additional needs are identified, small - group and whole - group professional learning workshops are developed. Workshops are application - based and align to the best practices of adult learning (Zepeda, 2012). Workshops should not be one- shot sessions but rather should be sustained throughout the year, spiraling deeper and deeper into core concepts so that teachers become masters of their craft and experts in the science of teaching and learning. The goal of workshops is not mere knowledge transfer but deep understanding and application in the classroom; in short, workshops are designed to facilitate changes in

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teacher practice leading to improvements in student achievement , not simply improve teacher knowledge (Guskey, 2000).

Learning, for it to continue and expand, must be measured and evaluated. The second characteristic of Reeve’s (2010) definition includes the “measurement of adult decisions”, which is synonymous with evaluation. All professional learning should be evaluated on one or more of the four levels identified by Kirkpatrick (quoted in Zepeda, 2012): Reaction (what teachers thought of the workshop), Learning (changes in teacher knowledge), Transfer (changes in teacher practice or application), and Results (changes in student achievement or impact ). Evaluation of professional learning will be conducted using staff surveys, pre - post assessments, or classroom observations and walkthroughs. The results of these evaluations will be used as we plan for and design future professional learning in the district .

S TANDARDS FOR P ROFESSIONAL L EARNING

The US Department of Education and the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction both view professional learning as an essential part of the strategy to ensure a highl y qualified teaching force. Therefore, the No Child Left Behind legislation and the North Carolina Standards for Professional Learning are specific in the definition of so- called “high quality professional learning ”. Recent research indicates that professional learning that is not actively sustained for a minimum of 30- 80 hours (typically over multiple months), regardless of how good it is, has little to no impact on teaching and learning, and best practice is to sustain learning for over 120 hours (typica lly over multiple years) to achieve optimal impact (Guskey & Yoon, 2009; Shymansky, Wang, Annetta, Yore, & Everett, 2010) .

According to the US Department of Education, High quality professional learning :

Ø Focuses on teachers as central to student learning

Ø Focuses on individual, collegial, and organizational improvement

Ø Respects and nurtures educator capacity

Ø Reflects best available research and practice

Ø Enables learners to develop further experience (e.g. content, strategies, pedagogy)

Ø Promotes continuous inquiry and improvement embedded in the daily school life

Ø Is planned collaboratively be participants

Ø Requires substantial time (are not one day or short -term workshops or conferences )

Ø Is driven by a coherent long -term plan

Ø Is evaluated on basis of impact on teacher effectiveness and student learning.

The North Carolina Department of Instruction’s standards align to those developed by Learning Forward. These standards indicate professional learning increases educator effect iveness and results for all students when it

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1. Occurs within learning communities committed to continuous improvement , collective responsibility, and goal alignment ;

2. Requires skillful leaders who develop capacity, advocate, and create support systems for professional learning;

3. Requires prioritizing, monitoring, and coordinating resources for educator learning;

4. Uses a variety of sources and types of student, educator, and system data to plan, assess, and evaluate professional learning;

5. Integrates theories, research, and models of human learning to achieve its intended outcomes;

6. Applies research on change and sustains support for implementation of professional learning for long -term change;

7. Aligns outcomes to educator performance and student curriculum stand ards .

In Pitt Count Schools, this translates into the following:

1. PLCs provide the back- bone for professional learning in the district;

2. IC’s work as both district and school - based supporters of professional learning, striving to embed learning for educators in relevant and on- going ways;

3. Professional learning is designed, delivered, and evaluated with an emphasis on enhancing professional practice towards improving student achievement;

4. Professional learning will be designed with a commitment to long - term sustainability (months rather than days) and not quick, one- shot workshops;

5. Support will be designed and provided in three key areas for teachers and staff:

Content, Instruction, and Assessment (see Figure 1), with an emphasis on the convergence of these three areas.

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Content-Specific teaching strategies or programs
Content-Specific teaching
strategies or programs
Instruction Curriculum (WHAT we teach) (HOW we • Science Notebooking teach) • Guided Reading •
Instruction
Curriculum
(WHAT we
teach)
(HOW we
• Science
Notebooking
teach)
• Guided Reading
• Reading/Math
• Thinking Maps
• NCSCOS (CCSS &
NCES)
Foundations
• SIOP
• Curriculum Guides
• 9 High Yield
Strategies
• Literacy
• Year at a Glance
• Standard III
• 21 st Century
Skills
• Write from the
Beginning
• Standard IV
• Summative
• RBT
• Formative
Assessment
• PLCs
Assessment
• EOC/EOG
• Read 3D
• Benchmarks
Assessment
(How We Know
What Was Learned)
• Standard IV.H

Figure 1: The model for the delivery of professional learning in Pitt County Schools

Assessment of WHAT students know (may or may not have been learned in the class)
Assessment of WHAT
students know (may or may
not have been learned in
the class)
Assessment of HOW teachers taught; this drives instruction
Assessment of HOW
teachers taught; this drives
instruction
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Pitt County Schools Staff Development Manual

S ECTION 2: T HE L ICENSE R ENEWAL P ROCESS

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S TATE R EQUIREMENTS

The renewal process ensures that professional school personnel continually update their professional knowledge and technical competency. Each license holder is responsible for knowing and satisfying license renewal requirements. Failure to renew a license makes an individual ineligible for employment.

The State Board of Education has approved the following requirements to renew the Standard Professional 2 license, to which Pitt County Schools Professional Educators must adhere :

Professional Educators teaching in grades K - 8 (any certification):

3 renewal credit for literacy

3 renewal credit in the specific academic subject area and

2 general credits

Total: 8 Credits

All other Licensed Educators (any certification):

3 renewal credit in the specific academic subject area and

5 general credits

Total: 8 Credits

Administrators:

3 credits focused on the school executive’s role as instructional, human resources and managerial leader

5 general credits

Total: 8 Credits

In determining whether a workshop/course can award literacy credits, the following criteria must be met:

The course/workshop must be aligned directly with Standard III.a of t he NC Teacher Evaluation Rubric

The instruction must focus directly on teaching reading skills, writing skills, or literacy in/through the content area .

In determining whether a workshop/course can award academic credits, the following criteria must be met:

The course/workshop must be aligned directly with Standard III.b of the NC Teacher Evaluation Rubric

The instruction must focus directly on the licensure content area.

A unit of renewal credit is equivalent one in - service credit from a North Carolina public school system. Generally, a unit reflects ten contact hours. The DPI Licensure Section does not accept renewal credits of less than one unit (10 hours). For a professional educator's

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license to remain current all credit must be earned by the expiration date of the existing professional educator's license.

Individuals can earn license renewal credit through several options. These include:

1. College or University courses

2. LEA/school level in - service courses or workshops

3. Classes/ workshops approved by DPI or other certifying agency

4. Completion of portfolio process for National Board Certification (even if the individual does not achieve national certification) OR NBPTS Renewal

5. Participation in institute/seminar/conference

College or University Course

Renewal credit can be earned by taking courses through any accredited college or university, including technical and community colleges. Credit is earned as follows:

A quarter hour is the equivalent of 1.0 renewal credit.

A semester hour is equivalent to 1.5 renewal credits.

A course which is audited (not taken for college credit) cannot be used for renewal credit. The school system reserves the right to deny credit for course work not related to one’s license area or deemed inappropriate to an area of certification/professional growth. At the conclusion of the course, the individual must subm it the appropriate form on My Learning Plan as well as send a transcript to the Licensure Specialist.

LEA/School Level In - Service Courses or Workshops

LEA/School sponsored course/workshops are activities planned by and held at the local school or at the d istrict level. In general, participation in these activities will result in a teacher earning the required 8 renewal credits required every five years. These may be offered on district - wide training days, student half - days, or outside regular school hours. For specific details on how credit is awarded for these activities refer to the section entitled “Planning Locally Sponsored Courses” on page 1.

All in - district trainings are managed through My Learning Plan. Professionals in the district locate, register, and evaluate PD opportunities through MLP. Upon completion of any district/school workshop every participant must complete the online evaluation form in MLP within 30 days (or the end of the current school year, whichever is sooner) of completion of the workshop. Participants who do not complete the evaluation form will forfeit any credit earned. They will be marked “present” but they will not receive any renewal credit.

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Classes Approved by DPI/Oth er Agency

To receive credit for activities by an outside agency, participants must submit a Prior Approval for External Staff Development through My Learning Plan at least 2 weeks prior to the desired activity. Once the form has been submitted in MLP it w ill be reviewed by the employee’s principal/supervisor as well as the district’s Professional Learning Specialist and Licensure Specialist before it is approved. Upon completion of the activity it is the employee’s responsibility to mark the activity “complete” in MLP so credit can be granted; proof of completion is to be submitted to the employee’s principal/supervisor . The employee has 90 days (or the end of the current school year, whichever is sooner) to mark an activity complete after it has finished, otherwise credit will be forfeited.

As required by North Carolina State Board of Education Policy TCP-A-005, no credit will be awarded for any activity that is less than 10 contact hours.

Completion of Portfolio Process for National Board Certif ication

At the conclusion of the National Board Certification process the Licensure Specialist is automatically provided with the names of all teachers who pass the certification process. Therefore, teachers passing need only to provide the Licensure Specialist with information related to WHICH renewal cycle the 8 CEU’s are to be received since teachers may receive credit during the current cycle or bank them for the next renewal cycle.

Teachers who complete the National Board Certification process but who do NOT receive National Board certification may also receive 8 CEU’s of renewal credit. Teachers should submit to the Licensure Specialist written verification (a) that a portfolio was submitted to the National Board or (b) written verification of action from the National Board , including a copy of the score assigned. The CEU credit may be received during the current cycle or banked for the next renewal cycle; however, credit may be received one time only. If a teacher chooses to receive the 8 CEU’s during the current cycle and then receive National Board Certification at a later date NO additional renewal credit will be awarded.

Teachers who complete the National Board Renewal will receive 2 CEUs but are still responsible for the remaining 6 credits. The 2 CEUs awarded for NBPTS Renewal are classified as Literacy (1) and Academic (1) .

Participation in an Institute/Seminar/Conference

Frequently, school personnel engage in professional learning activities that do not award renewal credit. Such activities include conferences sponsored by agencies such as ASCD, NCTIES, NCASA, et cetera or curriculum - specific conferences like the NC AIG Conference, NC EC Conference, NC Music Educators Conference, et cetera. While these activities do not meet the definition of High Quality Professional Learning, renewal credit can be awarded for participation in them. This procedure outlined below provides a way

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that individuals may obtain credit for these activities that are sustained over a minimum two day period of time and are focused on recent research related to effective instruction. It cannot be used for one day conferences. Requests for CEUs for one day conferences will be denied u nless after attending the conference participants are able to demonstrate how the conference impacted their instruction.

1. The attendee must request prior- approval at least two weeks before the conference through MLP using the “Prior Approval for Conferences” form;

2. Once the form has been submitted in MLP it will be reviewed by the employee’s principal/supervisor as well as the district’s Professional Learning Specialist and Licensure Specialist before it is approved;

3. Upon completion of the activity it is the employee’s responsibility to mark the activity “complete” in MLP so credit can be granted; proof of completion is to be submitted to the employee’s principal/supervisor . The employee has 90 days (or the end of the current school year, whichever is soo ner) to mark an activity complete after it has finished, otherwise credit will be forfeited.

Credit is awarded only for the number of hours participants engage in professional learning and does not include breaks between sessions or for meals. Upon completion of the form when the participant returns he/she will enter the hours and break- out sessions (if any) that they attended. For example, day one of a conference starts at 8:00 and ends at 4:30. If the teacher attends the opening session from 8- 10, then goes to the exhibit hall from10- 11, has lunch from 11:30- 12:30, attends break- out session from 1:00- 2:30 and 3:00- 4:30 he/she will receive 5 hours of credit for that day (2 hours for 8- 10 and 1.5 hours for the 1- 2:30 and 3- 4:30 sessions).

Serving as a Clinical Teacher

Teachers may earn 10 hours (1 CEU) of credit for hosting a university intern and completing any necessary training , and these hours will be automatically awarded by the district after the intern has completed their work with the teacher. Teachers who host an intern need to contact the Teacher Support Coordinator if they have questions regarding this process.

F INANCIAL C ONSIDERATIONS

Often participation in outside professional learning results in the expenditure of significant financial resources. Consultant fees, participant salaries, material fees, travel guidelines, and reimbursement procedures will fall within the sponsoring department’s guidelines (EC, Federal Programs, SIG, etc), B oard of Education Policies and Procedures, and under any budgetary directives given by the Superintendent. For further information contact the school principal, the appropriate departmental director/coordinator, or the Assistant Superintendent for Educational Programs and Services.

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Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual

O NLINE L EARNING

To receive credit for an online class, the professional educator must request prior- approval via My Learning Plan using the Prior Approval – Online Learning form. Online courses must be offered through an established educational agency and often (though not always) require a fee to participate. Effective online learning requires regular, on - going interaction with a facilitator and other class members and should include the completion of scored assignments (group work, research, readings, etc). Examples of such agencies include (but are not limited to):

LearnNC

Pitt County Schools

NC Education

NC Department of Public Instruction

School Improvement Network

As a general rule credit will not be awarded for self- paced online learning

opportunities (unless sponsored by DPI).

colleges or universities resulting in college credit and for a grade are not considered “Online

Learning” opportunities in My Learning Plan but instead must be submitted in MLP via the College Credit form.

P ROFESSIONAL L EAVE R EQUESTS

Online courses taken through community

Employees must follow the procedures in the Pitt County Schools Human Resources Manual when requesting leave for personal, professional, or community service reasons.

P ROFESSIONAL L EARNING C OMMUNITIES (PLC S )

Participation in a PLC is an expectation of the North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards under Standard I.b. Teachers have the opportunity to earn CEUs for participation in an appropriate PLC. PLCs must be proposed in M LP through the appropriate goal forms, logs must be kept in a manner appropriate to the school principal, and teachers may earn 10 hours (or 1 CEU) for each calendar year.

A PPLICATION /I MPACT C REDIT

When a professional educator completes sel ected PD activit ies for which they receive credit they will have the option of receiving additional CEUs by completing an Application and/or Impact study. Upon completing the activity evaluation form (for in - district activities) or marking a form as “Comp lete” (for external PD activities), professional educators will be given the option to complete an Application study.

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During the application study the professional educator must demonstrate

application of the learning in the classroom over time. Professional educators can earn additional CEUs equal to the original number granted for attending the initial training (i.e.,

if a teacher participates in a 10 hour training and then completes an application study they

can earn 10 additional hours). They must document that the skills/knowledge gained in the original activity have been applied in the classroom over at least a six week period and the documentation will be submitted in My Learning Plan.

Upon demonstration of appropriate application in the classroom the professional educator will be given the option to complete an Impact study. The impact study will measure, over time, how the new knowledge/skills they learned and applied in the classroom have impacted student achievement. Upon completion of the impact study additional CEUs will be awarded at twice the number of hours first earned (i.e., for a 10 hour training, an educator who participates in the impact level will earn 20 additional hours). Documentation will be submitted by My Learning Pl an

Completion of the Application Level is a prerequisite to completion of the Impact Level. In the proceeding example, a teacher who completes 10 hours of training could earn

a total of 40 hours of renewal credit by completing both levels of study (10 for the initial

training, 10 more for the application level, and 20 more for the impact level). Participation in the Application/Impact levels allows a professional educator to earn additional hours beyond the number originally earned without falling under the 10% rule (see #2 under “Planning Locally Sponsored Courses”).

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P ROCESS FOR PCS P ROFESSIONAL L EARNING

Par9cipant Evalua9on (CEUs Awarded) Enrollment & Approval Instructor Completes •   End here OR con9nue
Par9cipant Evalua9on (CEUs
Awarded)
Enrollment & Approval
Instructor Completes
•   End here OR con9nue
Par9cipa9on
Through District
Catalog
A;endance
Par9cipant Marks Complete
(CEUs awarded)
•   End here OR con9nue
Demonstrate classroom
implementa9on (minimum 6
weeks)
Proposal & Approval
OPTIONAL: Applica9on Credit
OPTIONAL: Impact Study
Proposal & Approval
Par9cipant Submits
documenta9on that
applica9on lead to
improvements in student
learning (2x CEUs awarded)

Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual

P ROCESS FOR N ON - PCS P ROFESSIONAL L EARNING

(conferences, online courses, seminars, etc)

Par9cipant Evalua9on (CEUs Awarded) •   End here OR con9nue Proposal & Approval Par9cipa9on Par9cipant
Par9cipant Evalua9on (CEUs
Awarded)
•   End here OR con9nue
Proposal & Approval
Par9cipa9on
Par9cipant Marks Complete
Par9cipant Marks Complete
(CEUs awarded)
•   End here OR con9nue
Demonstrate classroom
implementa9on (minimum 6
weeks)
Proposal & Approval
OPTIONAL: Applica9on Credit
OPTIONAL: Impact Study
Proposal & Approval
Par9cipant Submits
documenta9on that
applica9on lead to
improvements in student
learning (2x CEUs awarded)
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Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual

S ECTION 3: P LANNING P ROFESSIONAL L EARNING

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L OCALLY S PONSORED A CTIVITIES

LEA/School sponsored course/workshops must meet the standards listed on page 3 of this manual under the heading “Standards for Professional learning”. They must be designed to develop specific skills and taught by qualified instructors. A ll proposals must be submitted into MLP at least one month prior to the official start date of the program. This will allow adequate time for review by the leadership team and time for the activity to be posted into MLP for teachers to register. In addition, the course/workshop must meet the following guidelines:

1. No more than 6 hours of credit can be awarded in one day unless specifically approved by the designated director prior to beginning the activity AND the activity must have a minimum of 10 contact hours;

2. Only sessions that award 10 or more hours total will be considered for approval. While multiple sessions for less than 10 hours can be combined to meet the 10 hour minimum, the sessions must be related in content (and these multiple sessions must be entered into MLP as one activity) . For example, 10 hours can be awarded for five different two- hour sessions on classroom management, but 10 hours can not be awarded for five different two-hour sessions on unrelated topics such as classroom management, content, instructional strategies, u sing PowerSchool, and data analysis.

3. No more than 1 hour of the 10 hour course/workshop can be accrued from lab time or time spent on assignments or practicing strategies. For courses awarding more than 10 hours, no more than 10% of the hours earned can be from outside direct participation time. The only exception being individual participation in the Application/Impact level ;

4. Upon completion of the workshop every participant must complete the online evaluation form in MLP within 30 days (or the end of the current school year, whichever is sooner) of completion of the workshop. Participants who do not complete the evaluation form will forfeit any credit earned. They will be marked “present” but they will not receive any renewal credit.

All workshops, whether school or district based, are managed through My Learning Plan (MLP). Facilitators for workshops must submit a Professional Learning Activity Proposal in MLP at least on e month prior to the date of the training. Once the proposal has been approved it will appear in the district catalogue for participants to register.

In order to complete the proposal process, the facilitator must submit the following information as part of the proposal form in My Learning Plan (see Figure 2); answers to these questions are designed to assist planners as they design professional learning for participants:

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1. Activity Title

2. Description of the Activity

3. Description of expected outcomes for both teachers and students

4. Maximum & Minimum Participants

5. Meeting Date(s), Time(s), and Location(s)

6. Number of clock hours to be awarded (do not include any scheduled breaks or meals in the hours to be awarded) (must be at least 10)

7. Breakdown of how hours s hould be awarded; while activities can offer hours in different areas (Literacy, Academic, or Principal), the sum of hours must equal the total hours given. Example, for a 10 hour course 5 hours may be awarded for Literacy and 5 for Academic.

8. The activity must be aligned to the NC Teacher Evaluation Standards (or Principal

standards if it is to offer principal renewal hours) and goals established by the Pitt County Schools Board of Education

a. Activities that award literacy credit must address Standard III. a

b. Activities that award academic credit must address Standard III.b

c. Activities that award principal credit must address School Executive Standards II, IV, or V.

9. The activity should include a plan for how the activity will be evaluated for impact and extended over time

All participants must sign - in to receive credit for the activity. Upon completion of the activity the facilitator will enter attendance into MLP.

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Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual 20
Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual 20
Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual 20
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Figure 2: MLP Proposal Form for School & District PD Pitt County Schools Professional Learning
Figure 2: MLP Proposal Form for School & District PD Pitt County Schools Professional Learning

Figure 2: MLP Proposal Form for School & District PD

Pitt County Schools Professional Learning Manual

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S ECTION 4: P ROFESSIONAL L EARNING C OMMUNITIES

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PLCs are not random committee meetings that lack focus, nor are they team or content meetings that lack a measurable goal. Rather, all effective PLCs are results driven (Annenberg Institute for School Reform, 2004; Dufour, 1997, 2004; Schmoker, 2006, 2011), meaning they focus on increasing student achievement based on specific, measurable goals. In effective PLCs, “Every professional in the building must engage with colleagues in the ongoing exploration of three crucial questions that drive the work of those within a professional learning community:

What do we want each student to learn?

How will we know when each student has learned it?

How will we respond when a student experiences difficulty in learning?” (Dufour, 2004)

PLC meetings, while they are focused on data and how teachers impact student achievement, may look different from school to school – but the basic component of measuring on - going progress towards a common, specific, and measurable goal will remain consistent across the district. Perhaps Richard Dufour summarizes it best when he writes, “The Professional Learning Community model flows from the assumption that the core mission of formal education is not simply to ensure that students are taught but to ensure that they learn. This simple shift – from a focus on teaching to a focus on lea rning has profound implications for schools…[because PLCs] judge their effectiven ess on the basis of [increased student achievement] results…w orking together to improve student achievement becomes the routine work of everyone in the school. Every teacher team participates in an ongoing process of identifying the current level of student achievement, establishing a goal to improve the current level, working together to achieve that goal, and providing periodic evidence of progress.” (Dufour, 2004)

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S ECTION 5: R EFERENCES & R ESEARCH

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R EFERENCES

Annenberg Institute for School Reform. (2004). Professional Learning Communities. Retrieved from

http://annenberginstitute.org/sites/default/files/product/270/files/ProfLearning.

pdf Dufour, R. (1997). Functioning as Learning Communities Enables Schools to Focus on Student Achievement. Journal of Staff Development , 18 , 5657. Dufour, R. (2004). What is a Professional Learning Community? Educational Leadership, 61 (8). Dufour, R., Dufour, R., Eaker, R., & Many, T. (2010). Learning by Doing (2nd Edition.). Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree. Easton, L. B. (2011). Professional Learning Communities by Design . Thousand Oaks, CA:

Corwin Press. Guskey, T. R. (2000). Evaluating Professional learning . Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Guskey, T., & Yoon, K. S. (2009). What Works in Professional learning? Phi Delta Kappan , 90 (7), 495 500. Jessup, S. (2007). Professional Learning Communities: An Overview of What the Research Says. The Educational Partners, LLC. Retrieved from

http://www.youreducationalpartners.com/Flyers/PLC/PLC%20Articles/PLCovervi

ew.pdf Killion, J. (2008). Assessing Impact (2nd Edition.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Moir, E. (2013, May 23). Evolving from professional development to professional learning. EdSource Today . Retrieved May 28, 2013, from http://www.edsource.org/today/2013/evolving - from - professional - development -

to- professional - learning/32586#.UaTKAFO_29d

Reeves, D. (2008). Reframing Teacher Leadership to Improve Your School . Alexandria, VA:

ASCD. Reeves, D. (2010). Transforming Professional Development into Student Results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Schmoker, M. (2006). Results Now. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Schmoker, M. (2011). Focus . Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Shymansky, J. A., Wang, T. - L., Annetta, L. A., Yore, L. D., & Everett, S. A. (2010). How Much Professional Development Is Needed to Effect Positive Gains in K6 Student Achievement on High Stakes Science Tests? International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education , 10 , 119. Zepeda, S. J. (2012). Professional Development : What Works . Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.

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