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Formative Assessment and Feedback: Teacher Practices and Experiences

Edith Gummer, Claire Gates, Traci Fantz


Education Northwest

Karen Marrongelle and Sarah Enoch


Portland State University

Jessica Cohen
Western Washington University

You have known us as Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. While our research-based approach and commitment to creating strong schools and communities has not changed, we now have a new, shorter, easy-to-say name: Education Northwest. We are a regionally based nonprofit that works throughout the nation to transform teaching and learning. Our priorities: Supporting educators Strengthening schools and districts Engaging families and communities Conducting research, evaluation, and assessments

Why Formative Assessment?


Add connection to ARRA

Overview of Presentation
Our perspective on formative assessment and feedback based on review of the literature Structure of the Education Northwest Mathematics Problem Solving Model professional development Opportunity to provide and analyze teacher feedback to a specific task Examine student reflections on feedback Consider how we can support the development of formative assessment practices by teachers

Formative Assessment
First priority is promoting student learning provides information to be used as feedback, by teachers and by their pupils, in assessing themselves and each other to modify the teaching and learning activities in which they are engaged.

Formative Assessment
Such assessment becomes formative assessment when evidence is actually used to adapt the teaching work to meet learning needs (Black, et al., 2003) Our perspective
Formative assessment must provide teachers with information about what to do next

Using Evidence to Inform Instruction


IES Practice Guide: Using Student Achievement Data to Support Instructional Decision Making (Hamilton, et al. 2009) Using evidence from students performances to make instructional decisions (Stein, Smith, Henningson, & Silver, 2009)

Feedback to Inform Instruction


Definition of feedback in teaching and learning environments (Sadler, 1989)
Students have access to
Vision of the goal of the performance Indication of match between performance and vision Some understanding of action needed to improve that performance

Research on Feedback
Three questions
o Where am I going? o How am I going? o Where to next?

Two reviews
Hattie and Timperley Shute
information communicated to the learner that is intended to modify his or her thinking or behavior to improve learning.

Hattie and Timperley (2007)


Four levels of feedback
Person Task Process used to complete the task Self regulation

Dimensions of task and process feedback


Written or numeric notations Low to high complexity Individual or group performance focus

Shute (2008)
Characteristics of feedback
Task-level rather than general summary Directive or facilitative
Help student identify the gap in performance Reduce the cognitive load Identifies cognition/action to be taken

Verification or elaborated
Provides information about why answer is incorrect or incomplete/correct and complete Guiding the learner in the right direction, e.g., strategic hint on what to do next or a worked example or demonstration.

Kinds of feedback (Nyquist, 2003)


Weaker feedback only
Knowledge of results (KoR)

Feedback only
KoR + clear goals or knowledge of correct results (KCR)

Weak formative assessment


KCR+ explanation (KCR+e)

Moderate formative assessment


(KCR+e) + specific actions for gap reduction

Strong formative assessment


(KCR+e) + activity

Formative Assessment and Feedback


Our perspective
Formative assessment must provide teachers with information about what to do next Feedback must provide students with information about the quality of their performance and suggest actions they can take to improve it.

What do Teachers Need to Know and Be Able to Do?


Understand the mathematics involved in a problem solving task and flexibly solve it Connect the task to important mathematical learning goals for students Accurately analyze student work and identify strengths and weaknesses Provide effective feedback to students

Characteristics of Effective Feedback


Timely (but value of some delay?) Regular and familiar part of instruction Understandable to recipient Relate to the task and address strengths and weaknesses of student performance Assist students in understanding criteria and setting goals Address the learning needs of students Contain right degree of specificity and description Provide information on what to do next in a context in which information can be used. Aimed at higher order thinking, self-regulation and student ownership

Overview of Presentation
Our perspective on formative assessment and feedback based on review of the literature Structure of the Education Northwest Mathematics Problem Solving Model professional development Opportunity to provide and analyze teacher feedback to a specific task Examine student reflections on feedback Consider how we can support the development of formative assessment practices by teachers

Education Northwest Mathematics Problem Solving Model


Trait-based assessment modeled on NWREL 6 + 1 Trait Writing Designed as product as part of the 1995 2000 REL contract Refined under Eisenhower Consortium contract 20002005

NSF Validation Study Research Questions


Does the use of the NWREL Mathematics Problem Solving Model result in
Positive effect on student achievement in and attitudes toward mathematics and mathematical problem solving? Valid and reliable use of the formative feedback guide for formative assessment decisions? Changed teacher practices? Teacher use of web-based technological support? Evidence of continued use beyond study period?

NSF Research Context


Four cohorts of 10-18 middle school mathematics teachers initially randomly assigned to treatment and control groups
Total of 10 days of professional work sessions
Work Session 1: Collect initial teacher data and introduce NWREL MPSM research and mathematical task Work Sessions 26: Professional development workshop Work Session 7: Connect instructional and assessment activities to classroom data collection Work Sessions 810: Follow-on reflective sessions

5 days of coaching

Essential Elements of NWREL Formative Assessment


Key focus on mathematical goals Rich tasks that support teaching mathematics through problem solving Instructional strategies that support focus on mathematical ideas Analysis of student work against criteria Instructional use of that analysis Whole group feedback Individual/small group feedback based on written feedback

MPSM Elements
Math goals

Mathematical tasks

Classroom group feedback debrief

Implementing tasks

Classroom use of feedback

Analyzing student work

Identify and sequence

Feedback guide as lens

Written feedback

Plan next step with same task

NSF Research Context


Teachers provided documentation of 5 examples of the use of formative assessment use of problem solving tasks to inform instruction and to provide feedback Data collection included
Planning and implementation descriptions Audio recordings of launch of tasks, student problem solving sessions, and subsequent instruction based on analysis of student work Classroom debrief documentation of selection, sequence and rationale for student work Written feedback documentation of process of feedback and examples of student marked work

Overview of Presentation
Our perspective on formative assessment and feedback based on review of the literature Structure of the Education Northwest Mathematics Problem Solving Model professional development Opportunity to provide and analyze teacher feedback to a specific task Examine student reflections on feedback Consider how we can support the development of formative assessment practices by teachers

Mathematical Goals
Central to formative assessment Struggle for Education Northwest MPSM teachers Modeled for teachers, but not connected to particular curricular materials Focus of planning and implementing

What do I want the student to know? What do I want the student to be able to do?

Mathematical Tasks
Key mathematical ideas Multiple entry points for students Multiple solution pathways Teaching mathematics through problem solving High cognitive demand = doing mathematics Connected to standards What task will I use that gives students opportunities to demonstrate knowledge and abilities? What particular student responses do I anticipate?

Spinner Elimination Task


Heres something to think about
Try to design a spinner that will let you cross out more squares than your opponent on a 50s chart. (See rules for the Spinner Elimination Game.) After you finish a game, decide if you want to change the numbers on your spinner. After you have played several games, answer the following questions: If you were to play the game again, would you change the numbers on your spinner? Why or why not? What advice would you give to someone who wants to cross out the most squares on how to choose numbers for their spinner?

Rules for the Spinner Elimination Game


1. Divide your spinner into eight equal sections. 2. You may choose up to 8 numbers (from zero to nine) to put on your spinner. 3. You may put them on any space you choose on the spinner, and you may use the same number as many times as you like. 4. You eliminate squares on the 50s chart by spinning your spinner as many times as you choose and multiplying the product of the spins (e.g., If you spin three times and you spin a 4, then a 3, and then a 4; you would get 43 = 12, 124 = 48. You would eliminate 48 from the 50s chart. If you choose to spin only one time and get a 4, then you would eliminate the 4). Each time you eliminate a square counts as one turn. 5. If your spin creates a product greater than 50 you lose that turn and the next player spins. 6. You can only cross off one number per turn. 7. After 20 turns, the player with the most squares eliminated on their 50s chart wins the game.

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Task Initial Discussion


Are you familiar with a spinner type task? What is the important mathematics in the task? Please take a moment to consider the characteristics of a good spinner

Spinner Elimination
Important mathematics

Characteristics of a good spinner

Mathematical Goals
Write down one mathematical goal you might have for your students if you used this problem in your classroom. Write down 2 key questions you might want to use in your class while students are working on this problem.

Spinner Elimination Goals and Questions


Mathematical goal

Two questions

Math Goal from Sample Teacher


Examine planning guide
Teacher 43 Grade 7 Math Goal: Students will be able to use their knowledge of factors, multiples, primes and composites to make the best spinner.

Inferences about goals Importance of clarifying goals

Placement
1 Task is dropped into the curriculum. Little to no evidence that the task fits with the mathematical topics the class has been working on immediately preceding or following. Task connects with mathematical ideas covered in the curriculum, but not immediately preceding or following.

Inference
1 The mathematical learning goal is implicit/ambiguous, based on the planning data.

Activity
1 The mathematical learning goal focuses exclusively on a problem solving process.

The researcher must make 2 some inferences about the mathematical learning goal, but can point to some data from teacher plan to support the inference. The mathematical learning goal is clearly described in the planning. Researchers have sufficient evidence to support the mathematical learning goal and do not need to rely on inferences. 3

The mathematical learning goal focuses on a problem solving process and addresses some mathematical procedure or concept. The mathematical learning goal focuses primarily on a mathematical procedure and/or concept.

Task is well-integrated with mathematical topics immediately preceding or following it in the curriculum.

Issues with Mathematical Goals


Placement Not an extremely challenging problem Getting to the important math: Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic Does this teacher identify prerequisite knowledge for what she needs to consider to use this problem to teach/probe for student understanding?

Classroom Implementation
Key issues identified and questions structured Launch with protocol Maintaining cognitive demand Capturing short cycle feedback Used specific protocol to launch the problem How might the questions you posed affect the cognitive demand? Teacher extra step = use of worksheets

Analyzing Student Work


What characteristics of student performance are important? What lens is useful to teachers? What information might teachers give students? Teachers examined student work from other teachers Teachers wrote out feedback comments they would have used

Using Written Feedback in the Classroom


How are the teachers using the written feedback? Do the teachers find this practice feasible? How do the students react to this feedback?
Three uses were suggested to the teachers in Cohort 3 Revise and resubmit individual student interpretation and reflection Peer use of information

Examine Teacher 43 Student 11225


What feedback would you write on this paper that would provide the student with information that he might use to move his solution forward? What type (categories) of comments did you write on the paper? How useful are these comments to help you think about what instruction needs to happen next? How useful do you think these comments might be to your students? How might they act on those comments?

Comparing Perspectives on Feedback


Share your feedback comments with a partner
Similarities

Differences

Examine Additional Student Work


What feedback would you write on these papers that would provide the students with information that they might use to move solutions forward? What type (categories) of comments did you write on the paper? How useful are these comments to help you think about what instruction needs to happen next? How useful do you think these comments might be to your students? How might they act on those comments?

Comparing Perspectives on Feedback


Share your feedback comments with a partner
Similarities

Differences

Examining the Feedback Provided by Teacher 43


What has the teacher identified as an important focus of her feedback? How is this feedback similar to yours? How is this feedback different from yours? How does this feedback relate to teacher goals?

Revised 2008-2009 Education Northwest Formative Feedback Guide


Conceptual Understanding Does the issue relate to the mathematical ideas & procedures used to solve the problem? Problem Solving Does the issue with the students response relate to the way in which the student chose to solve the problem? Your use of (mathematical concept)__ doesnt make sense to me here. Can you see why/ convince me? Im not sure your solution addresses ___(relevant information from problem)__. Can you change your solution to address that? Are you sure __(mathematical procedure)__ makes sense here? Would __(something else)_ be better? Did you consider __(mathematical idea or procedure)__ when you solved the problem? Im not sure your use of __(strategy or strategy part)__ makes sense here. Can you think of a way to fix it? Is your use of __(strategy or strategy part)__ the best (easiest, most reasonable) way to solve the problem? Can you think of a better way? I dont think __(strategy or strategy part)__ works to solve the problem. Try changing __(part of strategy)__ to see if that helps. Can you think of another way to solve this problem? How does it relate to the strategy you chose? Try __(step or technique)__ if you need help getting started. You made some mistakes calculating __(calculation)__. Can you see how to correct them? You didnt use __(procedure)__ correctly. Can you fix it? I dont think you finished calculating __(calculation)__. Try going back to see if you can make it work.

Strategies & Reasoning Does the issue relate to the appropriateness of the strategy the student used to solve the problem?

Computation & Execution Does the issue relate to the correctness of the computations or execution of procedures the student chose to solve the problem? Strategies & Reasoning Does the issue relate to the mathematical reasoning and logic the student provided to support the solution?

Reasoning and Proof Does the issue with the students response relate to the reasoning that the student provided?

Im not entirely convinced by ___(argument)__. Can you find a better way to convince me that your strategy works? You seem to skip from __(step) to (step)__. Can you fill in that gap to make your argument stronger? Can you think of an example to show that __(step or strategy)__ works? Can you think of a counterexample to show that __(step or strategy)__ is better than/ more appropriate than __(other step/ strategy)__. Can you find a way to convince me that __(strategy)__ is the best way to solve the problem? Are you sure __(calculation)__ supports your solution? Can you think of another __(calculation) __ to provide evidence for your solution?

Computation & Execution Does the issue relate to the degree to which the students computations support the solution? Insights Does the issue relate to the conjectures, predictions, or generalizations that the student made?

Do you have any more evidence to support __(prediction/ conjecture/ generalization)__ ? Can you think of how ___(strategy/ procedure/ pattern)__ might apply to other situations? Can you come up with a general rule for __(pattern or relationship)__ identified? Did you consider __(mathematical concept or counterexample)__ when you made your conjecture or prediction?

Revised 2008-2009 Education Northwest Formative Feedback Guide


Conceptual Understanding Does the issue relate to the mathematical ideas & procedures used to solve the problem? Problem Solving Does the issue with the students response relate to the way in which the student chose to solve the problem? Your use of (mathematical concept)__ doesnt make sense to me here. Can you see why/ convince me? Im not sure your solution addresses ___(relevant information from problem)__. Can you change your solution to address that? Are you sure __(mathematical procedure)__ makes sense here? Would __(something else)_ be better? Did you consider __(mathematical idea or procedure)__ when you solved the problem? Im not sure your use of __(strategy or strategy part)__ makes sense here. Can you think of a way to fix it? Is your use of __(strategy or strategy part)__ the best (easiest, most reasonable) way to solve the problem? Can you think of a better way? I dont think __(strategy or strategy part)__ works to solve the problem. Try changing __(part of strategy)__ to see if that helps. Can you think of another way to solve this problem? How does it relate to the strategy you chose? Try __(step or technique)__ if you need help getting started. You made some mistakes calculating __(calculation)__. Can you see how to correct them? You didnt use __(procedure)__ correctly. Can you fix it? I dont think you finished calculating __(calculation)__. Try going back to see if you can make it work.

NCTM Process Standards

Strategies & Reasoning Does the issue relate to the appropriateness of the strategy the student used to solve the problem?

Computation & Execution Does the issue relate to the correctness of the computations or execution of procedures the student chose to solve the problem? Strategies & Reasoning Does the issue relate to the mathematical reasoning and logic the student provided to support the solution?

Reasoning and Proof Does the issue with the students response relate to the reasoning that the student provided?

Im not entirely convinced by ___(argument)__. Can you find a better way to convince me that your strategy works? You seem to skip from __(step) to (step)__. Can you fill in that gap to make your argument stronger? Can you think of an example to show that __(step or strategy)__ works? Can you think of a counterexample to show that __(step or strategy)__ is better than/ more appropriate than __(other step/ strategy)__. Can you find a way to convince me that __(strategy)__ is the best way to solve the problem? Are you sure __(calculation)__ supports your solution? Can you think of another __(calculation) __ to provide evidence for your solution?

Computation & Execution Does the issue relate to the degree to which the students computations support the solution? Insights Does the issue relate to the conjectures, predictions, or generalizations that the student made?

Do you have any more evidence to support __(prediction/ conjecture/ generalization)__ ? Can you think of how ___(strategy/ procedure/ pattern)__ might apply to other situations? Can you come up with a general rule for __(pattern or relationship)__ identified? Did you consider __(mathematical concept or counterexample)__ when you made your conjecture or prediction?

Revised 2008-2009 Education Northwest Formative Feedback Guide


Conceptual Understanding Does the issue relate to the mathematical ideas & procedures used to solve the problem? Problem Solving Does the issue with the students response relate to the way in which the student chose to solve the problem?

Strategies & Reasoning Does the issue relate to the appropriateness of the strategy the student used to solve the problem?

Education Northwest Trait

Your use of (mathematical concept)__ doesnt make sense to me here. Can you see why/ convince me? Im not sure your solution addresses ___(relevant information from problem)__. Can you change your solution to address that? Are you sure __(mathematical procedure)__ makes sense here? Would __(something else)_ be better? Did you consider __(mathematical idea or procedure)__ when you solved the problem? Im not sure your use of __(strategy or strategy part)__ makes sense here. Can you think of a way to fix it? Is your use of __(strategy or strategy part)__ the best (easiest, most reasonable) way to solve the problem? Can you think of a better way? I dont think __(strategy or strategy part)__ works to solve the problem. Try changing __(part of strategy)__ to see if that helps. Can you think of another way to solve this problem? How does it relate to the strategy you chose? Try __(step or technique)__ if you need help getting started. You made some mistakes calculating __(calculation)__. Can you see how to correct them? You didnt use __(procedure)__ correctly. Can you fix it? I dont think you finished calculating __(calculation)__. Try going back to see if you can make it work.

Computation & Execution Does the issue relate to the correctness of the computations or execution of procedures the student chose to solve the problem? Strategies & Reasoning Does the issue relate to the mathematical reasoning and logic the student provided to support the solution?

Reasoning and Proof Does the issue with the students response relate to the reasoning that the student provided?

Im not entirely convinced by ___(argument)__. Can you find a better way to convince me that your strategy works? You seem to skip from __(step) to (step)__. Can you fill in that gap to make your argument stronger? Can you think of an example to show that __(step or strategy)__ works? Can you think of a counterexample to show that __(step or strategy)__ is better than/ more appropriate than __(other step/ strategy)__. Can you find a way to convince me that __(strategy)__ is the best way to solve the problem? Are you sure __(calculation)__ supports your solution? Can you think of another __(calculation) __ to provide evidence for your solution?

Computation & Execution Does the issue relate to the degree to which the students computations support the solution? Insights Does the issue relate to the conjectures, predictions, or generalizations that the student made?

Do you have any more evidence to support __(prediction/ conjecture/ generalization)__ ? Can you think of how ___(strategy/ procedure/ pattern)__ might apply to other situations? Can you come up with a general rule for __(pattern or relationship)__ identified? Did you consider __(mathematical concept or counterexample)__ when you made your conjecture or prediction?

Revised 2008-2009 Education Northwest Formative Feedback Guide


Conceptual Understanding Does the issue relate to the mathematical ideas & procedures used to solve the problem? Problem Solving Does the issue with the students response relate to the way in which the student chose to solve the problem? Your use of (mathematical concept)__ doesnt make sense to me here. Can you see why/ convince me? Im not sure your solution addresses ___(relevant information from problem)__. Can you change your solution to address that? Are you sure __(mathematical procedure)__ makes sense here? Would __(something else)_ be better? Did you consider __(mathematical idea or procedure)__ when you solved the problem? Im not sure your use of __(strategy or strategy part)__ makes sense here. Can you think of a way to fix it? Is your use of __(strategy or strategy part)__ the best (easiest, most reasonable) way to solve the problem? Can you think of a better way? I dont think __(strategy or strategy part)__ works to solve the problem. Try changing __(part of strategy)__ to see if that helps. Can you think of another way to solve this problem? How does it relate to the strategy you chose? Try __(step or technique)__ if you need help getting started. You made some mistakes calculating __(calculation)__. Can you see how to correct them? You didnt use __(procedure)__ correctly. Can you fix it? I dont think you finished calculating __(calculation)__. Try going back to see if you can make it work.

Sample statements/questions as stems


Strategies & Reasoning Does the issue relate to the appropriateness of the strategy the student used to solve the problem? Computation & Execution Does the issue relate to the correctness of the computations or execution of procedures the student chose to solve the problem? Strategies & Reasoning Does the issue relate to the mathematical reasoning and logic the student provided to support the solution?

Reasoning and Proof Does the issue with the students response relate to the reasoning that the student provided?

Im not entirely convinced by ___(argument)__. Can you find a better way to convince me that your strategy works? You seem to skip from __(step) to (step)__. Can you fill in that gap to make your argument stronger? Can you think of an example to show that __(step or strategy)__ works? Can you think of a counterexample to show that __(step or strategy)__ is better than/ more appropriate than __(other step/ strategy)__. Can you find a way to convince me that __(strategy)__ is the best way to solve the problem? Are you sure __(calculation)__ supports your solution? Can you think of another __(calculation) __ to provide evidence for your solution?

Computation & Execution Does the issue relate to the degree to which the students computations support the solution? Insights Does the issue relate to the conjectures, predictions, or generalizations that the student made?

Do you have any more evidence to support __(prediction/ conjecture/ generalization)__ ? Can you think of how ___(strategy/ procedure/ pattern)__ might apply to other situations? Can you come up with a general rule for __(pattern or relationship)__ identified? Did you consider __(mathematical concept or counterexample)__ when you made your conjecture or prediction?

Comparing Perspectives on Feedback


How does your feedback map onto this guide? How does the teachers feedback map onto the guide?

Evidence of Use of Feedback Guide by Teachers


Teachers chose one or more NCTM standard and/or Education Northwest trait Guide provided teachers with sample statements Teachers had to revise statements to improve readability and understanding by students

Influence of MPSM feedback guide


Does the feedback guide influence the written feedback to the student?
Having many different types of questions using the NCTM process standards was helpful because kids were at so many different places in their work. Certain feedback questions fit different students. I used representations, reason & proof & communication. The other areas didnt fit the question or level of my students.

Student Perspectives on Feedback


Teacher 43 provided written feedback to students as individuals and gave them an opportunity to reflect on feedback. Students documented
What feedback did I get? How did I use this feedback? What did I do to improve my response? How does this feedback help me?

Examine the samples of student reflections provided

Example

Reactions?
Do any of the students appear to be responding to the surface elements of the feedback? Do any of the students appear to be responding to the deeper elements of the feedback? How might the teacher use of feedback only in a reflective context limit student use?

Student Perspectives on Feedback


Students tended to simply repeat the feedback statement made to them Their responses about utility focused on what the teacher had said, rather than provided their own interpretations The feedback generally did not appear very helpful to the students. reflections provided

Additional Session on Use of Written Feedback


Examples of teacher planning and implementation data from 3 tasks Samples of student work that were associated with these forms.
Revise and resubmit Reflection Combination of the two

The teachers were asked to examine the feedback given by the teacher and to compare that with the feedback given by the classroom teacher from whom the work had been collected. Teachers reflected in writing about the process of giving written feedback to students.

Cohort 3 concerns
Feedback Guide final survey questions

Reconsider Characteristics of Effective Feedback


Timely (but value of some delay?) Regular and familiar part of instruction Understandable to recipient Relate to the task and address strengths and weaknesses of student performance Assist students in understanding criteria and setting goals Address the learning needs of students Contain right degree of specificity and description Provide information on what to do next in a context in which information can be used. Aimed at higher order thinking, self-regulation and student ownership

Implications for Professional Development?


What do teachers need to know, be able to do in order to provide good feedback? What professional development do they need?

PD C4 Friday: Using Written Feedback in the Classroom


Possible instructional strategies
Individual student revise and resubmit
What do you do with a student who may not benefit because
Performance has multiple difficult areas? Performance does not really need additional work?

Student reflection on how he or she interprets feedback


Might be combined with revise/resubmit

Collaborative interpretation of feedback and advice on performance revision


Documentation of this might be similar to what is done above

Self feedback
Student identifies strengths and weaknesses of performance using the rubric and reflects on what assistance he or she might need What do you do if the student cant accurately identify strengths and weaknesses
Teacher gives a feedback list based on analysis of student performances, student identifies which aspect of the list is appropriate to his/her performance and reflects on what to do next

Peer feedback
Similar to above, same questions

Teacher provides specific or hypothetical student performance and students reflect on written feedback given and provide information to that student on how to improve his or her performance
Students need to learn what to do to provide useful information

Further Research
Cohort 4 data still being collected. Have not examined data from teachers own tasks. Other research analyses focus on teacher use of feedback to whole class in debrief sessions based on transcripts and documentation Link additional survey (LMT, SEC Instructional Beliefs and Practices) with the quality of teacher documentation and audio Follow-on interviews and observations for persistence of practices

Developing Pictures from the Classroom


Product development based on case studies of teacher examples
Print tasks and tools for problem use, analysis of student work, provision and use of feedback Video samples of teacher practices

Questions or Comments
Edith Gummer 503-275-9171 gummere@nwrel.org Claire Gates 503-275-9173 gatesc@nwrel.org