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# DiseodeSistemasdeDrenaje

## Jorge G. Zornberg, Ph.D., P.E.

The University of Texas at Austin, USA

President,

## International Geosynthetics Society

Cover systems

Vegetation Soil layer Geotextile filter (if needed) Drainage layer Geomembrane liner

## Bottom liner system

Protective soil layer Geotextile filter (if needed) Leachate collection layer Geomembrane liner

Flow Capacity

## Important design considerations :

1. Flow capacity at the end of design life 2. Thickness of liquid layer in service

In service conditions of a drainage layer on a slope subjected to a uniform rate of liquid supply:

## Design Criteria for Drainage Systems:

Liquid Head smaller than prescribed value, e.g. 0.3 m Liquid Thickness smaller than drainage layer thickness

Calculations are needed for the Liquid Head and Liquid Thickness

## Geometry of Drainage Layer on Slope

Maximum liquid thickness (or maximum head) as a function of: Drainage length, L Slope angle, Liquid supply rate, qh Hydraulic conductivity of drainage layer, k

## Calculation of the Maximum Liquid Thickness

Equations are available to calculate tmax if:
- The liquid supply rate is uniform and constant - The liquid collection layer is underlain by a geomembrane liner without defects - The slope of the liquid collection layer is uniform - There is a drain at the toe of the slope

> 0.25

Liner

tmax

xm

0.25

~ 0

## McEnroes Equations (1993)

Rigorous solution of the differential equation governing the flow of liquid in a drainage layer with uniform liquid supply. Used in the HELP Model. Equations are extremely sensitive to the number of digits in numerical calculations. More than 15 digits are necessary in some cases.

## Girouds Equation (1992, 1995)

Approximate solution (1%) Slightly conservative relative to McEnroes equations Very simple (one simple equation instead of three) No numerical problems Has been used in numerous landfill designs

## Source: Giroud et al. (2000a)

Simplified Equation

Simplified Equation

Incorrect Equations:
Moores equation (1980)

## Parameters for Determination of tmax

Slope, Drainage length, L Hydraulic conductivity, k Liquid supply rate, qh

## Parameters for Determination of tmax : Hydraulic Conductivity

Hydraulic conductivity, k :

Only in the case of geocomposite drains, can use the hydraulic transmissivity, :

## Long-Term-In-Soil Hydraulic Transmissivity

Application area Retaining walls Surface water drains for covers Leachate Collection and Removal Systems (LCRS) Leachate Detection Systems (LDS)

RFin
1.3 1.5 1.3 - 1.5

RFcr
1.2 1.4 1.2 1.4

RFcc
1.1 1.5 1.0 - 1.2

RFbc
1 1.5 1.2 1.5

1.5 - 2.0

1.4 2.0

1.5 - 2.0

1.5 - 2.0

1.5 - 2.0

1.4 2.0

1.5 - 2.0

1.5 - 2.0

## Parameters for Determination of tmax

Slope, Drainage length, L Hydraulic conductivity, k Liquid supply rate, qh

## Parameters for Determination of tmax : Liquid Supply Rate

Covers, general case:
Use soil saturated hydraulic conductivity

Use HELP

Use HELP

## Base liners, LDS:

Consider conservative scenarios for defects in primary liner

HELP Model
General Basis:
Quasi 2-D Deterministic Water balance

Simplifying Assumptions:
Only gravitational forces are responsible for water flow ET depth is predefined Soil moisture content of barrier layers always remains at field capacity

Input Parameters:
Weather data Soil data Design data

## HELP: Typical Landfill Profile

Precipitation Evapotranspiration Runoff

## Cover Soil Geocomposite Geomembrane Clay Liner

Infiltration Lateral Drainage Percolation

Waste

Lateral Drainage

Lateral Drainage

Leakage

Percolation

## LEACHATE COLLECTION LAYER DESIGN Design Criteria:

Liquid depth smaller than 0.3 m (1 ft) Liquid thickness smaller than liquid collection layer thickness

## Minimum Prescribed Values:

Thickness 0.3 m (1 ft) Hydraulic Conductivity 1 x 10-4 m/s (1 x 10-2 cm/s) (Hydraulic Transmissivity 3 x 10-5 m2/s) Slope 2%

## Special Mounding Equations derived from Girouds Equation

Equations for double slope Equations for double layer Equations for radial flow

Upstream section

## Double Slope Cover

Downstream section

up
Soil layer Drainage layer Geomembrane liner Drain

down

Upstream section

## Double Slope Bottom Liner

Downstream section

down
Drain

## Source: Giroud et al. (2000b)

liner

Ejemplos: DiseodeSistemasdeDrenaje
Jorge G. Zornberg, Ph.D., P.E.
The University of Texas at Austin, USA

President,

## Design Example: Granular Drainage Layer

A liquid collection layer is designed for a landfill cover. The rate of liquid supply is 100 mm in one day. A granular layer is selected. The proposed granular layer has a thickness of 0.30 m and a hydraulic conductivity of 1.0 104 m/s (these values correspond to those prescribed by current regulations). The following geometric characteristics of the liquid collection layer are tentatively considered: a length (measured horizontally) of 30 m and a slope of 2%. Check that the factor of safety (in relation to the thickness of the drainage layer) is greater than 2.5. If this criterion is not satisfied either redesign or consider a geocomposite drainage layer.

## Design Example: Drainage Geocomposite

A liquid collection layer is designed for a landfill cover. The rate of liquid supply is 100 mm in one day. A geocomposite drainage layer is selected. A hydraulic transmissivity test was performed on the proposed geocomposite (including the geotextile filters) under stresses and hydraulic gradients consistent with those expected in the field. The stresses were applied for 100 hours before the hydraulic transmissivity was measured. The transmissivity value thus measured was 3.6 103 m2 /s. The proposed geocomposite has a core thickness of 9 mm under representative field conditions. The following geometric characteristics of the liquid collection layer are tentatively considered: a length (measured horizontally) of 30 m and a slope of 2%. Check that the factor of safety (in relation to the thickness of the drainage layer) is greater than 2.5, or redesign.

## Redesign of Drainage Geocomposite

The liquid collection layer in the previous example is redesigned. The adopted solution is to change the geometry of the liquid collection layer. Specifically, a length (measured horizontally) of 15 m and a slope of 3% are now considered. Check that the factor of safety (in relation to the thickness of the drainage layer) is greater than 2.5, or redesign.

## References on Design of Drainage Systems

Giroud, J.P., and Houlihan, M.F. (1995). Design of Leachate Collection Layers, Proceedings of the Fifth International Landfill Symposium, Sardinia, Italy, October 1995, Vol. 2, pp. 613-640. Giroud, J.P., Zornberg, J.G., and Zhao, A. (2000a). Hydraulic Design of Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers. Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 285-380. Giroud, J.P., Zornberg, J.G., and Beech, J.F. (2000b). Hydraulic Design of Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers Comprising Two Different Slopes. Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Systems, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 453-489. Giroud, J.P., Zhao, A., and Bonaparte, R. (2000c). The Myth of Hydraulic Transmissivity Equivalency Between Geosynthetic and Granular Liquid Collection Layers, Geosynthetics International, Special Issue on Liquid Collection Layers, Vol. 7, Nos. 4-6, pp. 381-401. Giroud, J.P., Zhao, A., Tomlinson, H.M., and Zornberg, J.G. (2004). Liquid Flow Equations for Drainage Systems Composed of Two Layers Including a Geocomposite. Geosynthetics International, February, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 4358.