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INTRODUCTION Information technology to people's production and way of life has undergone tremendous changes, manifested in: The

The emergence of electronic commerce, including online information services, electronic shopping, electronic banking and financial services, online degree; Management changes; Manufacturing and globalization of Economic activities. With the Internet, a new device can be designed in the United States, China printing, Russian-made. As people live and places of worship building to adapt to the changes brought by information technology, the emergence and development of intelligent building is an inevitable trend. Intelligent building is by configuring the various subsystems within the building, integrated wiring, based on a computer network as a bridge, the full realization of the communication system, building a variety of equipment (air conditioning, a total of heat, water supply and drainage, electricity distribution , lighting, elevators, fire, public safety, etc.) integrated management. All of these, from the technically for intelligent building technology industry has played a supportive role. The word intelligent was first used to describe buildings in the United States at the beginning of the 1980s. The concept of intelligent building was stimulated by the development of information technology and increasingly sophisticated demand for comfort living environment and requirement for increased occupant control of their local environments. An Intelligent Building is one conceived and designed with an integrated flexible and modular communication cabling infrastructure capable of accommodating the needs of information intensive users for advanced information technology and services. Intelligent buildings apply technologies to improve the building environment and functionality for occupants/tenants while controlling costs. Improving end user security, comfort and accessibility all help user productivity and comfort levels. The owner/operator wants to provide this functionality while reducing individual costs. Technologies make this possible. An effective energy management system, for example, provides lowest cost energy, avoids waste of energy by managing occupied space, and makes efficient use of staff through centralized control and integrating information from different sources.

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DEFINITION Intelligent building (IB) is the future of our building industry. All new commercial buildings and probably luxurious domestic buildings are designed with a common goal to become intelligent buildings. In the USA, an IB is categorised by four basic elements, namely building structure, building systems, building services and building management. In Europe, the emphasis is on information technology and the genuine need of the user. In Singapore and China, it appears that the term automation has been dominating with a great emphasis on high technology.

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THE DEFINITION OF IBs IN USA According to Intelligent Building Institute (IBI) of USA, an IB is one which provides a productive and cost-effective environment through optimisation of its four basic elements, i.e. structure, systems, services and management and the interrelationships between them. IBs help building owners, property managers, and occupants realise their goals in the areas of cost, comfort, convenience, safety, long-term flexibility and marketability.

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THE DEFINITION OF IBs IN EUROPE The UK based European Intelligent Building Group defined an IB as one that creates an environment which maximises the effectiveness of the buildings occupants while at the same time enabling efficient management of resources with minimum life-time costs of hardware and facilities. Based on this definition, building providers and developers need to understand precisely what sort of buildings they should develop that will be both profitable and able to meet the users increasingly complex requirements.

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EXISTING DEFINITIONS OF IBs IN ASIA 1.3.1 The Definition in Singapore The Public Works Department of Singapore government stated that an IB must fulfil three conditions:

The building should have advanced automatic control systems to monitor various facilities, including air-conditioning, temperature, lighting, security, fire etc. to provide a comfortable working environment for the tenants.

The building should have good networking infrastructure to enable data flow between floors. The building should provide adequate tele-communication facilities.

1.3.2 The Definition in Japan IBs in Japan have been developed in a different social and office environment from those in the USA. Japanese IBs must be designed to suit Japans cultural climate. The foci of Japanese IBs have been on four aspects: Serving as a locus for receiving and transmitting information and supporting management efficiency; Ensuring satisfaction and convenience for the people working in them; The rationalisation of building administration to provide more attentive administrative services with lower cost; Fast, flexible and economical responses to changing sociological environments, diverse and complicated office work and active business strategies.

1.3.3 A New Definition of IBs for Asia It is believed that the Japanese mode of definition on IBs is more suitable for formalising a universal definition for IBs in Asia. However, there is no point why it cannot be extensible for the whole world. We have proposed a two-level strategy to define an IB. There are eight quality environment modules, including: Environmental friendly health and energy conservation (M1); Space utilisation and flexibility (M2); Life cycle costing operation and maintenance (M3); Human comfort (M4); Working efficiency (M5); Safety - fire, earthquake, disaster and structure etc. (M6) Culture (M7);

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Image of high technology (M8).

Other Definitions of Intelligent Building Nowadays, the term "smart" or "intelligent building" is gaining popularity and this concept generated a good deal of market anticipation during the last decade, much of which subsequently dissipated once the limits and complexities of building intelligence were discovered. Though intelligence is an ambiguous term, especially when applied to man-made systems, it is widely accepted that it refers to objects that can react correctly to unforeseen circumstances by choosing amongst a set of possible actions and furthermore, can learn from the associated response. The concepts of selfcorrection or fault tolerance are considered as essential elements of "artificial intelligence". It is also widely accepted that the means to achieve intelligence consist of tools that resemble human intelligence methods, such as neural networks and fuzzy logic. Intelligent Building technology generally refers to the integration of four systems: a Building Automation System (BAS), a Telecommunications System (TS), an Office Automation System (OAS) and a Computer Aided Facility Management System (CAFMS). A sophisticated BAS is actually the basis of every "intelligent building". Definitions for the Intelligent Building concept still vary but the most accepted description is the one produced by the Barcelona-based Institut defons Cerd: A building which incorporates information systems that support the flow of information throughout the building, offering advanced services of business automation and telecommunications, allowing furthermore automatic control, monitoring management and maintenance of the different subsystems or services of the building in an optimum and integrated way, local and/or remote, and designed with sufficient flexibility to make possible in a simple and economical way the implementation of future systems. Part of the definition accepted by the Intelligent Buildings Institute (IBI) is: An Intelligent Building is one that provides a productive and cost effective environment through optimization of its , four basic elements: Structures, Systems, Services, Management, and the interrelation between them... the only characteristic

that all Intelligent Buildings must have in common is a structure designed to accommodate change in a convenient, cost effective manner. The definition adopted by the European Intelligent Building Group (EIBG) is: An Intelligent Building creates an environment that allows organizations to achieve their business objectives and maximizes the effectiveness of its occupants while at the same time allowing efficient management of resources with minimum life-time cost. It is clear from these definitions that the sole inclusion of high-tech, sophistically controlled service systems in a building does not make it an IB. On the contrary, the sophistication of a service system itself should be no higher than needed by the defined goal and future application of the specific building. Moreover there is nothing new in the service systems of an IB in the purely technological sense. The advantage of IBs therefore lies in the selection of the most suitable systems to fulfil specific goals and in the integration among these systems in order to achieve these goals, both efficiently and economically.

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CHARACTERISTICS A building does not become intelligent just because a light is automatically switched on when someone enters a door. The intelligent building must be able to support other aspects like technical. Cannot take a building and make it intelligent, the building has to be designed intelligent from the first draft on the drawing board. Far more than technical systems must be considered when designing intelligent building. An intelligent building is not only the building itself and the systems installed. There must be a commitment from the developer or the owner than this is and will be maintained as an intelligent building. To be able to assess a degree of intelligence we have look at the specific needs of a specific building. A system installed in a building considered as intelligent might not be considered intelligent if the usage of the building was to change slightly. It might be capability of the system to be able to adapt to the changes that makes it intelligent. Whether this building is more or less intelligent it cannot be said. The answer must come from those who occupy and maintain the building and perhaps from the future tenants. What puts it in favour of a more intelligent building is the awareness of future changes in demand and the relation to the activity carries out within the building.

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PURPOSE OF INTELLIGENT BUILDING The purpose of the intelligent building can be given in terms of:

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Energy Efficiency Intelligence with respect to energy in an intelligent building consists of the reduction of energy use to the bare minimum. Computerized systems are used extensively.

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Life Safety System Intelligence with respect to life safety in an intelligent building consists of the use of high technology to maximize the performance of the fire alarm and security systems while at the same time minimizing costs.

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Telecommunications Systems Intelligence with respect to telecommunications in an intelligent building consists of the offering to tenants of many sophisticated telecom features at a considerably reduced cost due to fact that the equipment is shared by many users.

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Workplace Automation Intelligence with respect to workplace automation in an intelligent building consists of the use of high-tech office automation systems to render the operation of a company more efficient. This can be done at a reduced cost to tenants by virtue of the equipment being shared.

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Typical Services Typical services that can be offered and give the occupants in terms of

Message centre
Word processing Computer-Assisted design Teleconferencing Electronic mail Computer services

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CONCEPT "Intelligent building" concept, was born in the early 80s of the 20th century, it is the inevitable result of the information age. With the intelligent building (also known as Intelligent Building) in the continuous application of intelligent technology and development, it is very difficult to "intelligent building" a precise definition of the next. American Intelligent Buildings Institute (AIBI, American Intelligent Building Institute) definition of "intelligent building" is the structure, systems, services, operations and interrelationships of a comprehensive and integrated, and the best combination, obtained by high efficiency, high performance and high comfort building. The new definition is more general and abstract. From a development point of view, should be emphasized that intelligent building is a multi-disciplinary, multi-technology system integration features, which refers to the use of intelligent building system integration method, the intelligent computer technology, communication technology, information technology and art of organic architecture , and through automatic monitoring equipment, information resources management and information services to users and their optimal combination of the building, which was a reasonable investment for the information needs of the community and has a safe, efficient, comfortable, convenience and flexibility. Features of the building:

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Create a Safe, Healthy, Comfortable and Can Improve the Efficiency of the Office Environment In developed countries, people causing residents headaches or malaise, or even frequently called sick buildings "People Building Syndrome" (Sick Building Sydrome) buildings. The first intelligent building to ensure the safety and health, its fire and security systems are intelligent; its air conditioning system to monitor the content of harmful pollutants in the air, and automatically disinfected, making it "safe and healthy building." Intelligent Building of the temperature, humidity, lighting levels are to be automatically adjusted, or even control the colour, background noise and smell, so people feel comfortable as at home, which can greatly increase the work efficiency.

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Energy Conservation to Modern Commercial Buildings Energy conservation to modern commercial buildings, for example, the air conditioning and lighting systems, large energy consumption, accounting for 70% of total energy consumption of buildings. To meet user requirements on the environment under the premise of intelligent building, through its "wisdom", as far as possible use of natural light and cold air (or heat) to regulate the indoor environment to minimize energy consumption. By pre-established procedures on the calendar, the distinction between "work" and "non-work" time, the implementation of the indoor environment of different standards of control, after work automatically reduce the indoor illumination and temperature and humidity control standards, have become essential for intelligent buildings function. Use air conditioning and control industries latest technology to maximize the energy savings are the main features of the intelligent building, its economy is of such construction can be an important reason for rapid promotion.

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To Meet Various User Requirements in Different Environmental Functions Intelligent building demands of their architectural design with smart features, in addition to support 3A (or 5A) function to achieve, must be open, large-span frame structure, allows the user to quickly and easily change the function or re-use of the building planning architecture. Necessary for indoor office communications and power supply also has great flexibility, through the structured cabling system, distributed in a variety of indoor standard weak and strong electric outlet, just change the jumper cables, you can quickly change the function socket such as changing the computer program-controlled telephone interface, in some circumstances there are wireless solutions as a strong complement.

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Modern Means of Communication and Working Conditions In the information age, time is money. In the intelligent building, the user through international direct dial telephone, video phone, email, video conferencing, information retrieval and statistical analysis and other means, it may be a global financial business intelligence, technology intelligence and data systems in a variety of the latest information; through the international computer communications network, at any time with world trade and other enterprises or institutions of various operations.

Unprecedented speed, greatly in favour of decision-making and competition, this is the modern company or organization with competing rent or purchases the reasons for intelligent buildings.

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INTELLIGENT ARCHITECTURE AND STRUCTURE Although the successful use of advanced technologies, including IT, is the main feature of intelligent buildings, the implementation of technologies should not be the sole objective of IBs. Performance is definitely a key objective of intelligent buildings, although performance can be interpreted very differently. As regards the hardware facilities, intelligent buildings cannot be separated from the architecture design, building facades and materials, which are among the essential elements of intelligent buildings.

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Intelligent Architecture Intelligent architecture refers to built forms whose integrated systems are capable of anticipating and responding to phenomena, whether internal or external, that affect the performance of the building and its occupants. Intelligent architecture relates to three distinct areas of concern: Intelligent design Appropriate use of intelligent technology Intelligent use and maintenance of buildings

5.1.1 Intelligent Design Intelligent design requires that the building design responds to humanistic, cultural and contextual issues; that it exhibits simultaneous concern for economic, political and global issues; and that it produces an artificial enclosure which exists in harmony with nature.

Existing in harmony with nature includes responding to the physical laws of nature and the proper use of natural resources. 5.1.2 Appropriate Use of Intelligent Technology The mere availability of a large variety of smart materials and intelligent technologies often results in their use inappropriate situations. Integrating intelligent technologies with an intelligent built form that responds to the inherent cultural preferences of the occupants is a central theme in intelligent

architecture. As an example, in areas where people place a high premium on operable windows for conservation of electricity, the most appropriate and efficient air-conditioning strategy for a building may be the use of thermal mass and night-time free cooling instead of a high-tech air-conditioning system. In other cases, the use of carefully selected electric lighting and environmental control strategies may be more appropriate. 5.1.3 Intelligent Use and Maintenance of Buildings Truly intelligent architecture incorporates intelligent facility management (FM) processes. For a design to be intelligent it must take into consideration the life cycle of a building and its various systems and components. Although intelligent building may be complex, it should be fundamentally simple to operate, be energy and resource efficient and easy to maintain, upgrade, modify and recycle. Materials and equipment that require complex maintenance and unhealthy cleaning agents, and building components that must be treated as hazardous waste in the recycling process (e.g. mercury in light-bulbs) would not be used in a fully developed intelligent architecture. 5.2 Intelligent and Responsive Building Facade The character of the building envelope will be affected dramatically by the development of intelligent buildings. Facades designed to integrate a host of emerging technologies will have an inherent intelligence and be able to respond automatically, or through human intervention, to contextual conditions and individual needs. Intelligent facades currently can: Be centrally controlled while still providing the occupant with the ability to manually override the system Change their thermo physical properties such as thermal resistance, transmittance, absorptance, permeability, etc; Modify their interior and exterior colour and/or texture; Function as communicating media facades with video and voice capabilities; Change optical properties and allow the creation of patterned glazing, providing the opportunity for dynamic shading and remote light control.

The development of the intelligent and responsive facade necessitates the redefinition of the terms windows and wall. With the introduction of new glazing and wall assemblies, what is transparent may become opaque with the flick of a switch. Central controls for intelligent facades will respond to climatic conditions by transforming the building envelope to optimize heating and cooling loads, daylight utilization, natural ventilation, and so on. Intelligent facades will transport daylight deep into a buildings interior and allow the occupants to determine the degree of luminous, acoustical and thermal comfort required along with the degree of visual and acoustical privacy provided by the enclosure. The idea of the intelligent or smart system, originally applied to electrical, mechanical and aerospace systems, recently has been extended to include civil structures as advances in sensing, networking and new materials have made continuous monitoring and control of structural functions a realizable goal. By definition, the intelligent structure has the capability to identify its status and optimally adapt its function in response to stimuli. The major focus of the intelligent civil structure has been on two areas: Identification of structural behaviour or properties (e.g. deformation, energy usage or damage evaluation); Control of structural response to stimuli, whether external (e.g. wind or earthquake) or internal (e.g. acoustics or temperature variation).

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TECHNOLOGY BUILDINGS

SYSTEMS

AND

EVOLUTION

OF

INTELLIGENT

The evolution of intelligent building systems is illustrated in Figure 1, which is modified and updated from the Intelligent Building Pyramids developed by the European Intelligent Building Group. The pyramid illustrates the contents and evolution of IB technology over the last few decades. The pyramid is open at the top, emphasizing that the intelligent building systems are not enclosed within buildings any more but instead are merged with IB systems in other buildings as well as other information systems via global Internet infrastructure. Intelligent buildings began from the automatic intelligent control of typical building services processes and communication devices. Along with the rapid evolution of electronic technology, computer technology and information technology, intelligent building systems are becoming more and more advanced, and the level of integration is being developed progressively from the subsystem level to total building integration and convergence of information systems. Before 190, the automation of building systems was achieved at the level of the individual apparatus or device. After 1980, intelligent building systems entered the integrated stages. There has been great progress on IB system integration in terms of both technology and scale. IB systems after 198 can be divided into five stages as follows:

Figure 1: The Intelligent Building Pyramid 6.1 Integrated single function/dedicated systems (1980-5); Integrated multifunction systems (1985-90); Building level integrated systems (1990-5); Computer integrated building (1995-2002); Enterprise network integrated systems (2002-). Integrated Single Function/Dedicated Systems (1980-5) At the stage of integrated single function/dedicated systems (1980-5), all the BA subsystems (including security control; access control; heating, ventilation and airconditioning [HVAC] control; lighting control; lift control; other electrical systems; fire automation; etc.) and CA subsystems (including electronic data processing [EDP}

and data communication; telefax and text communication; voice communication; TV and image communication; etc.) were integrated at the level of a single or individual function subsystem. Integration and communication between the automation systems of different subsystems was impossible. 6.2 Integrated Multifunction Systems (1985-90) At the stage of integrated multifunction systems (1985-90), security and access control were integrated. The automation systems of building plants or services systems were integrated. There were unified networks for text and data communication, voice communication and image communication respectively. At this stage, the integration of systems with the same nature or similar functions was achieved. 6.3 Building Level Integrated Systems (1990-5) At the stage of building level integrated systems (1990-5), both BA and communication systems were integrated at building level as building automation system (BAS) and integrated communication system (ICS). At this stage, a BA system could be accessed remotely via telephone network using a modem, while the cellular phone for voice and data communication was introduced to the market. 6.4 Computer Integrated Building (1995-2002) At and after the stage of computer integrated building (1995-2002), convergence networks became available and ere used in practice progressively, thanks to the popular use of Internet protocol (IP) network technologies and increased network capacity. At this stage, the integration was at the building level. Remote monitoring and control could be achieved via the Internet. 6.5 Enterprise Network Integrated System (2002-) At the stage of enterprise network integrated system (2002-), the intelligent systems can be integrated and managed at enterprise level or city level. Intelligent building systems are not enclosed within buildings anymore; they are merged with IB systems in other buildings as well as other information systems via the global Internet infrastructure. Integration and management at this level become possible due to the applications of advanced IT technologies such as Web Services, XML, remote portfolio management and helpdesk management, among others. In terms of

communication, image communication via cellular phone has been brought into practical use.

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BENEFITS Many of the concepts which are central to intelligent buildings are already commonplace, e.g., the ability to access a building independently and securely outside of normal working hours. The major benefits of intelligent buildings are as follows: Standardized building systems wiring enables simple upgrade modifications of control systems; A higher value building and leasing potential can be reached via increased individual environmental control; Consumption costs are managed through zone control on a time of day schedule; Occupants/tenants control building systems after-hours via computer or telephone interface; Occupant/tenant after-hours system use is tracked for charge back purposes; The service/replacement history of individual relay and zone use is tracked; and A single human resources (hire/fire) interface modifies telephone, security, parking, LAN, wireless devices and building directory, etc. These useful benefits can be cost effective. Cost savings benefit primarily the developer/ owner/operator, while functional enhancements are mainly enjoyed by the occupants/ tenants. If improved comfort, security, flexibility and reliability can be achieved along with reduced costs and increased productivity, thus increasing return on investment, few would argue against the deployment of such technology.

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CHALLENGES The financial impact is always significant, including capital costs, expenses and revenues. Financial implications must be correctly assessed, including the time value of money and tax effects. Low initial costs are attractive to developers, while the owners/operators and occupants/tenants are more interested in ongoing operational costs. Intelligent buildings offer major opportunities to increase revenue and offer more value, hence to sell/rent for higher prices and/or more rapidly. Financial decisions that compare alternative plans considering only initial cost will usually be wrong. If the revenue stream is the same, then ongoing expenses should be judged via the metric present worth of annual charges (PWAC).If the alternatives generate different revenue,(usually the case with intelligent buildings), the correct metric is net present value (NPV). The initial cost should only be the deciding factor when the metrics of alternative plans (PWAC where revenue is uniform and NPV where revenue varies) have similar results. The improved value of intelligent buildings should encourage

developers/owners/operators and the entire supplier community to take advantage of these opportunities. Intelligent building projects will affect the construction processes. The successful outcome requires an integrated design, with practical solutions with regards to divisional specifications, contracts and the interaction of the design, management and construction staff on the project. Changes in approach will be needed throughout the supplier community. Intelligent buildings must react to component and system failures more reliably than conventional systems, using system design to ensure problem isolation and resolution that improves on conventional performance. Education, experience and changed practices will be required throughout the supplier community, including engineers, designers, architects, contractors, manufacturers, and those who manage and maintain the systems. Provision and use of common space, common infrastructure and shared resources are central to the economic effectiveness and advantage of intelligent buildings. A building and its infrastructure typically have a lifespan of 25 years or more between major retrofits. Intelligent buildings offer the ability to upgrade functional capability more often and much more economically, through upgrading components and equipment items without changing physical components, e.g., cabling.

Authorities having jurisdiction must ensure that codes, practices and conventions support and encourage the deployment of intelligent buildings, to gain the functional and financial value. The advantages of intelligent buildings highlight the need for the rules and regulations to encourage the use of intelligent building technologies while ensuring that public safety and public service are well addressed.

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INTELLIGENT BUILDING TECHNOLOGIES SYSTEM

Widespread use of computer-based processing enables the automation of all basic building systems. This, in turn, forms the basis for integration among systems. The value of intelligent building systems improves dramatically as more systems are integrated. 9.1 Basic Building Systems 9.1.1 Lighting Intelligent building technologies for lighting include many lighting types and functions. Lighting needs vary with each building. The functional goal is to furnish occupants of the building with the lighting required to complete specific visual tasks effectively and productively. Current lighting systems can: Automatically turn on and off lights by photocell or computer schedule; Modify lighting levels through the use of photochromatic windows; Allow individuals to adjust their lighting through computer or telephone interfaces; Link the lighting controller to a graphic user interface with icons, for centralized control; Turn circuits on and off through computer control; and Manage energy consumption by monitoring room occupancy and adjusting lighting to suit. 9.1.2 Voice and Data Communications Voice and data communication capabilities are integral to the effective operation of a building and its occupants. In an intelligent building, data communication is vital to the integration of all other automated building systems, e.g., lighting, energy management and HVAC. Generally data in the context of voice and data, refers only to end-user data, such as email, Internet and database access. Voice and data in-building communications include: Voice services, e.g., telephones, voicemail and intercoms; Building systems, e.g., paging, elevator music and kiosks;

Video and audio conferencing; Local and wide area networks, e-mail, internet access, database access; Ability to access building services remotely, e.g., when working from home; Television systems.

9.1.3 Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning, and Indoor Air Quality HVAC systems are generally controlled by building automation systems that can: Permit individual occupants to adjust workspace temperatures (within prescribed limits); Monitor temperatures, and adjust according to a usage profile; Adjust indoor air quality based on room occupancy and building standards; Adjust humidity, temperature and air flow speeds; and Use either variable air volume or constant volume air distribution designs. The former allows greater individual control. 9.1.4 Energy Efficiency/Energy Management The objective of energy management is to ensure maximum efficiency and lowest operating cost. Opportunities for reducing heat gain in the summer and reducing heat loss in the winter will lower energy costs. Energy deregulation brings opportunities to select the most effective source of heat, be it steam, oil, natural gas or electricity. In some buildings, multiple fuels are used together, whereas in other situations, each source of heat generates warmth in a distinct manner. For example, baseboard electrical heaters may supplement circulating warm air. Furnaces capable of burning either natural gas or oil exist, and electric heater systems compete with the ability to purchase steam from external sources. Management of these energy sources depends on the infrastructure that exists within the building, as well as the spot costs of each of these energy sources. Intelligent building technologies permit each of the following energy sources to be managed based on criteria that can include the fluctuating pricing of: Traditional electrical generating and distribution sources;

New electrical generating agencies; Oil; Gas; Co-generation; and Future opportunities that may involve photovoltaic sources and wind.

9.1.5 Security Security systems are generally divided into three sub-components: Access control; Intrusion; and Surveillance. Effective security systems integrate these three areas, allowing the building mode, function and operation to be pre-scheduled or controlled by individual access requests. A typical system will involve: Access card; Elevator interface; Door interface; Intrusion detection; Sensor detection, such as temperature, moisture, glass breakage, etc.; Guard tours; and Parking controls. Many of the functions of an access control system are subordinate to the life safety system, which may deactivate parts of the access control system in an emergency. 9.1.6 Elevators and Escalators Intelligent building systems can provide occupants with improved elevator service. Elevator control can be quite complex, particularly with multiple elevator groupings and incorporating traffic patterns into the system. Some elevators may be shut down for part of the day to conserve energy. Current designs frequently include communications within the elevators to permit the use of access control cards, and closed circuit surveillance is becoming

widespread. An effective access control system can permit dynamic changes to user privileges so that, for example, certain floors may not be accessible even with an approved access control card, unless there are already people occupying that floor. Escalators can save energy by slowing down or stopping when detectors indicate no traffic. This approach to energy savings also benefits the mechanical components that need not run continuously. 9.1.7 Life Safety Systems Life safety systems, often called fire systems, are typically driven by code considerations. Security systems are required to release doors per code constraints under emergency conditions. HVAC systems are also driven by life safety needs, e.g., smoke extraction, stairwell pressurization and elevator recall. The advent of intelligent building technologies facilitates additional functionality. For example, in a fire, lighting can be turned on throughout the building, and networks can enhance information provided to individuals, e.g., the state of the fire system, emergency broadcast messages, etc. Paging systems, normally restricted to being part of the fire system, can be used in intelligent buildings to broadcast pre-recorded status messages, which can be far more informative than messages spoken by nervous staff.

CONCLUSION The major actionable conclusions and recommendations to promote intelligent buildings are: Intelligent building technologies are generally available but are not yet widely adopted; There is reluctance by much of the development and construction industry to embrace them; Many changes and initiatives must occur for these technologies to become widespread; and There is a need for promotion and education at all levels and in all segments of the industry. The IB concepts objective is to maximize interactivity between the different systems while maintaining full flexibility to accommodate upgrades and implementation of new user requirements in the future. For a successful implementation the IB concept must be retained in the initial planning stages of a new building or its major renovations. A well structure and modular communication backbone must also be included in the base building plan.

REFERENCES H. Arkin , M. Paciuk Evaluating intelligent buildings according to level of service systems integration Automation in Construction 6 (1997) 471-479 Intelligent Building Concept Commissioned by PWGSC A&ES Technology Winston Hetherington