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Basic Relationships

Fundamental Relationships
Read Suggestions for the Use of SI Units in Magnetism Fundamental Units (From Resnick and Halliday, Physics, Part I, 1968, Wiley)

Coulomb's Law

a force exists between 2 magnetic poles:

where is the force is the permeability of free space, =

are the magnetic pole strength

is the distance separating the poles is the unit radial vector unlike gravity, poles come in 2 flavors: + (north-seeking) - (south-seeking) like poles repel (F is +, force is outward) unlike poles attract (F is -, force is inward)

Magnetic Induction, B
as with gravity, we are interested in force Earth exerts on a unit pole (like acceleration, with g) or, 'magnetic field intensity' analogous to gravitational acceleration (but not acceleration units!) force per unit pole strength (force exerted on unit magnetic pole)

(In our analogy with gravity, m here is the Earth's "monopole" field, which is a fiction; Stacey incorrectly calls B "magnetic field, which is H)



Basic Relationships

Magnetic Field Strength, H

if we only had to deal with a vacuum (or even air, since it has negligible magnetic susceptibility), we could always deal with H (magnetic field strength).. however, in presence of "magnetizable" material, there is a magnetic polarization (or, simply, magnetization) of material which produces an additional field (J) which adds to H combining the field strength, H, and the magnetic polarization (magnetization), J, is call the magnetic induction, B

cgs system
magnetic induction, B, is related to magnetic field, H, by B = H + 4p J (note that B, H, J, [and M, below] have the same units) J, magnetic polarization (or magnetization) and M, the magnetic dipole moment per unit volume are related by J=M

SI system
B = m0H + J J = m0M where m0 = 4p x 10-7 H/m (Henry/meter) is the permeability of free space

cgs system
from above, all four fundamental terms have the same units in cgs system, but is has been customary to use: B H J M magnetic induction magnetic field magnetic polarization, magnetization magnetic dipole moment per unit volume gauss oersted electromagnetic units electromagnetic units G Oe emu emu

SI system
in SI, for force of 1 Newton and 1 unit pole strength: A/m (H), or Tesla (B) B H J M magnetic induction magnetic field magnetic polarization, magnetization tesla amperes per meter tesla T A/m T A/m

magnetic dipole moment per unit volume amperes per meter

since these units are very large quantities, for exploration work: 1 A/m (H), or Tesla (B) = 109 nanotesla (nT) 1 Oersted (Oe) = 105 g (gamma) 1 g equivalent to nT 2/7


Basic Relationships

Definition of magnetic permeability

Magnetic Potential
Since H or B are central force fields (depend only on r), they are conservative, and can be represented as gradient of a scalar, potential field. And since the field are proportional to 1/r2, they obey LaPlace's equation. The scalar potential is


when there is no magnetic material is present,

where H is the magnetic field strength, else, where is relative magnetic permeability.

Magnetic Dipole
In nature we find dipoles, not monopoles A dipole consists of two poles of opposite polarity and equal strength. Have physicists seen magnetic monopoles? The strength of a dipole depends on strength of magnetization of poles and their separation, and is a vector quantity known as dipole moment, which is analogous to mass in gravity: M = ml where M is a vector directed from the negative pole to the positive pole The dipole moment is analogous to mass As we shall see, though, unlike mass, for which potential drops off like 1/r, the potential field of a dipole drops off like 1/r2 (field drops off like?)

Intensity of magnetization
Magnetic dipole moment is an extensive quantity (like mass). In analogy with gravity, magnetic dipole moment per unit volume is an intensive quantity (like density). This is also called the intensity of magnetization, or I = M/volume = ml/volume = m/area where I and M are vector quantities.

Potential due to a Dipole

The potential due to a dipole is found by summing the potentials of the individual poles:



Basic Relationships

so the total potential is (after bringing




Basic Relationships

the basic dipole consists of spinning electron (current loop), where l and hence l/r are small, so we neglect terms of (l/r)2, and use Taylor's series:

eliminating terms, we get

Field of Magnetic Dipole



Basic Relationships

Fig. 4.8. Magnetic field of a dipole. Dipole m is oriented toward top of page. Vectors indicate the direction of B that would be observed at the center of each vector. Dashed contours indicate constant values of |B|, the value decreasing by a factor of 10 at each succeeding contour from the dipole; that is, if the closest contour to the dipole has the value |B| = 1, succeeding contours have the values 0.1, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively. Quotes obtain vector field by taking gradient of potential, and find the components of this vector field:



Basic Relationships

in MKS, the magnetic induction components are N.B. B (and H) depend on 1/r3 for given r, field is greatest on axis with dipole Bq = 0 at magnetic "pole" Br = 0 at magnetic "equator" sign convention: Positive pole attracted toward Earth's N pole (north-seeking pole)