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Fahrzeug- und Windradaerodynamik High Performance Vehicles Dr.-Ing. A. Henze, Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Schröder Institute of
Fahrzeug- und Windradaerodynamik High Performance Vehicles Dr.-Ing. A. Henze, Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Schröder Institute of
Fahrzeug- und
Windradaerodynamik
High Performance Vehicles
Dr.-Ing. A. Henze, Prof. Dr.-Ing. W. Schröder
Institute of Aerodynamics, RWTH Aachen University

Definition

Definition • Sportscars: permission for usual road traffic High power Suitable for every day life •

Sportscars:

permission for usual road traffic

High power

Suitable for every day life

Race cars:

Only for race tracks

Competition

Prototypes

Modified standard cars

Record cars

Highest velocity

Smallest fuel consumption

Largest cruising range

Special types of drive system (solar, …)

Different aerodynamic requirements

• small drag

• small lift for high velocities in curves

• directional stability

• driving in the slipstream

• cooling of different aggregates

• comfort for the driver

History

History • „Blitzen“ Benz, 1911 • 21.5 l, 200 hp, > 200 km/h • pointed cooler
History • „Blitzen“ Benz, 1911 • 21.5 l, 200 hp, > 200 km/h • pointed cooler
History • „Blitzen“ Benz, 1911 • 21.5 l, 200 hp, > 200 km/h • pointed cooler

• „Blitzen“ Benz, 1911

• 21.5 l, 200 hp, > 200 km/h

• pointed cooler

• slender body

• pointed tail

• driver + co-driver

• isolated wheels

• drop shaped car, Benz, 1923

• free wheels

• smooth under body

• l/d ~ 6.8 slender body

History

History • streamlined shape • fully covered wheels • Daimler-Benz, 1937 • Auto Union, 1937

• streamlined shape

• fully covered wheels

• Daimler-Benz, 1937

• Auto Union, 1937

History • streamlined shape • fully covered wheels • Daimler-Benz, 1937 • Auto Union, 1937
History • streamlined shape • fully covered wheels • Daimler-Benz, 1937 • Auto Union, 1937

History

History Daimler-Benz AG • Mercedes 300 SLR, 1955 • 24 hours of Le Mans • break
History Daimler-Benz AG • Mercedes 300 SLR, 1955 • 24 hours of Le Mans • break

Daimler-Benz AG

• Mercedes 300 SLR, 1955

• 24 hours of Le Mans

• break flap

• increase of c W from 0.44 to 1.09

• break flap • increase of c W from 0.44 to 1.09 http://www.super-autos.net/c/cd-peugeot-66c01.jpg

http://www.super-autos.net/c/cd-peugeot-66c01.jpg

to 1.09 http://www.super-autos.net/c/cd-peugeot-66c01.jpg

http://www.uniquecarsandparts.com.au/images/heritage/mercedes_300SLR.jpg

Porsche Carrera 6 Langheck 220 hp, 265 km/h c W = 0.33

Porsche Carrera 6 Langheck 220 hp, 265 km/h c W = 0.33

CD Peugeot 66 105 hp, 245 km/h

• small drag coefficient

• reduced stability

• limited curve velocity

History

History C h a p a r r a l 2 C Racing cars with wings

Chaparral 2C

History C h a p a r r a l 2 C Racing cars with wings

Racing cars with wings to produce negative lift = downforce

Racing cars with wings to produce negative lift = downforce

http://www.metaphorsinmotion.com/posts/16-Jim-Hall-s-New-Chaparral-2-C

htt ://www histomobile com/dvd histomobile/usa/784/1965 Cha arral 2C htm

p

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.

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p

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.

histomobile/usa/784/1965 Cha arral 2C htm p . . _ _ p _ .
histomobile/usa/784/1965 Cha arral 2C htm p . . _ _ p _ .

http://www.porsche.com/germany/sportandevents/motorsport/history/historical

gallery/?gtabindex=1&gitemindex=7

http://www.auto-power-girl.com/high-resolution-wallpapers/porsche-

celebrates-40th-anniversary-of-porsche-917/1973-porsche-917-30-sypder.jpg

Porsche 917/30, 1973. 1100 hp, 370 km/h, c W = 0.57

Porsche 935/78, 1978, 845 hp. 370 km/h

History

History http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-0VPU0wW-ifs/TV7- z3hV7aI/AAAAAAAAGGM/88quDXQqg9Q/s1600/Chaparral2E.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-0VPU0wW-ifs/TV7- z3hV7aI/AAAAAAAAGGM/88quDXQqg9Q/s1600/Chaparral2E.jpg
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-0VPU0wW-ifs/TV7-
z3hV7aI/AAAAAAAAGGM/88quDXQqg9Q/s1600/Chaparral2E.jpg
z3hV7aI/AAAAAAAAGGM/88quDXQqg9Q/s1600/Chaparral2E.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/
z3hV7aI/AAAAAAAAGGM/88quDXQqg9Q/s1600/Chaparral2E.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/

commons/2/2d/Chaparral_2F_-

_Mike_Spence_-_1967.jpg

http://ashcom.homestead.com/RMH3257W.jpg

commons/2/2d/Chaparral_2F_- _Mike_Spence_-_1967.jpg http://ashcom.homestead.com/RMH3257W.jpg

History

History http://www.ddavid.com/formula1/lotus79.htm http://www.more.racing-history.de/Porsche_962_1988.jpeg Ground effect
History http://www.ddavid.com/formula1/lotus79.htm http://www.more.racing-history.de/Porsche_962_1988.jpeg Ground effect

http://www.ddavid.com/formula1/lotus79.htm

http://www.more.racing-history.de/Porsche_962_1988.jpeg

http://www.more.racing-history.de/Porsche_962_1988.jpeg Ground effect

Ground effect

Ground effect http://www.ddavid.com/formula1/images/lotus79b.jpg Rear wing

http://www.ddavid.com/formula1/images/lotus79b.jpg

Rear wing with up to 9 elements Maximum of 3 is allowed

Ground effect http://www.ddavid.com/formula1/images/lotus79b.jpg Rear wing with up to 9 elements Maximum of 3 is allowed

History

History Temporal development of the maximum lateral acceleration for limousines, sports cars and racing cars
History Temporal development of the maximum lateral acceleration for limousines, sports cars and racing cars

Temporal development of the maximum lateral acceleration for limousines, sports cars and racing cars

Record vehicles

Record vehicles • First vehicle > 100 km/h • Jenatzky, 1899 • electric engine • l/d
Record vehicles • First vehicle > 100 km/h • Jenatzky, 1899 • electric engine • l/d

• First vehicle > 100 km/h

• Jenatzky, 1899

• electric engine

• l/d ~ 4

• streamlined body

• non optimized under carriage

• non integrated driver

• non optimized under carriage • non integrated driver Golden Arrow, 1929 372 km/h Vertical tail

Golden Arrow, 1929 372 km/h Vertical tail wing Underbody aerodynamics

Record vehicles

Record vehicles http://other-roads.blogspot.com/2009/07/railton-napier-mobil-special- merdeka.html Railton Mobil Special,
http://other-roads.blogspot.com/2009/07/railton-napier-mobil-special- merdeka.html
http://other-roads.blogspot.com/2009/07/railton-napier-mobil-special-
merdeka.html

Railton Mobil Special, 1947 634.4 km/h = 394.2 mph

http://www.creativelydifferentblinds.c om/BlindImages/1045.jpg
http://www.creativelydifferentblinds.c
om/BlindImages/1045.jpg

Golden Rod, 1965 658.649 km/h 409.3 mph

Golden Rod, 1965 658.649 km/h 409.3 mph

http://www.motoringpicturelibrary.com/docs/hi-mpl340001197c.jpg

Record vehicles

Record vehicles http://www.jetblack.co.nz/site/cms/lsr-history Rocket driven „Blue Flame“ 1001,671 km/h, 1970 Thrust
Record vehicles http://www.jetblack.co.nz/site/cms/lsr-history Rocket driven „Blue Flame“ 1001,671 km/h, 1970 Thrust

http://www.jetblack.co.nz/site/cms/lsr-history

Rocket driven „Blue Flame“ 1001,671 km/h, 1970

Rocket driven „Blue Flame“ 1001,671 km/h, 1970 Thrust SSC Super Sonic Car 2 turbo jet engines

Thrust SSC Super Sonic Car 2 turbo jet engines 1227.985 km/h

http://artschoolvets.com/blog/superblast/files/2009/03/the_blue_flame.jpg

http://artschoolvets.com/blog/superblast/files/2009/03/the_blue_flame.jpg http://www.jetblack.co.nz/site/cms/lsr-history

http://www.jetblack.co.nz/site/cms/lsr-history

http://artschoolvets.com/blog/superblast/files/2009/03/the_blue_flame.jpg http://www.jetblack.co.nz/site/cms/lsr-history

Transonic speeds

Transonic speeds • Compressibility • Displacement of the force application point • Strong increase of the
Transonic speeds • Compressibility • Displacement of the force application point • Strong increase of the

• Compressibility

• Displacement of the force application point

• Strong increase of the drag coefficient

point • Strong increase of the drag coefficient Lift has been avoided for all speeds But,
point • Strong increase of the drag coefficient Lift has been avoided for all speeds But,
point • Strong increase of the drag coefficient Lift has been avoided for all speeds But,

Lift has been avoided for all speeds But, during sound transmission the negative pressure under the vehicle becomes positive. Subsonic: acceleration underpressure Supersonic: oblique shock overpressure Can lead to instability

Other record aims

Other record aims • Optimized c W • reach a given v m a x with

• Optimized c W

• reach a given v max with a fixed type of drive system Diesel engine Wankel engine Turbo engine Turbo diesel Solar mobile

• minimize fuel consumption

• maximize cruising range for a given amount of fuel

• ARVW Aerodynamic Research Volkswagen, 1982

• l/h = 5.93, c W = 0.15

• Face area A = 0.73 m 2 • 173 hp 360 km/h

• 13.6l/100km Diesel

A = 0.73 m 2 • 173 hp 360 km/h • 13.6l/100km Diesel C111 Mercedes Benz,
A = 0.73 m 2 • 173 hp 360 km/h • 13.6l/100km Diesel C111 Mercedes Benz,

C111 Mercedes Benz, 1978 c W = 0.18 l/h = 4.94 (relatively large) Integrated wheels

Other record aims

Other record aims • “Sparmobil” 1982, Volkswagen • c W = 0.15, A =0.32 • 1491.3
Other record aims • “Sparmobil” 1982, Volkswagen • c W = 0.15, A =0.32 • 1491.3

• “Sparmobil” 1982, Volkswagen

• c W = 0.15, A =0.32

• 1491.3 km with one l Diesel

• average velocity: 16.9 km/h

1491.3 km with one l Diesel • average velocity: 16.9 km/h • One-liter car • three

• One-liter car

• three wheels

• l/h = 3.56/1.1 = 3.2

• c W = 0.159, A = 1 m 2

• 2 Persons

• 237 km, 95 km/h, 0.99 l Diesel/100km

Other record aims

Other record aims http://www.autoplenum.de/Bilder/P/p0014821/OPEL/OPEL -Speedster-2-0-Turbo--2003-2005-.jpg
Other record aims http://www.autoplenum.de/Bilder/P/p0014821/OPEL/OPEL -Speedster-2-0-Turbo--2003-2005-.jpg

http://www.autoplenum.de/Bilder/P/p0014821/OPEL/OPEL

-Speedster-2-0-Turbo--2003-2005-.jpg

-Speedster-2-0-Turbo--2003-2005-.jpg http://www.netcarshow.com/opel/2002-

http://www.netcarshow.com/opel/2002-

eco_speedster_concept/1024x768/wallpaper_02.htm

eco_speedster_concept/1024x768/wallpaper_02.htm • good agreement for drag • bad agreement for lift •

• good agreement for drag

• bad agreement for lift

• Diesel 1.3 l CDTL, 110 hp, Common-Rail injection

• v max = 250 km/h

• 2.5 l/ 100km

Solar mobile

Solar mobile • Long laminar length • Spirit of Biel-Bienne, university in Switzerland • A= 1.1
Solar mobile • Long laminar length • Spirit of Biel-Bienne, university in Switzerland • A= 1.1

• Long laminar length

• Spirit of Biel-Bienne, university in Switzerland

• A= 1.1 m 2

• c W = 0.105

• solar surface 7.9 m 2

• Flying dutchman

• University Delft, Rotterdam

• 3010 km

• average velocity 96.8 km/h

• v max : 110 km/h

Flying dutchman • University Delft, Rotterdam • 3010 km • average velocity 96.8 km/h • v

Sports Cars

Sports Cars Before the war • Large coolers • separated mud guards • not aerodynamically optimized

Before the war

• Large coolers

• separated mud guards

• not aerodynamically optimized

• separated mud guards • not aerodynamically optimized Example: Mercedes-Benz 720 SSK, 1928 A = 1.57

Example: Mercedes-Benz 720 SSK, 1928 A = 1.57 m 2 , c W = 0.91, 180 km/h

720 SSK, 1928 A = 1.57 m 2 , c W = 0.91, 180 km/h http://www.kompressor-club.de/fahrzeuge.htm

http://www.kompressor-club.de/fahrzeuge.htm

• Rudolf Caracciola, winner at mille miglia, 1931

• road race in north italy

• weight saving: 125 kg

DKW based on F8, 1939 Streamlined chassis Only 3 exemplars

1931 • road race in north italy • weight saving: 125 kg DKW based on F8,

Sports Cars

Sports Cars • Porsche 356, 1948 • open version • c W = 0.46, A =

• Porsche 356, 1948

• open version

• c W = 0.46, A = 1.41 m 2

• Porsche 356 A, 1950

• closed version

• c W = 0.28, A = 1.68 m 2

• c A = 0.26, relatively high, but not very important, because the max. speed was not so high (140 km/h)

= 1.68 m 2 • c A = 0.26, relatively high, but not very important, because
= 1.68 m 2 • c A = 0.26, relatively high, but not very important, because

Sports Cars

Sports Cars Front spoiler, rear spoiler also for production cars Porsche 911 Turbo, 1983 300 hp

Front spoiler, rear spoiler also for production cars

Cars Front spoiler, rear spoiler also for production cars Porsche 911 Turbo, 1983 300 hp 260

Porsche 911 Turbo, 1983

300

hp

260

km/h

c W = 0.4 A = 1.87 m 2

http://www.elferhelfer.com/Galerie/1983gal/magic/1983_turbo_magic.htm

http://www.conceptcarz.com/view/photo/5282,762/1987-Porsche-

http://www.conceptcarz.com/view/photo/5282,762/1987-Porsche-

959_photo.aspx

Results from racing aerodynamics

are used also in sports production cars.

• Porsche 959, 1987

• Integrated rear spoiler

• covered underbody

• c W = 0.31

• A = 1.92 m 2

Sports Cars

Sports Cars Rear spoiler can be moved out automatically at higher speeds • Ferrari F60 “Enzo”
Sports Cars Rear spoiler can be moved out automatically at higher speeds • Ferrari F60 “Enzo”

Rear spoiler can be moved out automatically at higher speeds

• Ferrari F60 “Enzo”

• Adjustable front diffuser

• movable rear spoiler

Balance can be controlled at different velocities

F60 “Enzo” • Adjustable front diffuser • movable rear spoiler Balance can be controlled at different

Vehicle classes – 3 groups

Vehicle classes – 3 groups 1.) Free wheels • Formula 1 • formula 3 • formula

1.) Free wheels

• Formula 1

• formula 3

• formula 3000

• Indy racing league (IRL)

• Champ Cars (CART)

3.) Long distance cars

• 2 hours sprint race

• 24 hours Le Mans
• …

• divided in subclasses Prototypes Grand Touring

2.) touring cars

• Deutsche Tourenwagen-Masters (DTM)

• European touring car cup (ETTC)
• …

• Base model are production limousines or coupes

• allowed modification depends on the racing class

Vehicle classes

Vehicle classes Formula 1 Mercedes McLaren, 2005 Dalara Indianapolis l o n g o v a
Vehicle classes Formula 1 Mercedes McLaren, 2005 Dalara Indianapolis l o n g o v a

Formula 1 Mercedes McLaren, 2005

Vehicle classes Formula 1 Mercedes McLaren, 2005 Dalara Indianapolis l o n g o v a

Dalara Indianapolis long oval

McLaren, 2005 Dalara Indianapolis l o n g o v a l D a l a

Dalara IRL, short oval, 2003

Dalara Formula 3, 2001

n g o v a l D a l a r a I R L ,

Vehicle classes

Vehicle classes Abt Audi TTR, 2002, won DTM Generic sports serial car for comparison • A
Vehicle classes Abt Audi TTR, 2002, won DTM Generic sports serial car for comparison • A

Abt Audi TTR, 2002, won DTM

Generic sports serial car for comparison

• A = 2 m 2

• c w = 0.33

• c A = 0

• m = 1400 kg

• P = 500 hP

Audi R8, 2002, won Le Mans

for comparison • A = 2 m 2 • c w = 0.33 • c A

Vehicle classes

Vehicle classes Power vs. mass for typical race cars and for serial generic sports car •
Vehicle classes Power vs. mass for typical race cars and for serial generic sports car •

Power vs. mass for typical race cars and for serial generic sports car

• generic car P/m = 0.25 kW/kg v max = 320 km/h

• Formula 3 similar power-mass ratio less power less v max

• DTM:

higher power-mass ratio worse drag less v max

• Long distance car good power mass ratio optimized for high average vel.

• IRL cars:

very good power mass ratio highest velocity due to small drag on ovals

• Formula 1 highest power mass ratio slightly smaller v max

Vehicle classes

Vehicle classes Down force x area vs. drag x area for typical race cars and for
Vehicle classes Down force x area vs. drag x area for typical race cars and for

Down force x area vs. drag x area for typical race cars and for serial generic sports car

E: Efficiency = Lift/Drag

• generic car typical values for good sports cars

• Formula 3 similar drag but higher down force much better in curves and during breaking

• DTM much higher drag area then the generic car (generic car is the base of DTM) Reglement prescribes rear wing geom. variations are not allowed higher power mass ratio

• IRL

long oval: drag is similar to serial sports car, high lift, lateral accel.: 3.5 g short oval: values are 2 times higher, accel.: 4.5 g

Vehicle classes

Vehicle classes Down force x area vs. drag x area for typical race cars and for
Vehicle classes Down force x area vs. drag x area for typical race cars and for

Down force x area vs. drag x area for typical race cars and for serial generic sports car

E: Efficiency = Lift/Drag

• Formula 1 drag between the IRL cars higher efficiency high flexibility strong lateral accel: 3 g longitudinal accel while breaking: 4g

• Long distance cars drag similar to Formula 1 cars optimized for the high speed race track in Le Mans less accelerations than in Formula 1

Vehicle classes

Vehicle classes Longitudinal and lateral accelerations for typical race cars
Vehicle classes Longitudinal and lateral accelerations for typical race cars

Longitudinal and lateral accelerations for typical race cars

Race tracks

Race tracks • Monza: 75 % full load • Monte Carlo slowest curve, 40 km/h wavy
Race tracks • Monza: 75 % full load • Monte Carlo slowest curve, 40 km/h wavy

• Monza: 75 % full load

• Monte Carlo slowest curve, 40 km/h wavy surface no ground effect possible higher down force with front and rear wing higher drag

• Optimization of the values for drag and lift

• Changes during the race are allowed between small limits

• generic race track (3 curves and 3 long lanes)

• variation of curve radii and length

• longer straight lanes lower lift

• large curve radius higher lift but the drag should not be too large (box stop)

• „Handling“

• ability to brake

• ability to überholen

• tyres

• gasoline

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Drag force is proportional to c w and front face Minimization of

Drag force is proportional to c w and front face Minimization of both leads to conflicts • Reglement free wheels minimal dimensions of components Cooling system Width of tyres

Example:

m = 1100 kg, mass ratio front/rear = 47/53 A = 2 m 2 ,c AV = -0.45, c AH = -0.55

Assumption:

Highest gear Very long straight road > 2000 m

Highest gear Very long straight road > 2000 m V m a x as a function

V max as a function of the drag coefficient and the engine power

More power for a cooler engine (in between limits) But, more cooling power higher drag

higher velocity for 450 hP at c w = 0.5

if increase of power is > 7 hP, at an increase of c w of

0.01

Low drag and high power v max At low power: increase of drag by a factor of 3 reduction of v max about 28.2 %

At high power: increase of drag by a factor of 3 Reduction of v max about 30.2 %

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Same example on Hockenheimring Length of straight road: 1050 m Lines of

Same example on Hockenheimring Length of straight road: 1050 m

Lines of constant v max are much steeper Power is more important

higher velocity for 450 hP at c w = 0.5

if increase of power is > 6.2 hP, at an increase of c w of

0.01

higher velocity for 450 hP at c w = 0.5 if increase of power is >

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Fuel consumption as a function of drag and power Volume of tank,
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Fuel consumption as a function of drag and power Volume of tank,
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Fuel consumption as a function of drag and power Volume of tank,

Fuel consumption as a function of drag and power

Volume of tank, number of refuel stops (if allowed) mass of fuel influences the total mass of the car

Total time for a single lap Slope of lines of constant lap time depends on the power

The power in different classes is more or less important

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Lift force as a function of the velocity The aerodynamic forces are
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Lift force as a function of the velocity The aerodynamic forces are

Lift force as a function of the velocity

The aerodynamic forces are in the same order of magnitude as the static forces Influence on the stability in curves ar at side winds

Influence on the stability in curves ar at side winds Lateral acceleration for the generic car

Lateral acceleration for the generic car with standard race tyres as function of lift and drag (influences the curve velocity

is only a function of lift coefficient

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Curve velocity as function lift and drag Slight influence of the drag
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Curve velocity as function lift and drag Slight influence of the drag

Curve velocity as function lift and drag

Slight influence of the drag force Smaller drag higher velocity at the beginning of the curve stronger braking Larger curve radius slightly higher velocity in the curve at the same acceleration

higher velocity in the curve at the same acceleration Lap time as function of lift and

Lap time as function of lift and drag

C w / c L = 0.3/0.5 has the same result as 0.9/2.0

Optimum ratio depends on the operating point

For higher drag more variation of lift is necessary for the same optimization of the lap time than for lower drag

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Forces and balance of a typical serial car Static balance = 0.55
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Forces and balance of a typical serial car Static balance = 0.55

Forces and balance of a typical serial car

Static balance = 0.55 c AV = 0.05, c AH = 0.1

At 350 km/h: 0.578

Balance = ratio of forces on front and rear axes

Aerodynamic, static and total balance

Bal Aero = c AV / c A

Forces and balance of a typical racing car Static balance 0.45

c

At 350 km/h: 0.424 At higher velocity: tendence to understeering

(only for good race drivers)

= -0 4

.

,

c

AH

= -0 6

.

AV

At 350 km/h: 0.424 At higher velocity: tendence to understeering (only for good race drivers) =

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Distance of front and rear axes to the ground • momentum during
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Distance of front and rear axes to the ground • momentum during

Distance of front and rear axes to the ground

• momentum during braking and acceleration

• Brake additional force onto the front axis

• tendency to oversteering

• ground effect can change

• decreasing front axis distance increasing balance

• decreasing rear axis distance decreasing balance

Typical situation during a race

1. Acceleration on the straight long road, higher downforces, both

distances decrease

2. Between accelerating and braking, abrupt load change, front axis distance decreases, rear axis is

unloaded distance increases

,

3. Deceleration, smaller velocity, smaller down forces, both distances increase

4. Between braking and accelerating, front axis is unloaded, rear axis is loaded

Strong changes of the balance at 2 and 4

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour • Stable balance is important • before the first road test •
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour • Stable balance is important • before the first road test •

• Stable balance is important

• before the first road test

• define target values for static and aerodynamic balance

• not only lap time and efficiency

• „Rebalancing“

Assumption: increase of down force on the front axis without a change of the drag coefficient

• positive, since the efficiency is increased (point 1)

• aerodynamic balance moves to the front axis tendency to oversteer

• more down force on the rear axis (increase of the angle of attack)

• rear wing polar curve

• increase of drag (point 2)

• slightly worse lap time

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Hockenheim Higher efficiency = better lap time increase of lift = increase
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Hockenheim Higher efficiency = better lap time increase of lift = increase

Hockenheim Higher efficiency = better lap time increase of lift = increase of drag constant efficiency Better lap time

Generic race car: 600 hP, 1000 kg, 2 m 2 typical for LeMans

race car: 600 hP, 1000 kg, 2 m 2 typical for LeMans Le Mans = fast

Le Mans = fast curves, very long staright roads Increase of lift = increase of drag Increase of lap time lower drag coefficient

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour • Data from windtunnel polar curve • Change of front wing, rear
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour • Data from windtunnel polar curve • Change of front wing, rear

• Data from windtunnel polar curve

• Change of front wing, rear wing

• Additional aerodynamic parts

• no change of balance

• slope of the polar is not constant

• highest efficiency E = 2.45 for c W = 0.59 and c L = 1.45, lap time = 213.5 secs

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Lift and drag for side slip angles ( < 10°) Critical velocity:
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour Lift and drag for side slip angles ( < 10°) Critical velocity:

Lift and drag for side slip angles ( < 10°)

behaviour Lift and drag for side slip angles ( < 10°) Critical velocity: lift > weight

Critical velocity: lift > weight < 45°front axis, v < 300 km/hj > 120°: rear axis is critical

axis, v < 300 km/hj > 120°: rear axis is critical Large and small end plates

Large and small end plates (stabilizing by moving the pressure point rearwards

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour

Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour • shorter distances than in usual traffic • higher velocity for the
Aerodynamics, performance, driving behaviour • shorter distances than in usual traffic • higher velocity for the

• shorter distances than in usual traffic

• higher velocity for the follwing car due to the smaller v

• drag reduction also for the leading car

(increase of base pressure)

• following car with lift on the front axis

loses lift oversteering

• following car with down force on the front axis lose down force understeering

• leading car with down force on the rear axis loses down force oversteering

Driving in lee

Aerodynamics of constructional elements

Aerodynamics of constructional elements Basical body • drop shaped body • classical sportscar, flat nose, blunted

Basical body

• drop shaped body

• classical sportscar, flat nose, blunted tail

• serial cars

Influence of the nose shape

• minimum for drag

• decrease of lift

serial cars Influence of the nose shape • minimum for drag • decrease of lift Higher

Higher nose if a front wing is included

serial cars Influence of the nose shape • minimum for drag • decrease of lift Higher

Aerodynamics of constructional elements

Aerodynamics of constructional elements Tail: very long droplet-like shape Kamm-tail: cut-off without remarkable increase
Aerodynamics of constructional elements Tail: very long droplet-like shape Kamm-tail: cut-off without remarkable increase
Aerodynamics of constructional elements Tail: very long droplet-like shape Kamm-tail: cut-off without remarkable increase

Tail: very long droplet-like shape Kamm-tail: cut-off without remarkable increase of drag

shape Kamm-tail: cut-off without remarkable increase of drag Basical form is more or less defined by

Basical form is more or less defined by the reglement

Wings

Wings Function: Creation of down force • horizontal projection • profile (including flaps) • winglets, end

Function: Creation of down force

• horizontal projection

• profile (including flaps)

• winglets, end plates

Creation of down force • horizontal projection • profile (including flaps) • winglets, end plates Aspect

Aspect ratio

Creation of down force • horizontal projection • profile (including flaps) • winglets, end plates Aspect
Creation of down force • horizontal projection • profile (including flaps) • winglets, end plates Aspect
Creation of down force • horizontal projection • profile (including flaps) • winglets, end plates Aspect
Creation of down force • horizontal projection • profile (including flaps) • winglets, end plates Aspect

Aerodynamics of constructional elements

Aerodynamics of constructional elements Lift vs. Angle of attack for two Symmetric and two asymmetric profiles
Aerodynamics of constructional elements Lift vs. Angle of attack for two Symmetric and two asymmetric profiles

Lift vs. Angle of attack for two Symmetric and two asymmetric profiles

Lift vs. Angle of attack for two Symmetric and two asymmetric profiles Typical configuration of a

Typical configuration of a rear wing in DTM

Aerodynamics of constructional elements

Aerodynamics of constructional elements Lift vs drag without (upper) and with (lower) flap Pressure distribution on
Aerodynamics of constructional elements Lift vs drag without (upper) and with (lower) flap Pressure distribution on
Aerodynamics of constructional elements Lift vs drag without (upper) and with (lower) flap Pressure distribution on

Lift vs drag without (upper) and with (lower) flap

elements Lift vs drag without (upper) and with (lower) flap Pressure distribution on a curved wing

Pressure distribution on a curved wing with an Additional flap

Induced drag the free vortices consume kinetic energy

flap Pressure distribution on a curved wing with an Additional flap Induced drag the free vortices
flap Pressure distribution on a curved wing with an Additional flap Induced drag the free vortices

Gurney flap

Gurney flap Two additional counter- rotating vortices plus de- viation Additional lift and drag Efiiciency is
Gurney flap Two additional counter- rotating vortices plus de- viation Additional lift and drag Efiiciency is
Gurney flap Two additional counter- rotating vortices plus de- viation Additional lift and drag Efiiciency is

Two additional counter- rotating vortices plus de- viation

Additional lift and drag

Efiiciency is usually worse tha for the wing, but can be positive for the balance of the total car

lift and drag Efiiciency is usually worse tha for the wing, but can be positive for
lift and drag Efiiciency is usually worse tha for the wing, but can be positive for

Ground effect

Ground effect Principle of ground effect • Maximum lift coefficient • separation in the diffusor •
Ground effect Principle of ground effect • Maximum lift coefficient • separation in the diffusor •

Principle of ground effect

Ground effect Principle of ground effect • Maximum lift coefficient • separation in the diffusor •

• Maximum lift coefficient

• separation in the diffusor

• growing of boundary layers

separation in the diffusor • growing of boundary layers Lift, drag and pitching moment Schematic of
separation in the diffusor • growing of boundary layers Lift, drag and pitching moment Schematic of

Lift, drag and pitching moment

Schematic of a „ground effect“ car

Diffuser

Diffuser Components of lift as function of h 1 / H Lift as function of N
Diffuser Components of lift as function of h 1 / H Lift as function of N
Diffuser Components of lift as function of h 1 / H Lift as function of N

Components of lift as function of h 1 / H

Diffuser Components of lift as function of h 1 / H Lift as function of N
Diffuser Components of lift as function of h 1 / H Lift as function of N

Lift as function of N / h 1

Diffuser

Diffuser Drag reduction as function Of ride height and area ratio Drag reduction as function of
Diffuser Drag reduction as function Of ride height and area ratio Drag reduction as function of
Diffuser Drag reduction as function Of ride height and area ratio Drag reduction as function of

Drag reduction as function Of ride height and area ratio

Diffuser Drag reduction as function Of ride height and area ratio Drag reduction as function of

Drag reduction as function of the dimensionless Length