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Exercises on Connectors

EXERCISES ON CONNECTORS

Showing purpose or reason:


Purpose so that / in order that ( + S+modal V) so as to /in order to ( + infinitive) Reason because / since / as ( + S+V ) because of / due to + (pro)noun/ owing to / thanks to / gerund

These connectors show what for or why something is done The! are followed b! different parts of speech "#ecause" is preferred after the main clause$ %since" and %as" before it &hen the! begin a sentence' the clauses in the sentence are separated b! a comma
()amples* +It will be done that way so that we can avoid the bureaucracy. It will be done that way in order to avoid the bureaucracy. -She loves him because of his honesty. She loves him because he is honest. Since he is honest, she loves him.

EXERCISE A* Rewrite each sentence using the words in brackets so that it means the same as the original sentence , -e works hard in order to support his aging parents (so that) . She couldn/t bu! the new car because of the high price (because it) 0 The! had to take action so that the! could teach the children a lesson (in order to) 1 The! have called a special meeting because the issue is so serious (because of) 2 -e chose to do it that wa! in order to keep it a secret (so as to) 3 -e did it himself in order not to involve her (since) Showing contrast ( S + V ) but ( S + V )
(main clause) (main clause)

coordinator

although ( S + V ) ' though (S+V) even though while/whereas


(main clause) (subordinate clause)

subordinator

-owever' 4et' Still' (ven so' 5ll the same' 5ll in all' (S+V) 6evertheless' 6onetheless' (S+V) though despite + (pro)noun/gerund in spite of

adverb(ial)s prepositions

These connectors link contrasting or opposing ideas 6ote that some connectors are followed b! a sentence' while others(7prep ) are followed b! a noun phrase(' a noun' a gerund or a pronoun) &hen a connector begins the sentence' a comma is used to separate the two contrasting ideas %&hile" and %whereas" link directl! opposite ideas$ when %though" is an adverb' it normall! occurs at the end of the sentence
()amples* Even though he had an accident, he still wants to ride his motorcycle. Despite his accident, he still wants to ride his motorcycle. (He still wants to ride it even though he had an accident despite his accident.! "nna is interested in history, whereas #ohn finds it boring. She$s intelligent. She is very la%y, though.
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Exercises on Connectors

EXERCISE B* 8orm one sentence from each pair 9oin the two with one of the connectors of contrast There are several possibilities for each
()ample* -e is rude and arrogant She loves him She loves him although he is rude and arrogant. &hough he is rude and arrogant, she loves him. He is rude and arrogant' yet she loves him. He(s rude and arrogant but she loves him. .. ... ... ... ... ... ....

, . 0 1 2 3 < = ?

&e/re having beautiful weather this week 6e)t week it is supposed to rain -e has his faults -e:s a good person ; thought ; knew m! wa! around town ; got lost She was in great personal danger She went into the burning house to save her brother She hasn/t done an! of the work She/s not worried 9im is a terrific athlete Paul is the more studious t!pe -e doesn/t earn much -e does ever!thing he can to provide for his famil! #ill hated the film >ath! loved it -e sa!s he/ll be there on time ; don/t believe it Showing comparison or contrast @omparison @ontrast

Similarl! / Aikewise / similar to also / too / as well not onl! but also Bust as like / Bust like in comparison to / compared to ( to be ) the same as

but$ however' !et Cnlike Dn the one hand on the other hand in contrast to' contrar! to (to be) different from

EXERCISE C* Cnderline the items being compared or contrasted @omplete the following sentences with a suitable e)pression of comparison or contrast l Aondon' Paris' Eoscow and 6ew 4ork' has an underground rail network . ' driving a car is often Fuicker than travelling b! bus$ ' one alwa!s faces a parking problem in the cit! when taking a car 0 5ll of the universities here offer full academic degrees' the training colleges do not 1 The cit! of @ambridge is D)ford in that it has a prestigious universit! 2 Spain' #ritain does not enBo! long hot summers Adding information and giving e amp!es
word/sentence + and + word/sentence #esides' 8urthermore' ;n addition' + sentence ( S + V ) Eoreover' Similarl!' in addition to / besides + noun phrase as well as for e)ample / for instance such as / like including

adding information or detail

giving e)amples

%#esides" often introduces a stronger argument than the one before


()amples* )any people en*oy learning English. In addition, they are often surprised to see how many words in English are similar to words they use in their own language. I want to cancel my hotel reservations because a friend of mine didn$t en*oy his stay there. +esides, I can(t ta,e time off from wor, ne-t wee,. &here many irregular structures in English as well as in Spanish. I spea, many European languages, for e-ample, .erman, /rench and Italian.
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Exercises on Connectors

EXERCISE "* "# @omplete the following sentences using suitable connectors* , #e carefulG The road is slipper! winding . being angr!' he was also disappointed with his son/s reaction 0 There are plent! of interesting cities to visit in Spain$ ' Salamanca' #arcelona and Seville 1 &e saw a great comed! at the theatre last night a great plot' the acting was superb 2 Tom/s trip was a disaster -e broke his leg skiing losing his wallet 3 #efore moving house' !ou should inform the gas and electric companies ' !ou should give !our forwarding address to !our local post office "$ @omplete the following sentences using !our own words* , Putting on a school pla! is advisable ;t helps both pupils and teachers to get to know each other better 8urthermore' . @hoosing a career is alwa!s complicated Eoreover' 0 ; can/t come to visit !ou ne)t summer because we are moving house #esides' 1 ;n addition ' the thieves also stole the Beweller! and some valuable porcelain 2 There will be a wide variet! of activities at the summer camp' such as Time c!auses with future meaning after till before until once the moment that when whenever

as long as as soon as by the time

These connectors can be used to introduce time clauses with future meaning &e use the present tense after the time e)pression &hen the time clause begins the sentence' the two clauses are separated b! a comma I ,now that as soon as I get home, my parents will as, me where I(ve been. EXERCISE E* @omplete the following sentences with the correct form of the verb in brackets* , 5s soon as the e)ams . Please 0 She 1 The moment that we 2 5s long as !ou 3 5s soon as it < Dnce !ou = 4ou ? 4ou can ,H #! the time !ou (be) over' we (inform) me when !ou (not return) the book until she (arrive) in Paris' we (be) here' !ou (stop) raining' ; (reach) the age of l=' !ou (come) to visit us' whenever !ou (finish) !our homework' dinner (take) a holida! (decide) on the date (finish) reading it (phone) !ou (have to) live according to our rules (show) !ou around the cit! (be able) to vote in elections (see) them (be) read!
0

(hear) the noise of the Victoria 8alls before !ou actuall! (like)

Exercises on Connectors

Reason and result (or Cause and effect): Ainking words showing reason or cause* %ecause& since& as' %ecause of& due to& owing to& than(s to Ainking words showing result or effect* so' therefore& conse)uent!*& thus& as a resu!t @orrelation showing cause and effect* so ( + adB /adv ) that $ such ( + noun phrase) that () + Visibilit! was poor because it was very foggy Since "s it was very foggy visibilit! was poor Visibilit! was poor due to the heavy fog + It was very foggy (and! so visibilit! was poor ;t was ver! fogg! @onseFuentl!' visibilit! was poor + ;t was so foggy that visibilit! was poor There was such a heavy fog that visibilit! was poor EXERCISE +* 8,) @DEPA(T( T-( S(6T(6@(S ;6 0123)4 " CS;6I %because" DR %because of" 56J 56 ;J(5 8RDE 0123)4 + CS( (5@- ;J(5 ;6 + D6A4 D6@(* () &e had to wal, home because we missed the last bus. " + &e had to walk home his bad leg ; didn/t have an! lunch ; thought it might rain Dur plane was dela!ed ; wasn/t hungr! -e went to Paris we missed the bus ; took an umbrella !our cooperation -e couldn:t run ver! fast he wanted to learn 8rench &e could finish in time people drink and drive There are a lot of accidents the wind

H , . 0 1 2 3 <

8.) 6D& SC#ST;TCT( %since" DR %as" 8DR %because" 56J %due to"' %owing to" DR %thanks to" 8DR %because of" 8 0) 8;65AA4' R(&R;T( T-DS( S(6T(6@(S ;6 &-;@- 4DC -5V( CS(J %because"' %since" DR %as" &;T- %therefore"' %conseFuentl!"' %thus"' %as a result" DR %so" CS( 5 J;88(R(6T D6( (5@- T;E( () 5e missed the last bus. &herefore, we had to wal, home. EXERCISE ,* 9D;6 (5@- P5;R D8 S(6T(6@(S CS;6I %so/such (that)" *

() -e:s got a ver! good memor! -e never needs to write an!thing down ++++++++ He$s got such a good memory (that! he never needs to write anything down. , ;t was a ver! warm evening &e had dinner outside in the garden . -e was ver! nervous -e couldn:t eat an!thing 0 Dur neighbours: part! was ver! nois! &e couldn:t sleep 1 The restaurant was ver! crowded The! couldn:t find an!where to sit down 2 &e were all having a good time &e didn/t want to stop

Exercises on Connectors

SO-.TIONS
E ercise A* , . 0 1 2 3 -e works hard so that he can support his aging parents She couldn/t bu! the new car because it had a ver! high price The! had to take action in order to teach the children a lesson The! have called a special meeting because of the seriousness of the issue -e chose to do it that wa! so as to keep it a secret -e did it himself since he did not want to involve her

E ercise B* (Possible answers Dther answers' as shown in the e)amples' are also correct ) , Jespite the beautiful weather this week' ne)t week it is supposed to rain . Though he has his faults' he:s a good person 0 ; thought ; knew m! wa! around town' but ; got lost 1 She was in great personal danger 4et' she went into the burning house to save her brother 2 She hasn/t done an! of the work 5l the same' she/s not worried 3 &hile 9im is a terrific athlete' Paul is the more studious t!pe < -e doesn/t earn much -owever' he does ever!thing he can to provide for his famil! = #ill hated the film whereas >ath! loved it ? -e sa!s he/ll be there on time ; don/t believe it' though E ercise C* , like' . Dn the one hand' on the other hand' 0 however' 1 similar to' 2 Cnlike E ercise "#* , 5s well as / and' . ;n addition to / #esides 0 for e)ample / for instance' 1 ;n addition to / #esides' 2 ;n addition to / besides' 3 #esides / 8urthermore / ;n addition/ Eoreover / Similarl! E ercise "$* (()ample answers)* , the! can have a good time together . what !ou want 0 ; will be working part time 1 to taking all the mone! trekking' rock+climbing' canoeing and wind+surfing !ou cannot alwa!s do 2 swimming' pon!

E ercise E: , are' Kll take' . inform' have decided' 0 will not return' has finished' 1 arrive' Kll phone' 2 are' will have to E +#* , ; didn/t have an! lunch because ; wasn/t hungr! . Dur plane was dela!ed because of the wind 0 -e went to Paris because he wanted to learn 8rench 1 ; took an umbrella because ; thought it might rain 2 -e couldn:t run ver! fast because of his bad leg 3 &e could finish in time because of !our cooperation < There are a lot of accidents because people drink and drive +$ , . 0 1 2 3 < +/ , 0 1 < "s Since ; wasn/t hungr!' ; didn/t have an! lunch Dur plane was dela!ed due to owing to the wind "s Since he wanted to learn 8rench' he went to Paris "s Since ; thought it might rain' ; took an umbrella -e couldn:t run ver! fast due to owing to his bad leg &e could finish in time than,s to !our cooperation "s Since people drink and drive' there are a lot of accidents ; wasn/t hungr!' so ; didn/t have an! lunch He wanted to learn 8rench Therefore' he went to Paris ; thought it might rain @onseFuentl!' ; took an umbrella 6eople drink and drive 5s a result' there are lots of accidents
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E ercise ,* , ;t was such a warm evening that we had dinner outside in the garden . -e was so nervous that he couldn:t eat an!thing 0 Dur neighbours: part! was so nois! that we couldn:t sleep 1 The restaurant was so crowded that the! couldn:t find an!where to sit down 2 s &e were all having such a good time that we didn/t want to stop