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5G (5th generation mobile networks or 5th generation wireless systems) is a term used in some research papers and projects

to denote the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G/IMT-Advanced standards. 5G is also referred to as beyond 2020 mobile communications technologies. 5G does not describe any particular specification in any official document published by any telecommunication standardization body. Although updated standards that define capabilities beyond those defined in the current 4G standards are under consideration, those new capabilities are still being grouped under the current 4G standards. Contents [hide]

1 Background 2 Debate 3 Research 4 History 5 See also 6 References Background[edit source | editbeta] A new mobile generation has appeared approximately every 10th year since the first 1G system, Nordic Mobile Telephone, was introduced in 1981. The first 2G system started to roll out in 1992, the first 3G system first appeared in 2001 and 4G systems fully compliant with IMT Advanced were standardized in 2012. The development of the 2G (GSM) and 3G (IMT-2000 and UMTS) standards took about 10 years from the official start of the R&D projects, and development of 4G systems started in 2001 or 2002.[1][2] Predecessor technologies have occurred on the market a few years before the new mobile generation, for example the pre-3G system CdmaOne/IS95 in the U.S. in 1995, and the pre-4G systems Mobile WiMAX in South-Korea 2006, and first release-LTE in Scandinavia 2009. Mobile generations typically refer to nonbackwards-compatible cellular standards following requirements stated by ITU-R, such as IMT-2000 for 3G and IMT-Advanced for 4G. In parallel with the development of the ITU-R mobile generations, IEEE and other standardization bodies also develop wireless communication technologies, often for higher data rates and higher frequencies but shorter transmission ranges. Debate[edit source | editbeta]

Based on the above observations, some sources suggest that a new generation of 5G standards may be introduced approximately in the early 2020s.[3][4] However, still no transnational 5G development projects have officially been launched, and there is still a large extent of debate on what 5G is exactly about. Prior to 2012, some industry representatives have expressed skepticism towards 5G but the trends clearly changed since 2012.[5] New mobile generations are typically assigned new frequency bands and wider spectral bandwidth per frequency channel (1G up to 30 kHz, 2G up to 200 kHz, 3G up to 20 MHz, and 4G up to 100 MHz), but skeptics argue that there is little room for larger channel bandwidths and new frequency bands suitable for land-mobile radio.[5] From users' point of view, previous mobile generations have implied substantial increase in peak bitrate (i.e. physical layer net bitrates for short-distance communication). If 5G appears, and reflects these prognoses, the major difference from a user point of view between 4G and 5G techniques must be something else than increased maximum throughput; for example higher system spectral efficiency (data volume per area unit), lower battery consumption, lower outage probability (better coverage), high bit rates in larger portions of the coverage area, lower latencies, higher number of supported devices, lower infrastructure deployment costs, higher versatility and scalability or higher reliability of communications. Those are the objectives in several of the research papers below. In Europe, Neelie Kroes, the European Commissioner, committed in 2013 50 million euros for research to deliver 5G mobile technology by 2020[6]. In particular, the METIS project aims at reaching world-wide consensus on the future global mobile and wireless communications system. The METIS overall technical goal is to provide a system concept that supports 1000 times higher mobile system spectral efficiency as compared with current LTE deployments.[4] In addition, in 2013 another project has started, called 5GrEEn,[7] linked to project METIS and focusing on the design of Green 5G Mobile networks. Here the goal is to develop guidelines for the definition of new generation network with particular care of energy efficiency, sustainability and affordability aspects. Research[edit source | editbeta] Key concepts suggested in scientific papers discussing 5G and beyond 4G wireless communications are:

New data coding and modulation techniques, including filter bank multicarrier or non-orthogonal multiple access schemes.[citation needed] Modified physical layer numerology, for instance to enable strongly reduced end-to-end latency.

Massive Dense Networks also known as Massive Distributed MIMO providing green flexible small cells 5G Green Dense Small Cells. A transmission point equipped with a very large number of antennas that simultaneously serve multiple users. With massive MIMO multiple messages for several terminals can be transmitted on the same timefrequency resource, maximizing beamforming gain while minimizing interference.[8][9] Advanced interference and mobility management, achieved with the cooperation of different transmission points with overlapped coverage, and encompassing the option of a flexible usage of resources for uplink and downlink transmission in each cell, the option of direct device-todevice transmission and advanced interference cancellation techniques.[10][11][12] Efficient support of machine-type devices to enable the Internet of Things with potentially higher numbers of connected devices, as well as novel applications such as mission critical control or traffic safety, requiring reduced latency and enhanced reliability.[citation needed] The usage of millimetre wave frequencies (e.g. up to 90 GHz) for wireless backhaul and/or access (IEEE rather than ITU generations)[citation needed] Pervasive networks providing ubiquitous computing: The user can simultaneously be connected to several wireless access technologies and seamlessly move between them (See Media independent handover or vertical handover, IEEE 802.21, also expected to be provided by future 4G releases. See also multihoming.). These access technologies can be 2.5G, 3G, 4G, or 5G mobile networks, Wi-Fi, WPAN, or any other future access technology. In 5G, the concept may be further developed into multiple concurrent data transfer paths.[13] Multi-hop networks: A major issue in beyond 4G systems is to make the high bit rates available in a larger portion of the cell, especially to users in an exposed position in between several base stations. In current research, this issue is addressed by cellular repeaters and macro-diversity techniques, also known as group cooperative relay, where also users could be potential cooperative nodes thanks to the use of direct device-to-device (D2D) communications.[14] Cognitive radio technology, also known as smart-radio: allowing different radio technologies to share the same spectrum efficiently by adaptively finding unused spectrum and adapting the transmission scheme to the requirements of the technologies currently sharing the spectrum. This dynamic radio resource management is achieved in a distributed fashion, and relies onsoftware-defined radio.[15][16] See also the IEEE 802.22 standard for Wireless Regional Area Networks.

Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN),[1] essentially identical to Mobile ad hoc network (MANET), Wireless mesh network (WMN) or wireless grids, combined with smart antennas,cooperative diversity and flexible modulation. Vandermonde-subspace frequency division multiplexing (VFDM): a modulation scheme to allow the co-existence of macro-cells and cognitive radio small-cells in a two-tiered LTE/4G network.[17] IPv6, where a visiting care-of mobile IP address is assigned according to location and connected network.[13] Wearable devices with AI capabilities.[1] One unified global standard.[1]

Real wireless world with no more limitation with access and zone
issues.[13]

User centric (or cell phone developer initiated) network concept


instead of operator-initiated (as in 1G) or system developer initiated (as in 2G, 3G and 4G) standards[18]

World wide wireless web (WWWW), i.e. comprehensive wireless-based


web applications that include full multimedia capability beyond 4G speeds.[1]

History[edit source | editbeta]

In July, 2013 India and Israel have agreed to work jointly on development of fifth generation (5G) telecom technologies. This was one of the agenda of the Kapil Sibal's visit to Israel, who is a current telecom and IT minister of India.[19] In 2008, the South Korean IT R&D program of "5G mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation mobile communication systems based on beam-division multiple access and relays with group cooperation" was formed.[14] On 8 October 2012, the UK's University of Surrey secured 35M for new 5G research centre, joint funded between the British government's UK Research Partnership Investment Fund (UKRPIF) and a consortium of key international mobile operators and infrastructure providers including Huawei, Samsung, Telefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz, and Aircom International it will offer testing facilities to mobile operators keen to develop a mobile standard that uses less energy and radio spectrum whilst delivering faster than current 4G speeds, with aspirations for the new technology to be ready within a decade.[20][21][22][23] On 1 November 2012, the EU project Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society (METIS) starts its activity towards the definition of 5G. METIS intends to ensure an early global consensus on these systems. In this sense,

METIS will play an important role of building consensus among other external major stakeholders prior to global standardization activities. This will be done by initiating and addressing work in relevant global fora (e.g. ITU-R), as well as in national and regional regulatory bodies.

On 1 January 2013, the ICT Labs project 5GrEEn (Towards Green 5G Mobile Networks) starts its activity under the EIT framework, and linked with the project carrier METIS. On February 2013 ITU-R Working Party 5D (WP 5D) started two study items: (1) Study on IMT Vision for 2020 and Beyond and (2) Study on future technology trends for terrestrial IMT systems, both aiming at having a better understanding of future technical aspects of mobile communications towards the definition of the next generation mobile. On 12 May 2013, Samsung Electronics stated that they have developed the world's first "5G" system. The core technology has a maximum speed of tens of Gbps (gigabits per second). In testing, the transfer speeds for the 5G network sent data at 1.056 Gbps to a distance of up to 2 kilometers.[24][25]

Huawei Technologies Co., Chinas largest phone-network equipment maker, said it plans to introduce fifth-generation mobile technology for commercial service by 2020, with speeds 100 times current 4G networks. Even before 4G service is commercially available in China, Huawei has devoted hundreds of engineers to develop the technology, Ken Hu, the Shenzhen-based companys deputy chairman and rotating chief executive officer, said in an e-mail today. China Mobile Ltd. (941), the worlds largest wireless carrier, is conducting trials of 4G networks in China with licenses for commercial service anticipated by the end of the year, the company said in March. There are about 200 4G networks operating commercially in 75 countries today, with another 200 in progress or planned, Hu said, citing the Global Mobile Suppliers Association. About half the worlds population will have access to 4G mobile networks by 2018, he said. Adoption of 5G, which requires appropriate airwaves be released by government regulators, will mean mobile broadband at speeds of up to 10 gigabytes, or 100 times the fastest 4G connection, Hu said. Current 4G mobile technology offers Internet connections at speeds up to 100 megabytes, three times faster than the 3G technology that preceded it. China is looking to jointly develop 5G technology with companies in Taiwan and set up a cross-strait supply chain, the Taipei-based Commercial Times reported today, citing Chinas Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Deputy Minister Liu Lihua. Liu invited Taiwanbased companies including Hon Hai Precision Industry Co. (2317) and MediaTek Inc. (2454) to join Chinas 5G development team, the report said, without saying where it got the information. To contact Bloomberg News staff for this story: Edmond Lococo in Beijing atelococo@bloomberg.net

et ready for the new kid on the tech block: 5G. And Samsung wants to be the first to make the introductions. The tech giant that makes phones, televisions and chips said last month that its developed a core technology for the 5G wireless network that's hundreds of times faster than the 4G version. This means users will enjoy massive data files, like 3-D games and ultra high-definition content with very few limitations. The service, however, will probably only be ready by 2020 at best. So why should we care? Because the world's largest technology firm is telling us outright that its trying to take the lead in establishing a global standard for the next wireless network. Its a direct salvo against anyone in the tech industry. The rivalry for technology leadership in 5G is getting "increasingly fierce," Samsung said in its May 12 statement. China already set up a governmentled workforce for 5G research last year. The European Commission also plans to invest 50 million euros this year to bring 5G services to the market by 2020. Samsungs lions share in the global mobile-phone market may give it an edge over the competition. Samsung sold 69.4 million smartphones worldwide in the first quarter of 2013, accounting for one-third the global market of 210 million, Strategy Analytics said on March 25. 5G is a next-generation technology for sure, but there's yet no standard definition of the term, said Kim Hue Jae, a Seoul-based analyst for Daishin Securities. Samsung failed in the 4G race to set its Wibro technology as the global standard, so they need to get the devices out first to win this one. If its 5G technology becomes the global standard, Samsung will deepen its pocket with patent royalties from mobile-phone makers. The company has lost to Qualcomm in the CDMA chipset race in the past. With consumers becoming ever more demanding for data-heavy movies and games, the 5G trophy is becoming the next big thing companies are fighting for.

5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile technology. 5G mobile technology has changed the means to use cell phones within very high bandwidth. User never experienced ever before such a high value technology. Nowadays mobile users have much awareness of the cell phone (mobile) technology. The 5G technologies include all type of advanced features which makes 5G mobile technology most powerful and in huge demand in near future.

The gigantic array of innovative technology being built into new cell phones is stunning. 5G technology which is on hand held phone offering more power and features than at least 1000 lunar modules. A user can also hook their 5G technology cell phone with their Laptop to get broadband internet access. 5G technology including camera, MP3 recording, video player, large phone memory, dialing speed, audio player and much more you never imagine. For children rocking fun Bluetooth technology and Piconets has become in market. What 5G Technology offers 5G technology going to be a new mobile revolution in mobile market. Through 5G technology now you can use worldwide cellular phones and this technology also strike the china mobile market and a user being proficient to get access to Germany phone as a local phone. With the coming out of cell phone alike to PDA now your whole office in your finger tips or in your phone. 5G technology has extraordinary data capabilities and has ability to tie together unrestricted call volumes and infinite data broadcast within latest mobile operating system. 5G technology has a bright future because it can handle best technologies and offer priceless handset to their customers. May be in coming days 5G technology takes over the world market. 5G Technologies have an extraordinary capability to support Software and Consultancy. The Router and switch technology used in 5G network providing high connectivity. The 5G technology distributes internet access to nodes within the building and can be deployed with union of wired or wireless network connections. The current trend of 5G technology has a glowing future.

Features of 5G Technology

5G technology offer high resolution for crazy cell phone user and bidirectional large bandwidth shaping. The advanced billing interfaces of 5G technology makes it more attractive and effective. 5G technology also providing subscriber supervision tools for fast action.

The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error. 5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit which supporting almost 65,000 connections. 5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency. The traffic statistics by 5G technology makes it more accurate. Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get better and fast solution. The remote diagnostics also a great feature of 5G technology. The 5G technology is providing up to 25 Mbps connectivity speed. The 5G technology also support virtual private network. The new 5G technology will take all delivery service out of business prospect The uploading and downloading speed of 5G technology touching the peak. The 5G technology network offering enhanced and available connectivity just about the world

A new revolution of 5G technology is about to begin because 5G technology going to give tough completion to normal computer and laptops whose marketplace value will be effected. There are lots of improvements from 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G to 5G in the world of telecommunications. The new coming 5G technology is available in the market in affordable rates, high peak future and much reliability than its preceding technologies.

2017 Huawei working to develop 5G technology Chandigarh service tax dept for action against defaulters Commercial tax dept to clamp down on defaulters LTE will meet rising demand for higher speed 5G or 5th generation mobile technology is a term used to describe the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards beyond the current 4G standards. 5G is expected to meet the diverse requirements of the future. There has been a new mobile generation appearing about every tenth year. The 1G system, was introduced in 1981. This was followed by the 2G system which started to roll out in 1992 and the 3G system made its appearance in 2001. 4G systems were standardised in 2012. Thus, mobile communications technologies that are expected to appear beyond 2020 are referred to as 5G.

However, there is as yet no agreed definition of 5G as it is still very much in the concept stage. It needs to be noted that the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the United Nations agency that defines industry standards, nor standardisation bodies such as 3GPP and WiMAX Forum have established standards for 5G technologies as yet. Thus, for some skeptics, all talk of 5G, even before 4G has properly taken off, is merely a marketing gimmick. Marketers love to appropriate such terms for their advertising campaigns. Players like Ericsson expect 5G solutions to not consist of a single technology but rather an integrated combination of radio-access technologies. This would include existing mobile-broadband technologies such as HSPA and LTE that will continue to evolve and will provide the backbone of the overall solution beyond 2020. There will also be new complementary technologies. Smart antennas, expanded spectrum and improved coordination between base stations will be some of the new innovations. Why 5G is required 5G is needed because of the explosive growth in video traffic, the acute shortage of spectrum, the growing need to minimise the energy requirements of web devices and network infrastructure and to cater to the insatiable desire for higher data speed rates. For the customer, the difference between 4G and 5G technologies will be in higher speeds, lower battery consumption, better coverage, higher number of supported devices, lower infrastructure costs, higher versatility and scalability or higher reliability of communications. The METIS project, co-funded by the European Commission, aims at reaching worldwide consensus on the future global mobile and wireless communications system. The overall technical goal is to provide a system concept that supports 1,000 times higher efficiency as compared with current LTE deployments. The University of Surrey has been given the go-ahead to set up a 5G Innovation Centre backed up by a total of 35m investment from a combination of the UK Research Partnership Investment Fund and a consortium of key mobile operators and infrastructure providers including Huawei, Samsung, Telefonica Europe, Fujitsu Laboratories Europe, Rohde & Schwarz and AIRCOM International. Though there is no globally agreed 5G standard yet, South Korea is

exploring spectrum bands like 13 GHz, 18 Ghz and 27 GHz for 5G technology, which will be capable of transmitting data at speeds in excess of a 1,000 megabits per second (Mbps). Taiwan, which now lags behind in the development of 4G technologies after having wrongly bet on the now less accepted WiMAX technologies wants to be in the forefront to develop 5G technology. Major companies in wireless technology are also jockeying for position to influence the next wave of standards beyond 4G LTE. In the Metis project, Huawei is playing the leading role in the Radio Link Technology stream. South Korea's Samsung Electronics, which has announced that it wants to make available 5G to the public by 2020, said that it had successfully tested ultra-fast fifth generation data transfer using millimeter-wave transceiver technology in May 2013. Semiconductor company Broadcom has unveiled a new combo chip that promises to deliver the fifth generation of broadband wireless connectivity. Outlook In order to sustain the continuous growth of wireless business, and to support the industrys response the Big Data challenge, 5G wireless networks are expected to emerge in the market between 2020 and 2030.

Films could be downloaded to smartphones in just one second with new ultra-high speed mobile phone broadband technology, Samsung has claimed. The fifth-generation technology will transmit data several hundred times faster than the 4G networks being rolled out across the country, says the communications giant. Homes could have the wireless 5G system by 2020 using a vast network of masts, which may prove controversial but would mean an end to broadband cables to connect to the internet.

Samsung's Galaxy S4 smartphone: The Korean giant has developed 'ultrahigh speed' fifth-generation technology that could allow users to download an entire film in a second HOW FAST WILL IT BE? Samsung has been able to get speeds of 1 gigabit per second - far in excess of current 4G networks, which can makage 12 megabits per seconds. According to Samsung, 'subscribers will be able to enjoy a wide range of services such as 3D movies and games, real-time streaming of ultra highdefinition (UHD) content, and remote medical services.' While 4G networks speed up standard downloads to about 13 minutes, subscribers of the new service would be able to download massive data files practically without limitation, enabling almost instantaneous access to games and 3D movies or the ability to stream ultra high-definition programmes in real-time. The South Korean company claims its technology uses high-frequency wavebands previously deemed unsuitable for mobile networks. Central to it is the creation of what bosses say is the worlds first transceiver capable of providing 5G to a wide area via a phone mast. Samsung announced the breakthrough after tests in which data was transmitted at speeds of more than one gigabit per second over a distance of up to two kilometres. However, analysts warned that faster downloads may mean bigger bills and raised health fears that new high powered broadcasts will fuel socalled electronic smog. Samsung announced the development after conducting a test where data was transmitted at speeds of more than one gigabit per second over a distance of up to two kilometres. More... Ground control to Commander Hadfield: Astronaut beams acoustic cover of David Bowie's Space Oddity from the International Space Station as a farewell message to Twitter fans Nokia unveils 65 budget phone with 48 DAYS of standby battery life

Customers using 4G services - currently provided in the UK by EE - access average speeds of between eight and 12 megabits per second (Mbps). 'The new technology sits at the core of 5G mobile communications system and will provide data transmission up to several hundred times faster than current 4G networks,' Samsung said in a blog post. Samsung has already trialled the technology over 2km distances, and found download speeds of 1 gigabit a second were possible, far higher than current 4G networks The company believes the equipment could provide a solution to recent surges in wireless internet usage. It added: 'Samsungs new technology will allow users to transmit massive data files including high-quality digital movies practically without limitation. 'As a result, subscribers will be able to enjoy a wide range of services such as 3D movies and games, real-time streaming of ultra high-definition (UHD) content, and remote medical services.' In the blog post, Samsung claims its technology uses high-frequency wavebands which were previously deemed unsuitable for mobile networks. It said: 'The implementation of a high-speed 5G cellular network requires a broad band of frequencies, much like an increased water flow requires a wider pipe. 'While it was a recognised option, it has been long believed that the millimetre-wave bands had limitations in transmitting data over long distances due to its unfavourable propagation characteristics. 'However, Samsungs new adaptive array transceiver technology has proved itself as a successful solution. 'It transmits data in the millimetre-wave band at a frequency of 28 GHz at a speed of up to 1.056 Gbps to a distance of up to two kilometers.

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On Monday, Samsung Electronics (005930:KS) announced it had developed a new 5G wireless standard that could be hundreds of times faster than todays 4G networks. The new wireless standard is at least seven years away, so you wont be streaming full seasons of Game Of Thrones in 3D soon. And seven years is a lifetime in techtaking nothing away from Samsungs accomplishment, Id be surprised if we didnt see a few standards competing for our bandwidth by 2020. Already, Alcatel-Lucent (ALU:FP) has a ridiculously fast landline system in France. In the U.S., Google (GOOG) Fiber has brought gigabit Internet to Kansas City, Mo., with Austin, Tex., and Provo, Utah, next up for installation. Thats because the rush for more bandwidth is akin to an oil rush. Get data-transmission speeds fast enough, and it doesnt mean people can simply open Web pages faster; it means whole new businesses can thrive. STORY: A Hands-On Report About Samsung's Galaxy Note 8.0 For Samsung, one of those businesses is ultra-high definition TV. This new, incredibly high-resolution format was a big deal at this years Consumer Electronics Show but remains more theoretical than real, as movies encoded in this format have a file size that would sink a ship. Trying to stream a UHD movie over todays networks takes days, not minutes. But if Samsungs new network technology is for real, UHD will suddenly become viable. And if youre Samsung, thats nothing to sneeze at, since youre already the worlds largest TV manufacturer. Samsung also said that a faster wireless network could help give rise to advanced medical services, since doctors would need high-resolution images to work remotely. That also lines up with the conglomerates goal of expanding into health-care technology. Indeed, the companys goal is to be a major player in that industry by 2020the same year its new wireless standard is expected. Wireless standards used to be developed by consortiums that included wireless providers. But Samsungs move into this field indicates two things: Bandwidth is the life-giving force that allows new devices (and new revenue streams) to flourish, and innovation in this area may no longer come from third-party groups, but directly from the businesses that stand to benefit the most from it.

The worlds biggest cell-phone maker, Samsung, caused a stir last week by announcing an ultrafast wireless technology that it unofficially dubbed 5G. And the technology has, in fact, been tested on the streets of New York. The system is impressive but is still in developmentwhich is true of all the technologies that will underpin the next generation of wireless communications. When 5G does arrive, it will likely combine new wireless protocols with new network designs, spectrum-sharing schemes, and more small transmitters. Samsung says its new transceiver can send and receive data at speeds of more than a gigabit per second over up to two kilometersand it could deliver tens of gigabits per second at shorter distances. This compares to about 75 megabits per second for the latest standard, known as 4G LTE. The Samsung technology relies on 28-gigahertz frequencies, which can carry commensurately more data but can be blocked by buildings, people, foliage, and even rainfall. Samsung says it has greatly mitigated these problems by sending data over any of 64 antennas, dynamically shaping how the signal is divided up, and even controlling the direction in which it is sent, making changes in tens of nanoseconds in response to changing conditions (among other features, it can catch stray reflections of signals that had bounced off an obstruction). The company did not grant an interview request, but the technology is described inthis 2010 patent filing. The work has also been tested in the real world. Last summer, an academic lab,NYU Wireless, part of the Polytechnic Institute of New York University, did performance tests for Samsung in New York City and Austin, Texas, and found that the technology, which is also known as millimeter-wave cellular, could work well even 200 meters away from the transmitter, and even in a cluttered environment. A lot of people have the same reaction: How can it work? But we showed that it can be done, says Theodore Rappaport, director of NYU Wireless. Our measurements have helped give Samsung and the rest of the wireless industry confidence that (28-gigahertz) wireless is viable. Still, the ranges involved suggest that high-frequency technologies will be best for short-range hot spots, says Jeff Reed, director of the wireless research center at Virginia Tech. I am skeptical that they will be able to deliver high data rates with the mobility that we have become accustomed to with 2G, 3G, and 4G cellular systems, he says. Meanwhile, we still have plenty of room to improve 4G systems that operate at more favorable lower frequency ranges.

Its certainly true that so far, the industry has only implemented the most basic features of 4G LTE. More sophisticated features will allow improvements in data rates. One of them is carrier aggregation, or the ability to use multiple frequencies at the same time to send a signal. Another is the use of multiple antennas, in ways akin to Samsungs technology. Finally, various signal-processing tricks can effectively boost bandwidth by intelligently cordinating the efforts of base stations and devices on the networks to avoid interference. Beyond these enhancements, greater used of unlicensed spectrumsuch as that used by Wi-Fi equipmentcan offload traffic inside buildings to provide a huge boost; after all, some 70 percent of mobile traffic comes from people inside homes and offices. Expanding this concept are so-called small cellscellular transmitters that pick up a signal from a few tens of yards and relay it over the wired Internet (see Tiny Transmitters Could Help Avert Data Throttling). If there were one of these in every home, they could provide an entire neighborhood or urban network with cellular coverage without requiring any large base station (see Qualcomm Proposes a Cell-Phone Network by the People, for the People). The everyday reality for consumers is that in many cases, high-speed data is better when its coming from Wi-Fi hot spots, not 3G and 4G networks, whose peak speeds are not always available everywhere or at all times of the day. This begs the question: Are faster cellular data speeds really what we need, or would we be better served if 5G improved what cellular standards do better than Wi-Fi, which is wide area mobility and seamless connectivity? says Vanu Bose, CEO of Vanu, a wireless company in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Despite the high data speeds on 3G and 4G networks, we all still suffer from dropped calls and poor coverage in many places. One technology that could provide better coverage by hopping between different frequencies and different wireless protocols is known as cognitive radio. On a second-by-second basis, such a radio would detect and exploit available spectrum holes. In the mid term, this is a more likely solution for high data rates and mobility than using higher frequencies, Reed says (see The Spectrum Crunch That Wasnt and 4G on the Baby-Monitor Frequency). While Samsungs technology may form part of the 5G futurean ultrafast network technology running in hot spotsa larger mix of technologies and strategies will be needed to deliver data more quickly and reliably. Standards are set by the International Telecommunications Union, a

United Nations body. It will be several years until even all of the 4G LTE versions are rolled out. Samsung said its technology could be ready by 2020.

Samsung on Sunday announced that it had developed a core component of its 5G network by solving a problem that has stymied the wireless industry, Yonhap News reported. Using the 28GHz waveband, Samsung says it has achieved download and upload speeds of tens of gigabits per second (Gbps). Current 4G LTE networks top out at around 75 megabits (Mbps). In practice, that speed would allow wireless users to download a full HD movie in seconds. Samsung executives see the technology enabling a wide range of rich applications. Samsung used 64 antenna elements in order to accomplish the high-speed data transfer, and said the company expects that it can commercialize the technology by 2020. That deadline conforms well to a European Commission goal to have 5G wireless technology in place by the same year. China, too, has been pouring funding into next-generation wireless technology, with hopes to roll out such technology around the same time. Samsung for years has regularly pioneered in the area of wireless transmission technologies. Some of its wireless advances the company has been able to patent, and some of those patents have been used against Apple in the two companies' ongoing litigation struggles. Samsung's wireless patents, though, are typically standard essential, meaning the company must grant licenses in a fair, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory fashion. Samsung is not alone in developing next generation wireless technology, nor is its recently announced demonstration the fastest of its kind. NTT DoCoMo in February announced that it had successfully conducted a 10Gbps wireless test in Japan last year using the 11GHz band. High data transmission rates are a constant goal for wireless carriers as well as mobile device makers. Higher transmission speeds were a major selling point for a number of Android handsets in the years before Apple added 4G connectivity to its iPhone. Upon moving to 4G, customers tend to like the extra speed, but a survey last year found that nearly half of American consumers felt they don't need 4G LTE. Most carriers are still

transitioning to 4G technology, and even those with established 4G networks typically must wait until their customers upgrade their devices in order to get them online with the standard.

m a bit concerned that we in tech blogging community are doing the mobile industrys marketing for them. This week a few tech sites published posts thatattached the term 5G to T-Mobiles forthcoming rollout of LTE-Advanced technologies. Its not my intention here to to attack my peers, but I think its necessary to point out were descending a slippery slope if we start tossing around the term 5G loosely. 5G doesnt exist except as the barest concept. It hasnt been defined by any standards body. The mobile industry only recently began addressing what constitutes 5G, assigning its biggest brains to investigate the technologies that might make up 5G networks in the future. I understand the frustration of my fellow tech bloggers. Presented with a bunch of byzantine acronyms, how do you explain to the average reader the differences between an HSPA network and HSPA+ network, or between an LTE and an LTE-Advanced network, in a single sentence? When dealing in headlines of limited length and Twitter posts of 140 characters, its easy to fall into the comfortable trap of using terms like 4G and 5G to explain the differences in technologies (Im guilty of falling into that same trap as well). But I think we owe it to our readers to spell out those nuances. Otherwise were not truly explaining mobile technology. Instead, were just repeating the marketing messages of carriers and vendors that have every interest in exaggerating the capabilities of their networks. To my knowledge, T-Mobile isnt publicly labeling its forthcoming network as 5G, but the operator has a reputation for this kind of technology inflation. In 2010, T-Mobilerelabeled its HSPA+ service as 4G out of the blue. I had some sympathy for T-Mobile at the time, because it was presented with a quandary: Sprint had long used the term 4G to describe its WiMAX network, but T-Mobiles ostensible 3G network was routinely beating Sprint in raw speed tests. Instead of trying to explain the differences to its customers which admittedly would have been quite difficult T-Mobile took the easy way out and simply claimed 4G as its own. Of course, that led AT&T to do the

same for its even slower 14.4 Mbps HSPA+ network. Eventually, the standards body responsible for defining the various Gs, the International Telecommunication Union, caved to industry pressure and retroactively defined 4G as pretty much whatever carriers wanted it be.

4G became a meaningless term, and we tech journalists reinforced its meaninglessness by swallowing the terminology carriers fed us. If carriers get their hooks into the acronym 5G, you can bet the exact same thing will happen. Once one carrier succumbs, others will race to redefine their perfectly serviceable 4G networks as 5G networks. An the next operator to gain the slightest technical edge will start bandying about the term 6G. Im not dissing T-Mobiles technical accomplishments. As Ive written before, T-Mobiles new LTE network, by virtue of its newness, has definite advantages over other carriers networks. T-Mobile will be able to upgrade to new LTE-Advanced technologies faster and cheaper than its competitors. But T-Mobile certainly doesnt have an LTE-Advanced network today, it wont have one in the near future and it will be years before it can legitimately make the claim to owning one. LTE-Advanced is an incremental technology, and many of its key techniques arent even commercially available to carriers yet. In my opinion, carriers are already abusing the term LTE-Advanced. They havent started compounding that abuse by advertising their current or forthcoming LTE networks as 5G, but its only a matter of time. Lets not help them along by doing their marketing for them.

While 3G mobile networks hogged the limelight most of last year, this year is going to see the grand entry of the next generation, that is, 4G mobile networks. Of course, the ground work for 4G networks had already begun last year and we had all been expecting it to boom in a big way. Offering amazing speed and efficiency, this technology is bound to take the mobile market by storm. Internet connectivity on mobile devices is now more of a necessity than a luxury. More and more mobile device users are constantly using their gadgets to connect to the Internet and stay online for very long periods of time. Considering this scenario, the latest 4G mobile network seems to be the answer for every mobile device owner. However, 4G connectivity is not without its downsides. In this article, we discuss the pros and cons of 4G mobile networks. Will 4G Beat 3G at the Mobile Networking Game? Pros of 4G Mobile Networks most obvious advantage of the 4G mobile network is its amazing speed. Increased bandwidth leads to much faster data transfer speed, which is especially advantageous for mobile devices. Users of the 4G network get the advantage of superior, uninterrupted connectivity, especially for advanced tasks such as video chats and conferences. Considering the younger generation of mobile device users, they can stream music, videos and movies at a much faster rate than ever before and can also easily share information online.

as WiFi, which forces users to depend upon hotspots in each area you visit. Since 4G offers a coverage of 30 miles and more, as also overlapping network ranges, users would be assured of complete connectivity at all times. online security. This is especially true for mobile devices. 4G networks offer complete privacy, security and safety. This is especially beneficial for corporate establishments and business persons, who hold sensitive information on their respective mobile devices. fordable these days, what with pricing schemes being considerably slashed to fit users budgets. Of course, this type of connectivity is more expensive than traditional WiFi networks, but it also has a lot more advantages to offer to users.

also offers users several options to choose from, as regards plans and equipment to connect to the 4G network. Many mobile carriers also offer special introductory offers for new customers, which works out to be very reasonable for them. Will Mobile WiFi Networking be Overthrown by 3G and 4G? Cons of 4G Mobile Networks

popularity, connectivity is still limited to certain specified carriers and regions. Of course, the number of cities that have 4G coverage is increasing by the day. However, it would take its own time for this network to be available in all the major cities of the world. Though the hardware compatible with 4G networks is available at much cheaper rates today than earlier, the fact remains that this new equipment would necessarily have to be installed in order to supply these services. This would prove to be a cumbersome process for mostmobile carriers planning to launch these services. 4G mobile technology is still fairly new, it will most likely have its initial glitches and bugs, which could be quite annoying for the user. Needless to say, these teething troubles would be sorted out in due course of time, as well as with increase in network coverage.

users would experience much poorer battery life on their mobile devices, while on this network. This would mean that they would have to use larger mobile devices with more battery power, in order to be able to stay online for longer periods of time. y in the areas that do not yet have 4G mobile network coverage. While this is a problem in itself, the worse issue is that they would still have to pay the same amount as specified by the 4G network plan. This loophole has already resulted in many disgruntled customers. This situation can only be resolved once mobile carriers expand their 4G network coverage to include more regions. China Not Interested in Issuing 4G Licenses for Now In Conclusion

4G mobile networks, though advantageous, also comes with its disadvantages. While this technology is evolving speedily, it would still take its time to emerge as the most popular network. Mobile carriers and users interested in investing in 4G would do well to analyze and understand its pros and cons before adopting in this new technology. lthough the speed and just overall quality of web-based applications would improve, it would not occur without a fee. Most companies such as Sprint are trying to limit the fee as much as possible starting at a ten dollars a month service fee to use the HTC Evo on a 4G network (Hansen, 2010). This fee is not unusually high, but with a reduction in fee comes a cheap deployment of this technology which means that it is expected to disrupt broadband access alternatives such as DSL and cable modems. This is because it is cheaper to deploy and covers such a wide bandwidth in the network (Jarrett, 2006). Also, since people are being connected to a variety of devices while using 4G, each person needs to be aware of the security threats they are opposing on themselves. As mentioned earlier, this is a problem because each person may be connected to many devices using 4G therefore increasing their risk of receiving a virus attack. Research will have to be done in order to figure out how much more battery life a phone must be able to hold in order to participate on a 4G network as well. The big challenge in bringing 4G to the market will be using the right applications processors as well as modem and power management technologies to deliver the performance, size and battery life that consumers demand (Krenik, 2008). This may be a con since the battery life and the processors may have to be changed greatly, therefor causing 4G technology to cost more for the company that acquires their phones with this network. Some research may be required in figuring out exactly how much more at risk a person is for using a 4G mobile phone of receiving viruses and tracking cookies through this IP-address system. 5G technologies are also being planned upon. This technology will be intelligent and will interconnect the entire world without limits (Jarrett,

2006). This technology could be further researched to help understand qualities of 4G technology that may need to be changed. 4G Technology: Advantages and Disadvantages 4G Technology is an up and coming technology. 4G means fourth generation data download speeds. Advantages and Disadvantages are shown below. Advantages of 4G: Quickly download files over a wireless network

Extremely high voice quality

Easily access Internet, IM, Social Networks, streaming media, video calling, etc. Higher bandwidth WiMAX, LTE, and HSPA+ are all versions of 4G, WiMAX is used by Sprint, LTE is used by Verizon and AT&T, HSPA+ is used by AT&T and TMobile

4G is 10 times faster than 3G

Disadvantages of 4G: New frequencies means new components in cell towers.


Higher data prices for consumers Consumer is forced to buy a new device to support the 4G

It is impossible to make your current equipment compatible with the 4G network 4G is only currently available in certain cities within the United States

Adoption of LTE technology as of June 26, 2013. Countries with commercial LTE service Countries with commercial LTE network deployment on-going or planned Countries with LTE trial systems (pre-commitment)