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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,May 2010 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. A control system shown below ﬁgure 1contains a three-mode controller.

Figure 1:

For τ D = τ I =1 and τ 1 = 2,

(a) Determine the oﬀset for a unit step change in load and set point if K = 2.

(b) Sketch the response curves (C versus t) for a unit step change in load and set

[8+8]

2. How would you determine the type of process that would require a cascade control and the type that would require feed forward control? What are the basic diﬀerences between them? Explain with the help of an example. [16]

3. (a) Explain with equations and sketches the impulse response for a second order system.

(b) Explain with equations and sketches the diﬀerent approximations of the trans-

[8+8]

4. Derive expressions for amplitude ratio and phase angle as functions of ω for the

point when K = 2.

port lag transfer function.

transfer function G(s) =

1

s

2

1 .

[16]

5. For the control system shown below,with τ D = 1/9.

 (a) Sketch the root locus diagram 2. (b) If the system can go unstable, ﬁnd the value of Kc that just causes instability.

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Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 2

(c) Using Routh test, ﬁnd the locations (if any) at which the loci cross into the

unstable region.

[8+4+4]

Figure 2:

Figure 3:

If

the value is such that , calculate the time constant for this system if the average

[16]

7. For the control system shown below ﬁgure 4, determine the controller settings using

6. The above ﬁgure 3 liquid level system has a cross-sectional area of 3.0 ft

2 .

operating level is 9 ft 2 .

Ziegler-Nichols method.

[16]

8. An ideal PD controller had the transfer function

P ε K c (τ D s + 1)

=

An actual PD controller had the transfer function

P

ε

= K c

(τ D s+1) (τ D )s+1

Where β is a large constant in an industrial controller. If a unit-step change in

error is introduced into a controller having the second transfer function, show that P(t) = K c (1 + A exp(βt/τ D ) Where A is a function of β which you are to determine. For β = 5 and K c = 0.5,

plot P(t) versus t/τ D .

that for the ideal controller.

As β → ∞, show that the unit-step response approaches

[16]

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Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 2

Figure 4:

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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,May 2010 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

 (a) 1. Explain process identiﬁcation. Explain any one method used for the identiﬁ- cation of a process. (b) Explain the criteria for good control along with corresponding equation. [10+6]

2. Using the Bode stability criterion, determine if the open loop transfer function is

stable G(s) =

3e

.5s

(0.1s+1)(2s+1) .

3. For the control system in the ﬁgure 5:

[16]

(a)

(b) Use the Routh test to determine if the system is stable for K c = 4.

Write the characteristic equation.

(c)

Determine the ultimate value of

K c

, above which the system is unstable. [16]

Figure 5:

4. A manometer of length 1.2 m and diameter 6 mm shown below in the ﬁgure 6 is ﬁlled with water to the extent of 30 cm length in the manometer. The manometer is subjected to a step change of 3000 N/m 2 . Find

 (a) Overshoot. (b) Decay ratio. (c) Rise time.

Is the manometer length enough for the step change given?

Data: ρ water = 1000 kg/m 3 , viscosity of water = 1 x 10 3 N/m.

4

[16]

Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 4

Figure 6:

5. A cascade control system is shown below ﬁgure 7. Calculate the maximum gain

and the critical frequency of the primary controller. Eliminating the inner loop,

compare these values with the single-loop system. [16]

Figure 7:

6. For the block diagram shown below ﬁgure 8, derive transfer functions for Y(s)/D(s)

[16]

and Y(s)/Ysp(s).

Figure 8:

7. A liquid storage system is shown below. The normal operating conditions are q¯ 1 = 10f t 3 / min, q¯ 2 = 5ft 3 / min, h = 4 ft. The tank is 6 ft in diameter, and the

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Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 4

Figure 9:

density of each stream is 60 lb/ft

below ﬁgure 9:

3 . Suppose a pulse change occurs in q

1 as shown

(a) What is the transfer function relating H to Q

(b)

1

?

Derive an expression for h(t) for this input change.

(c) What is the new steady state value of liquid level h?

[6+6+4]

8. A two tank chemical-reactor control system is given below ﬁgure 10. A ﬁrst order

and

, the concentration

of A leaving tank 2, at some desired value in spite of variation in inlet concentration

, which is accomplished by adding a stream of pure A to tank 1 through a control

valve. Develop a block diagram, with approximate transfer functions in each block.

reaction AR is carried out, tanks are maintained at diﬀerent temperatures

T 2 (T 1

C 0

T 2 ). The purpose of the control system is to maintain C 2

T 1

[16]

Figure 10:

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Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 4

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 1

III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,May 2010 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. The transfer functions of P, PI, PD and PID are of the form U(s)/E(s), where U(s) is the laplace transform of u(t), the controller output, and E(s) the laplace transform of e(t), the actuating error signal. Discuss and sketch u(t) vs t curves

for each of these controllers when the actuating error signal is:

 (a) e(t) = unit-step function. (b) e(t) = unit ramp function. [8+8]

2. (a) Derive the unit ramp response of ﬁrst - order systems. Discuss for this, what

(b) A thermometer requires 1 min to indicate 98% of the response to a step change

input. Assuming the thermometer to be a ﬁrst order-system, ﬁnd the time

constant. If the thermometer is placed in a bath, the temperature of which is

changing linearly at a rate of 10

show?

. If r(t) is a unit step

0 /min, how much error does the thermometer

Y (s)

R(s)

=

5(s+100)

s 2 +60s+500

[6+10]

3. (a) The transfer function of a system is

input, ﬁnd the output y(t).

(b) What is the ﬁnal value of y(t)?

[8+8]

4. (a) Explain the concept of root locus. Give the procedure for plotting the root

locus diagram along with the rules proposed by Evans. Consider the following

open loop transfer function as an example.

G =

K

(s+1)(s+2)(s+3)

.

(b) Discuss the limitations of Routh test.

[10+6]

5. Derive the closed loop transfer function relating a secondary disturbance to the

primary output for a cascade control system.

[16]

6. Explain in detail the characteristics of the ultimate response of a linear system with a transfer function G(s) to a sustained sinusoidal input. [16]

7. The block diagram 11 of a special feed back control system is shown below. Derive an expression for the closed loop transfer functions Y(s)/D(s) and Y(s)/Ysp(s).

[16]

8. For the control system shown below ﬁgure 12, determine the controller settings

using Ziegler-Nichols method.

8

[16]

Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 3

Figure 11:

Figure 12:

III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,May 2010

PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL

Chemical Engineering

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

All Questions carry equal marks

 1. (a) Find the number of poles in the left-half plane, the right half plane and on the jω - axis for the system given below ﬁgure 13: (b) Determine the stability of the system which has the following characteristic equation.

1 +

Also ﬁnd the frequency ω, where the system has sustained oscillation. [6+10]

(s+4)

(s+1) 2 (s+2)(s+3) = 0

2. Explain the following:

 (a) Band width. (b) Reset ratio. (c) Anticipatory control.

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Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 3

(d) Positive feed back.

Figure 13:

[16]

3. (a) Explain the operation of a feed forward control with an example. State the

(b) Explain the design of ratio control with an example.

[8+8]

4. Sketch the Bode plot for the following system:

G

p (s) =

1

5s 2 +2s+6 ;

G c (s) = 10 1 +

0.5s

1

;

g m (s) =

1

s+1

;

G f (s) =

10

s+10 .

[16]

5. The two-tank liquid - level system shown in the ﬁgure 14 is operating at steady

state when a step change is made in the ﬂow rate to tank 1. The transient response

is critically damped, and it takes 1.0 min for the change in level of the second tank

to reach 50 % of the total change.

(a) If the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the tanks is A 1 /A

(b)

(c)

1 /R 2 .

2 =2, calculate the

ratio of the resistances R

Calculate the time constant for each tank.

How long does it take for the change in level of the ﬁrst tank to reach 90% of

the total change?

[16]

6. For the system below in ﬁgure 15, with G c = K c 1 +

1 s , derive the response

for a unit step change in the load variable. Explain all the terms involved in the answer.

τ I

[16]

7. For the control system shown below ﬁgure 16, determine the controller settings

using Ziegler-Nichols method.

[16]

8. (a) Discuss the importance of linearization in process dynamics and control.

(b) A thermometer is immersed in a liquid which is heated at such a rate that its temperature is increasing at the rate of 0.1 degree centigrade per second. If both thermometer and liquid are initially at 30 0 C, what rate of passage of liquid over the thermometer bulb is required, if the error in the thermometer

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Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 3

Figure 14:

Figure 15:

Figure 16:

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reading is to be not more than 0.5 0 C. The mass of mercury in bulb is 10 g. Heat transfer coeﬃcient (h) is given by, where ’u’ is the velocity of ﬂuid in

m/s, h in watt/m2- 0 C. The surface area of bulb is 0.01 m 2 and speciﬁc heat

of mercury is 1.38 kJ/kg- 0 C.

[6+10]

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