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Vocabulary 1. Deceive to trick someone by behaving in a dishonest way You two dont deceive me, she said.

. I know what youretrying to do. deceive someone into doing something: He was deceivedinto giving them all his money. dont be deceived: Dont be deceived shes not as nice as she seems if something deceives you, it gives you a false idea about something else someones eyes/ears deceive them: Unless my eyes deceive me, thats your brother over there.

2. Adversary an enemy or opponent 3. Feint a movement that you pretend to make, especially to trickan opponent in a sport or fight 4. Primvery careful about your behaviour and appearance, and easily shocked by what ot her people do or say prim and proper prim clothes are neat, sensible, and show very little of your body wearing a prim Victorian dress 5. Forgeform by heating and hammering [TRANSITIVE] to develop a successful relationship,especially in business or pol itics, with another country,organization, or person The company wanted to forge alliances with other motormanufacturers. forge links: During the 1970s, the US forged trade linkswith China. to work hard to achieve something She forged a new career as a poet and songwriter. alliance, bond, contact, friendship, link, partnership,relationship, tie

1.

2. [TRANSITIVE] to illegally copy documents, paper money, or works of art with the inten tion of cheatingpeople Someone forged my signature. The police are searching for stolen goods, forged passports, and drugs.

3. [TRANSITIVE] to heat metal until it is soft, then hit it with a hammer or pour it into a mould to formdifferent shapes

4. [INTRANSITIVE] to keep moving forwards, with a lot of difficulty forge on/through: Napoleons soldiers forged through the snow.

Moult if an animal or bird moults, it loses its outer layer of skin, fur, feathers etc so that a new layer canreplace it astute good at judging situations and people quickly and able to use this knowledge for personal benefit shrewd astute or sharp in practical matters

ethereal ethereal sounds, qualities etc have a delicate beauty that makes them seem not to be part of the realworld

contrary 1. /kntrri/ completely different oropposed to something else

a contrary view/opinion contrary to: The introduction of such a tax would becontrary to our policy. Thesaurus entry for this meaning of contrary 2. 2 /kntreri/ someone who is contrary enjoys disagreeing with people anddoing th e opposite of what is expected or asked Disdain the feeling that someone or something is not importantand does not deserve any re spect frugal - definition

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ADJECTIVE

/fru()l/

1. 1 spending very little money and only on things that are really necessary Thesaurus entry for this meaning of frugal 2. 2 a frugal meal is simple, cheap, and not very big substantive - definition

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ADJECTIVE FORMAL

/sbstntv/

Related dictionary definitions

substantive NOUN

1. 1 important or serious, or referring to the most important orserious issues The family appeared at the press conference but made nosubstantive comments. Thesaurus entry for this meaning of substantive

2. 2 large in amount, degree, or strength substantive changes a substantive report Thesaurus entry for this meaning of substantive Disguise 1. to hide something such as your feelings or intentions He didnt disguise his bitterness about what hadhappened. a thinly disguised attempt to embarrass the prime minister Thesaurus entry for this meaning of disguise 2. 2 [OFTEN PASSIVE] to make changes in the way thatsomeone looks so that other people will n ot recognize them be disguised as someone/something: She arrived at his home disguised as a man. be disguised in something: The intruders were disguised in post office uniforms. disguise yourself as/in something: The soldiers disguised themselves as ordinary civilians. Thesaurus entry for this meaning of disguise 1. a. to make something look, sound, or seem like something else little tape recorders disguised as cigarette packets devoid - definition

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ADJECTIVE

/dvd/

1. lacking something, especially a good quality devoid of: Robs face was devoid of any warmth.

1. apathy

(noun)absence or suppression of passion, emotion, or excitement; lack of interest in or concern for things that others find moving or exciting 2. advocate

(verb)to speak or write in favor of; support or urge by argument; recommend publicly 3. ascetic

(noun)a person who dedicates his or her life to a pursuit of contemplative ideals and practices extreme self-denial for religious reasons 4. censure

(verb)to criticize or reproach in a harsh or vehement manner 5. frugal

(adjective)economical in use or expenditure; expense or requiring few resources 6. haughty

not

wasteful;

entailing

little

(adjective)disdainfully proud; snobbish; scornfully arrogant 7. haphazard

(noun)mere chance or accident 8. scrutinize

(verb)to examine in detail with careful or critical attention 9. debacle

(noun)a general breakup or dispersion; sudden downfall or rout; a complete collapse or failure 10. aloof

(adjective)reserved or reticent; indifferent; disinterested 11. mitigate

(verb)to become milder; lessen in severity 12. inevitable

(adjective)unable to be avoided, evaded, or escaped; sure to occur, happen, or come 13. disdain

(verb)to look upon or treat with contempt; to think unworthy of notice 14. rhetoric

(noun)the undue use of exaggeration or display; the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in prose or verse including figures of speech 15. redundant

(adjective)characterized by verbosity or unnecessary repetition in expressing ideas; exceeding what is usual or natural 16. articulate

(adjective)using language easily and fluently; having facility with words 17. manifest

(verb)to make clear or evident to the eye or the understanding; show plainly; to prove; put beyond doubt or question 18. abstract

(noun)a summary of a text, scientific article, document or speech 19. aggregate

(verb)to combine and form a collection or mass 20. prolific

(adjective)producing offspring abundantly; producing in large quantities or with great frequency 21. elaborate

(adjective)worked out with great care and nicety of detail; marked by intricate and often excessive detail; complicated 22. implicit

(adjective)implied, rather than expressly stated; unquestioning or unreserved; to bring out the drama implicit in the occasion 23. adversity

(noun)a condition marked by misfortune, calamity, or distress 24. ambivalence

(noun)uncertainty or fluctuation caused by an inability to make a choice or by a simultaneous desire to say or do two opposite, conflicting things 25. contrary

(adjective)opposite in nature or character; diametrically or mutually opposed 26. respite

(verb)to relieve temporarily from anything distressing or trying; give interval of relief from; to grant delay in the carrying out of a punishment 27. peruse

an

(verb)to read through with thoroughness or care; to survey or examine in detail 28. eloquent

(adjective)having or exercising the power of fluent, forceful, and appropriate speech 29. tedious

(adjective)marked by tedium; long and tiresome 30. prodigal

(noun)a person who spends, or has spent, his or her money or substance with wasteful extravagance 31. abate

(verb)to reduce in amount, degree, intensity, etc.; lessen; diminish or omit 32. augment

(verb)to become larger 33. substantive

(adjective)of considerable amount or quantity 34. formidable

(adjective)causing fear, apprehension, or dread; of awesome strength and size; intimidating; arousing feelings of awe or admiration because of grandeur 35. serene

(adjective)calm, peaceful, or tranquil; unruffled or clear 36. sanction

(noun)authoritative permission or approval, as for an action; something that serves to support an action or condition 37. devious

(adjective)departing from the most direct way; without definite course; departing from the proper or accepted way 38. expedient

(adjective)tending to promote some proposed or desired object; conducive to advantage or interest, as opposed to right 39. zealot

(noun)a person who shows a great deal of enthusiasm, a fanatic 40. wanton

(verb)to squander, especially in pleasure 41. covert

(adjective)concealed or secret, disguised 42. circumvent

(verb)to go around or bypass, to avoid by artfulness or deception; to surround or encompass, as by stratagem; entrap 43. cavalier

(adjective)haughty, disdainful, or supercilious, offhand or unceremonious 44. consent

(noun)permission, approval, or agreement; agreement in sentiment or opinion, a course of action 45. heed

(noun)careful attention; notice; observation 46. adhere

(verb)to stay attached, cleave or cling; to hold closely or firmly 47. languid

(adjective)lacking in vigor or vitality; lacking in spirit or interest; listless; drooping or flagging from weakness or fatigue 48. devoid

(adjective)not possessing something, untouched by or destitute 49. waive

(verb)to refrain from claiming relinquish intentionally 50. surmise

or

insisting

on;

to

give

up

or

forgo;

to

(noun)a matter of conjecture, an idea or thought of something as being possible or likely 51. hindrance

(noun)impeding, stopping or preventing 52. pristine

(adjective)having its original purity; of or pertaining to the earliest period or state; primitive 53. condescend

(verb)to behave as if one is conscious of descending from a superior position, rank, or dignity; to stoop or deign to do something 54. exhaust

(noun)the escape of steam or gases from the cylinder of an engine; the parts of an engine through which the exhaust is ejected. 55. artifice

(noun)a clever trick or stratagem; a cunning, crafty device or expedient; a skillful or artful contrivance or expedient 56. malign

(verb)to speak harmful untruths about; slander or defame 57. despot

(noun)a king or other ruler with absolute, unlimited power, or any tyrant or oppressor 58. relegate

(verb)to send or consign to an inferior position, place, or condition; to consign or commit a matter or task 59. raze

(verb)to tear down; demolish or level to the ground; to shave or scrape off 60. agrarian

(noun)a person who favors the equal advancement of agricultural groups 61. quaff

division

of

landed

property

and

the

(verb)to drink a beverage copiously and heartily 62. cascade

(noun)a waterfall descending over a steep, rocky surface; a type of firework resembling a waterfall in effect 63. travail

(verb)to suffer the pangs of childbirth; be in labor, to toil or exert oneself 64. meander

(verb)to take a winding or indirect course; to wander aimlessly or ramble 65. synchronize

(verb)to occur at the same time or coincide or agree in time; to go on, move or operate at the same rate and exactly together 66. writhe

(verb)to twist or bend out of shape or position; to twist about, as in pain 67. seethe

(noun)the state of being agitated or excited 68. fetter

(verb)to confine or restrain 69. amass

(verb)to come together; assemble 70. cyclical

(adjective)denoting a business or stock whose income, value, or earnings fluctuate widely according to variations in the economy or the cycle of the seasons 71. carp

(noun)a peevish complaint

72. pinion

(noun)a gear with a small number of teeth engaging with a rack or larger gear; a shaft or spindle cut with teeth engaging with a gear