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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 2

III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,May 2010 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. A control system shown below figure 1contains a three-mode controller.

shown below figure 1contains a three-mode controller. Figure 1: For τ D = τ I =1

Figure 1:

For τ D = τ I =1 and τ 1 = 2,

(a) Determine the offset for a unit step change in load and set point if K = 2.

(b) Sketch the response curves (C versus t) for a unit step change in load and set

[8+8]

2. How would you determine the type of process that would require a cascade control and the type that would require feed forward control? What are the basic differences between them? Explain with the help of an example. [16]

3. (a) Explain with equations and sketches the impulse response for a second order system.

(b) Explain with equations and sketches the different approximations of the trans-

[8+8]

4. Derive expressions for amplitude ratio and phase angle as functions of ω for the

point when K = 2.

port lag transfer function.

transfer function G(s) =

1

s

2

1 .

[16]

5. For the control system shown below,with τ D = 1/9.

(a)

Sketch the root locus diagram 2.

(b)

If the system can go unstable, find the value of Kc that just causes instability.

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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 2

(c) Using Routh test, find the locations (if any) at which the loci cross into the

unstable region.

[8+4+4]

at which the loci cross into the unstable region. [8+4+4] Figure 2: Figure 3: If the

Figure 2:

the loci cross into the unstable region. [8+4+4] Figure 2: Figure 3: If the value is

Figure 3:

If

the value is such that , calculate the time constant for this system if the average

[16]

7. For the control system shown below figure 4, determine the controller settings using

6. The above figure 3 liquid level system has a cross-sectional area of 3.0 ft

2 .

operating level is 9 ft 2 .

Ziegler-Nichols method.

[16]

8. An ideal PD controller had the transfer function

P ε K c (τ D s + 1)

=

An actual PD controller had the transfer function

P

ε

= K c

(τ D s+1) (τ D )s+1

Where β is a large constant in an industrial controller. If a unit-step change in

error is introduced into a controller having the second transfer function, show that P(t) = K c (1 + A exp(βt/τ D ) Where A is a function of β which you are to determine. For β = 5 and K c = 0.5,

plot P(t) versus t/τ D .

that for the ideal controller.

As β → ∞, show that the unit-step response approaches

[16]

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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 2

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 2 Figure 4: 3

Figure 4:

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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 4

III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,May 2010 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

(a)

1. Explain process identification. Explain any one method used for the identifi- cation of a process.

(b)

Explain the criteria for good control along with corresponding equation. [10+6]

2. Using the Bode stability criterion, determine if the open loop transfer function is

stable G(s) =

3e

.5s

(0.1s+1)(2s+1) .

3. For the control system in the figure 5:

[16]

(a)

(b) Use the Routh test to determine if the system is stable for K c = 4.

Write the characteristic equation.

(c)

Determine the ultimate value of

K c

, above which the system is unstable. [16]

value of K c , above which the system is unstable. [16] Figure 5: 4. A

Figure 5:

4. A manometer of length 1.2 m and diameter 6 mm shown below in the figure 6 is filled with water to the extent of 30 cm length in the manometer. The manometer is subjected to a step change of 3000 N/m 2 . Find

(a)

Overshoot.

(b)

Decay ratio.

(c)

Rise time.

Is the manometer length enough for the step change given?

Data: ρ water = 1000 kg/m 3 , viscosity of water = 1 x 10 3 N/m.

4

[16]

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 4

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 4 Figure 6: 5. A cascade control system is shown

Figure 6:

5. A cascade control system is shown below figure 7. Calculate the maximum gain

and the critical frequency of the primary controller. Eliminating the inner loop,

compare these values with the single-loop system. [16]

loop, compare these values with the single-loop system. [16] Figure 7: 6. For the block diagram

Figure 7:

6. For the block diagram shown below figure 8, derive transfer functions for Y(s)/D(s)

[16]

and Y(s)/Ysp(s).

transfer functions for Y(s)/D(s) [16] and Y(s)/Ysp(s). Figure 8: 7. A liquid storage system is shown

Figure 8:

7. A liquid storage system is shown below. The normal operating conditions are q¯ 1 = 10f t 3 / min, q¯ 2 = 5ft 3 / min, h = 4 ft. The tank is 6 ft in diameter, and the

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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 4

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 4 Figure 9: density of each stream is 60 lb/f

Figure 9:

density of each stream is 60 lb/ft

below figure 9:

3 . Suppose a pulse change occurs in q

1 as shown

(a) What is the transfer function relating H to Q

(b)

1

?

Derive an expression for h(t) for this input change.

(c) What is the new steady state value of liquid level h?

[6+6+4]

8. A two tank chemical-reactor control system is given below figure 10. A first order

and

, the concentration

of A leaving tank 2, at some desired value in spite of variation in inlet concentration

, which is accomplished by adding a stream of pure A to tank 1 through a control

valve. Develop a block diagram, with approximate transfer functions in each block.

reaction AR is carried out, tanks are maintained at different temperatures

T 2 (T 1

C 0

T 2 ). The purpose of the control system is to maintain C 2

T 1

[16]

temperatures T 2 ( T 1 C 0 T 2 ). The purpose of the control

Figure 10:

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Code No: 07A60804

R07

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Set No. 4

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 1

III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,May 2010 PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL Chemical Engineering

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks

1. The transfer functions of P, PI, PD and PID are of the form U(s)/E(s), where U(s) is the laplace transform of u(t), the controller output, and E(s) the laplace transform of e(t), the actuating error signal. Discuss and sketch u(t) vs t curves

for each of these controllers when the actuating error signal is:

(a)

e(t) = unit-step function.

(b)

e(t) = unit ramp function.

[8+8]

2. (a) Derive the unit ramp response of first - order systems. Discuss for this, what

is ’Steady state error’.

(b) A thermometer requires 1 min to indicate 98% of the response to a step change

input. Assuming the thermometer to be a first order-system, find the time

constant. If the thermometer is placed in a bath, the temperature of which is

changing linearly at a rate of 10

show?

. If r(t) is a unit step

0 /min, how much error does the thermometer

Y (s)

R(s)

=

5(s+100)

s 2 +60s+500

[6+10]

3. (a) The transfer function of a system is

input, find the output y(t).

(b) What is the final value of y(t)?

[8+8]

4. (a) Explain the concept of root locus. Give the procedure for plotting the root

locus diagram along with the rules proposed by Evans. Consider the following

open loop transfer function as an example.

G =

K

(s+1)(s+2)(s+3)

.

(b) Discuss the limitations of Routh test.

[10+6]

5. Derive the closed loop transfer function relating a secondary disturbance to the

primary output for a cascade control system.

[16]

6. Explain in detail the characteristics of the ultimate response of a linear system with a transfer function G(s) to a sustained sinusoidal input. [16]

7. The block diagram 11 of a special feed back control system is shown below. Derive an expression for the closed loop transfer functions Y(s)/D(s) and Y(s)/Ysp(s).

[16]

8. For the control system shown below figure 12, determine the controller settings

using Ziegler-Nichols method.

8

[16]

Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 3

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 3 Figure 11: Figure 12: III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary

Figure 11:

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 3 Figure 11: Figure 12: III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary

Figure 12:

III B.Tech II Semester Regular/Supplementary Examinations,May 2010

PROCESS DYNAMICS AND CONTROL

Chemical Engineering

Time: 3 hours

Max Marks: 80

Answer any FIVE Questions

All Questions carry equal marks

1.

(a)

Find the number of poles in the left-half plane, the right half plane and on the jω - axis for the system given below figure 13:

(b)

Determine the stability of the system which has the following characteristic equation.

1 +

Also find the frequency ω, where the system has sustained oscillation. [6+10]

(s+4)

(s+1) 2 (s+2)(s+3) = 0

2. Explain the following:

(a)

Band width.

(b)

Reset ratio.

(c)

Anticipatory control.

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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 3

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 3 (d) Positive feed back. Figure 13: [16] 3. (a)

(d) Positive feed back.

Figure 13:

[16]

3. (a) Explain the operation of a feed forward control with an example. State the

advantages and disadvantages.

(b) Explain the design of ratio control with an example.

[8+8]

4. Sketch the Bode plot for the following system:

G

p (s) =

1

5s 2 +2s+6 ;

G c (s) = 10 1 +

0.5s

1

;

g m (s) =

1

s+1

;

G f (s) =

10

s+10 .

[16]

5. The two-tank liquid - level system shown in the figure 14 is operating at steady

state when a step change is made in the flow rate to tank 1. The transient response

is critically damped, and it takes 1.0 min for the change in level of the second tank

to reach 50 % of the total change.

(a) If the ratio of the cross-sectional areas of the tanks is A 1 /A

(b)

(c)

1 /R 2 .

2 =2, calculate the

ratio of the resistances R

Calculate the time constant for each tank.

How long does it take for the change in level of the first tank to reach 90% of

the total change?

[16]

6. For the system below in figure 15, with G c = K c 1 +

1 s , derive the response

for a unit step change in the load variable. Explain all the terms involved in the answer.

τ I

[16]

7. For the control system shown below figure 16, determine the controller settings

using Ziegler-Nichols method.

[16]

8. (a) Discuss the importance of linearization in process dynamics and control.

(b) A thermometer is immersed in a liquid which is heated at such a rate that its temperature is increasing at the rate of 0.1 degree centigrade per second. If both thermometer and liquid are initially at 30 0 C, what rate of passage of liquid over the thermometer bulb is required, if the error in the thermometer

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Code No: 07A60804

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Set No. 3

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 3 Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: 11

Figure 14:

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 3 Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: 11

Figure 15:

Code No: 07A60804 R07 Set No. 3 Figure 14: Figure 15: Figure 16: 11

Figure 16:

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Code No: 07A60804

R07

Set No. 3

reading is to be not more than 0.5 0 C. The mass of mercury in bulb is 10 g. Heat transfer coefficient (h) is given by, where ’u’ is the velocity of fluid in

m/s, h in watt/m2- 0 C. The surface area of bulb is 0.01 m 2 and specific heat

of mercury is 1.38 kJ/kg- 0 C.

[6+10]

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