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Swami Parmanand College Of Engg.

& Technology Lalru (Punjab)

SUMITTED TO : Head of Department Electr cal ! Electron c" En##$


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Pra618ot C1a1al
Roll no: L&'()'('()*+

Established in March 1988, as a Scientific Society of the Department of Information Technology , Ministry of Communications and Information Technology , o!ernment of India, The Centre for Development of
Advanced Computing (C-DAC), is primarily an " # D institution in!ol!ed in the design, de!elopment and deployment of ad!anced Information Technology $IT% based solutions&

In a little o!er a decade since inception, C'D(C has de!eloped and supplied a range of high performance parallel computers, )no*n as the PARAM series of supercomputers& C'D(C+s de!elopment acti!ities in this area ha!e been
mission oriented and dri!en by its mission ob,ecti!es, both in technology and application de!elopments&

C'D(C, as a result of its pioneering de!elopments, e!ol!ed the raphics and Intelligence based Script Technology $GIST%, *ith a
!ie* to e-tend the benefits of Information Technology to the !ast and di!ersified multilingual population of India&

.!er the years, C'D(C has di!ersified its acti!ities to address re/uirements in !arious areas, conse/uently, our e-pertise also e-tends to other ad!anced areas of Information Technology, enabling IT based solutions&

NET O!"#N$

OS# %O&EL P!OTOCOLS %'C '&&!ESS L'N ( LOC'L '!E' NET O!" ) 'N ( #&E '!E' NET O!" ) ET(E!NET TEC(NOLO$#ES NET O!"#N$ C')LE #NTE!NET P!#TOCOLS #P '&&!ESS COLO! CO&E ST'N&'!& *L'N (*#!T+'L LOC'L '!E' NET O!") ,!'%E !EL'-

' networking i. a collec/ion of indi0idual ne/wor1.2 connec/ed by in/ermedia/e ne/wor1ing de0ice.2 /ha/ func/ion. a. a .ingle large ne/wor1. #n/erne/wor1ing refer. /o /he indu./ry2 3roduc/.2 and 3rocedure./ha/ mee/ /he challenge of crea/ing and admini./ering in/erne/wor1.. ,igure 454 illu./ra/e. .ome

differen/ 1ind. of ne/wor1 /echnologie. /ha/ can be in/erconnec/ed by rou/er. and o/her ne/wor1ing de0ice. /o crea/e an in/erne/wor1.


The fir./ ne/wor1. were /ime5.haring ne/wor1. /ha/ u.ed mainframe. and a//ached /erminal.. Such en0ironmen/. were im3lemen/ed by bo/h #)%6. Sy./em. Ne/wor1 'rchi/ec/ure (SN') and &igi/al6. ne/wor1 archi/ec/ure. Local-area networks (LANs) e0ol0ed around /he PC re0olu/ion. L'N. enabled mul/i3le in a rela/i0ely .mall geogra3hical area /o e7change file. and me..age.2 a. well a. acce.. .hared re.ource. .uch a. file .er0er. and 3rin/er.. Wide-area networks (WANs) in/erconnec/ L'N. wi/h geogra3hically di.3er.ed /o crea/e connec/i0i/y. Some of /he /echnologie. u.ed for connec/ing L'N. include T42 T82 'T%2 #S&N2 '&SL2 ,rame !elay2 radio lin1.2 and o/her.. New me/hod. of connec/ing di.3er.ed L'N. are a33earing e0eryday. Today2 high5.3eed L'N. and .wi/ched in/erne/wor1. are becoming widely u.ed2 largely becau.e /hey o3era/e a/ 0ery high .3eed. and .u33or/ .uch high5bandwid/h a33lica/ion. a. mul/imedia and 0ideoconferencing. #n/erne/wor1ing e0ol0ed a. a .olu/ion /o /hree 1ey 3roblem.9 i.ola/ed L'N.2 du3lica/ion of re.ource.2 and a lac1 of ne/wor1 managemen/. #.ola/ed L'N. made elec/ronic communica/ion be/ween differen/ office. or de3ar/men/. im3o..ible. &u3lica/ion of re.ource. mean/ /ha/ /he .ame hardware and .of/ware had /o be .u33lied /o each office or de3ar/men/2 a. did .e3ara/e .u33or/ ./aff. Thi. lac1 of ne/wor1 managemen/ mean/ /ha/ no cen/rali:ed me/hod of managing and /rouble.hoo/ing ne/wor1. e7i./ed.

Open System Interconnection Reference Model

The O3en Sy./em #n/erconnec/ion (OS#) reference model describes how information from a software application in one computer moves through a network medium to a software application in another computer. The OSI reference model is a conceptual

model composed of seven layers, each specifying particular network functions. The model was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO in !"#$, and it is now considered the primary architectural model for intercomputer communications. The OSI model divides the tasks involved with moving information between networked computers into seven smaller, more manageable task groups. % task or group of tasks is then assigned to each of the seven OSI layers. &ach layer is reasonably self'contained so that the tasks assigned to each layer can be implemented independently. This enables the solutions offered by one layer to be updated without adversely affecting the other layers. The following list details the seven layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI reference model(

Characteristics of the OSI Layers

The .e0en layer. of /he OS# reference model can be di0ided in/o /wo ca/egorie.9 u33er layer. and lower layer.. The upper layers of /he OS# model deal wi/h a33lica/ion i..ue. and generally are im3lemen/ed only in .of/ware. The highe./ layer2 /he a33lica/ion layer2 i. clo.e./ /o /he end )o/h and a33lica/ion layer 3roce..e. in/erac/ wi/h .of/ware a33lica/ion. /ha/ con/ain a communica/ion. com3onen/. The /erm u33er layer i. .ome/ime. u.ed /o refer /o any layer abo0e ano/her layer in /he OS# model. The lower layer. of /he OS# model handle da/a /ran.3or/ i..ue.. The 3hy.ical layer and /he da/a lin1 layer are im3lemen/ed in hardware and .of/ware. The lowe./ layer2 /he 3hy.ical layer2 i. clo.e./ /o /he 3hy.ical ne/wor1 medium (/he ne/wor1 cabling2 for e7am3le) and i. re.3on.ible for ac/ually 3lacing informa/ion on /he medium.


The OS# model 3ro0ide. a conce3/ual framewor1 for communica/ion be/ween com3u/er.2 bu/ /he model i/.elf i. no/ a me/hod of communica/ion. 'c/ual communica/ion i. made 3o..ible by communica/ion 3ro/ocol.. #n /he con/e7/ of da/a ne/wor1ing2 a protocol i. a formal .e/ of rule. and con0en/ion. /ha/ go0ern. how com3u/er. e7change informa/ion o0er a ne/wor1 medium. ' 3ro/ocol im3lemen/. /he func/ion. of one or more of /he OS# layer.. ' wide 0arie/y of communica/ion 3ro/ocol. e7i./. Some of /he.e 3ro/ocol. include L'N 3ro/ocol.2 'N 3ro/ocol.2 ne/wor1 3ro/ocol.2 and rou/ing 3ro/ocol.. LAN protocols o3era/e a/ /he 3hy.ical and da/a lin1 layer. of /he OS# model and define communica/ion o0er /he 0ariou. L'N media. WAN protocols o3era/e a/ /he lowe./ /hree layer. of /he OS# model and define communica/ion o0er /he 0ariou. wide5area media. Routing protocols are ne/wor1 layer 3ro/ocol. /ha/ are re.3on.ible for e7changing informa/ion be/ween rou/er. .o /ha/ /he rou/er. can .elec/ /he 3ro3er 3a/h for ne/wor1 /raffic. ,inally2 network protocols are /he 0ariou. u33er5layer 3ro/ocol. /ha/ e7i./ in a gi0en 3ro/ocol .ui/e. %any 3ro/ocol. rely on o/her. for o3era/ion. ,or e7am3le2 many rou/ing 3ro/ocol. u.e ne/wor1 3ro/ocol. /o e7change informa/ion be/ween rou/er.. Thi. conce3/ of building u3on /he layer. already in e7i./ence i. /he founda/ion of /he OS# model.

OSI Model and Communication Between Systems

#nforma/ion being /ran.ferred from a .of/ware a33lica/ion in one com3u/er .y./em /o a .of/ware a33lica/ion in ano/her mu./ 3a.. /hrough /he OS# layer.. ,or e7am3le2 if a .of/ware a33lica/ion in Sy./em ' ha. informa/ion /o /ran.mi/ /o a .of/ware a33lica/ion in Sy./em )2 /he a33lica/ion 3rogram in Sy./em ' will 3a.. i/. informa/ion /o /he a33lica/ion layer (Layer ;) of Sy./em '. The a33lica/ion layer /hen 3a..e. /he informa/ion /o /he 3re.en/a/ion layer (Layer <)2 which relay. /he da/a /o /he .e..ion layer (Layer =)2 and .o on down /o /he 3hy.ical layer (Layer 4). '/ /he 3hy.ical layer2 /he informa/ion i. 3laced on /he 3hy.ical ne/wor1 medium and i. .en/ acro.. /he medium /o Sy./em ). The 3hy.ical layer of Sy./em ) remo0e. /he informa/ion from /he 3hy.ical medium2 and /hen i/. 3hy.ical layer 3a..e. /he informa/ion u3 /o /he da/a lin1 layer (Layer >)2 which 3a..e. i/ /o /he ne/wor1 layer (Layer 8)2 and .o on2 un/il i/ reache. /he a33lica/ion layer (Layer ;) of Sy./em ). ,inally2 /he a33lica/ion layer of Sy./em ) 3a..e. /he informa/ion /o /he reci3ien/ a33lica/ion 3rogram /o com3le/e /he communica/ion 3roce...

Interaction Between OSI Model Layers

' gi0en layer in /he OS# model generally communica/e. wi/h /hree o/her OS# layer.9 /he layer direc/ly abo0e i/2 /he layer direc/ly below i/2 and i/. 3eer layer in o/her ne/wor1ed com3u/er .y./em.. The da/a lin1 layer in Sy./em '2 for e7am3le2 communica/e. wi/h /he ne/wor1 layer of Sy./em '2 /he 3hy.ical layer of Sy./em '2 and /he da/a lin1 layer in Sy./em ). ,igure 45? illu./ra/e. /hi. e7am3le.

OSI Layer Ser!ices

One OS# layer communica/e. wi/h ano/her layer /o ma1e u.e of /he .er0ice. 3ro0ided by /he .econd layer. The .er0ice. 3ro0ided by adjacen/ layer. hel3 a gi0en OS# layer communica/e wi/h i/. 3eer layer in o/her com3u/er .y./em.. Three ba.ic elemen/. are in0ol0ed in layer .er0ice.9 /he .er0ice u.er2 /he .er0ice 3ro0ider2 and /he .er0ice acce.. 3oin/ (S'P). #n /hi. con/e7/2 /he service user i. /he OS# layer /ha/ re@ue./. .er0ice. from an adjacen/ OS# layer. The service provider i. /he OS# layer /ha/ 3ro0ide. .er0ice. /o .er0ice OS# layer. can 3ro0ide .er0ice. /o mul/i3le .er0ice The S'P i. a conce3/ual loca/ion a/ which one OS# layer can re@ue./ /he .er0ice. of ano/her OS# layer. ,igure 45= illu./ra/e. how /he.e /hree elemen/. in/erac/ a/ /he ne/wor1 and da/a lin1 layer..

OSI Model "hysical Layer

The 3hy.ical layer define. /he elec/rical2 mechanical2 3rocedural2 and func/ional .3ecifica/ion. for ac/i0a/ing2 main/aining2 and deac/i0a/ing /he 3hy.ical lin1 be/ween communica/ing ne/wor1 .y./em.. Phy.ical layer .3ecifica/ion. define charac/eri./ic. .uch a. 0ol/age le0el.2 /iming of 0ol/age change.2 3hy.ical da/a ra/e.2 ma7imum /ran.mi..ion di./ance.2 and 3hy.ical connec/or.. Phy.ical layer im3lemen/a/ion. can be ca/egori:ed a. ei/her L'N or 'N .3ecifica/ion.. ,igure 45; illu./ra/e. .ome common L'N and 'N 3hy.ical layer im3lemen/a/ion..

OSI Model $ata Lin% Layer


The da/a lin1 layer 3ro0ide. reliable /ran.i/ of da/a acro.. a 3hy.ical ne/wor1 lin1. &ifferen/ da/a lin1 layer .3ecifica/ion. define differen/ ne/wor1 and 3ro/ocol charac/eri./ic.2 including 3hy.ical addre..ing2 ne/wor1 /o3ology2 error no/ifica/ion2 .e@uencing of frame.2 and flow con/rol. Phy.ical (a. o33o.ed /o ne/wor1 define. how de0ice. are addre..ed a/ /he da/a lin1 layer. Ne/wor1 /o3ology con.i./. of /he da/a lin1 layer .3ecifica/ion. /ha/ of/en define how de0ice. are /o be 3hy.ically connec/ed2 .uch a. in a bu. or a ring /o3ology. Error no/ifica/ion aler/. u33er5layer 3ro/ocol. /ha/ a /ran.mi..ion error ha. occurred2 and /he .e@uencing of da/a frame. reorder. frame. /ha/ are /ran.mi//ed ou/ of .e@uence. ,inally2 flow con/rol modera/e. /he /ran.mi..ion of da/a .o /ha/ /he recei0ing de0ice i. no/ o0erwhelmed wi/h more /raffic /han i/ can handle a/ one /ime. The #n./i/u/e of Elec/rical and Elec/ronic. Engineer. (#EEE) ha. .ubdi0ided /he da/a lin1 layer in/o /wo .ublayer.9 Logical Lin1 Con/rol (LLC) and %edia 'cce.. Con/rol (%'C). ,igure 45A illu./ra/e. /he #EEE .ublayer. of /he da/a lin1 layer.

1-1& The Logical Link Control (LLC) .ublayer of /he da/a lin1 layer manage. communica/ion. be/ween de0ice. o0er a .ingle lin1 of a ne/wor1. LLC i. defined in /he #EEE AB>.> .3ecifica/ion and .u33or/. bo/h connec/ionle.. and connec/ion5orien/ed .er0ice. u.ed by higher5layer 3ro/ocol.. #EEE AB>.> define. a number of field. in da/a lin1 layer frame. /ha/ enable mul/i3le higher5layer 3ro/ocol. /o .hare a .ingle 3hy.ical da/a lin1. The Media Access Control (MAC) .ublayer of /he da/a lin1 layer manage. 3ro/ocol acce.. /o /he 3hy.ical ne/wor1 medium. The #EEE %'C .3ecifica/ion define. %'C addre..e.2 which enable mul/i3le de0ice. /o uni@uely iden/ify one ano/her a/ /he da/a lin1 layer.

OSI Model 'etwor% Layer

The ne/wor1 layer define. /he ne/wor1 addre..2 which differ. from /he %'C addre... Some ne/wor1 layer im3lemen/a/ion.2 .uch a. /he #n/erne/ Pro/ocol (#P)2 define ne/wor1 addre..e. in a way /ha/ rou/e .elec/ion can be de/ermined .y./ema/ically by com3aring /he .ource ne/wor1 addre.. wi/h /he de./ina/ion ne/wor1 addre.. and a33lying /he .ubne/ ma.1. )ecau.e /hi. layer define. /he logical ne/wor1 layou/2 rou/er. can u.e /hi. layer /o de/ermine how /o forward 3ac1e/.. )ecau.e of /hi.2 much of /he de.ign and configura/ion wor1 for in/erne/wor1. ha33en. a/ Layer 82 /he ne/wor1 layer.

OSI Model (ransport Layer

The /ran.3or/ layer acce3/. da/a from /he .e..ion layer and .egmen/. /he da/a for /ran.3or/ acro.. /he ne/wor1. $enerally2 /he /ran.3or/ layer i. re.3on.ible for ma1ing .ure /ha/ /he da/a i. deli0ered error5free and in /he 3ro3er .e@uence. ,low con/rol generally occur. a/ /he /ran.3or/ layer. ,low con/rol manage. da/a /ran.mi..ion be/ween de0ice. .o /ha/ /he /ran.mi//ing de0ice doe. no/ .end more da/a /han /he recei0ing de0ice can 3roce... %ul/i3le7ing enable. da/a from .e0eral a33lica/ion. /o be /ran.mi//ed on/o a .ingle 3hy.ical lin1. *ir/ual circui/. are e./abli.hed2 main/ained2 and /ermina/ed by /he /ran.3or/ layer. Error chec1ing in0ol0e. crea/ing 0ariou. mechani.m. for de/ec/ing /ran.mi..ion error.2 while error reco0ery in0ol0e. ac/ing2 .uch a. re@ue./ing /ha/ da/a be re/ran.mi//ed2 /o re.ol0e any error. /ha/ occur. The /ran.3or/ 3ro/ocol. u.ed on /he #n/erne/ are TCP and +&P.

OSI Model Session Layer

The .e..ion layer e./abli.he.2 manage.2 and /ermina/e. communica/ion .e..ion.. Communica/ion .e..ion. con.i./ of .er0ice re@ue./. and .er0ice re.3on.e. /ha/ occur be/ween a33lica/ion. loca/ed in differen/ ne/wor1 de0ice.. The.e re@ue./. and re.3on.e. are coordina/ed by 3ro/ocol. m3lemen/ed a/ /he .e..ion layer. Some e7am3le. of .e..ion5layer im3lemen/a/ion. include Cone #nforma/ion Pro/ocol (C#P)2 /he '33leTal1 3ro/ocol /ha/ coordina/e. /he name binding 3roce..D and Se..ion Con/rol Pro/ocol (SCP)2 /he &ECne/ Pha.e #* .e..ion layer 3ro/ocol.

OSI Model "resentation Layer

The 3re.en/a/ion layer 3ro0ide. a 0arie/y of coding and con0er.ion func/ion. /ha/ are a33lied /o a33lica/ion layer da/a. The.e func/ion. en.ure /ha/ informa/ion .en/ from /he a33lica/ion layer of one .y./em would be readable by /he a33lica/ion layer of ano/her .y./em. Some e7am3le. of 3re.en/a/ion layer coding and con0er.ion .cheme. include common da/a re3re.en/a/ion forma/.2 con0er.ion of charac/er re3re.en/a/ion forma/.2 common da/a com3re..ion .cheme.2 and common da/a encry3/ion .cheme.. Common da/a re3re.en/a/ion forma/.2 or /he u.e of ./andard image2 .ound2 and 0ideo forma/.2 enable /he in/erchange of a33lica/ion da/a be/ween differen/ /y3e. of com3u/er .y./em.. Con0er.ion .cheme. are u.ed /o e7change informa/ion wi/h .y./em. by differen/ /e7/ and da/a re3re.en/a/ion.2 .uch a. E)C&#C and 'SC##. S/andard da/a com3re..ion .cheme. enable da/a /ha/ i. com3re..ed a/ /he .ource de0ice /o be 3ro3erly decom3re..ed a/ /he de./ina/ion. S/andard da/a encry3/ion .cheme. enable da/a encry3/ed a/ /he .ource de0ice /o be 3ro3erly deci3hered a/ /he de./ina/ion. Pre.en/a/ion layer im3lemen/a/ion. are no/ /y3ically a..ocia/ed wi/h a 3ar/icular 3ro/ocol ./ac1. Some well51nown ./andard. for 0ideo include Euic1Time and %o/ion Pic/ure E73er/. $rou3 (%PE$). Euic1Time i. an '33le Com3u/er .3ecifica/ion for 0ideo and audio2 and %PE$ i. a ./andard for 0ideo com3re..ion and coding. 'mong /he well51nown gra3hic image forma/. are $ra3hic. #n/erchange ,orma/ ($#,)2 Foin/ Pho/ogra3hic E73er/. $rou3 (FPE$)2 and Tagged #mage ,ile ,orma/ (T#,,). $#, i. a ./andard for and coding gra3hic image.. FPE$ i. ano/her com3re..ion and coding ./andard for gra3hic image.2 and T#,, i. a ./andard coding forma/ for gra3hic image..

OSI Model )pplication Layer

The a33lica/ion layer i. /he OS# layer clo.e./ /o /he end u.er2 which mean. /ha/ bo/h /he OS# a33lica/ion layer and /he in/erac/ direc/ly wi/h /he .of/ware a33lica/ion. Thi. layer in/erac/. wi/h .of/ware a33lica/ion. /ha/ im3lemen/ a communica/ing com3onen/. Such a33lica/ion 3rogram. fall ou/.ide /he .co3e of /he OS# model. '33lica/ion layer func/ion. /y3ically include iden/ifying communica/ion 3ar/ner.2 de/ermining re.ource a0ailabili/y2 and .ynchroni:ing communica/ion. hen iden/ifying communica/ion 3ar/ner.2 /he a33lica/ion layer de/ermine. /he iden/i/y and a0ailabili/y of communica/ion 3ar/ner. for an a33lica/ion wi/h da/a /o /ran.mi/. hen de/ermining re.ource a0ailabili/y2 /he a33lica/ion layer mu./ decide whe/her .ufficien/ ne/wor1 re.ource. for /he re@ue./ed communica/ion e7i./. #n .ynchroni:ing communica/ion2 all communica/ion be/ween a33lica/ion. re@uire. coo3era/ion /ha/ i. managed by /he a33lica/ion layer. Some e7am3le. of a33lica/ion layer im3lemen/a/ion. include Telne/2 ,ile Tran.fer Pro/ocol (,TP)2 and Sim3le %ail Tran.fer Pro/ocol (S%TP). 1-12

Information *ormats

The da/a and con/rol informa/ion /ha/ i. /ran.mi//ed /hrough in/erne/wor1. /a1e. a 0arie/y of form.. The /erm. u.ed /o refer /o /he.e informa/ion forma/. are no/ u.ed con.i./en/ly in /he in/erne/wor1ing indu./ry bu/ .ome/ime. are u.ed in/erchangeably. Common informa/ion forma/. include frame.2 3ac1e/.2 da/agram.2 .egmen/.2 me..age.2 cell.2 and da/a uni/.. ' frame i. an informa/ion uni/ who.e .ource and de./ina/ion are da/a lin1 layer en/i/ie.. ' frame i. com3o.ed of /he da/a lin1 layer header (and 3o..ibly a /railer) and u33er5layer da/a. The header and /railer con/ain con/rol informa/ion in/ended for /he da/a lin1 layer en/i/y in /he de./ina/ion .y./em. &a/a from u33er5layer en/i/ie. i. enca3.ula/ed in /he da/a lin1 layer header and /railer. ,igure 45G illu./ra/e. /he ba.ic com3onen/. of a da/a lin1 layer frame.

' packet i. an informa/ion uni/ who.e .ource and de./ina/ion are ne/wor1 layer en/i/ie.. ' 3ac1e/ i. com3o.ed of /he ne/wor1 layer header (and 3o..ibly a /railer) and u33er5layer da/a. The header and /railer con/ain con/rol informa/ion in/ended for /he ne/wor1 layer en/i/y in /he de./ina/ion .y./em. &a/a from u33er5layer en/i/ie. i. enca3.ula/ed in /he ne/wor1 layer header and /railer. ,igure 454B illu./ra/e. /he ba.ic com3onen/. of a ne/wor1 layer 3ac1e/.

The /erm datagram u.ually refer. /o an informa/ion uni/ who.e .ource and de./ina/ion are ne/wor1 layer en/i/ie. /ha/ u.e connec/ionle.. ne/wor1 .er0ice. The /erm segment u.ually refer. /o an informa/ion uni/ who.e .ource and de./ina/ion are /ran.3or/ layer en/i/ie.. ' message i. an informa/ion uni/ who.e .ource and de./ina/ion en/i/ie. e7i./ abo0e /he ne/wor1 layer (of/en a/ /he a33lica/ion layer). ' cell i. an informa/ion uni/ of a fi7ed .i:e who.e .ource and de./ina/ion are da/a lin1 layer en/i/ie.. Cell. are u.ed in .wi/ched en0ironmen/.2 .uch a. '.ynchronou. Tran.fer %ode ('T%) and Swi/ched %ul/imegabi/ &a/a Ser0ice (S%&S) ne/wor1.. ' cell i. com3o.ed-1+ of /he header and 3ayload. The header con/ain. con/rol informa/ion in/ended for /he de./ina/ion da/a lin1 layer en/i/y and i. /y3ically = by/e. long. The 3ayload con/ain. u33er5layer da/a /ha/ i. enca3.ula/ed in /he cell header and i. /y3ically ?A by/e. long. The leng/h of /he header and /he 3ayload field. alway. are /he .ame for each cell.

Data unit i. a generic /erm /ha/ refer. /o a 0arie/y of informa/ion uni/.. Some common da/a uni/. are .er0ice da/a uni/. (S&+.)2 3ro/ocol da/a uni/.2 and bridge 3ro/ocol da/a uni/. ()P&+.). S&+. are informa/ion uni/. from u33er5layer 3ro/ocol. /ha/ define a .er0ice re@ue./ /o a lower5layer 3ro/ocol. P&+ i. OS# /erminology for a 3ac1e/. )P&+. are u.ed by /he .3anning5/ree algori/hm a. hello me..age..


M)C )ddresses
Media Access Control (MAC) addre..e. con.i./ of a .ub.e/ of da/a lin1 layer addre..e.. %'C addre..e. iden/ify ne/wor1 en/i/ie. in L'N. /ha/ im3lemen/ /he #EEE %'C addre..e. of /he da/a lin1 layer. '. wi/h mo./ da/a5lin1 addre..e.2 %'C addre..e. are uni@ue for each L'N in/erface. ,igure 454?

illu./ra/e. /he rela/ion.hi3 be/ween %'C addre..e.2 da/a5lin1 addre..e.2 and /he #EEE .ub layer. of /he da/a lin1 layer.


%'C addre..e. are ?A bi/. in leng/h and are e73re..ed a. 4> he7adecimal digi/.. The fir./ < he7adecimal digi/.2 which are admini./ered by /he #EEE2 iden/ify /he manufac/urer or 0endor and /hu. com3ri.e /he Organi:a/ionally +ni@ue #den/ifier (O+#). The la./ < he7adecimal digi/. com3ri.e /he in/erface .erial number2 or ano/her 0alue admini./ered by /he .3ecific 0endor. %'C addre..e. .ome/ime. are called urned-in addresses (!"As) becau.e /hey are burned in/o read5only memory (!O%) and are co3ied in/o random5acce.. memory (!'%) when /he in/erface card ini/iali:e.. ,igure 454= illu./ra/e. /he %'C addre.. forma/.

'etwor% Layer )ddresses

' network layer address iden/ifie. an en/i/y a/ /he ne/wor1 layer of /he OS# layer.. Ne/wor1 addre..e. u.ually e7i./ wi/hin a hierarchical addre.. .3ace and .ome/ime. are called virtual or logical addresses. The rela/ion.hi3 be/ween a ne/wor1 addre.. and a de0ice i. logical and unfi7edD i/ /y3ically i. ba.ed ei/her on 3hy.ical ne/wor1 charac/eri./ic. (/he de0ice i. on a 3ar/icular ne/wor1 .egmen/) or on grou3ing. /ha/ ha0e no 3hy.ical ba.i. (/he de0ice i. 3ar/ of an '33leTal1 :one). End .y./em. re@uire one ne/wor1 layer addre.. for each ne/wor1 layer 3ro/ocol /ha/ /hey .u33or/. (Thi. a..ume. /ha/ /he de0ice ha. only one 3hy.ical ne/wor1 connec/ion.) !ou/er. and o/her in/erne/wor1ing de0ice. re@uire one ne/wor1 layer addre.. 3er 3hy.ical ne/wor1 connec/ion for each ne/wor1 layer 3ro/ocol .u33or/ed. ,or e7am3le2 a

rou/er wi/h /hree in/erface. each running '33leTal12 TCPH#P2 and OS# mu./ ha0e /hree ne/wor1 layer addre..e. for each in/erface. The rou/er /herefore ha. nine ne/wor1 layer addre..e.. ,igure 454< illu./ra/e. how each ne/wor1 in/erface mu./ be a..igned a ne/wor1 addre.. for each 3ro/ocol .u33or/ed.

Lan .Local )rea 'etwor%/

' LAN i. a high5.3eed da/a ne/wor1 /ha/ co0er. a rela/i0ely .mall geogra3hic area. #/ /y3ically connec/. wor1./a/ion.2 3er.onal com3u/er.2 3rin/er.2 .er0er.2 and o/her de0ice.. L'N. offer com3u/er many ad0an/age.2 including .hared acce.. /o de0ice. and a33lica/ion.2 file e7change be/ween connec/ed and communica/ion be/ween 0ia elec/ronic mail and o/her a33lica/ion.. .

L)' (opolo0ies
L'N /o3ologie. define /he manner in which ne/wor1 de0ice. are organi:ed. ,our common L'N /o3ologie. e7i./9 bu.2 ring2 ./ar2 and /ree. The.e /o3ologie. are logical archi/ec/ure.2 bu/ /he ac/ual de0ice. need no/ be 3hy.ically organi:ed in /he.e configura/ion.. Logical bu. and ring /o3ologie.2 for e7am3le2 are commonly organi:ed 3hy.ically a. a ./ar. ' us topology i. a linear L'N archi/ec/ure in which /ran.mi..ion. from ne/wor1 ./a/ion. 3ro3aga/e /he leng/h of /he medium and are recei0ed by all o/her ./a/ion.. Of /he /hree mo./ widely u.ed L'N im3lemen/a/ion.2 E/herne/H#EEE AB>.8 ne/wor1.I including 4BB)a.eTIim3lemen/ a bu. /o3ology2 which i. illu./ra/ed in ,igure >58.


' ring topology i. a L'N archi/ec/ure /ha/ con.i./. of a .erie. of de0ice. connec/ed /o one ano/her by unidirec/ional /ran.mi..ion lin1. /o form a .ingle clo.ed loo3. )o/h To1en !ingH#EEE AB>.= and ,&&# ne/wor1. im3lemen/ a ring /o3ology. ,igure >5? de3ic/. a logical ring /o3ology.

' star topology i. a L'N archi/ec/ure in which /he end3oin/. on a ne/wor1 are connec/ed /o a common cen/ral hub2 or .wi/ch2 by dedica/ed lin1.. Logical bu. and ring /o3ologie. are of/en im3lemen/ed 3hy.ically in a ./ar /o3ology2 which i. illu./ra/ed in ,igure >5=.

' tree topology i. a L'N archi/ec/ure /ha/ i. iden/ical /o /he bu. /o3ology2 e7ce3/ /ha/ branche. wi/h mul/i3le node. are 3o..ible in /hi. ca.e. ,igure >5= illu./ra/e. a logical /ree /o3ology. 2-

L)' $e!ices

&e0ice. commonly u.ed in L'N. include re3ea/er.2 hub.2 L'N e7/ender.2 bridge.2 L'N .wi/che.2 and rou/er.. ' repeater i. a 3hy.ical layer de0ice u.ed /o in/erconnec/ /he media .egmen/. of an e7/ended ne/wor1. ' re3ea/er e..en/ially enable. a .erie. of cable .egmen/. /o be /rea/ed a. a .ingle cable. !e3ea/er. recei0e .ignal. from one ne/wor1 .egmen/ and am3lify2 re/ime2 and re/ran.mi/ /ho.e .ignal. /o ano/her ne/wor1 .egmen/. The.e ac/ion. 3re0en/ .ignal de/eriora/ion cau.ed by long cable leng/h. and large number. of connec/ed de0ice.. !e3ea/er. are inca3able of 3erforming com3le7 fil/ering and o/her /raffic #n addi/ion2 all elec/rical .ignal.2 including elec/rical di./urbance. and o/her error.2 are re3ea/ed and am3lified. The /o/al number of re3ea/er. and ne/wor1 .egmen/. /ha/ can be connec/ed i. limi/ed due /o /iming and o/her i..ue.. ,igure >5< illu./ra/e. a re3ea/er connec/ing /wo ne/wor1 .egmen/..

' #u i. a 3hy.ical layer de0ice /ha/ connec/. mul/i3le ./a/ion.2 each 0ia a dedica/ed cable. Elec/rical in/erconnec/ion. are e./abli.hed in.ide /he hub. (ub. are u.ed /o crea/e a 3hy.ical ./ar ne/wor1while main/aining /he logical bu. or ring configura/ion of /he L'N. #n .ome re.3ec/.2 a hub func/ion. a. a mul/i3or/ re3ea/er. ' LAN e$tender i. a remo/e5acce.. mul/ilayer .wi/ch /ha/ connec/. /o a ho./ rou/er. L'N e7/ender. forward /raffic from all /he ./andard ne/wor1 layer 3ro/ocol. (.uch a. #P2 #PJ2 and '33leTal1) and fil/er /raffic ba.ed on /he %'C addre.. or ne/wor1 layer 3ro/ocol /y3e. L'N e7/ender. .cale well becau.e /he ho./ rou/er fil/er. ou/ unwan/ed broadca./. and mul/ica./.. (owe0er2 L'N e7/ender. are no/ ca3able of .egmen/ing /raffic or crea/ing .ecuri/y firewall.. ,igure >K; illu./ra/e. mul/i3le L'N e7/ender. connec/ed /o /he ho./ rou/er /hrough a 'N.


' WAN i. a da/a communica/ion. ne/wor1 /ha/ co0er. a rela/i0ely broad geogra3hic area and /ha/ of/en u.e. /ran.mi..ion facili/ie. 3ro0ided by common carrier.2 .uch a. /ele3hone com3anie.. 'N /echnologie. generally func/ion a/ /he lower /hree layer. of /he OS# reference model9 /he 3hy.ical layer2 /he da/a lin1 layer2 and /he ne/wor1 layer. ,igure 854 illu./ra/e. /he rela/ion.hi3 be/ween /he common 'N /echnologie. and /he OS# model.

"oint-to-"oint Lin%s


' point-to-point link 3ro0ide. a .ingle2 3re5e./abli.hed 'N communica/ion. 3a/h from /he cu./omer 3remi.e. /hrough a carrier ne/wor12 .uch a. a /ele3hone com3any2 /o a remo/e ne/wor1. Poin/5/o53oin/ line. are u.ually lea.ed from a carrier and /hu. are of/en called lea.ed line.. ,or a 3oin/5/o53oin/ line2 /he carrier alloca/e. 3air. of wire and facili/y hardware /o your line only. The.e circui/. are generally 3riced ba.ed on bandwid/h re@uired and di./ance be/ween /he /wo connec/ed 3oin/.. Poin/5/o53oin/ lin1. are generally more e73en.i0e /han .hared .er0ice. .uch a. ,rame !elay. ,igure 85> illu./ra/e. a /y3ical 3oin/5 /o53oin/ lin1 /hrough a 'N.

Circuit Switchin0
%witc#ed circuits allow da/a connec/ion. /ha/ can be ini/ia/ed when needed and /ermina/ed when communica/ion i. com3le/e. Thi. wor1. much li1e a normal /ele3hone line wor1. for 0oice communica/ion. #n/egra/ed Ser0ice. &igi/al Ne/wor1 (#S&N) i. a good e7am3le of circui/ .wi/ching. hen a rou/er ha. da/a for a remo/e .i/e2 /he .wi/ched circui/ i. ini/ia/ed wi/h /he circui/ number of /he remo/e ne/wor1. #n /he ca.e of #S&N circui/.2 /he de0ice ac/ually 3lace. a call /o /he /ele3hone number of /he remo/e #S&N circui/. hen /he /wo ne/wor1. are connec/ed and au/hen/ica/ed2 /hey can /ran.fer da/a. hen /he da/a /ran.mi..ion i. com3le/e2 /he call can be /ermina/ed. ,igure 858 illu./ra/e. an e7am3le of /hi. /y3e of circui/.

"ac%et Switchin0
&acket switc#ing i. a 'N /echnology in which .hare common carrier re.ource.. )ecau.e /hi. allow. /he carrier /o ma1e more efficien/ u.e of i/. infra./ruc/ure2 /he co./ /o /he cu./omer i. generally much be//er /han wi/h 3oin/5/o53oin/ line.. #n a 3ac1e/ .wi/ching .e/u32 ne/wor1. ha0e connec/ion. in/o /he carrier6. ne/wor12 and many cu./omer. .hare /he carrier6. ne/wor1. The carrier can /hen crea/e 0ir/ual circui/. be/ween cu./omer.6 .i/e. by which 3ac1e/. of da/a are deli0ered from one /o /he o/her /hrough /he ne/wor1. The .ec/ion of /he carrier6. ne/wor1 /ha/ i. .hared i. of/en referred /o a. a cloud. Some e7am3le. of 3ac1e/5.wi/ching ne/wor1. include '.ynchronou. Tran.fer %ode ('T%)2 ,rame !elay2 Swi/ched %ul/imegabi/ &a/a Ser0ice. (S%&S)2 and J.>=. ,igure 85? .how. an e7am3le 3ac1e/5.wi/ched circui/. The 0ir/ual connec/ion. be/ween cu./omer .i/e. are of/en referred /o a. a 0ir/ual circui/.

1)' $e!ices
'N. u.e numerou. /y3e. of de0ice. /ha/ are .3ecific /o 'N en0ironmen/.. 'N .wi/che.2 acce.. .er0er.2 modem.2 CS+H&S+.2 and #S&N /erminal ada3/er. are in /he following .ec/ion.. O/her de0ice. found in 'N en0ironmen/. /ha/ are u.ed in 'N im3lemen/a/ion. include rou/er.2 'T% 2.wi/che.2 and mul/i3le7er..

1)' Switch
' WAN switc# i. a mul/i3or/ in/erne/wor1ing de0ice u.ed in carrier ne/wor1.. The.e de0ice. /y3ically .wi/ch .uch /raffic a. ,rame !elay2 J.>=2 and S%&S2 and o3era/e a/ /he da/a lin1 layer of /he OS# reference model. ,igure 85= illu./ra/e. /wo rou/er. a/ remo/e end. of a 'N /ha/ are connec/ed by 'N .wi/che..

)ccess Ser!er
'n access server ac/. a. a concen/ra/ion 3oin/ for dial5in and dial5ou/ connec/ion.. ,igure 8K< illu./ra/e. an acce.. .er0er concen/ra/ing dial5ou/ connec/ion. in/o a 'N.

' modem i. a de0ice /ha/ in/er3re/. digi/al and analog .ignal.2 enabling da/a /o be /ran.mi//ed o0er 0oice5grade /ele3hone line.. '/ /he .ource2 digi/al .ignal. are con0er/ed /o a form .ui/able for /ran.mi..ion o0er analog communica/ion facili/ie.. '/ /he de./ina/ion2 /he.e analog .ignal. are re/urned /o /heir digi/al form. ,igure 85; illu./ra/e. a .im3le modem5/o5modem connec/ion /hrough a 'N.

2thernet (echnolo0ies
The /erm 't#ernet refer. /o /he family of local5area ne/wor1 (L'N) 3roduc/. co0ered by /he #EEE AB>.8 ./andard /ha/ define. wha/ i. commonly 1nown a. /he CS%'HC& 3ro/ocol. Three da/a ra/e. are curren/ly defined for o3era/ion o0er o3/ical fiber and /wi./ed53air cable.9 3 4B %b3.I4B)a.e5T E/herne/ 3 4BB %b3.I,a./ E/herne/ 3 4BBB %b3.I$igabi/ E/herne/ 4B5$igabi/ E/herne/ i. under de0elo3men/ and will li1ely be 3ubli.hed a. /he #EEE AB>.8ae .u33lemen/ /o /he #EEE AB>.8 ba.e ./andard in la/e >BB4 or early >BB>. O/her /echnologie. and 3ro/ocol. ha0e been /ou/ed a. li1ely re3lacemen/.2 bu/ /he mar1e/ ha. .3o1en. E/herne/ ha. .ur0i0ed a. /he major L'N /echnology (i/ i. curren/ly u.ed for a33ro7ima/ely A= 3ercen/ of /he world6. L'N5connec/ed PC. and wor1./a/ion.) becau.e i/. 3ro/ocol ha. /he following charac/eri./ic.9 3 #. ea.y /o under./and2 im3lemen/2 manage2 and main/ain 3 'llow. low5co./ ne/wor1 im3lemen/a/ion. 3 Pro0ide. e7/en.i0e /o3ological fle7ibili/y for ne/wor1 in./alla/ion 3 $uaran/ee. .ucce..ful in/erconnec/ion and o3era/ion of ./andard.5com3lian/ 3roduc/.2 regardle.. of manufac/urer

. E/herne/ L'N. con.i./ of ne/wor1 node. and in/erconnec/ing media. The ne/wor1 node. fall in/o /wo major cla..e.9 3 $ata terminal e5uipment .$(2/I&e0ice. /ha/ are ei/her /he .ource or /he de./ina/ion of da/a frame.. &TE. are /y3ically de0ice. .uch a. PC.2 wor1./a/ion.2 file .er0er.2 or 3rin/ .er0er. /ha/2 a. a grou32 are all of/en referred /o a. end ./a/ion.. 3 $ata communication e5uipment .$C2/I#n/ermedia/e ne/wor1 de0ice. /ha/ recei0e and forward frame. acro.. /he ne/wor1. &CE. may be ei/her ./andalone de0ice. .uch a. re3ea/er.2 ne/wor1 .wi/che.2 and rou/er.2 or communica/ion. in/erface uni/. .uch a. in/erface card. and modem.. Throughou/ /hi. cha3/er2 ./andalone in/ermedia/e ne/wor1 de0ice. will be referred /o a. ei/her intermediate nodes or DC's. Ne/wor1 in/erface card. will be referred /o a. N"Cs. The curren/ E/herne/ media o3/ion. include /wo general /y3e. of co33er cable9 un.hielded /wi./ed53air (+TP) and .hielded /wi./ed53air (STP)2 3lu. .e0eral /y3e. of o3/ical fiber cable.

2thernet 'etwor% 2lements

2thernet 'etwor% (opolo0ies and Structures

L'N. /a1e on many /o3ological configura/ion.2 bu/ regardle.. of /heir .i:e or com3le7i/y2 all will be a combina/ion of only /hree ba.ic in/erconnec/ion ./ruc/ure. or ne/wor1 building bloc1.. The .im3le./ ./ruc/ure i. /he 3oin/5/o53oin/ in/erconnec/ion2 .hown in ,igure ;54. Only /wo ne/wor1 uni/ .are in0ol0ed2 and /he connec/ion may be &TE5/o5&TE2 &TE5/o5&CE2 or &CE5/o5&CE. The cable in

3oin/5/o53oin/ in/erconnec/ion. i. 1nown a. a ne/wor1 lin1. The ma7imum allowable leng/h of /he lin1 de3end. on /he /y3e of cable and /he /ran.mi..ion me/hod /ha/ i. u.ed.

The original E/herne/ ne/wor1. were im3lemen/ed wi/h a coa7ial bu. ./ruc/ure2 a. .hown in ,igure ;5>. Segmen/ leng/h. were limi/ed /o =BB me/er.2 and u3 /o 4BB ./a/ion. could be connec/ed /o a .ingle .egmen/. #ndi0idual .egmen/. could be in/erconnec/ed wi/h re3ea/er.2 a. long a. mul/i3le 3a/h. did no/ e7i./ be/ween any /wo ./a/ion. on /he ne/wor1 and /he number of &TE. did no/ e7ceed 4B>?. The /o/al 3a/h di./ance be/ween /he mo./5di./an/ 3air of ./a/ion. wa. al.o no/ allowed /o e7ceed a ma7imum 3re.cribed 0alue.

(he 2thernet M)C Su6layer

The %'C .ublayer ha. /wo 3rimary re.3on.ibili/ie.9 3 &a/a enca3.ula/ion2 including frame a..embly before /ran.mi..ion2 and frame 3ar.ingHerror de/ec/ion during and af/er rece3/ion 3 %edia acce.. con/rol2 including ini/ia/ion of frame /ran.mi..ion and reco0ery from /ran.mi..ion failure

(he Basic 2thernet *rame *ormat

The #EEE AB>.8 ./andard define. a ba.ic da/a frame forma/ /ha/ i. re@uired for all %'C im3lemen/a/ion.2 3lu. .e0eral addi/ional o3/ional forma/. /ha/ are u.ed /o e7/end /he 3ro/ocol6. ba.ic ca3abili/y. The ba.ic da/a frame forma/ con/ain. /he .e0en field. .hown in ,igure ;5<. 3 "ream6le ."R2/ICon.i./. of ; by/e.. The P!E i. an al/erna/ing 3a//ern of one. and :ero. /ha/ /ell.

recei0ing ./a/ion. /ha/ a frame i. coming2 and /ha/ 3ro0ide. a mean. /o .ynchroni:e /he frame5rece3/ion 3or/ion. of recei0ing 3hy.ical layer. wi/h /he incoming bi/ ./ream. 3 Start-of-frame delimiter .SO*/ICon.i./. of 4 by/e. The SO, i. an al/erna/ing 3a//ern of one. and :ero.2 ending wi/h /wo con.ecu/i0e 45bi/. indica/ing /ha/ /he ne7/ bi/ i. /he lef/5mo./ bi/ in /he lef/5mo./ by/e of /he de./ina/ion addre... 3 $estination address .$)/ICon.i./. of < by/e.. The &' field iden/ifie. which ./a/ion(.) .hould recei0e /he frame. The lef/5mo./ bi/ in /he &' field indica/e. whe/her /he addre.. i. an indi0idual addre.. (indica/ed by a B) or a grou3 addre.. (indica/ed by a 4). The .econd bi/ from /he lef/ indica/e. whe/her /he &' i. globally admini./ered (indica/ed by a B) or locally admini./ered (indica/ed by a 4). The remaining ?< bi/. are a uni@uely a..igned 0alue /ha/ iden/ifie. a .ingle ./a/ion2 a defined grou3 of ./a/ion.2 or all ./a/ion. on /he ne/wor1. 3 Source addresses .S)/ICon.i./. of < by/e.. The S' field iden/ifie. /he .ending ./a/ion. The S' i. alway. an indi0idual addre.. and /he lef/5mo./ bi/ in /he S' field i. alway. B. 3 Len0th7(ypeICon.i./. of > by/e.. Thi. field indica/e. ei/her /he number of %'C5clien/ da/a by/e. /ha/ are con/ained in /he da/a field of /he frame2 or /he frame /y3e #& if /he frame i. a..embled an o3/ional forma/. #f /he Leng/hHTy3e field 0alue i. le.. /han or e@ual /o 4=BB2 /he number of LLC by/e. in /he &a/a field i. e@ual /o /he Leng/hHTy3e field 0alue. #f /he Leng/hHTy3e field 0alue i. grea/er /han 4=8<2 /he frame i. an o3/ional /y3e frame2 and /he Leng/hHTy3e field 0alue iden/ifie. /he 3ar/icular /y3e of frame being .en/ or recei0ed. 3 $ataI#. a .e@uence of n by/e. of any 0alue2 where n i. le.. /han or e@ual /o 4=BB. #f /he leng/h of /he &a/a field i. le.. /han ?<2 /he &a/a field mu./ be e7/ended by adding a filler (a 3ad) .ufficien/ /o bring /he &a/a field leng/h /o ?< by/e.. 3 *rame chec% se5uence .*CS/(Con.i./. of ? by/e.. Thi. .e@uence con/ain. a 8>5bi/ cyclic redundancy chec1 (C!C) 0alue2 which i. crea/ed by /he .ending %'C and i. recalcula/ed by /he recei0ing %'C /o chec1 for damaged frame.. The ,CS i. genera/ed o0er /he &'2 S'2 Leng/hHTy3e2 and &a/a field..

*rame (ransmission
hene0er an end ./a/ion %'C recei0e. a /ran.mi/5frame re@ue./ wi/h /he accom3anying addre.. and

da/a informa/ion from /he LLC .ublayer2 /he %'C begin. /he /ran.mi..ion .e@uence by /ran.ferring /he LLC informa/ion in/o /he %'C frame buffer. 3 The 3reamble and ./ar/5of5frame delimi/er are in /he P!E and SO, field.. 3 The de./ina/ion and .ource addre..e. are in/o /he addre.. field.. 3 The LLC da/a by/e. are coun/ed2 and /he number of by/e. i. in/o /he Leng/hHTy3e field. 3 The LLC da/a by/e. are in/o /he &a/a field. #f /he number of LLC da/a by/e. i. le.. /han ?<2 a 3ad i. added /o bring /he &a/a field leng/h u3 /o ?<. 3 'n ,CS 0alue i. genera/ed o0er /he &'2 S'2 Leng/hHTy3e2 and &a/a field. and i. a33ended /o /he end of /he &a/a field. 'f/er /he frame i. a..embled2 ac/ual frame /ran.mi..ion will de3end on whe/her /he %'C i. o3era/ing in half5du3le7 or full5du3le7 mode. The #EEE AB>.8 ./andard curren/ly re@uire. /ha/ all E/herne/ %'C. .u33or/ half5du3le7 o3era/ion2 in which /he %'C can be ei/her /ran.mi//ing or recei0ing a frame2 bu/ i/ canno/ be doing bo/h .imul/ ,ull5du3le7 o3era/ion i. an o3/ional %'C ca3abili/y /ha/ allow. /he %'C /o /ran.mi/ and recei0e frame. .imul/

(he 2thernet "hysical Layers

)ecau.e E/herne/ de0ice. im3lemen/ only /he bo//om /wo layer. of /he OS# 3ro/ocol ./ac12 /hey are /y3ically im3lemen/ed a. ne/wor1 in/erface card. (N#C.) /ha/ 3lug in/o /he ho./ de0ice6. mo/herboard. The differen/ N#C. are iden/ified by a /hree53ar/ 3roduc/ name /ha/ i. ba.ed on /he 3hy.ical layer a//ribu/e.. The naming con0en/ion i. a conca/ena/ion of /hree /erm. indica/ing /he /ran.mi..ion ra/e2 /he /ran.mi..ion me/hod2 and /he media /y3eH.ignal encoding. ,or e7am3le2 con.ider /hi.9 3 4B)a.e5T L 4B %b3.2 ba.eband2 o0er /wo /wi./ed53air cable. 3 4BB)a.e5T> L 4BB %b3.2 ba.eband2 o0er /wo /wi./ed53air cable. 3 4BB)a.e5T? L 4BB %b3.2 ba.eband2 o0er four5/wi./ed 3air cable. 3 4BBB)a.e5LJ L 4BB %b3.2 ba.eband2 long wa0eleng/h o0er o3/ical fiber cable ' @ue./ion .ome/ime. ari.e. a. /o why /he middle /erm alway. .eem. /o be M)a.e.N Early 0er.ion. of /he 3ro/ocol al.o allowed for broadband /ran.mi..ion (for e7am3le2 4B)road)2 bu/ broadband im3lemen/a/ion. were no/ .ucce..ful in /he mar1e/3lace. 'll curren/ E/herne/ im3lemen/a/ion. u.e ba.eband /ran.mi..ion.

1&-M6ps 2thernet81&Base-(
4B)a.e5T 3ro0ide. %anche./er5encoded 4B5%b3. bi/5.erial communica/ion o0er /wo un.hielded /wi./ed53air cable.. 'l/hough /he ./andard wa. de.igned /o .u33or/ /ran.mi..ion o0er common /ele3hone cable2 /he more /y3ical lin1 configura/ion i. /o u.e /wo 3air of a four53air Ca/egory 8 or = cable2 /ermina/ed a/ each N#C wi/h an A53in !F5?= connec/or (/he %&#)2 a. .hown in ,igure ;54=. )ecau.e each ac/i0e 3air i. configured a. a .im3le7 lin1 where /ran.mi..ion i. in one direc/ion only2 /he 4B)a.e5T 3hy.ical layer. can .u33or/ ei/her half5du3le7 or full5du3le7 o3era/ion.

'l/hough 4B)a.e5T may be con.idered e..en/ially ob.ole/e in .ome circle.2 i/ i. included here becau.e /here are ./ill many 4B)a.e5T E/herne/ ne/wor1.2 and becau.e full5du3le7 o3era/ion ha. gi0en 4B)a.eT an e7/ended life. 4B)a.e5T wa. al.o /he fir./ E/herne/ 0er.ion /o include a lin1 in/egri/y /e./ /o de/ermine /he heal/h of /he lin1. #mmedia/ely af/er 3oweru32 /he P%' /ran.mi/. a normal lin1 3ul.e (NLP) /o /ell /he N#C a/ /he o/her end of /he lin1 /ha/ /hi. N#C wan/. /o e./abli.h an ac/i0e lin1 connec/ion9 3 #f /he N#C a/ /he o/her end of /he lin1 i. al.o 3owered u32 i/ re.3ond. wi/h i/. own NLP. 3 #f /he N#C a/ /he o/her end of /he lin1 i. no/ 3owered u32 /hi. N#C con/inue. .ending an NLP abou/ once e0ery 4< m. un/il i/ recei0e. a re.3on.e. The lin1 i. ac/i0a/ed only af/er bo/h N#C. are ca3able of e7changing 0alid NLP..

1&& M6ps8*ast 2thernet /he E/herne/ /ran.mi..ion ra/e by a fac/or of /en o0er 4B)a.e5T wa. no/ a .im3le /a.12 and /he effor/ re.ul/ed in /he de0elo3men/ of /hree .e3ara/e 3hy.ical layer ./andard. for 4BB %b3. o0er +TP cable9 4BB)a.e5TJ and 4BB)a.e5T? in 4GG=2 and 4BB)a.e5T> in 4GG;. Each wa. defined wi/h differen/ encoding re@uiremen/. and a differen/ .e/ of media5de3enden/ .ublayer.2 e0en /hough /here i. .ome o0erla3 in /he lin1 cabling. Table ;5> com3are. /he 3hy.ical layer charac/eri./ic. of 4B)a.e5T /o /he 0ariou. 4BB)a.e 0er.ion..

'l/hough no/ all /hree 4BB5%b3. 0er.ion. were .ucce..ful in /he mar1e/3lace2 all /hree ha0e been in /he li/era/ure2 and all /hree did im3ac/ fu/ure de.ign.. '. .uch2 all /hree are im3or/an/ /o con.ider here.

4BB)a.e5J wa. de.igned /o .u33or/ /ran.mi..ion o0er ei/her /wo 3air. of Ca/egory = +TP co33er wire or /wo ./rand. of o3/ical fiber. 'l/hough /he encoding2 decoding2 and cloc1 reco0ery 3rocedure. are /he .ame for bo/h media2 /he .ignal /ran.mi..ion i. differen/Ielec/rical 3ul.e. in co33er and ligh/ 3ul.e. in o3/ical fiber. The .ignal /ran.cei0er. /ha/ were included a. 3ar/ of /he P%' func/ion in /he generic logical model of ,igure ;54? were redefined a. /he .e3ara/e 3hy.ical media5de3enden/ (P%&) .ub layer. .hown in ,igure ;54<.

The 4BB)a.e5J encoding 3rocedure i. ba.ed on /he earlier ,&&# o3/ical fiber 3hy.ical media5de3enden/ and ,&&#HC&&# co33er /wi./ed53air 3hy.ical media5de3enden/ .ignaling ./andard. de0elo3ed by #SO and 'NS#. The 4BB)a.e5TJ 3hy.ical media5de3enden/ .ublayer (TP5P%&) wa. im3lemen/ed wi/h C&&# .emiconduc/or /ran.cei0er. and !F5?= connec/or.D /he fiber P%& wa. im3lemen/ed wi/h ,&&# o3/ical /ran.cei0er. and /he Low Co./ ,ibre #n/erface Connec/or (commonly called /he du3le7 SC connec/or). 4BB)a.e5TJ /ran.mi/. and recei0e. on /he .ame lin1 3air. and u.e. /he .ame 3in a..ignmen/. on /he %&# a. 4B)a.e5T. 4BB)a.e5TJ and 4BB)a.e5,J bo/h .u33or/ half5du3le7 and full5du3le7 /ran.mi..ion.

4BB)a.e5T? wa. de0elo3ed /o allow 4B)a.eT ne/wor1. /o be u3graded /o 4BB5%b3. o3era/ion wi/hou/ re@uiring e7i./ing four53air Ca/egory 8 +TP cable. /o be re3laced wi/h /he newer Ca/egory = cable.. Two of /he four 3air. are configured for half5du3le7 o3era/ion and can .u33or/ /ran.mi..ion in ei/her direc/ion2 bu/ only in one direc/ion a/ a /ime. The o/her /wo 3air. are configured a. .im3le7 3air.

dedica/ed /o /ran.mi..ion in one direc/ion only. ,rame /ran.mi..ion u.e. bo/h half5du3le7 3air.2 3lu. /he .im3le7 3air /ha/ i. a33ro3ria/e for /he /ran.mi..ion direc/ion2 a. .hown in ,igure ;54A. The .im3le7 3air for /he o33o.i/e direc/ion 3ro0ide. carrier .en.e and colli.ion de/ec/ion. ,ull5du3le7 o3era/ion canno/ be .u33or/ed on 4BB)a.e5T?.

4BB)a.e5T? u.e. an A)<T encoding .cheme in which each A5bi/ binary by/e i. ma33ed in/o a 3a//ern of .i7 /ernary (/hree5le0el9 O42 B2 K4) .ymbol. 1nown a. <T code5grou3.. Se3ara/e <T code5grou3. are u.ed for #&LE and for /he con/rol code5grou3. /ha/ are nece..ary for frame /ran.mi..ion. #&LE recei0ed on /he dedica/ed recei0e 3air indica/e. /ha/ /he lin1 i. @uie/.


The 4BB)a.e5T> .3ecifica/ion wa. de0elo3ed a. a be//er al/erna/i0e for u3grading ne/wor1. wi/h in./alled Ca/egory 8 cabling /han wa. being 3ro0ided by 4BB)a.e5T?. Two im3or/an/ new goal. were defined9 3 To 3ro0ide communica/ion o0er /wo 3air. of Ca/egory 8 or be//er cable 3 To .u33or/ bo/h half5du3le7 and full5du3le7 o3era/ion 4BB)a.e5T> u.e. a differen/ .ignal /ran.mi..ion 3rocedure /han any 3re0iou. /wi./ed53air E/herne/ im3lemen/a/ion.. #n./ead of /wo .im3le7 lin1. /o form one full5du3le7 lin12 /he 4BB)a.e5T> dual5du3le7 ba.eband /ran.mi..ion me/hod .end. encoded .ymbol. .imul/ in bo/h direc/ion. on bo/h wire 3air.2 a. .hown in ,igure ;5>B. The /erm MT&JP89>QN indica/e. /he > mo./ .ignifican/ bi/. in /he nibble before encoding and /ran.mi..ion. M!&JP89>QN indica/e. /he .ame > bi/. af/er recei3/ and decoding.

&ual5du3le7 ba.eband /ran.mi..ion re@uire. /he N#C. a/ each end of /he lin1 /o be o3era/ed in a ma./erH.la0e loo35/iming mode. hich N#C will be ma./er and which will be .la0e i. de/ermined by au/onego/ia/ion during lin1 ini/ia/ion. hen /he lin1 i. o3era/ional2 .ynchroni:a/ion i. ba.ed on /he ma./er N#C6. in/ernal /ran.mi/ cloc1. The .la0e N#C u.e. /he reco0ered cloc1 for bo/h /ran.mi/ and recei0e o3era/ion.2 a. .hown in ,igure ;5>4. Each /ran.mi//ed frame i. enca3.ula/ed2 and lin1 .ynchroni:a/ion i. main/ained wi/h a con/inuou. ./ream of #&LE .ymbol. during in/erframe ga3..The 4BB)a.e5T> encoding 3roce.. fir./ .cramble. /he da/a frame nibble. /o randomi:e /he bi/ .e@uence. #/ /hen ma3. /he /wo u33er bi/. and /he /wo lower bi/. of each nibble in/o /wo fi0e5le0el (O>2 O42 B2 K42K>) 3ul.e am3li/ude5modula/ed (P'%=) .ymbol. /ha/ are .imul/ /ran.mi//ed o0er /he /wo wire 3air. (P'%=7=). &ifferen/ .crambling 3rocedure. for ma./er and .la0e /ran.mi..ion. en.ure /ha/ /he da/a ./ream. /ra0eling in o33o.i/e direc/ion. on /he .ame wire 3air are uncoordina/ed. Signal rece3/ion i. e..en/ially /he re0er.e of .ignal /ran.mi..ion. )ecau.e /he .ignal on each wire 3air a/ /he %&# i. /he .um of /he /ran.mi//ed .ignal and /he recei0ed .ignal2 each recei0er .ub/rac/. /he /ran.mi//ed .ymbol. from /he .ignal recei0ed a/ /he %&# /o reco0er /he .ymbol. in /he incoming da/a ./ream. The incoming .ymbol 3air i. /hen decoded2 un.crambled2 and recon./i/u/ed a. a da/a nibble for /ran.fer /o /he %'C.

1&&& M6ps8:i0a6it 2thernet

The $igabi/ E/herne/ ./andard. de0elo3men/ re.ul/ed in /wo 3rimary .3ecifica/ion.9 4BBB)a.e5T for +TP co33er cable and 4BBB)a.e5J STP co33er cable2 a. well a. .ingle and mul/imode o3/ical fiber (.ee ,igure ;5>>).

4BBB)a.e5T E/herne/ 3ro0ide. full5du3le7 /ran.mi..ion o0er four53air Ca/egory = or be//er +TP cable. 4BBB)a.e5T i. ba.ed largely on /he finding. and de.ign a33roache. /ha/ led /o /he de0elo3men/ of /he ,a./ E/herne/ 3hy.ical layer im3lemen/a/ion.9 3 4BB)a.e5TJ 3ro0ed /ha/ binary .ymbol ./ream. could be .ucce..fully /ran.mi//ed o0er Ca/egory = +TP cable a/ 4>= %)d. 3 4BB)a.e5T? 3ro0ided a ba.ic under./anding of /he 3roblem. rela/ed /o .ending mul/ile0el .ignal. o0er four wire 3air.. 3 4BB)a.e5T> 3ro0ed /ha/ P'%= encoding2 cou3led wi/h digi/al .ignal 3roce..ing2 could handle bo/h .imul/aneou. /wo5way da/a ./ream. and 3o/en/ial cro../al1 3roblem. re.ul/ing from alien .ignal. on adjacen/ wire 3air.. 4BBB)a.e5T .cramble. each by/e in /he %'C frame /o randomi:e /he bi/ .e@uence before i/ i. encoded a ?5&2 A5S/a/e Trelli. ,orward Error Correc/ion (,EC) coding in which four P'%= .ymbol. are .en/ a/ /he .ame /ime o0er four wire 3air.. ,our of /he fi0e le0el. in each P'%= .ymbol re3re.en/ > bi/. in /he da/a by/e. The fif/h le0el i. u.ed for ,EC coding2 which enhance. .ymbol reco0ery in /he 3re.ence of noi.e and cro../al1. Se3ara/e .crambler. for /he ma./er and .la0e P(-. crea/e e..en/ially uncorrela/ed da/a ./ream. be/ween /he /wo o33o.i/e5 /ra0elling .ymbol ./ream. on each wire 3air. The4BBB)a.e5T lin1 /o3ology i. .hown in ,igure ;5>8. The /erm MT&JP;9<QN indica/e. /he > mo./ .ignifican/ bi/. in /he da/a by/e before encoding and /ran.mi..ion. M!&JP;9<QN indica/e. /he .ame > bi/. af/er recei3/ and decoding. The cloc1 reco0ery and ma./erH.la0e loo3 /iming 3rocedure. are e..en/ially /he .ame a. /ho.e u.ed in 4BB)a.e5T> (.ee ,igure ;5>?). hich N#C will be ma./er (/y3ically /he N#C in a mul/i3or/ in/ermedia/e ne/wor1 node) and which will be .la0e i. de/ermined during au/onego/ia/ion.

Each /ran.mi//ed frame i. enca3.ula/ed wi/h ./ar/5of5./ream and end5of5./ream delimi/er.2 and loo3 /iming i. main/ained by con/inuou. ./ream. of #&LE .ymbol. .en/ on each wire 3air during in/erframe ga3.. 4BBB)a.e5T .u33or/. bo/h half5du3le7 and full5du3le7 o3era/ion.

'll /hree 4BBB)a.e5J 0er.ion. .u33or/ full5du3le7 binary /ran.mi..ion a/ 4>=B %b3. o0er /wo ./rand. of o3/ical fiber or /wo STP co33er wireK3air.2 a. .hown in ,igure ;5>=. Tran.mi..ion coding i. ba.ed on /he 'NS# ,ibre Channel A)H4B) encoding .cheme. Each A5bi/ da/a by/e i. ma33ed in/o a 4B5bi/ code5grou3 for bi/5.erial /ran.mi..ion. Li1e earlier E/herne/ 0er.ion.2 each da/a frame i. enca3.ula/ed a/ /he 3hy.ical layer before /ran.mi..ion2 and lin1 .ynchroni:a/ion i. main/ained by .ending a con/inuou. ./ream of #&LE code5grou3. during in/erframe ga3.. 'll 4BBB)a.e5J 3hy.ical layer. .u33or/ bo/h half5 du3le7 and full5du3le7 o3era/ion.

The 3rinci3al difference. among /he 4BBB)a.e5J 0er.ion. are /he lin1 media and connec/or. /ha/ /he 3ar/icular 0er.ion. will .u33or/ and2 in /he ca.e of o3/ical media2 /he wa0eleng/h of /he o3/ical .ignal (.ee Table ;58).

'etwor% Ca6lin08Lin% Crosso!er Re5uirements

Lin1 com3a/ibili/y re@uire. /ha/ /he /ran.mi//er. a/ each end of /he lin1 be connec/ed /o /he recei0er. a/ /he o/her end of /he lin1. (owe0er2 becau.e cable connec/or. a/ bo/h end. of /he lin1 are 1eyed /he .ame2 /he conduc/or. mu./ cro.. o0er a/ .ome 3oin/ /o en.ure /ha/ /ran.mi//er ou/3u/. are alway. connec/ed /o recei0er in3u/.. +nfor/una/ely2 when /hi. re@uiremen/ fir./ came u3 in /he de0elo3men/ of 4B)a.e5T2 #EEE AB>.8 cho.e no/ /o ma1e a hard rule a. /o whe/her /he cro..o0er .hould be im3lemen/ed in /he cable a. .hown in ,igure ;5><a or whe/her i/ .hould be im3lemen/ed in/ernally a. .hown in ,igure ;5><b.

#n./ead2 #EEE AB>.8 defined /wo rule. and made /wo recommenda/ion.9 3 There mu./ be an odd number of cro..o0er. in all mul/iconduc/or lin1.. 3 #f a P%& i. e@ui33ed wi/h an in/ernal cro..o0er2 i/. %&# mu./ be clearly labeled wi/h /he gra3hical J .ymbol. 3 #m3lemen/a/ion of an in/ernal cro..o0er func/ion i. o3/ional. 3 hen a &TE i. connec/ed /o a re3ea/er or .wi/ch (&CE) 3or/2 i/ i. recommended /ha/ /he cro..o0er be im3lemen/ed wi/hin /he &CE 3or/. The e0en/ual re.ul/ wa. /ha/ 3or/. in mo./ &CE. were e@ui33ed wi/h P%&. /ha/ con/ained in/ernal cro..o0er circui/ry and /ha/ &TE. had P%&. wi/hou/ in/ernal cro..o0er.. Thi. led /o /he following of/5@uo/ed de fac/o )in./alla/ion ruleN9 3 +.e a ./raigh/5/hrough cable when connec/ing &TE /o &CE. +.e a cro..o0er cable when connec/ing &TE /o &TE or &CE /o &CE. +nfor/una/ely2 /he de fac/o rule doe. no/ a33ly /o all E/herne/ 0er.ion. /ha/ ha0e been de0elo3ed .ub.e@uen/ /o 4B)a.e5T. '. /hing. now ./and2 /he following i. /rue9 3 'll fiber5ba.ed .y./em. u.e cable. /ha/ ha0e /he cro..o0er im3lemen/ed wi/hin /he cable. 3 'll 4BB)a.e .y./em. /wi./ed53air lin1. u.e /he .ame rule. and recommenda/ion. a. 4B)a.e5T. 3 4BBB)a.e5T N#C. may im3lemen/ a .elec/able in/ernal cro..o0er o3/ion /ha/ can be nego/ia/ed and enabled during au/onego/ia/ion. hen /he .elec/able cro..o0er o3/ion i. no/ im3lemen/ed2 4B)a.e5T rule. and recommenda/ion. a33ly.

Multispeed 'ICs
'u/o5nego/ia/ion o3ened /he door /o /he de0elo3men/ of low5co./2 mul/i.3eed N#C. /ha/2 for e7am3le2 .u33or/ bo/h half5 and full5du3le7 o3era/ion under ei/her 4BB)a.e5TJ or 4B)a.e5T .ignaling 3rocedure.. %ul/i.3eed N#C. allow ./aged ne/wor1 u3grade. in which /he 4B)a.e5T half5du3le7 end ./a/ion. can be connec/ed /o 4BB)a.e5TJ full5du3le7 .wi/ch 3or/. wi/hou/ re@uiring /he N#C in /he PC /o be changed. Then2 a. more bandwid/h i. needed for indi0idual PC.2 /he N#C. in /ho.e PC. can be u3graded /o 4BB)a.e5TJ full5du3le7 mode.

Internet Protocols
Internet Protocol (IP)
The #n/erne/ Pro/ocol (#P) i. a ne/wor15layer (Layer 8) 3ro/ocol /ha/ con/ain. informa/ion and .ome con/rol informa/ion /ha/ enable. 3ac1e/. /o be rou/ed. #P i. documen/ed in !,C ;G4 and i. /he 3rimary ne/wor15layer 3ro/ocol in /he #n/erne/ 3ro/ocol .ui/e. 'long wi/h /he Tran.mi..ion Con/rol Pro/ocol (TCP)2 #P re3re.en/. /he hear/ of /he #n/erne/ 3ro/ocol.. #P ha. /wo 3rimary re.3on.ibili/ie.9 3ro0iding connec/ionle..2 be./5effor/ deli0ery of da/agram. /hrough an in/erne/wor1D and 3ro0iding fragmen/a/ion and rea..embly of da/agram. /o .u33or/ da/a lin1. wi/h differen/ ma7imum5/ran.mi..ion uni/ (%T+) .i:e..

IP Packet For


The following de.cribe. /he #P 3ac1e/ field. illu./ra/ed in ,igure 8B5>9 R Version#ndica/e. /he 0er.ion of #P curren/ly u.ed. R IP Header Length (#(L)I#ndica/e. /he da/agram header leng/h in 8>5bi/ word.. R Type-of-ServiceIS3ecifie. how an u33er5layer 3ro/ocol would li1e a curren/ da/agram /o be handled2 and a..ign. da/agram. 0ariou. le0el. of im3or/ance. R Total LengthIS3ecifie. /he leng/h2 in by/e.2 of /he en/ire #P 3ac1e/2 including /he da/a and header. R IdentificationICon/ain. an in/eger /ha/ iden/ifie. /he curren/ da/agram. Thi. field i. u.ed /o hel3 3iece /oge/her da/agram fragmen/.. R FlagsICon.i./. of a 85bi/ field of which /he /wo low5order (lea./5.ignifican/) bi/. con/rol fragmen/a/ion. The low5order bi/ .3ecifie. whe/her /he 3ac1e/ can be fragmen/ed. The middle bi/ .3ecifie. whe/her /he 3ac1e/ i. /he la./ fragmen/ in a .erie. of fragmen/ed 3ac1e/.. The /hird or high5order bi/ i. no/ u.ed. R Fragment OffsetI#ndica/e. /he 3o.i/ion of /he fragmen/6. da/a rela/i0e /o /he beginning of /he da/a in /he original da/agram2 which allow. /he de./ina/ion #P 3roce.. /o 3ro3erly recon./ruc/ /he

original da/agram. R Time5/o5Li0eI%ain/ain. a coun/er /ha/ gradually decremen/. down /o :ero2 a/ which 3oin/ /he da/agram i. di.carded. Thi. 1ee3. 3ac1e/. from loo3ing R Pro/ocolI#ndica/e. which u33er5layer 3ro/ocol recei0e. incoming 3ac1e/. af/er #P i. com3le/e. R (eader Chec1.umI(el3. en.ure #P header in/egri/y. R Source 'ddre..IS3ecifie. /he .ending node. R &e./ina/ion 'ddre..IS3ecifie. /he recei0ing node. R O3/ion.I'llow. #P /o .u33or/ 0ariou. o3/ion.2 .uch a. .ecuri/y. R &a/aICon/ain. u33er5layer informa/ion.

IP A!!ress"n#
'. wi/h any o/her ne/wor15layer 3ro/ocol2 /he #P .cheme i. in/egral /o /he 3roce.. of rou/ing #P da/agram. /hrough an in/erne/wor1. Each #P addre.. ha. .3ecific com3onen/. and follow. a ba.ic forma/. The.e #P addre..e. can be .ubdi0ided and u.ed /o crea/e addre..e. for .ubne/wor1.2 Each ho./ on a TCPH#P ne/wor1 i. a..igned a uni@ue 8>5bi/ logical addre.. /ha/ i. di0ided in/o /wo main 3ar/.9 /he ne/wor1 number and /he ho./ number. The ne/wor1 number iden/ifie. a ne/wor1 and mu./ be a..igned by /he #n/erne/ Ne/wor1 #nforma/ion Cen/er (#n/erN#C) if /he ne/wor1 i. /o be 3ar/ of /he #n/erne/. 'n #n/erne/ Ser0ice Pro0ider (#SP) can ob/ain bloc1. of ne/wor1 addre..e. from /he #n/erN#C and can i/.elf a..ign addre.. .3ace a. nece..ary. The ho./ number iden/ifie. a ho./ on a ne/wor1 and i. a..igned by /he local ne/wor1 admini./ra/or.

IP A!!ress For


The 8>5bi/ #P addre.. i. grou3ed eigh/ bi/. a/ a /ime2 .e3ara/ed by do/.2 and re3re.en/ed in decimal forma/ (1nown a. dotted decimal notation). Each bi/ in /he oc/e/ ha. a binary weigh/ (4>A2 <?2 8>2 4<2 A2 ?2 >2 4). The minimum 0alue for an oc/e/ i. B2 and /he ma7imum 0alue for an oc/e/ i. >==. ,igure 8B58 illu./ra/e. /he ba.ic forma/ of an #P addre...

IP A!!ress Classes
#P .u33or/. fi0e differen/ addre.. cla..e.9 '2 )2C2 &2 and E. Only cla..e. '2 )2 and C are a0ailable for commercial u.e. The lef/5mo./ (high5order) bi/. indica/e /he ne/wor1 cla... Table 8B54 3ro0ide. reference informa/ion abou/ /he fi0e #P addre.. cla..e..

The cla.. of addre.. can be de/ermined ea.ily by e7amining /he fir./ oc/e/ of /he addre.. and ma33ing /ha/ 0alue /o a cla.. range in /he following /able. #n an #P addre.. of 4;>.84.4.>2 for e7am3le2 /he fir./ oc/e/ i. 4;>. )ecau.e 4;> fall. be/ween 4>A and 4G42 4;>.84.4.> i. a Cla.. ) addre... ,igure 8B5= .ummari:e. /he range of 3o..ible 0alue. for /he fir./ oc/e/ of each addre.. cla...

IP S$%net A!!ress"n#
#P ne/wor1. can be di0ided in/o .maller ne/wor1. called .ubne/wor1. (or .ubne/.). Subne//ing 3ro0ide. /he ne/wor1 admini./ra/or wi/h .e0eral benefi/.2 including e7/ra fle7ibili/y2 more efficien/ u.e of ne/wor1 addre..e.2 and /he ca3abili/y /o con/ain broadca./ /raffic (a broadca./ will no/ cro.. a rou/er). Subne/. are under local admini./ra/ion. '. .uch2 /he ou/.ide world .ee. an organi:a/ion a. a .ingle ne/wor1 and ha. no de/ailed 1nowledge of /he organi:a/ion6. in/ernal ./ruc/ure. ' gi0en ne/wor1 addre.. can be bro1en u3 in/o many .ubne/wor1.. ,or e7am3le2 4;>.4<.4.B2 4;>.4<.>.B2 4;>.4<.8.B2 and 4;>.4<.?.B are all .ubne/. wi/hin ne/wor1 4;4.4<.B.B. ('ll B. in /he ho./ 3or/ion of an addre.. .3ecifie. /he en/ire ne/wor1.)

IP S$%net Mask
' .ubne/ addre.. i. crea/ed by MborrowingN bi/. from /he ho./ field and de.igna/ing /hem a. /he .ubne/ field. The number of borrowed bi/. 0arie. and i. .3ecified by /he .ubne/ ma.1. ,igure 8B5< .how. how bi/. are borrowed from /he ho./ addre.. field /o crea/e /he .ubne/ addre.. field.

Subne/ ma.1. u.e /he .ame forma/ and re3re.en/a/ion /echni@ue a. #P addre..e.. The .ubne/ ma.12 howe0er2 ha. binary 4. in all bi/. .3ecifying /he ne/wor1 and .ubne/wor1 field.2 and binary B. in all bi/. .3ecifying /he ho./ field. ,igure 8B5; illu./ra/e. a .am3le .ubne/ ma.1.

Subne/ ma.1 bi/. .hould come from /he high5order (lef/5mo./) bi/. of /he ho./ field2 a. ,igure 8B5A illu./ra/e.. &e/ail. of Cla.. ) and C .ubne/ ma.1 /y3e. follow.

*ariou. /y3e. of .ubne/ ma.1. e7i./ for Cla.. ) and C .ubne/.. The defaul/ .ubne/ ma.1 for a Cla.. ) addre.. /ha/ ha. no .ubne//ing i. >==.>==.B.B2 while /he .ubne/ ma.1 for a Cla.. ) addre.. 4;4.4<.B.B /ha/ .3ecifie. eigh/ bi/. of .ubne//ing i. >==.>==.>==.B. The rea.on for /hi. i. /ha/ eigh/ bi/. of .ubne//ing or >A K > (4 for /he ne/wor1 addre.. and 4 for /he broadca./ addre..) L >=? .ubne/. 3o..ible2 wi/h >A K > L >=? ho./. 3er .ubne/. The .ubne/ ma.1 for a Cla.. C addre.. 4G>.4<A.>.B /ha/ .3ecifie. fi0e bi/. of .ubne//ing i. >==.>==.>==.>?A. i/h fi0e bi/. a0ailable for .ubne//ing2 >= K > L 8B .ubne/. 3o..ible2 wi/h

>8 K > L < ho./. 3er .ubne/. The reference char/. .hown in /able 8BK> and /able 8BK8 can be u.ed when 3lanning Cla.. ) and C ne/wor1. /o de/ermine /he re@uired number of .ubne/. and ho./.2 and /he a33ro3ria/e .ubne/ ma.1.

The rou/er 3erform. a .e/ 3roce.. /o de/ermine /he ne/wor1 (or more .3ecifically2 /he .ubne/wor1) addre... ,ir./2 /he rou/er e7/rac/. /he #P de./ina/ion addre.. from /he incoming 3ac1e/ and re/rie0e. /he in/ernal .ubne/ ma.1. #/ /hen 3erform. a logical !" o3era/ion /o ob/ain /he ne/wor1 number. Thi. cau.e. /he ho./ 3or/ion of /he #P de./ina/ion addre.. /o be remo0ed2 while /he de./ina/ion ne/wor1 number remain.. The rou/er /hen loo1. u3 /he de./ina/ion ne/wor1 number and ma/che. i/ wi/h an ou/going in/erface. ,inally2 i/ forward. /he frame /o /he de./ina/ion #P addre... S3ecific. regarding /he logical 'N& o3era/ion are in /he following .ec/ion.

IP Ro$t"n#
#P rou/ing 3ro/ocol. are dynamic. &ynamic rou/ing call. for rou/e. /o be calcula/ed au/oma/ically a/ regular in/er0al. by .of/ware in rou/ing de0ice.. Thi. con/ra./. wi/h ./a/ic rou/ing2 where rou/er. are e./abli.hed by /he ne/wor1 admini./ra/or and do no/ change un/il /he ne/wor1 admini./ra/or change. /hem. 'n #P rou/ing /able2 which con.i./. of de./ina/ion addre..Hne7/ ho3 3air.2 i. u.ed /o enable dynamic rou/ing. 'n en/ry in /hi. /able2 for e7am3le2 would be in/er3re/ed a. follow.9 /o ge/ /o ne/wor1 4;>.84.B.B2 .end /he 3ac1e/ ou/ E/herne/ in/erface B (EB). #P rou/ing .3ecifie. /ha/ #P da/agram. /ra0el /hrough in/erne/wor1. one ho3 a/ a /ime. The en/ire rou/e i. no/ 1nown a/ /he on.e/ of /he journey2 howe0er. #n./ead2 a/ each ./o32 /he ne7/ de./ina/ion i. calcula/ed by ma/ching /he de./ina/ion addre.. wi/hin /he da/agram wi/h an en/ry in /he curren/ node6. rou/ing /able. Each node6. in0ol0emen/ in /he rou/ing 3roce.. i. limi/ed /o forwarding 3ac1e/. ba.ed on in/ernal informa/ion. The node. do no/ moni/or whe/her /he 3ac1e/. ge/ /o /heir final de./ina/ion2 nor doe. #P 3ro0ide for error re3or/ing bac1 /o /he .ource when rou/ing anomalie. occur. Thi. /a.1 i. lef/ /o ano/her #n/erne/ 3ro/ocol2 /he #n/erne/ Con/rol5%e..age Pro/ocol (#C%P)2 which i. in /he following .ec/ion.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)

The TCP 3ro0ide. reliable /ran.mi..ion of da/a in an #P en0ironmen/. TCP corre.3ond. /o /he /ran.3or/ layer (Layer ?) of /he OS# reference model. 'mong /he .er0ice. TCP 3ro0ide. are ./ream da/a /ran.fer2 reliabili/y2 efficien/ flow con/rol2 full5du3le7 o3era/ion2 and mul/i3le7ing. i/h ./ream da/a /ran.fer, TCP deli0er. an un./ruc/ured ./ream of by/e. iden/ified by .e@uence number.. Thi. .er0ice benefi/. a33lica/ion. becau.e /hey do no/ ha0e /o cho3 da/a in/o bloc1. before handing i/ off /o TCP. #n./ead2 TCP grou3. by/e. in/o .egmen/. and 3a..e. /hem /o #P for deli0ery. TCP offer. reliabili/y by 3ro0iding connec/ion5orien/ed2 end5/o5end reliable 3ac1e/ deli0ery /hrough an in/erne/wor1. #/ doe. /hi. by .e@uencing by/e. wi/h a forwarding ac1nowledgmen/ number /ha/ indica/e. /o /he de./ina/ion /he ne7/ by/e /he .ource e73ec/. /o recei0e. )y/e. no/ ac1nowledged wi/hin a .3ecified /ime 3eriod are re/ran.mi//ed. The reliabili/y mechani.m of TCP allow. de0ice. /o deal wi/h lo./2 delayed2 du3lica/e2 or 3ac1e/.. ' /ime5ou/ mechani.m allow. de0ice. /o de/ec/ lo./ 3ac1e/. and re@ue./ re/ran.mi..ion. TCP offer. efficien/ flow con/rol2 which mean. /ha/2 when .ending ac1nowledgmen/. bac1 /o /he .ource2 /he recei0ing TCP 3roce.. indica/e. /he highe./ .e@uence number i/ can recei0e wi/hou/ o0erflowing i/. in/ernal buffer.. ,ull5du3le7 o3era/ion mean. /ha/ TCP 3roce..e. can bo/h .end and recei0e a/ /he .ame /ime. ,inally2 TCP6. mul/i3le7ing mean. /ha/ numerou. .imul/aneou. u33er5layer con0er.a/ion. can be mul/i3le7ed o0er a .ingle connec/ion.

TCP Packet Format

,igure 8B54B illu./ra/e. /he field. and o0erall forma/ of a TCP 3ac1e/.

TCP Packet Field Descriptions

The following de.cri3/ion. .ummari:e /he TCP 3ac1e/ field. illu./ra/ed in ,igure 8B54B9 R So#rce Port and "estination PortI#den/ifie. 3oin/. a/ which u33er5layer .ource and de./ina/ion 3roce..e. recei0e TCP .er0ice.. R Se$#ence !#m%erI+.ually .3ecifie. /he number a..igned /o /he fir./ by/e of da/a in /he curren/ me..age. #n /he connec/ion5e./abli.hmen/ 3ha.e2 /hi. field al.o can be u.ed /o iden/ify an ini/ial .e@uence number /o be u.ed in an u3coming /ran.mi..ion. R c&no'ledgment !#m%erICon/ain. /he .e@uence number of /he ne7/ by/e of da/a /he .ender of /he 3ac1e/ e73ec/. /o recei0e. R "ata OffsetI#ndica/e. /he number of 8>5bi/ word. in /he TCP header. R (eservedI!emain. re.er0ed for fu/ure u.e. R FlagsICarrie. a 0arie/y of con/rol informa/ion2 including /he S-N and 'C" bi/. u.ed for connec/ion e./abli.hmen/2 and /he ,#N bi/ u.ed for connec/ion /ermina/ion. R )indo'IS3ecifie. /he .i:e of /he .ender6. recei0e window (/ha/ i.2 /he buffer .3ace a0ailable for incoming da/a). R *hec&s#mI#ndica/e. whe/her /he header wa. damaged in /ran.i/. R +rgent PointerIPoin/. /o /he fir./ urgen/ da/a by/e in /he 3ac1e/. R OptionsIS3ecifie. 0ariou. TCP o3/ion.. R "ataICon/ain. u33er5layer informa/ion.

Internet Protocols Application-Layer Protocols

The #n/erne/ 3ro/ocol .ui/e include. many a33lica/ion5layer 3ro/ocol. /ha/ re3re.en/ a wide 0arie/y of a33lica/ion.2 including /he following9 R File Transfer Protocol (FTP,I%o0e. file. be/ween de0ice. R Simple !et'or&--anagement Protocol (S!-P,IPrimarily re3or/. anomalou. ne/wor1 condi/ion. and .e/. ne/wor1 /hre.hold 0alue. R TelnetISer0e. a. a /erminal emula/ion 3ro/ocol R . )indo'sISer0e. a. a di./ribu/ed windowing and gra3hic. .y./em u.ed for communica/ion be/ween J /erminal. and +N#J wor1./a/ion. R !et'or& File System (!FS,/ 01ternal "ata (epresentation (."(,/ and (emote Proced#re *all ((P*,I or1 /oge/her /o enable /ran.3aren/ acce.. /o remo/e ne/wor1 re.ource. R Simple -ail Transfer Protocol (S-TP,IPro0ide. elec/ronic mail .er0ice. R "omain !ame System ("!S, /he name. of ne/wor1 node. in/o ne/wor1 addre..e.

Subnet Mask
' .ubne/ ma.1 allow. you /o iden/ify which 3ar/ of an #P addre.. i. re.er0ed for /he ne/wor12 and which 3ar/ i. a0ailable for ho./ u.e. #f you loo1 a/ /he #P addre.. alone2 e.3ecially now wi/h cla..le.. in/er5 domain rou/ing2 you canS/ /ell which 3ar/ of /he addre.. i. which. 'dding /he .ubne/ ma.12 or ne/ma.12 gi0e. you all /he informa/ion you need /o calcula/e ne/wor1 and ho./ 3or/ion. of /he addre.. wi/h ea.e. #n .ummary2 1nowing /he .ubne/ ma.1 can allow you /o ea.ily calcula/e whe/her #P addre..e. are on /he .ame .ubne/2 or no/. &e/ermining ne/wor1 and ho./ 3or/ion. of an #P addre.. a .ubne/ ma.1.To de/ermine wha/ /he ne/wor1 addre.. i. for any gi0en #P addre..2 you merely ha0e /o con0er/ bo/h oc/al addre..e. in/o binary2 and do a bi/wi.e 'N& o3era/ion. 'n e7am3le an #P addre.. of 4=<.4=?.A4.=< u.ed wi/h a ne/wor1 ma.1 of >==.>==.>==.>?B follow.9 #P 'ddre..9 4BB444BB.4BB44B4B.B4B4BBB4.BB444BBB Subne/ ma.19 44444444.44444444.44444444.4444BBBB )i/wi.e 'N& 55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555 !e.ul/9 4BB444BB.4BB44B4B.B4B4BBB4.BB44BBBB '. you can .ee2 /he ne/wor1 addre.. for /he #P addre.. and .ubne/ ma.1 in @ue./ion i. 4=<.4=?.A4.?A. To de/ermine /he how many ho./. are 3o..ible /o be on /hi. .ame .ubne/2 i/ i. a .im3le o3era/ion. Coun/ /he

number of bi/. from /he righ/ un/il you ge/ /o /he fir./ T4T in /he binary ne/wor1 addre.. di.3lay. Tha/ number will be /he 3ower you rai.e > /o for /he calcula/ion of 3o..ible number of ho./.. -ou mu./ al.o .ub/rac/ /wo from /he re.ul/ becau.e one addre.. i. re.er0ed for broadca./ and ne/wor1 addre..e.. Thi. lea0e. you wi/h /he final algori/hm of >Un5>. #n /hi. ca.e /here are ? bi/. of B in /he ne/wor1 addre..2 lea0ing you wi/h >U?5> ho./. 3o..ible2 or 4? ho./.. Thi. mean. /ha/ your ne/wor1 addre.. i. 4=<.=?.A4.?A2 /ha/ you ha0e a range of addre..e. a0ailable /o ho./. from 4=<.4=?.A4.?G 5 4=<.4=?.A4.<>2 and /ha/ /he broadca./ addre.. for /hi. ne/wor1 i. 4=<.4=?.A4.<8.

Data&L"nk S'"tc("n#
Data-link switc#ing (DL%w) 3ro0ide. a mean. of /ran.3or/ing #)% Sy./em. Ne/wor1 'rchi/ec/ure (SN') and ne/wor1 ba.ic in3u/Hou/3u/ .y./em (Ne/)#OS) /raffic o0er an #P ne/wor1. #/ .er0e. a. an al/erna/i0e /o source-route ridging (%R!)2 a 3ro/ocol for /ran.3or/ing SN' and Ne/)#OS /raffic in To1en !ing en0ironmen/. /ha/ wa. widely de3loyed before /he in/roduc/ion of &LSw. #n general2 &LSw addre..e. .ome of /he .hor/coming. of S!) for cer/ain communica/ion re@uiremen/.I3ar/icularly in 'N im3lemen/a/ion.. 3 #P mul/ica./ 3 +&P unica./ re.3on.e. /o &LSw broadca./. 3 Enhanced 3eer5on5demand rou/ing 3 E73edi/ed TCP connec/ion. Each of /he.e fea/ure. enable. &LSw a. a .calable /echnology o0er 'N.. #n &LSw *er.ion 42 / occur wi/h TCP. '. a re.ul/2 many o3era/ion. in a &LSw en0ironmen/ con.umed circui/. be/ween 3eer.. ,or e7am3le2 a mul/ica./ re@uired mul/i3le TCP connec/ion. from /he .ource /o each 3eer. i/h &LSw *er.ion >2 mul/ica./ i. di./ribu/ed unreliable /ran.3or/ following /radi/ional mul/ica./ me/hod..

$LSw Switch-to-Switch "rotocol

%witc#-to-%witc# &rotocol (%%&) i. a 3ro/ocol u.ed be/ween &LSw node. (rou/er.) /o e./abli.h connec/ion.2 loca/e re.ource.2 forward da/a2 and handle flow con/rol and error reco0ery. Thi. i. /ruly /he e..ence of &LSw. #n general2 SSP doe. no/ 3ro0ide for full rou/ing be/ween node. becau.e /hi. i. generally handled by common rou/ing 3ro/ocol. .uch a. !#P2 OSP,2 or #$!PHE#$!P. #n./ead2 SSP .wi/che. 3ac1e/. a/ /he SN' da/a lin1 layer. #/ al.o enca3.ula/e. 3ac1e/. in TCPH#P for /ran.3or/ o0er #P5ba.ed ne/wor1. and u.e. TCP a. a mean. of reliable /ran.3or/ be/ween &LSw node.. ,igure >G5= illu./ra/e. where SSP fall. in /he o0erall SN' archi/ec/ure2 and .how. i/. rela/ion.hi3 /o /he OS# reference model.

$LSw Operation
&LSw in0ol0e. .e0eral o3era/ional ./age.. Two &LSw 3ar/ner. e./abli.h /wo TCP connec/ion. wi/h each o/her. TCP connec/ion. 3ro0ide /he founda/ion for /he &LSw communica/ion. )ecau.e TCP 3ro0ide. for reliable and guaran/eed deli0ery of #P /raffic2 i/ en.ure. /he deli0ery and in/egri/y of /he /raffic /ha/ i. being enca3.ula/ed in /he #P 3ro/ocol2 which2 in /hi. ca.e2 i. SN' and Ne/)#OS /raffic. 'f/er a connec/ion i. e./abli.hed2 /he &LSw 3ar/ner. e7change a li./ of .u33or/ed ca3abili/ie.. Thi. i. 3ar/icularly 0i/al when /he &LSw 3ar/ner. are manufac/ured by differen/ 0endor.. Ne7/2 /he &LSw 3ar/ner. e./abli.h circui/. be/ween SN' or Ne/)#OS end .y./em.2 and informa/ion frame. can flow o0er /he circui/.

$LSw Capa6ilities 2;chan0e

&LSw ca3abili/ie. e7change i. ba.ed on a .wi/ch5/o5.wi/ch con/rol me..age /ha/ de.cribe. /he ca3abili/ie. of /he .ending da/a5lin1 .wi/ch. ' ca3abili/ie. e7change con/rol me..age i. .en/ af/er /he .wi/ch5/o5.wi/ch connec/ion i. e./abli.hed or during run /ime2 if cer/ain o3era/ional 3arame/er. /ha/ mu./ be communica/ed /o /he 3ar/ner .wi/ch ha0e changed. &uring /he ca3abili/ie. e7change2 a number of ca3abili/ie. are iden/ified and nego/ia/ed. Ca3abili/ie. e7changed be/ween &LSw 3ar/ner. include /he following9 3 &LSw 0er.ion number 3 #ni/ial 3acing window .i:e (recei0e window .i:e) 3 Ne/)#OS .u33or/ 3 Li./ of .u33or/ed lin1 S'P. (LS'P.) 3 Number of TCP .e..ion. .u33or/ed 3 %'C addre.. li./. 3 Ne/)#OS name li./. 3 Search frame. .u33or/

$LSw Circuit 2sta6lishment

The 3roce.. of circui/ e./abli.hmen/ be/ween a 3air of end .y./em. in &LSw in0ol0e. loca/ing /he /arge/ end .y./em and .e//ing u3 da/a5lin1 con/rol (&LC) connec/ion. be/ween each end .y./em and i/. local rou/er. The .3ecific. of circui/ e./abli.hmen/ differ ba.ed on /raffic /y3e. One of /he 3rimary func/ion. of &LSw i. /o 3ro0ide a /ran.3or/ mechani.m for SN' /raffic. SN' circui/ e./abli.hmen/ in0ol0e. .e0eral di./inc/ ./age. and i. illu./ra/ed in ,igure >G5<. ,ir./2 SN' de0ice. on a L'N find o/her SN' de0ice. by .ending an e73lorer frame wi/h /he %'C addre.. of /he /arge/ SN' de0ice. hen a &LSw in/erne/wor1ing node recei0e. an e73lorer frame2 /ha/ node .end. a canureac# *rame /o each of i/. &LSw 3ar/ner.. The func/ion of /hi. frame i. /o @uery eachof /he &LSw 3ar/ner. /o .ee whe/her i/ can loca/e /he de0ice in @ue./ion. #f one of /he &LSw 3ar/ner.can reach /he .3ecified %'C addre..2 /he 3ar/ner re3lie. wi/h an icanreac# *rame2 which indica/e. /ha/ a .3ecific &LSw 3ar/ner can 3ro0ide a communica/ion. 3a/h /o /he de0ice. 'f/er /he canureach and icanreach frame. ha0e been e7changed2 /he /wo &LSw 3ar/ner. e./abli.h a circui/ /ha/ con.i./. of a &LC connec/ion be/ween each rou/er and /he locally a//ached SN' end .y./em(for a /o/al of /wo connec/ion.) and a TCP connec/ion be/ween /he &LSw 3ar/ner.. The re.ul/ing circui/ i. uni@uely iden/ified by /he .ource and de./ina/ion circui/ #&.. Each SN' &LSw circui/ #& include. a %'C addre..2 a lin15.er0ice acce.. 3oin/ (LS'P)2 and /he &LC 3or/ #&. Circui/ 3riori/y i. nego/ia/ed a/ circui/ .e/u3 /ime.


Ne/)#OS circui/ e./abli.hmen/ 3arallel. SN' circui/ e./abli.hmen/2 wi/h a few difference.. ,ir./2 wi/h

Ne/)#OS circui/ e./abli.hmen/2 &LSw node. .end a name @uery wi/h a Ne/)#OS name (no/ a canureach frame .3ecifying a %'C addre..). Similarly2 /he &LSw node. e./abli.hing a Ne/)#OS circui/ .end a name recogni:ed frame (no/ an icanreach frame).

$LSw *low Control

&LSw flow con/rol in0ol0e. adaptive pacing be/ween &LSw rou/er.. &uring /he flow5con/rol nego/ia/ion2 /wo inde3enden/2 unidirec/ional flow5con/rol mechani.m. are e./abli.hed be/ween &LSw 3ar/ner.. 'da3/i0e 3acing em3loy. a windowing mechani.m /ha/ dynamically ada3/. /o buffer a0ailabili/y. indow. can be incremen/ed2 decremen/ed2 hal0ed2 or re.e/ /o :ero. Thi. allow. /he &LSw node. /o con/rol /he 3ace of /raffic forwarded /hrough /he ne/wor1 /o en.ure in/egri/y and deli0ery of all da/a.
$LSw *low-Control Indicators

+ranted units (/he number of uni/. /ha/ /he .ender ha. 3ermi..ion /o .end) are incremen/ed wi/h a flow5con/rol indica/ion (one of .e0eral 3o..ible indica/or.) from /he recei0er. &LSw flow con/rol 3ro0ide. for /he following indica/or func/ion.9 3 Repeat)Increments granted units by the current window size. 3 Increment)Increases the window size by ! and increases granted units by the new window size. 3 Decrement)*ecrements window size by ! and increments granted units by the new window size. 3 Reset)*ecreases window size to + and sets granted units to +, which stops all transmission in one direction until an increment flow'control indicator is sent. 3 Half),uts the current window size in half and increments granted units by the new window size. 3 Flow),ontrol indicators and flow'control acknowledgments can be piggybacked on information frames or sent as independent flow'control messages. -eset indicators are always sent as independent messages.
)dapti!e-"acin0 2;amples

E7am3le. of ada3/i0e53acing cri/eria include buffer a0ailabili/y2 /ran.3or/ u/ili:a/ion2 ou/bound @ueue leng/h2 and /raffic 3riori/y. E7am3le. of how each can be u.ed /o influence 3acing follow9 3 Buffer availability)If memory buffers in a *.Sw node are critically low, the node can decrement the window size to reduce the flow of traffic. %s buffer availability increases, the node then can increase the window size to increase traffic flow between the *.Sw partners. 3 Transport utilization)If the link between two *.Sw partners reaches a high level of utilization, the window size can be reduced to lower the level of link utilization and to prevent packet loss

between the nodes. 3 utboun! "ueue len#t$)Traffic forwarded by a *.Sw node typically is placed into an outbound /ueue, which is a portion of memory dedicated to traffic being forwarded by one device to another. If this /ueue reaches a specified threshold or perhaps becomes full, the number of granted units can be reduced until the /ueue utilization is reduced to a satisfactory level. 3 Traffic priority)One of the uni/ue capabilities of the SS0 is its capability to prioritize specific traffic. These priorities are identified by the ,ircuit 0riority field in the *.Sw message frame. 1y providing a varying number of granted units to specific *.Sw circuits, the nodes can maintain different levels of priority to each circuit.

simple pin-out diagrams of the two types of UTP Ethernet cables and watch how committees can make a can of worms out of them. ere are the diagrams!

the T" #transmitter$ pins are connected to corresponding %" #recei&er$ pins' plus to plus and minus to minus. (nd that you must use a crosso&er cable to connect units with identical interfaces. )f you use a straight-through cable' one of the two units must' in effect' perform the cross-o&er function. Two wire color-code standards apply! E)(*T)( +,-( and E)(*T)( +,-.. The codes are commonly depicted with %/-0+ 1acks as follows #the &iew is from the front of the 1acks$!

)f we apply the +,-( color code and show all eight wires' our pin-out looks like this!

pins 0' +' 2' and - and the blue and brown pairs are not used in either standard. 3uite contrary to what you may read elsewhere' these pins and wires are not used or re4uired to implement 566.(7E-T" duple8ing--they are 1ust plain wasted. the actual cables are not physically that simple. )n the diagrams' the orange pair of wires are not ad1acent. The blue pair is upside-down. The right ends match %/-0+ 1acks and the left ends do not. )f' for e8ample' we in&ert the left side of the +,-( 9straight9-thru cable to match a +,-( 1ack--put one 5-6: twist in the entire cable from end-to-end--and twist together and rearrange the appropriate pairs' we get the following can-of-worms! This further emphasi;es' ) hope' the importance of the word 9twist9 in making network cables which will work. <ou cannot use an flat-untwisted telephone cable for a network cable. Furthermore' you must use a pair of twisted wires to connect a set of transmitter pins to their corresponding recei&er pins. <ou cannot use a wire from one pair and another wire from a different pair. =eeping the abo&e principles in mind' we can simplify the diagram for a +,-( straight-thru cable by untwisting the wires' e8cept the 5-6: twist in the entire cable' and bending the ends upward. >ikewise' if we e8change the green and orange pairs in the +,-( diagram we will get a simplified diagram for a +,-. straight-thru cable. )f we cross the green and orange pairs in the +,-( diagram we will arri&e at a simplified diagram for a crosso&er cable. (ll three are shown below.

%t$ernet &'BaseT or &''BaseT (rossover (able

(ere are in./ruc/ion. for building an E/herne/ 4B)a.eT or 4BB)a.eT cro..o0er cable.

The 3inou/. for an E/herne/ cro..o0er cable are a. follow.9 (onnector & (onnector * )inout )inout 4 > 8 ? = < ; 8 < 4 OPEN OPEN > OPEN

A OPEN So 3in 4 5Q 3in 82 3in > 5Q 3in <2 3in 8 5Q 3in 42 and 3in < 5Q 3in >. 'll of /he o/her 3in. are lef/ o3en. The.e in./ruc/ion. can al.o be u.ed /o 3urcha.e an E/herne/ cro..o0er cable /o ne/wor1 your com3u/er and 3rin/er /oge/her. &onS/ ju./ buy any !F5?= cableD /he in/ernal 3inou/ for a cro..o0er cable i. differen/ from /he 3inou/ of an !F5?= cable normally u.ed in E/herne/. %a1e .ure /he 3ac1aging i. clearly labeled Tcro..o0er cableT2 or ha0e .omeone crea/e /he cable for you.

$CC ha. a grea/ deal on cro..o0er cable..


' *L'N i. defined a. a %roadcast domain wi/hin a .wi/ched ne/wor1. )roadca./ domain. de.cribe /he e7/en/ /ha/ a ne/wor1 3ro3aga/e. a broadca./ frame genera/ed by a ./a/ion. Some .wi/che. may be configured /o .u33or/ a .ingle or mul/i3le *L'N.. hene0er a .wi/ch .u33or/. mul/i3le *L'N.2broadca./. wi/hin one *L'N ne0er a33ear in ano/her *L'N. Swi/ch 3or/. configured a. a

member of one *L'N belong /o a differen/ broadca./ domain2 a. com3ared /o .wi/ch 3or/. configured a. member. of a differen/ *L'N. Crea/ing *L'N. enable. admini./ra/or. /o build broadca./ domain. wi/h fewer in each broadca./ domain. Thi. increa.e. /he bandwid/h a0ailable /o becau.e fewer will con/end for /he bandwid/h. !ou/er. al.o main/ain broadca./ domain i.ola/ion by bloc1ing broadca./ frame.. Therefore2 /raffic can 3a.. from one *L'N /o ano/her only /hrough a rou/er. Normally2 each .ubne/ belong. /o a differen/ *L'N. Therefore2 a ne/wor1 wi/h many .ubne/. will 3robably ha0e many *L'N.. Swi/che. and *L'N. enable a ne/wor1 admini./ra/or /o a..ign /o .ome of /he de0ice. a//ach /o /heir .wi/ch acce.. lin1.2 while /he connec/ion. be/ween /he .wi/che. u/ili:e /run1 lin1.. To mul/i3le7 *L'N /raffic2 .3ecial 3ro/ocol. e7i./ /ha/ enca3.ula/e or /ag (mar1) /he frame. .o /ha/ /he recei0ing de0ice 1now. /o which *L'N /he frame belong.. Trun1 3ro/ocol. are ei/her 3ro3rie/ary or ba.ed u3on #EEE AB>.4E. ,or e7am3le2 a 3ro3rie/ary /run1 3ro/ocol may be li1e Ci.co6. 3ro3rie/ary #n/er5Swi/ch Lin1 (#SL)2 which enable. de0ice. /o mul/i3le7 *L'N. in a manner o3/imi:ed for com3onen/.. Or2 an in/er0endor .olu/ion may be im3lemen/ed2 .uch a. AB>.4E2 which enable. 3roduc/. from more /han one 0endor /o mul/i3le7 *L'N. on a /run1 lin1. i/hou/ /run1 lin1.2 mul/i3le acce.. lin1. mu./ be in./alled /o .u33or/ mul/i3le *L'N. be/ween .wi/che.. Thi. i. no/ co./5effec/i0e and doe. no/ .cale well2 .o /run1. are 3referable for in/erconnec/ing .wi/che. in mo./ ca.e..

LAN Switching Forwarding

L'N .wi/che. can be charac/eri:ed by /he forwarding me/hod /ha/ /hey .u33or/. #n /he ./ore5and5forward .wi/ching me/hod2 error chec1ing i. 3erformed and erroneou. frame. are di.carded. i/h /he cu/5/hrough .wi/ching me/hod2 la/ency i. reduced by elimina/ing error chec1ing. i/h /he ./ore5and5forward .wi/ching me/hod2 /he L'N .wi/ch co3ie. /he en/ire frame in/o i/. onboard buffer. and com3u/e. /he cyclic redundancy chec1 (C!C). The frame i. di.carded if i/ con/ain. a C!C error or if i/ i. a r#nt (le.. /han <? by/e.2 including /he C!C) or a giant (more /han 4=4A by/e.2 including /he C!C). #f /he frame doe. no/ con/ain any error.2 /he L'N .wi/ch loo1. u3 /he de./ina/ion addre.. in i/. forwarding2 or .wi/ching2 /able and de/ermine. /he ou/going in/erface. #/ /hen forward. /he frame /oward i/. de./ina/ion.

i/h /he cu/5/hrough .wi/ching me/hod2 /he L'N .wi/ch co3ie. only /he de./ina/ion addre.. (/he fir./ < by/e. following /he 3reamble) in/o i/. onboard buffer.. #/ /hen loo1. u3 /he de./ina/ion addre.. in i/. .wi/ching /able2 de/ermine. /he ou/going in/erface2 and forward. /he frame /oward i/. de./ina/ion. ' cu/5 /hrough .wi/ch 3ro0ide. reduced la/ency becau.e i/ begin. /o forward /he frame a. .oon a. i/ read. /he de./ina/ion addre.. and de/ermine. /he ou/going in/erface. Some .wi/che. can be configured /o 3erform cu/5/hrough .wi/ching on a 3er53or/ ba.i. un/il a u.er5defined error /hre.hold i. reached2 when /hey au/oma/ically change /o ./ore5and5forward mode. hen /he error ra/e fall. below /he /hre.hold2 /he 3or/ au/oma/ically change. bac1 /o ./ore5and5forward mode. L'N .wi/che. mu./ u.e ./ore5and5forward /echni@ue. /o .u33or/ mul/ilayer .wi/ching. The .wi/ch mu./ recei0e /he en/ire frame before i/ 3erform. any 3ro/ocol5layer o3era/ion.. ,or /hi. rea.on2 ad0anced .wi/che. /ha/ 3erform Layer 8 .wi/ching are ./ore5and5forward de0ice..

LAN Switching Bandwidth

L'N .wi/che. al.o can be charac/eri:ed according /o /he 3ro3or/ion of bandwid/h alloca/ed /o each 3or/. Symme/ric .wi/ching 3ro0ide. e0enly di./ribu/ed bandwid/h /o each 3or/2 while a.ymme/ric .wi/ching 3ro0ide. unli1e2 or une@ual2 bandwid/h be/ween .ome 3or/.. 'n asymmetric L ! s'itch 3ro0ide. .wi/ched connec/ion. be/ween 3or/. of unli1e bandwid/h.2 .uch a. a combina/ion of 4B)a.eT and 4BB)a.eT. Thi. /y3e of .wi/ching i. al.o called 234233 s'itching. '.ymme/ric .wi/ching i. o3/imi:ed for clien/H.er0er /raffic flow. in which mul/i3le clien/. .imul/ communica/e wi/h a .er0er2 re@uiring more bandwid/h dedica/ed /o /he .er0er 3or/ /o 3re0en/ a bo//lenec1 a/ /ha/ 3or/. ' symmetric s'itch 3ro0ide. .wi/ched connec/ion. be/ween 3or/. wi/h /he .ame bandwid/h2 .uch a. all 4B)a.eT or all 4BB)a.eT. Symme/ric .wi/ching i. o3/imi:ed for a rea.onably di./ribu/ed /raffic load2 .uch a. in a 3eer5/o53eer de.1/o3 en0ironmen/. ' ne/wor1 manager mu./ e0alua/e /he needed amoun/ of bandwid/h for connec/ion. be/ween de0ice. /o accommoda/e /he da/a flow of ne/wor15ba.ed a33lica/ion. when deciding /o .elec/ an a.ymme/ric or .ymme/ric .wi/ch

Fra e Rela+
Frame (elay i. a high53erformance 'N 3ro/ocol /ha/ o3era/e. a/ /he 3hy.ical and da/a lin1 layer. of /he OS# reference model. ,rame !elay originally wa. de.igned for u.e acro.. #n/egra/ed Ser0ice. &igi/al Ne/wor1 (#S&N) in/erface.. Today2 i/ i. u.ed o0er a 0arie/y of o/her ne/wor1 in/erface. a. well. Thi. cha3/er focu.e. on ,rame !elayS. .3ecifica/ion. and a33lica/ion. in /he con/e7/ of 'N .er0ice.. ,rame !elay i. an e7am3le of a 3ac1e/5.wi/ched /echnology. Pac1e/5.wi/ched ne/wor1. enable end ./a/ion. /o dynamically .hare /he ne/wor1 medium and /he a0ailable bandwid/h. The following /wo /echni@ue. are u.ed in 3ac1e/5.wi/ching /echnology9 R *ariable5leng/h 3ac1e/. R S/a/i./ical mul/i3le7ing *ariable5leng/h 3ac1e/. are u.ed for more efficien/ and fle7ible da/a /ran.fer.. The.e 3ac1e/. are .wi/ched be/ween /he 0ariou. .egmen/. in /he ne/wor1 un/il /he de./ina/ion i. reached. S/a/i./ical mul/i3le7ing /echni@ue. con/rol ne/wor1 acce.. in a 3ac1e/5.wi/ched ne/wor1. The ad0an/age of /hi. /echni@ue i. /ha/ i/ accommoda/e. more fle7ibili/y and more efficien/ u.e of bandwid/h. %o./ of /odayS. 3o3ular L'N.2 .uch a. E/herne/ and To1en !ing2 are 3ac1e/5.wi/ched ne/wor1..

Fra e Rela+ De,"ces &e0ice. a//ached /o a ,rame !elay 'N fall in/o /he following /wo general ca/egorie.9 R &a/a /erminal e@ui3men/ (&TE) R &a/a circui/5/ermina/ing e@ui3men/ (&CE)
DTEs generally are considered to be terminating e4uipment for a specific network and typically are located on the premises of a customer. )n fact' they may be owned by the customer. E8amples of DTE de&ices are terminals' personal computers' routers' and bridges. DCEs are carrier-owned internetworking de&ices. The purpose of DCE e4uipment is to pro&ide clocking and switching ser&ices in a network' which are the de&ices that actually transmit data through the ?(@. )n most cases' these are packet switches. Figure 56-5 shows the relationship between the two categories of de&ices.

The connection between a DTE de&ice and a DCE de&ice consists of both a physical layer component and a link layer component. The physical component defines the mechanical' electrical' functional' and procedural specifications for the connection between the de&ices. Ane of the most commonly used physical layer interface specifications is the recommended standard #%7$-BCB specification. The link layer component defines the protocol that establishes the connection between the DTE de&ice' such as a router' and the DCE de&ice' such as a switch. This chapter e8amines a commonly utili;ed protocol specification used in ?(@ networking! the Frame %elay protocol.


e Rela+ )"rt$al C"rc$"ts

Frame %elay pro&ides connection-oriented data link layer communication. This means that a defined communication e8ists between each pair of de&ices and that these connections are associated with a connection identifier. This ser&ice is implemented by using a Frame %elay &irtual circuit' which is a logical connection created between two data terminal e4uipment #DTE$ de&ices across a Frame %elay packet-switched network #P7@$. Dirtual circuits pro&ide a bidirectional communication path from one DTE de&ice to another and are uni4uely identified by a data-link connection identifier #D>C)$. ( number of &irtual circuits can be multiple8ed into a single physical circuit for transmission across the network. This capability often can reduce the e4uipment and network comple8ity re4uired to connect multiple DTE de&ices. ( &irtual circuit can pass through any number of intermediate DCE de&ices #switches$ located within the Frame %elay P7@. Frame %elay &irtual circuits fall into two categories! switched &irtual circuits #7DCs$ and permanent &irtual circuits #PDCs$.

S'"tc(e! )"rt$al C"rc$"ts

Switched virtual circuits (SVCs) are temporary connections used in situations re4uiring only sporadic data transfer between DTE de&ices across the Frame %elay network. ( communication session across an 7DC consists of the following four operational states! E E Call set pFThe &irtual circuit between two Frame %elay DTE de&ices is established. !ata trans"erFData is transmitted between the DTE de&ices o&er the &irtual circuit.

E IdleFThe connection between DTE de&ices is still acti&e' but no data is transferred. )f an 7DC remains in an idle state for a defined period of time' the call can be terminated. E Call terminationFThe &irtual circuit between DTE de&ices is terminated.

(fter the &irtual circuit is terminated' the DTE de&ices must establish a new 7DC if there is additional data to be e8changed. )t is e8pected that 7DCs will be established' maintained' and terminated using the same signaling protocols used in )7D@. Few manufacturers of Frame %elay DCE e4uipment support switched &irtual circuit connections. Therefore' their actual deployment is minimal in todayGs Frame %elay networks. Pre&iously not widely supported by Frame %elay e4uipment' 7DCs are now the norm. Companies ha&e found that 7DCs sa&e money in the end because the circuit is not open all the time.

Per anent )"rt$al C"rc$"ts

Permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) are permanently established connections that are used for fre4uent and consistent data transfers between DTE de&ices across the Frame %elay network. Communication across a PDC does not re4uire the call setup and termination states that are used with 7DCs. PDCs always operate in one of the following two operational states! E !ata trans"erFData is transmitted between the DTE de&ices o&er the &irtual circuit.

R I!leIThe connec/ion be/ween &TE de0ice. i. ac/i0e2 bu/ no da/a i. /ran.ferred. +nli1e S*C.2 P*C. will no/ be /ermina/ed under any circum./ance. when in an idle ./a/e. &TE de0ice. can begin /ran.ferring da/a whene0er /hey are ready becau.e /he circui/ i. 3ermanen/ly e./abli.hed. Fra e Rela+ Net'ork I -le entat"on

' common 3ri0a/e ,rame !elay ne/wor1 im3lemen/a/ion i. /o e@ui3 a T4 mul/i3le7er wi/h bo/h ,rame !elay and non5,rame !elay in/erface.. ,rame !elay /raffic i. forwarded ou/ /he ,rame !elay in/erface and on/o /he da/a ne/wor1. Non5,rame !elay /raffic i. forwarded /o /he a33ro3ria/e a33lica/ion or .er0ice2 .uch a. a 3ri0a/e branch e7change (P)J) for /ele3hone .er0ice or /o a 0ideo5/eleconferencing a33lica/ion.
( typical Frame %elay network consists of a number of DTE de&ices' such as routers' connected to remote ports on multiple8er e4uipment &ia traditional point-to-point ser&ices such as T5' fractional T5' or +,-=b circuits. (n e8ample of a simple Frame %elay network is shown in Figure 56-C. Figure 56-C ( 7imple Frame %elay @etwork Connects Darious De&ices to Different 7er&ices o&er a ?(@

The ma1ority of Frame %elay networks deployed today are pro&isioned by ser&ice pro&iders that intend to offer transmission ser&ices to customers. This is often referred to as a public Frame %elay ser&ice. Frame %elay is implemented in both public carrier-pro&ided networks and in pri&ate enterprise networks. The following section e8amines the two methodologies for deploying Frame %elay.