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Thng tin phc v lnh o

sn xut cht git ra cng ngh v th trng

Chu trch nhim xut bn


TS. TRn Kim Tin

Giy php xut bn s 302/XB-BC cp ngy 5/6/1985. Np lu chiu thng 11/2006

Sn xut cht git ra

Cng ngh v th trng

Nhng ch vit tt Ch vit tt ABS ATL CCGR CMC CSCN DBSA EU HBM LAB LAS NTA NTR P&G TNHH UVN VINACHEM Ngha l Alkylbenzensunfonat An ton lao ng Cc cht git ra Cacboxymetylxenlul Chm sc c nhn Axit oexibenzensunfonic Lin minh chu u Hot ng b mt Alkylbenzen mch thng Axit alkylbenzensunfonic mch thng Axit nitrilo axetic None Tower-Route (phng php khng dng thp) Procter & Gamble Trch nhim hu hn Unilever Vietnam Tng Cng ty Ho cht Vit Nam

M u

Cng nghip sn xut cc cht git ra (CCGR) l mt nhnh cng nghip nh quan trng trong phc v dn sinh. Ti nhiu nc, k c nhng nc pht trin, cng nghip sn xut CCGR ch n thun mang tnh gia cng, ngha l ch sn xut cc sn phm cui dng vi nguyn liu sn xut phn ln nhp khu. Tuy nhin c th thy mc ng gp vo doanh thu cng nghip cng khng nh khi so snh vi mt s ngnh khc, ng thi hiu qu v gii quyt lao ng cng tng i tt. C th thy r hin nay trn th gii cng nghip sn xut CCGR tp trung vo mt s cng ty xuyn quc gia mnh nh Unilever, P&G, Henkel, v.vv s pht trin cng nghip sn xut CCGR trn th gii thc cht u lin quan n s phn phi th trng ca cc cng ty ny. Ti nc ta, s pht trin cng nghip sn xut CCGR v sn phn chm sc c nhn (CSCN) c t nhng nm 1950-1960 v pht trin tng i mnh t nhng nm 1970, nht l sau khi min Nam c gii phng. Tuy nhin ch t khi c s tham gia th trng CCGR ca cc cng ty nc ngoi nh Unilever, P&G v mt s cng ty khc, cng nghip ny mi thc s c s bng n v th trng CCGR c s phn chia, sp xp li mt cch r nt. Cc cng ty nc ngoi vi thng hiu mnh, tim lc cng ngh v ti chnh ln, tham gia lin doanh vi cc nh sn xut trong nc u t sn xut dn dn chim lnh th trng. Hu ht cc nh sn xut trong nc, k c quc doanh, tp th v t doanh, u buc phi chp nhn gii th, chuyn hng sn xut hoc chp nhn gia cng sn phm cho cc cng ty lin doanh vi nc ngoi. Tuy nhin vn c mt s nh sn xut trong nc vn kin tr qung b thng hiu, gi vng v nng cao cht lng sn phm, kin tr cnh tranh bng gi bn sn phm, v.v vn tip tc tng th phn, tn ti v pht trin. Nhn chung v cng ngh sn xut CCGR u tng i n gin, vn u t thp nn cc doanh nghip trong nc hon ton c th sn xut c cc sn phm cht lng cao, k c cc dng sn phm cao cp nu c u t hp l. Vn ct yu l cng tc th trng, nng cao uy tn thng hiu v sn phm. Kinh nghim thc t ti Trung Quc v mt s nc trong khu vc cho thy 5

cng nghip sn xut CCGR v sn phm CSCN bn a c th pht trin n nh trn c s cc doanh nghip trong nc sc vn ln trong cuc cnh tranh vi cc cng ty c vn u t nc ngoi trong bi cnh th trng m hin nay. II. Lch s pht trin cc cht git ra T thi xa xa con ngi bit dng cc phng tin lm sch c th v c, vt dng ca mnh. lm sch c nhn, ngi Hy Lp, v sau l ngi La M, li k c c th bng du lu v ct. Sau khi trt du lu v ct ln da, ngi ta dng mt ci no co v loi b du v ct ra khi da, ko theo cc loi ght bn. Sau da c xt bng mt loi thuc m ch bng tho mc. V sau ny ngi ta bit tm bng nc tho dc hoc pha vo nc tm cc cht c li khc, chng hn n hong thnh La M c Cleopat pha c sa vo bn tm. Khng thy c ghi chp no v s kin x phng ln u tin c pht minh ra nh th no. C l x phng v c pht minh ra ngay t thi tin s. Nhng ngi nguyn thy trong lc nu n nhn thy sau cn ma trn nhng th cn li ca ng tro tn ca bp nu ngoi tri xut hin nhng m bt l. Ngi ta nhn thy ni c nu nc tro lun lun sch hn v ra tay bng nc tro cng thy sch hn bnh thng. Lch s c ghi chp rng ngi Babilon pht minh ra x phng t 2800 nm trc cng nguyn, cn ngi Phoenic cng bit lm x phng t nm 600 trc cng nguyn. Ngi Ai Cp ngay t th k th 8 trc cng nguyn bit dng khong cha sa lm cht ty ra. Mt s ni khc ngi ta cng bit t rong bin ly tro c cha cht kim. Tuy nhin loi cht ty ra thng dng nht vn l sn phm i t tro g (Ptt - potash hay cn gi l pearlash)). Ptt chnh l cht kim cha kali c trong tro g (hoc tro thc vt ni chung) ch yu cha kali cacbonat (K2CO3). Khi vit lch s thnh La M c i, Plini, mt nh s hc c vit rng thi ngi ta bit lm x phng t m d v tro g v cn bit n thm mui bp vo x phng x phng cng hn. Trong thi k ny xut hin mt s c s sn xut x phng t m thi v tro ci. Trong ng nt ca thnh Pompy, cc nh kho c cng pht hin ra du tch ca mt xng nu x phng. Khi dn trong thnh c thi quen n

tm cc nh tm cng cng, Tuy nhin x phng li cha c s dng trong cc nh tm ti y. Trong thi k u tin x phng cn c dng tr bnh. X phng tr thnh tng i ph bin git ra trong thi k cui ca k nguyn La M. Theo cc nh s hc, nhng ngi Xetic cng bit lm x phng v dng x phng trong tm git. Cng c th qua thi k La m v Xtic m x phng tr nn ph bin. Sau khi ch La M sp , Ty u cng vn cn mt vi xng sn xut x phng. Trong ch Bizantin, phn cn st li ca th gii La M khu vc a Trung Hi v khu vc Arp, x phng vn c sn xut v s dng. Xung quanh Th k th 8 sau Cng nguyn, x phng c phc hi v Ty Ban Nha. Vo th k 13 Php tr thnh nc sn xut x phng ln nht chu u v th gii. n th k 14, sn xut x phng li c pht trin mnh Anh. Khi x phng cng c sn xut Nam u ( v Ty Ban Nha) v vng pha nam nc Php vi nguyn liu l du liu. X phng t du liu l loi x phng c cht lng cao hn cc loi x phng i t m ng vt (m cu, b, c) ca cc phu vc pha Bc chu u. Khi cc loi x phng cht lng thp c s dng trong cng nghip dt ch khng dng trong cc nh tm hoc git ra gia dng. Mt s loi x phng cht lng cao ca khu vc Nam u cn c dng xut khu. Vo thi k trung th k v cc th k 17-18 x phng cng c sn xut mnh hn v c dng nhiu hn cho mc ch tm git. Ti M, trong qu trnh hnh thnh thuc a, nhng ngi di c sm nht, ch yu l ngi Anh, mang theo x phng trong hnh l ca mnh trong qu trnh di c t chu u sang chu M. Trn tu Talbot ca hng Massachusett Bay chuyn chuyn ch hnh khch v hng ha t nc Anh n cc vng thuc a Naum Beak (Salem v Boston ngy nay) ch theo 2 thng x phng (mi thng tng ng 9 galon hay khong 41 lit ngy nay). Sau khi nh c, ngi ta nhn thy c th sn xut c x phng a trn nguyn liu m thi v tro g rt sn khu vc ny. Nc tro g c un si cng m chnh l quy trnh cng ngh u tin ca nhng ngi dn di c M trong thi k u, c ghi chp trong lch s nc M non tr. T nc M khng phi nhp khu x phng t Anh v tn dng c cc sn phm 7

thi rt d tha pht trin sn xut x phng. Khi cc xng sn xut x phng M, ch yu trong cc trang tri, c t do ra i. C sau mi ma git m vo ma thu, x phng li c sn xut trong cc trang tri tn dng s m thi. Ti cc trang tri khng git m ng vt, th ngi ta sn xut x phng vo ma ng tn dng tro si trong ma ng v m n thi gom gp sut nm. X phng i t nc tro g chnh l x phng kali (x phng mm). Khi g tr nn khan him v do mt vi tc ng khc, cng nghip sn xut tro g chu u thoi tro. Tuy nhin M ngnh sn xut tro g vn cn tip tc n nhng nm 1830 v khi tro g tr thnh hng mc xut khu t M sang chu u. Cng vo th k 19 bng phng php L Blng (LeBlanc) ngi ta c th sn xut c xt (natri hyroxit-NaOH) i t nc mui n. T xt c p dng sn xut x phng cng (x phng natri) m khng cn b sung mui n nh trc. n thi gian ny xut khu tro g t M mi thc s c chm dt. Xt sn xut theo cng ngh L Blng lm thay i t ngt ngnh cng nghip sn xut x phng. Cng lao ln nht ca xt sn xut cng nghip l hn ch s ph rng ly g t tro, ng thi to cho cng ngh sn xut x phng gim nhiu cng on (x l tro, c c nc tro, loi b tp cht trong nc tro, v.v). iu ny lm cho cng nghip sn xut x phng pht trin mnh hn, sn lng tng hn v mu m sn phm a dng hn. c bit t Th k 19 tr i, cc loi x phng toilet (x phng thm) c pht trin rt mnh. Cng trong thi k ny thi quen tm dng x phng tr thnh mt thi thng, ko theo mc tiu th x phng tng rt mnh. y cng l thi k sn xut x phng chuyn t "cng ngh huyn b" sang mt ngnh cng nghip pht trin y . u Th k 20, trong thi k Chin tranh Th gii Th I, bn cnh x phng truyn thng bt u xut hin cc loi cht git ra tng hp. Trong nhng thp nin cui ca th k 20 x phng vn c sn xut rt rng ri quy m cng nghip vi s pht trin rt a dng ca chng loi, mu m t cc loi dng trong cng nghip (nh cng nghip dt nhum, ch to c kh, in t n cc sn phm git ra gia dng v CSCN).

T nhng nm 1940 tr i, do nguyn liu sn xut CCGR tng hp, sn phm ca ngnh ha du, c sn xut quy m ln, gi r, cng vi cng ngh v thit b sn xut CCGR tng hp li tng i n gin, hiu qu ty ra cao, nn trong nhiu lnh vc s dng nh ty ra cng nghip v gia dng, CCGR tng hp chim u th r rt v khi lng sn xut, mu m, chng loi so vi x phng. V vy tuy trong lnh vc CSCN x phng vn l sn phm quan trng, nhng trong lnh vc ty ra, CCGR tng hp ang chim u th th trng so vi x phng truyn thng. III. Qu trnh lm sch Trong i sng v sn xut, qu trnh ty ra v lm sch lun l nhng qu trnh i km vi cc qu trnh khc. Qu trnh lm sch c th theo c ch vt l (c hc, nhit hc), ha hc, (dng cc phn ng ha hc lm thay i tnh cht ha hc ca cht bn), hoc ha l (ha tan bng dung mi, to nh, to bt, v.v). Trong nhiu trng hp kh phn bit c gii hn ca qu trnh lm sch thuc c ch no, hoc trong qu trnh lm sch c nhiu c ch cng tc ng. Qu trnh lm sch vt l bao gm cc qu trnh lau chi, mi, co, dng nhit, siu m, sc khng kh, v.vc c ch dng nng lng c hc, nng lng nhit loi b cht bn khi b mt vt liu rn. Qu trnh ny thuc v mt lnh vc ring s khng c xem xt y. Qu trnh lm sch ha hc bao gm cc qu trnh p dng cc phn ng ha hc tc ng vo cht bn, lm thay i tnh cht ca cht bn loi tr cc tnh cht bt li ca chng hoc loi tr chng khi b mt hoc mt su nht nh ca cc lp vt liu rn. Thng thng cc phn ng ha hc c s dng l cc phn ng xy ha kh hoc phn ng to phc gia cht bn v ha cht trong cht ty ra. Cc cht bn c cha cc cht mang mu, thng l cc hp cht hu c, c tnh kh hoc ln cc hp cht khong cha kim loi c mu (mt s trong chng cng c tnh kh). Ngi ta dng mt s cht xy ha mnh xy ha cc cht bn c tnh kh sau ra li vt liu bng nc. Cc cht xy ha truyn thng c dng trong cc phn ng ty trng l kh clo (Cl2), nc Javel hay natri hypoclorit (NaOCl), thuc tm hay kali pemanganat (KMnO4), nc xy gi hay hydro peoxit (H2O2), natri peoxit (Na2O2), kali peborat tetra hyrat (K3BO34H2O), natri peborat 9

(NaBO2.H2O2.3H2O) natri pecacbonat (NaB2CO33H2O2). C ch ty trng ca cc cht ny l sinh ra clo nguyn t hoc oxy nguyn t khi phn hy v cc nguyn t dng nguyn t ny s xy ha cc cht kh trong vt bn. Cc cht xy ha trn y c dng kh ph bin trong ty ra cng nghip, nht l i vi ngnh dt nhum, sn xut bt giy v giy. Khi dng thuc tm, do phn ng c to ra MnO2 c mu nu, nn ngi ta li phi dng mt cht kh tip theo kh cht ny xung mangan ha tr 2 d tan trong nc trc khi dng nc ra sch vt liu. Cc cht kh thng c dng trong trng hp ny l axit xalic (H2C2O4) hoc axit xitric [CH2C(OH)CH2(COOH)3]. Trong git ra dn dng, ngi ta thng dng nc p t qu chanh (cha axit xitric). Do hu ht cc cht xy ha t bn trong dung dch nc khi bo qun, nn ch c mt s cht c s dng trong thnh phn cht git ra. Ha cht thng c dng l kali (hoc natri) peborat. C ch lm trng ca cc cht xy ha mnh l chng xy ha cht kh (c mu) v bin chng thnh cht khng mu trong ph nh sng thy c, ng thi mt s cht bn sau phn ng xy ha kh cng tr nn d tan trong nc hn v d dng b loi b khi vt liu khi ra bng nc. Qu trnh lm sch ha l bao gm nhiu qu trnh lm sch lin quan n qu trnh ty ra v lm sch vt liu c s dng cc ch phm git ra. l cc qu trnh ha tan, to hiu ng b mt (to nh, to bt), v.v i tng ch yu ca qu trnh lm sch cng nghip, gia dng v chm sc c th ch yu l cc cht bn cha du m. Hu ht cc vt liu t nhin v nhn to u c i lc mnh vi cc cht du m, nn cc cht bn cha du m c xu hng bm cht b mt, thm ch ngm su vo cu trc vt liu. Nc l dung mi thng dng, d kim c dng ha tan v ty ra cc cht bn a nc (hyrophilic). Nhng trong trng hp du m, nc khng c tc dng ty ra v du m thuc loi k nc (hydrophobic). Cc cht hot ng b mt (HBM) c a vo trong thnh phn cht git ra c tc dng thu gom cc cht du m v li cun chng vo trong pha nc. Trn c s c th tip tc dng nc loi b cht bn. C ch thu gom v li cun cc cht du m ca cht HBM c th c m t khi qut nh sau:

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Khi cht HBM ha tan trong nc, phn ui k nc ca phn t hng v pha b mt phn pha khng kh- nc, trong khi u a nc ca phn t li hng vo trong lng pha nc (Hnh 1). Trong qu trnh tip xc (git ra), phn k nc (a du) s lin kt vi tp cht cha du m. Kt qu l du m (km cht bn) s b li cun vo pha nc, hay ni cc khc l du, m (v cht bn) b nh ha v tan trong nc, sau b loi b theo nc ra.

Hnh 1. Cc phn t cht HBM ti khu vc phn pha khng kh- nc IV. Nguyn liu, sn phm v cng ngh sn xut cc cht git ra IV.1. Nguyn liu Ty theo sn phm m nguyn liu sn xut CCGR khc nhau l tng i khc nhau v chng loi v tnh nng. Mi mt loi nguyn liu s to cho sn phm cht git ra mt tnh cht ring vi cng dng ring. Tuy nhin c th thy cc loi nguyn liu sau y thng c s dng trong sn xut cc cht git ra: IV.1.1. Nhm cc nguyn liu HBM y l nhm cc nguyn liu quan trng nht c trong phi liu sn xut CCGR. Cc cht HBM c chia lm 4 loi: anionic, cationic, nonionic v lng tnh (amphoteric). 1. Cc cht HBM anion: L cc cht HBM c sn xut v s dng nhiu nht trong sn xut CCGR.

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Trong nhng nm t 1970 n 1990, lng cc cht HBM lun chim hn 50% tng s lng cc cht HBM c sn xut ti cc nc cng nghip pht trin. Cc cht HBM dng anion tan v ion ho trong dung dch nc, to ra anion hu c gy hiu ng HBM. Thuc v nhm ny c rt nhiu hp cht nh x phng, cc axit nha, alkyl (hoc olefin) sunfonat, alkyl sunfat, alkylbenzensunfonic (mui natri hoc kali), alkan sunfonat v cc alcol oxyetyl sunfat (sunfoeste), alkylpolyete sunfat, v.v Hin nay trong sn xut CCGR ngi ta hay s dng x phng, lauryl sunfat, mui natri ca cc axit alkylaryl sunfonic nh dodexybenzensunfonic (DBSA) v alkylbenzensunfonic mch thng (LAS). 2. Cc cht HBM cation: L cc cht HBM khi ion ho trong dung dch nc s to ra cc cation hu c. Thuc nhm ny c cc mui amin bo (R-NH3+ X-), baz amoni bc 4 (RN+ X-) v mt s loi khc. Cc loi cht HBM cation thng ch c dng trong mt s trng hp pha ch cc loi cht ty ra c bit dng trong cng nghip. 3. Cc cht HBM nonion bao gm cc cht ho tan nhng khng phn ly thnh ion trong dung dch nc. Kh nng ho tan trong nc l do trong phn t c cha cc nhm chc c tng tc vi nc nh cc este polyglycol hoc alcol bo (cha nhm OH), axit bo (cha nhm COOH), alkylphenol, oxit etylen (cha nhm -O-) cc este ca ng, mt s loi polyeste, oxit hu c, v.v 4. Cc cht HBM lng tnh l mt s hp cht hu c trong phn t c cha c nhm baz v nhm axit. Trong trng hp tng tc vi dung mi c th, phn t nhm cht ny c th phn li thnh cation hoc anion hoc c hai. Mt s hp cht thuc nhm cha pht pho, arylsunfon, alkylbetain hoc proteinsunfobetain, mt s axit amin, v.vthuc nhm ny. Ngoi ra cn c mt s cht thuc nhm polyme c th thuc nhm cht HBM anion, cation, nonion c dng lm cht nh ha trong cng nghip. Thuc v nhm cht HBM lm nguyn liu sn xut CCGR c cc cht c ngun gc t nhin (nh saponin), cc cht HBM bn t nhin (nh x 12

phng- mui natri hoc kali ca cc axit bo c ngun gc du m ng thc vt) v cc cht HBM tng hp (gm mt tp hp rt phong ph cc cht HBM hon ton i t cc dn xut ca cng nghip ha du). Cht HBM ngun gc t nhin c con ngi bit n v s dng lu. i din cho nhm ny l cc cht saponin. Saponin l cc glycoxit ca cc alcaloit (steroit c nhm chc cha nit) hoc tritecpen. y l nhng cht HBM c ngun gc t nhin c cng thc kh phc tp. Mt loi saponin l gledisaponin c cng thc phn t C59H100O20. Mt s loi saponin c trong qu cy b kt (soapberry) v mt s loi cy thuc h sapindaceae nh cy d nga (buckeyes), ngc ga (yucca) nht l phn v cy, qu. Trong ht u tng ngi ta cng thy c cc cht saponin hm lng nh, v.v Khi tan trong nc, saponin to bt v c tnh ty ra. Nc chit ca qu b kt c cha saponin do c tnh cht git ra nh, khng cha kim nn ngoi dng trc tip gi u ngi ta cn dng trong sn xut du gi u (shampoo) hoc cho mc ch git ra v CSCN. Ngoi ra nc chit ca qu b kt cn c dng trong cng ngh nh (nh tng nh) v cng ngh nu bia (to bt). Saponin cn c dng cha bnh (khng khun hoc dng kim sot hm lng cholesterol trong mu). Trong mt s loi saponin c cha sapotoxin kh c khi nut phi. Ni chung cc cht HBM ngun gc t nhin nh saponin t c s dng sn xut CCGR quy m cng nghip tr sn xut shampoo. S dng cc cht HBM ngun gc t nhin khng gy ra nhiu nh hng n mi trng do cc hp cht ny d phn hy sinh hc. X phng l cht HBM c ngun gc bn t nhin i t du, m ng thc vt thng qua mt s qu trnh x l ho hc. Nh trnh by phn trn, x phng l cht HBM ph bin nht thuc nhm ny, c con ngi bit n v s dng t thi tin s. Cc nguyn liu gc sn xut x phng ban u l m ng vt (d, cu, ln, b, c) di dng cht thi ca qu trnh git m, ch bin thc phm hoc m d tha thi thu gom trong qu trnh nu nng, hoc du thc vt (u tin l du liu) v nc tro g (hoc v sau ny l xt). 13

Trong nhng thi k tin s v trung th k, c nguyn liu du m t yu cu ngi ta phi tin hnh x l du m (lm sch cc tp cht). M ng vt sau git m c rn cht lc ly phn m lng v loi b phn b rn. M tit kim trong qu trnh nu nng cng c nu chy li loi b cc tp cht rn. Trong qu trnh nu li m ngi ta phi thm mt lng tng ng nc vo ni nu, Sau khi un si mt thi gian loi ht cc mi chy kht v mi i, ngi ta ngng un v thm mt lng nc khc vo ni nu. ngui dung dch qua m sau tch ly phn m rn ni. Cc tp cht tan trong nc v cc tp cht rn s nm li trong lp nc. Nhn chung vic x l lm sch m ng vt nh trn hin vn c p dng. Trc y c nc kim (nc tro) s dng trong cng ngh nu x phng, ngi ta phi ha tan tro g trong nhng thng ha tan bng g, khng y c kha rnh bn trong. Rm c dng lm lp lc ngn tro chy xung nc kim. Trong cng nghip hin i, nc tro c thay th bng dung dch ptt n da (KOH) hoc xt n da (NaOH), c sn xut bng phng php in phn nc mui. sn xut x phng ngi ta dng phng php x phng ho cc loi du m ng thc vt (c trnh by mc IV.2.1.). Ngoi ra, cc hp cht sunfat v sunfonat ca cht bo (m ng vt, du thc vt v cc triglyxerit ni chung) cng l cc cht HBM c ngun gc bn t nhin. Tuy nhin loi ny c th i t cng nghip ha du. S dng cc loi x phng t gy ra cc nh hng xu n mi trng do cc hp cht ny d phn hy sinh hc. Cc cht HBM tng hp l cc nguyn liu ho hc mi ch xut hin khi cng nghip ho du pht trin. Cht HBM u tin c dng cho CCGR l alkyl (mch ngn) naphtalen sunfonat vo cc nm 1910-1914, sau l cc alkyl (mch di) sunfonic ho c s dng vo nm 1920-1930 bng cch sunfoclo ho cc parafin.
+ NaOH

RH + Cl2 + SO2

RSO2Cl
- NaCl

RSO3Na

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Sau nm 1930 nhm cc alkyl (mch di) benzensunfonat c s dng, nht l axit dodexybenzensunfonic (DBSA). Vic s dng hp cht to bt tng hp gy ra mt s vn v mi trng nh bt ni trn cc dng sng tng ln khi nc thi ca cc khu dn c v cng nghip vo. Nht l vic s dng cc cht to bt nhm axit alkylarylsunfonic mch nhnh (nh DBSA) kh phn hu sinh hc th vn cng thm trm trng. y l mt trong nhng vn c bit nng v mi trng chu u ngay t thp k 1950. Cc cht HBM nhm alkylaryl sunfonat mch thng (LAS) d phn hu sinh hc hn c s dng thay th cc cht HBM dng c trong sn xut CCGR. Tuy vic thay th cc cht HBM kh phn hu sinh hc bng cht d phn hu sinh hc hn c cp t nm 1956, song phi n thng 7/1965 M mi l nc i tin phong trong vic thay th DBSA bng LAS, lauryl sunfat hoc cc cht HBM d phn hu sinh hc khc. Tip theo, Anh cng a ra mt hip c v vn ny. Ngoi u im v d phn hu sinh hc, LAS cn t ra c hiu lc hn 10% so vi DBSA v mt s tnh nng c li khc trong sn xut bt git. Sn xut cc cht HBM tng hp theo phng php tng hp ho hc quy m cng nghip. Quy trnh cng ngh gm 3 gia on: iu ch alkybenzen; sunfonic ho alkylbenzen; v trung ho axit alkylbenzensunfonic. iu ch alkylbenzen ngi ta phi dng phn ng cng hp gia alkyl clorua vi benzen (iu ch alkylbenzen mch thng) hoc gia alken vi benzen (iu ch alkylbenzen mch nhnh): R-H+ Cl2 (cloha) R-Cl+ C6H6 (Cng hp xc tc) R-C6H5 + HCl Alkan Alkybenzen mch thng

Ankan (parafin)kh hyro, xc tc R-CH=CH-R + C6H6 (Cng hp xc tc) R-CH2- CH- R C6H5 Alkybenzen mch nhnh T alkyl benzen c th tng hp axit alkylbenzen sunfunic theo con ng sunfonic ha bng SO3 c xc tc axitsunfuric:

15

R-C6H5 + SO3 (sunfonic ha xc tc) R- C6H4- SO3H Axit alkylbenzen sunfonic Sau trung ha to mui natri: R- C6H4- SO3H +NaOH R- C6H4- SO3 Na Mui natri ca axit alkylbenzen sunfonic Tuy nhin trong thc t, nhiu c s sn xut LAS hin nay nhiu nc, trong c Vit Nam, thng nhp ngay alkylbenzen lm nguyn liu v ch thc hin phn ng sunfonic ho, sau ch cn x l n t nng axit sunfuric d m khng cn phi trung ho axit alkylbenzensunfonic to ra thnh mui natri trung ho. Axit alkylbenzensunfonic sn sng l nguyn liu cho sn xut CCGR hoc cc ngnh sn xut khc. V d sn xut LAS, ngi ta c th dng cc nguyn liu u l alkylbenzen mch thng (LAB c gc alkyl vi s cacbon trung bnh n=12) v lu hunh theo s cng ngh sau:

Hnh 2. S cng ngh sn xut cht to bt LAS IV.1.2. Nhm cc nguyn liu ty trng v pht quang - Cht ty trng l cc cht xy ha mnh nh mc III nu trn. Tuy c kh nhiu cht xy ha mnh c tc dng ty trng song hu ht chng u km bn trong dung dch nc hoc trong mi trng m trong iu kin ct tr di ngy. V vy ch c mt s hn ch cc cht p ng c yu cu dng lm cht ty trng dng trong cng nghip sn xut CCGR. Hin nay trong sn xut

16

CCGR ngi ta thng s dng peborat v pecacbonat (ca kali v natri) lm cht ty trng. Hin nay hng Kemira Chemicals (Phn Lan) l nh sn xut ln nht th gii v cht ty trng, trong d c pecacbonat. Hng ny c c s sn xut pecacbonat cng sut 45 nghn tn /nm ti Helsingborg (Thu in). - Cht pht quang l cht thng c dng trong thnh phn bt git, nht l cc loi bt git cao cp vi t l khong 0,5%. Thng dng lm cc cht pht quang quang hc l cc dn xut ca stiben, diphenyl, pyrazolin [nh transtriazinaminostiben, blankopho BHC, 4,4-bis (3,5 diphenyl-6-natri sunfonat-benzofuran)diphenyl], v.v Cc cht pht quang khng c tc dng ty ra nhng c kh nng chuyn cc tia cc tm ca quang ph thnh cc tia hunh quang mu lc lam thuc vng kh kin v lm cho vi c v trng hn. IV.1.3. Nhm cc cht nn (builder), to mi trng v lm mm nc Thuc v nhm ny c cc mui tan nhm pht pht, sunfat, clorua, silicat, v.v - Natri tripolyphotphat (Na5P3O10) c dng rt rng ri trong sn xut CCGR trong nhng thp nin cui th k trc, nht l trong nhng nm 19501970. Trong thi k ny lng natri tripolyphtphat s dng trong sn xut CCGR trn th gii tng vt, t 102 nghn tn vo nm 1944 ln 109 triu tn vo nm 1970 (tng trn 1000 ln). Ngoi tc dng to mi trng, vai tr ch yu ca natri tripolyphtphat l kh cng (ion canxi, magie) v ion st, nhm trong nc git. Khi nc git c cng cao (nhiu ion canxi, magie) v c nhiu st, nhm th cht to bt b mt hiu lc do cc ion ny lin kt vi phn t cht to bt thnh cc hp cht kh tan hoc kh phn ly. Ion pht pht c a vo c tc dng lin kt vi cc cation kim loi c trong nc cng to thnh cc hp cht khng tan trong nc v bo ton hiu lc ca cc cht to bt. Sn xut natri tripolyphtphat i t axit phtphoric (H3PO4) v xt (NaOH) hoc sa (Na2CO3). V d i t axit phtphoric v xt: H3PO4 + 3NaOH (X l kt tinh nhit thch hp) Na5P3O10

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Trong thnh phn CCGR tng hp, natri tripolyphtphat chim 30-50% (bt git) hoc thp hn i vi kem git. Ngoi natri tripolyphtphat, trong sn xut CCGR ngi ca c th dng cc mui pht pht khc nh cc mui natri octophtphat hoc pyrophtphat. Song cc loi mui ny thng ht m cao v lm cho bt git d b vn cc khi lu tr. Vn nh hng ca pht pht trong cht git ra i vi mi trng nc (lm ph dng mi trng nc v kch thch s pht trin ca cc loi thu sinh) c cp t cui thp k 1960. nh hng tiu cc ny buc cc nh sn xut phi nghin cu sn xut cc CCGR khng cha pht pht. V vy sau nhng nm 1970, lng cc mui pht pht s dng trong sn xut CCGR c xu hng gim dn. Ti mt s nc chu u (nh v c), ngi ta sn xut cc CCGR (ch yu l bt git) hon ton khng cha pht pht v nhng nc ny cng p dng lnh cm s dng mui cha pht pht trong thnh phn CCGR. Mt s nc Bc u (Na Uy, Thu in) ngi ta thay th natri tripolyphtphat bng axit nitrilo triaxetic (NTA). Tuy nhin, theo cc chuyn gia, hp cht ny cng li gy ph dng m (nit). Hin nay thay th cc mui pht pht, ngi ta nghin cu s dng cc zeolit. y l nhm ph gia v c thuc nhm aluminosilicat. Cu trc c bit ca cc zeolit cho php c th dng vt liu ny trong nhiu lnh vc cng ngh khc nhau, nht l trong lnh vc xc tc, lc ho du, v.v Trong lnh vc sn xut CCGR, cc zeolit c dng nh cht hp th cc cation c trong nuc cng, gp phn lm mm nc. Ngoi zeolit, trong sn xut CCGR ngi ta cn dng kt hp c cc vt liu nhm aluminosilicat khc nh bentonit, hoc dng kt hp zeolit vi natri tripolyphtphat. Thc t c hng trm n bt git c sn xut c dng zeolit. - Natri silicat (thy tinh lng) cng l nguyn liu rt quan trng trong sn xut CCGR. Nguyn liu ny c tc dng to mi trng, lm gim n mn ca thit b; c tc dng iu chnh nht dung dch ng thi lin kt vi cc ion gy cng ca nc v lm mt hiu lc ca cht to bt (canxi, magie, st, nhm). Ngoi ra natri silicat cn c tc dng lm gim s ht m v kh nng sinh bi ca bt git. 18

Trong thnh phn ca CCGR tng hp (kem git, bt git), natri silicat chim 3-8% hoc cao hn. sn xut natri silicat, c th dng phng php (cng ngh) kh v t. Trong sn xut natri silicat theo cng ngh t, ngi ta cho ct thch anh (SiO2) phn ng vi dung dch xt (NaOH) nng p sut cao (khong 10 at). Phn ng xy ra nh sau: SiO2 + 2NaOH + (x-1)H2O = Na2SiO3xH2O Cng ngh ny ch i hi chi ph u t khng cao, hot ng n gin, chi ph nguyn liu thp (do gi xt thp so vi sa tnh theo Na2O), chi ph sn xut thp nhng thu c sn phm c cht lng tng i cao vi gi thnh thp hn sn xut theo cng ngh kh. Vi cng ngh t vn c th sn xut c sn phm natri silicat c mun v t trng khc nhau tu theo yu cu s dng. Di y l s cng ngh sn xut natri silicat ca hng Hangzhou Asia Chemical Engineering Co.,Ltd. (Trung Quc). Cng ngh ny dng NaOH 30%, hi 0,7-0,8 MPa (6,9-7,8 at). Natri silicat nhn c c nng Na2O> 9,5%; SiO2 > 22,1% (mun 2,2-2,5); t trng 1,368-1,394.

Hnh 3. S cng ngh t sn xut natri silicat ca hng Hangzhou Asia Chemical Engineering Co.,Ltd. (Trung Quc) 19

sn xut natri silicat theo cng ngh kh ngi ta dng nguyn liu l ct thch anh v sa. Ct v sa c phi liu theo t lng (thng cho d sa) v nung trong l bng nhit 1500oC. C th gia nhit cho l mt cch gin tip dng nhin liu than hay trc tip bng du FO (hoc gas). Phn ng xy ra nh sau: SiO2 + Na2CO3 => Na2SiO3 + CO2 Khi nng chy trong l c rt trc tip vo thng cha nc ho tan, khi xy ra phn ng ho tan to thu tinh lng: Na2SiO3 + x H2O => Na2SiO3xH2O Dung dch c c bay hi n t trng theo yu cu. Thc ra, tu thuc t l ca ct v sa trong phi liu a vo l, m ngi ta nhn c khi nng chy trong l (v thu tinh lng thnh phm) c t l SiO2/Na2O khc nhau. y chnh l mun ca sn phm thu tinh lng. Natri silicat iu ch theo cng ngh kh c th chuyn thnh dng lng nh trn hoc vn tn ti di dng rn (bt, cc) ty theo nhu cu s dng m c th c x l tip. S cng ngh sn xut natri silicat theo phng php kh c trnh by trong Hnh 4.

Hnh 4. S cng ngh sn xut natri silicat theo phng php kh - Natri sunfat (Na2SO4): Cht ny va c tc dng git ra nh, tng lng ion in ly, lm tng c ca kem git, ci thin t trng ca kem git, cng c tc dng lin kt vi ion canxi c trong nc git, gim sc cng b mt ca nc git, ng thi cn ng vai tr ca mt cht n gi r.

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Nguyn liu Na2SO4 thng l sn phm ph ca nhiu qu trnh cng ngh sn xut ha cht, v vy thng c gi r. Hu nh ngi ta khng t vn sn xut sn phm ny. - Sa (Na2CO3): L mt trong nhng nguyn liu quan trng trong sn xut CCGR tng hp. Ngoi tc dng kh cng ca nc v duy tr hiu lc ca cc cht to bt, sa cn c tc dng git ty. Trn th gii ngi ta sn xut sa quy m ln theo phng php cacbonat ha xt hoc phng php Solvay (tun hon amoniac), hoc phng php Solvay ci tin (tun hon NaCl). Nguyn liu s dng l mui n (NaCl) cht lng cao v vi (CaCO3). IV.1.4. Nhm cc nguyn liu khc y l nhm nguyn liu cn li bao gm cc loi ph gia khc nhau, m bo cho cht git ra c cc tnh cht mong mun. Nhm ny bao gm cc loi cht to nh, cht to tnh thm nc, to mu, hng thm, gim nht, chng nh nng, st khun, enzym, cht n tr (nh bt nh- CaCO3), v.vDi y ch trnh by mt s cht chnh. - Cht to nh: Thng dng cacboxymetylxenlul (CMC), mt loi este ca xenlul (polyalcol) v axit glycolic. CMC c cu to: [C6H7O2(OH)3-x(OCH2COOH)x]n n=300-1000 CMC c tc dng nh ha cc cht bn trong dung dch, ngn cht bn khng bm tr li v lm tng ty trng ca si vi. - Cht to hng: y l nhm hn hp cc hp cht c mi thm c s dng to mi thm c trng cho sn phm. Cc cht thm s dng phi l cc cht thm bn trong mi trng kim, bn vi cht xy ha, vi nh sng v vi cc tc nhn khc c trong thnh phn CCGR. V vy cc este thm t c s dng do t bn kim. Trong thnh phn phn t cc hp cht thm thng cha cc nhm chc alcol, xeton, aldehyt v cc cht thm c ngun gc thin nhin. - Cht chng nh nng:

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L cc cht a vo bo v mu sc ca vi si khi phi nng. Cc cht ny c tc dng hp th nng lng ca cc tia t ngoi trong nh nng v bo v phn t cc cht mu. Mt trong cc cht thng dng vo mc ch ny l Ciba- 95 c cu to:
R2 NH O R1 C N NH SO3Na NH N NH R2 C O R1 NH SO3Na

- Cht lm gim nht: c a vo vi mc ch lm gim nht ca CCGR, lm tng cht lng ca chng. Cc cht thng dng thng thuc h alkyl (mch ngn) benzen sunfonic (mui natri) nh natri benzensunfonat, natri paratoluen sunfonat, v.v - Enzym y l cc protein c bit c c tnh xc tc phn gii, ph hy cu trc cc protein trong cc cht bn (mu, sa, v.v) chuyn chng thnh cc axit amin d tan trong nc, gp phn lm tng kh nng lm sch ca CCGR. Thc ra vic s dng enzym phn hu protein trong bt git c nghin cu v p dng M t nhng nm 1920, nhng phi n nhng nm 1920 vic dng enzym trong cc cht git ra mi thc s ph bin. Hin nay ngoi enzym phn hu protein (proteaza), ngi ta cn dng c enzym phn hu tinh bt (amylaza) v phn hy cht bo (lypaza). Cc enzym nay kt hp vi proteaza s lm cho kh nng phn hu cc cht bn hiu qu hn. Cc enzym hiu qu nht l cc enzym hot ng ph pH rng, bn vi cc cht xy ho lm trng (nh peborat, pecacbonat) v tc ng nhanh. c thi k cc nh sn xut cht git ra M khng ng a enzym vo bt git. Ch khi chu u cc loi bt git c s dng enzym c s dng ph bin. Vo nm 1968, M ngi ta mi bt u sn xut cc loi bt git cha enzym. 22

Do cc phn ng xc tc ca enzym thng xy ra chm v gi thnh sn phm git ra s dng enzym thng cao (do gi enzym t) nn vic s dng enzym b hn ch. Tuy nhin vic s dng enzym vn l mt cuc cch mng ln trong sn xut cc cht git ra vo nhng nm gn y. Tuy nhin theo cc nh chuyn mn, tng lai ca enzym trong sn xut cht git ra khng sng sa lm do ny sinh khng t vn . Hin ti mt s nh sn xut cht git ra bc u (vng Scaninav) quyt nh rt enzym ra khi thnh phn phi liu bt git, trong khi phn ln cc nh sn xut bt git vn tip tc s dng enzym. IV.2. Sn phm v cng ngh sn xut mt s sn phm git ra Trong thi k Trung th k tr v trc, x phng l sn phm duy nht c sn xut v s dng cho mc ch git ra. T th k 20 n nay ngoi x phng, cn ra i rt nhiu loi sn phm git ra tng hp khc nhau nh cc loi kem git, bt git. Trong my nm gn y cc loi dung dch ty ra, nc git m c c nghin cu pht trin mnh v chim th phn ngy cng ln trong th trng ho m phm. Nhn chung trong mt n pha ch CCGR c cha cc thnh phn ch yu sau: - Cht HBM (surface active agent); - Cht to mi trng v kh cng (builder); - Cht ty trng (bleacher) v pht (hunh) quang (fluorescent Agent); - Cht phn tn, to nh, chng lng (v d glyxerin, CMC); - Cht lm t; - Cc cht ph gia khc nhau to cc tnh nng theo yu cu (mu, mi, cht bo qun, dit khun), v.v - Cht n tr, v.v ng vi mi mt loi sn phm, p ng vi gi thnh v th hiu khch hngm nh sn xut nghin cu v p dng cc n phi liu v cng ngh gia cng thch hp. IV.2. 1. X phng Nh trn nu, x phng l sn phm git ra u tin m con ngi sn xut v s dng. Trong vi thp nin gn y sn phm x phng dng cho mc 23

ch git (ch yu l x phng natri hay x phng cng) dn gim xung nhng ch cho CCGR khc hiu qu hn. Ch c mt s khu vc thuc cc nc ang pht trin l cn s dng x phng git trong i sng. B li s gim ca x phng trong lnh vc ty git, th trong lnh vc CSCN, x phng vn gi c v tr v c phn tng trng. Cc loi x phng thm (ch yu l x phng kali) c dng vi mc ch ra tay, lm sch c th (tm) vn thch hp s dng trong cc khch sn, nh hng, ti cc gia nh hoc phc v cho ngi i du lch, d ngoi. Hu ht cc loi x phng gia dng u dng bnh (thi). Cc loi x phng dng lng (hoc kem, bt) dng trong cng nghip hoc mt s mc ch c bit c ch to theo yu cu c th. Cng ngh sn xut x phng tng i n gin, c bit n t thi tin s. V c bn n nay cng ngh ny khng c s thay i ln. Phn chnh ca cng ngh sn xut x phng l thc hin phn ng x phng ha (nu x phng), trong m (hoc du) tc dng vi kim (KOH hoc NaOH). Trong phn ng x phng ha, m (hoc du), gm ch yu l cc este ca cc axit bo, s phn ng vi kim to ra mui (kali hoc natri) ca cc axit bo tng ng v gii phng glyxerin. R1-COO-CH2 R2-COO-CH R3-COO-CH2 M(du) Kim + KOH (NaOH) R1-COO K (Na) CH2OH

R2-COO K (Na) + CHOH R3-COO K (Na) X phng CH2OH Glyxerin

Trc y khi cha c xt, sn xut x phng cc nh sn xut trn hn hp m (du) vi nc kim (nc tro cha K2CO3) v nu. Trong qu trnh nu, K2CO3 s thy phn v sinh ra KOH tham gia phn ng x phng ha. Khi ngi ta kim tra qu trnh phn ng x phng ha theo kinh nghim hoc bng cch nm. n khi c xt v KOH c sn xut theo phng php in phn th cng ngh nu x phng bng nc tro mi hon ton b bi b. 24

Hin nay ngi ta c th x phng ha (nu) x phng theo mt s phng php: - X phng ho nhit phng. Phng php i hi thi gian phn ng di 3 ngy. - X phng ha nhit cao (70-85oC). Phng php i hi thi gian phn ng 2- 4 gi. Kt thc qu trnh nu x phng, ngi ta cho thm vo ni nu mt lng mui n lm gim tan ca x phng, khin x phng ni ln trn ha rn khi ngui. Phn nc cn li bn di cha mui, glyxerin v cc tp cht tan, c th s dng thu hi glyxerin, mui bng phng php ct chn khng (thu hi glyxerin) v ly tm (thu hi mui). lm x phng cng thm, trc y ngi ta cn n thm mt lng mui n nht nh vo thnh phn ca x phng. Ngoi tc dng chnh l lm cng sn phm x phng, mui cn c tc dng iu ha nng cc ion, gim sc cng b mt ca nc git. Hin nay x phng thng c gia cng di dng cc bnh (hoc thi) c hnh dng v kch thc khc nhau ph hp vi nhu cu s dng. sn xut cc loi x phng thm tm v gi u, ngoi x phng kali (x phng mm) l vt liu chnh, khi gia cng to bnh, ngi ta cn phi trn thm vo nguyn liu x phng cc cht to mu, cht thm, cht dng da v mt s ph gia khc (nh propylenglycol, axit stearic) lm cho sn phm x phng c cc tnh nng cn thit. Dung dch mui cha glyxerin c x l tch glyxrin dng trong nhiu ngnh cng nghip khc nhau. Ngy nay sn xut cc loi x phng thm cao cp, cc loi du (m) thng c x l trc bng cch thy phn to ra cc axit bo. T axit bo s sn xut x phng. Trn c s c th hon ton kim sot c t l cc axit bo tham gia vo phn ng x phng ha, ng thi s nhn c sn phm x phng tinh khit hn so vi trng hp nu trc tip bng m (hoc du), nht l trong trng hp s dng cc loi m (hoc du) cht lng thp. Glyxerin trong thnh phn cc axit bo s c thu hi ngay trong cng on thy phn nn cng rt tinh khit, nu x l thm c th nhn c loi dc dng. X phng sau khi c phi trn s c cn n v to khun (p vin, thi). Qu trnh sn xut cc axit bo v x phng c trnh by ti Hnh 5. 25

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IV.2. 2. Cc cht git ra tng hp 1/ Nhn xt chung Theo nh ngha c a ra trong Hi ngh quc t v CCGR tng hp th CCGR tng hp l sn phm dng git ra v thnh phn ca n gm cht HBM v cc ph gia. CCGR tng hp c th nm di dng rn (hoc bt), kem hoc lng. M cc cht ny c gi l surfactants hoc syndet, cn chu u l tensides. CCGR tng hp l cc cht git ra mi c pht minh v s dng trong th k trc. Rt kh xc nh chnh xc thi gian bt u pht trin cng nghip sn xut CCGR tng hp. Ngi ta cho rng cht git ra tng hp u tin l do ngi c pht minh ra t i chin Th gii Th I vi mc ch dnh cht bo vo cc cng dng khc. Cht HBM u tin c dng trong CCGR tng hp l hp cht dng alkyl (mch ngn) naphtalensunfonat. Hp cht ny c tng hp bng cch ghp propyl (hoc butylalcol) vi naphtalen sau sunfonic ha. Sn phm ny khng nhng c tnh ty ra tt m cn l cht thm t tt v c dng nhiu trong ngnh dt. Cui thp k 1920 v u thp k 1930, cc alcol mch di c sunfonic ha v c s dng di dng mui natri trung ha trong thnh phn CCGR tng hp. Cht nn (builder) to mi trng c dng khi l natri sunfat (Na2SO4). Cng vo u nm 1930, cc hp cht alkylaryl sunfat (trong aryl l benzen) c s dng cng vi cc sunfat ca cc alcol bo (nh lauryl sunfat) trong thnh phn CCGR tng hp. n thi k i chin Th gii Th II th phn cc alkylaryl sunfonat hon ton ln lt th phn cc alcol sunfat dng trong sn xut CCGR, song cc alcol sunfat li chim lnh trong sn xut cc loi nc gi u. Khi c mt loi alcol sunfat bc 2, c tn thng mi l Teepol, rt ph bin v chim lnh th trng trong nhiu nm lin. Do d sn xut nn alkylbenzen sunfonat chim lnh th trng rt nhanh. Sau i chin Th gii Th II, mt trong cc hp cht thuc nhm ny l axit propylentetramerbenzen sunfonic (ng ng ca DBSA) c s dng rt ph bin lm cht to bt trong sn xut CCGR. 27

n thi 1950-1965 cht ny chim hn 50% lng cht HBM c dng trong sn xut CCGR tng hp trn ton th gii. C th thy r s bng n sn xut v s dng CCGR tng hp trong thi k u pht trin qua cc s liu sau: T u nm 1940 n 1975 trong khi tng lng x phng ca 2 hng sn xut ln l American Soap and Detergent Association (M) v Henkel & Cie (c) gim t 1,41 triu tn xung cn 587 nghn tn, th tng lng CCGR tng hp li tng t 4,5 nghn tn ln 4,5 triu tn. CCGR tng hp thng c sn xut di 3 dng khc nhau l dng kem, dng bt v dng lng. c thi k dng kem v dng bt c th phn tng ng nhau, song trong thi gian gn y dng bt c xu hng chim lnh th phn ln hn so vi dng kem. Xu hng sn xut v s dng CCGR dng lng cng tng rt nhanh, nhanh hn cht git ra dng rn. T nm 1958 n 1972, lng CCGR dng rn c th gii tng t 1,2 triu tn ln 2,7 triu tn (tng 2,2 ln), trong khi lng CCGR dng lng tng t 354 nghn tn ln 1,77 triu tn (tng 5,0 ln). 2/ Kem git Kem git l loi cht git ra tng hp c sn xut nhiu t nhng thp nin gia Th k 20 ti nay. y l loi sn phm tng i tin dng do c tnh ty ra tt, d sn xut, d s dng v gi c chp nhn c. Tuy nhin chi ph bao b vn cao hn so vi bt git. Ngoi ra do kem git c m cao, t l cc thnh phn hu ch thp nn chi ph vn chuyn tnh theo n v git ra tng i cao. Cht lng ca cc loi kem git ph thuc vo cht lng, thnh phn nguyn liu v cng ngh sn xut. Loi kem git c cht lng cao phi c tnh ty ra tt, c pH va phi (pH 8-10), s dng t hao, gi c trng thi kem (pasta), khng b tch lp v kt tinh khi bo qun lu di trong cc iu kin thng thng. Kem git thng c xp vo loi sn phm git ra bnh dn hoc thp cp. Cht HBM l thnh phn chnh trong kem git tng hp.

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Vo nhng nm cui ca Th k trc, nhiu nc, trong c nc ta, vn s dng DBSA l cht to bt. Cht ny l cht HBM anion c cu trc mch nhnh v kh phn hy sinh hc. n nay ngi ta dng LAS (mt cht ng ng ca DBSA), c cu trc mch thng v d phn hy sinh hc hn, thay hon ton cho DBSA lm cht to bt trong sn xut CCGR tng hp, trong c kem git. m bo n nh tnh cht cho cc loi kem git, ngoi cht HBM c tc dng to bt v to nh, cc ha cht sau y thng c a vo phi liu kem git. Tc dng ca cc thnh phn tham gia c trnh by ti mc IV.1. bn trn. C th: - Cc mui pht pht kim, thng dng natri tripolyphtphat, lng s dng thng khong 10% hoc ln hn. - Sa, thng c s dng khong 5-10% hoc ln hn. - Natri sunfat l thnh phn thng c a vo phi liu kem git. T l trong kem git khong 5-10%. - Cht thm. - Cht pht quang (nu c) v cht to mu (thng trng hoc pha mt cht mu xanh lam nht). - Cht ty trng. Do kem git c m cao nn cc cht ty trng km bn thng t c s dng trong phi liu kem git. - Cht st khun (t s dng). Kem git l sn phm c yu cu cng ngh sn xut kh n gin nn thch hp vi cc nh sn xut, k c cc nh sn xut nh. Cng v yu cu cng ngh sn xut khng cao nn sn phm kem git ca cc nh sn xut c thng hiu mnh d b lm gi hoc lm nhi nhn hiu. Cng ngh sn xut kem git gm mt s bc nh sau: - nh lng phi liu; - Khuy ha tan nguyn liu rn (sa, natri tripolyphtphat, natri sunfat, v.v). Trong qu trnh khuy trn, ngi ta tip tc b sung: - Natri silicat (thy tinh lng); 29

- Cht to bt (LAS); - Cc loi ph gia cn li nh cht thm, ty trng, to mu, cht n tr, enzym, v.v Khi nho (pasta) s c ua qua my nghin (mn) v ng hp. S cc bc cng ngh sn xut kem git c trnh by trong Hnh 6.

Hnh 6. S cng ngh sn xut kem git 3/ Bt git Trong nhm ny khng bao gm cc ch phm dng bt rn c dng nh bng, mi rp b mt v mt s ch phm c th khc. Bt git l mt loi sn phm git ra ph bin nht hin nay. y l loi sn phm git ra tng hp c sn xut trn dy chuyn yu cu u t ln hn. Tng t nh kem git, cht lng ca bt git cng ch yu ph thuc vo thnh phn phi liu v cng ngh gia cng. Nhn chung cc nguyn liu dng sn xut bt git cng gn ging nh khi sn xut kem git. Vi cc loi bt git cao cp, ngi ta thng a vo phi liu cc cht ty trng (chng hn natri peborat), cht pht quang tng kh nng ty ra ca bt git. Di y l mt s loi nguyn liu ch yu m hng Yatai (TQ) thng dng trong sn xut bt git: Natri sunfat (NaSO4), natri tripolyphtphat 30

(Na5P3O10), sa nng v nh (Na2CO3), xt (NaOH), natri silicat rn (cc v bt) (Na2O.nSiO2.xH2O) hoc natri metasilicat pentohydrat, LAS (C12H25C6H4SO3H), cacboxymetylxenlul (hay CMC) (C5H9O5CH2COONa)n, natri toluensunfonat (C7 H7 SO3 Na), natri peborat tetrahydrat (NaBO3.4H2O), natri pecacbonat (NaB2CO3.3H2O2), tetraxetyletylendiamin (C10H16O4N2), natri lauryl sunfat (C12H25OSO3Na), cht lm trng pht quang (Fluorecent Whitening Agent 31# v loi High Efficient Fluorecent Whitening Agent), enzym proteaza (Alkaline Protease). i vi cc loi bt git pht pht thp v khng pht pht th mt phn hoc ton b mui pht pht s c thay th bng zeolit. Yu cu i vi cc loi bt git dng cho my git l pht t bt trong qu trnh git, nhng vn phi m bo ty trng tt. c c tnh nng ny cn gim pH bng cch gim hm lng cc nguyn liu c tnh kim (nh natri silicat) v tng hm lng cht ty trng (nh natri peborat). Cng thc (v d) cho cc loi bt git thng dng nh sau (Bng 1):

Bng 1. Cng thc cho cc loi bt git thng dng Loi bt git thng dng,% 15-20 40-45 3-8 0,9-1,0 20-25 0-2 0,3-0,4 10-25 Theo yu cu 0- va 100% 31 17 35 5-8 1,0 0-20 0,2 33 Theo yu cu 0- va 100% Loi bt git c cha enzym,%

STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Nguyn liu s dng Cht HBM Natri tripolyphtphat Natri silicat CMC Natri peborat Natri toluen sunfonat Cht pht quang Natri sunfat Cht thm Cht n tr, gi m

C 3 phng php (cng ngh) gia cng bt git l: nghin kh, phn ng to khi (agglomeration) v sy phun. Trong s cc phng php ny, phng php u hin t c p dng. C th: Phng php 1: Bt git c sn xut bng cch trn cc nguyn liu kh (gm cht HBM, cht chng lng, natri tripolyphtphat, cc loi ph gia khc, cht thm, trong my trn (blender) Phng php ny ch thch hp vi cc xng sn xut nh, u t thp v cht lng sn phm khng cao song chi ph sn xut thp nht. Phng php 2: Phng php phn ng to khi (agglomeration) cho php sn xut bt git vi cng sut ln (vi chc tn/gi). Trong phng php ny, phi liu kh c trn k trong my trn c lp cc dao trn c bit. Sau ngi ta phun vo phi liu cc thnh phn dng lng (chng hn thy tinh lng hoc mt s dung dch), tip tc trn hn hp nng ln v trong hn hp phi liu c xy ra cc phn ng ha hc. Kt qu l nhn c khi phn ng nng, lng st dng gilatin. Khi nng chy c chuyn ra bng ti v thi khng kh nng vo nhn c bn sn phm dng rn, rn. Nghin v sng bn sn phm, cc ht to trn sng c nghin li. Bt c ng gi thnh thnh phm. Phng php 3: Phng php to sn phm bt nh sy phun. Khi gia cng bt git theo phng php sy phun, trong giai on u ngi ta cng to pasta (cn gi l bn- slurry) ca phi liu, tng t nh khi sn xut kem git. Sau khi iu chnh nht ca pasta (dng nc), ngi ta tin hnh to bt trong thp sy phun c cao thch hp. Dng bm cao p phun pasta qua cc pep phun nh thp trong khi dng khng kh nng, kh c thi vo vng y thp sy. Bt sn phm kh c thu y thp sy v c chuyn sang cng on sng phn loi, to hng thm v ng bao. S qu trnh sn xut bt git theo phng php sy phun c trnh by Hnh 7. 32

33

u im ca bt git so vi kem git hoc mt s sn phm git ra tng hp khc l gim c chi ph bao b, ng thi do t l cc thnh phn hu ch trong bt git cao hn (khong 2 ln) so vi kem git nn chi ph vn ti sn phm cng thp hn. Tuy nhin chi ph u t thit b sn xut v gi thnh gia cng tnh trn n v khi lng sn phm li cao hn cc loi sn phm git ra tng hp dng khc (ch yu l chi ph u t thp sy phun- nu sn xut theo phng php to bt c dng thp sy phun). Hin nay trn th gii, nht l ti cc nc pht trin, ang c s chuyn dch cng ngh sn xut bt git t phng php dng thp sy phun sang cng ngh khng dng thp sy (NTR hay Non-Tower-Route). Cc nh sn xut cho bit cng ngh NTR n gin, hiu qu v gim c 80% nng lng sy v 200 lt nc cng nghip/tn bt git. Cng ngh ny cng cho php d dng a v bt git cc thnh phn nh enzym, cht ty trng, v.v Cng v vy m nhit nc git cng thp hn so vi khi s dng cc loi bt git thng thng. 4/ Cc cht git ra dng lng Nhm ny khng cp n cc ch phm lm sch ( thuc ty) ch dng axit, kim (hoc sa) hoc dung mi hu c ha tan v ty du m; cc m phm dng lng (nh nc hoa) v mt s ch phm c th khc. Cht git ra dng lng u tin c s dng l x phng lng do William Shepphard pht minh vo thng 8 nm1865. Tuy nhin trong mt thi gian di CCGR dng lng t c ch ci tin v sn xut. Mi n cui Th k 20 dng sn phm ny mi c ch pht trin. Nm 1980 hng Minnetonka Corp. gii thiu mt mu x phng lng u tin ca mnh, c gi l Soft Soap. Khong 20 nm gn y CCGR dng lng pht trin mnh v chim th phn ngy cng ln trn th trng CCGR. Hin nay thuc nhm CCGR dng lng c mt lot sn phm nh: nc ra chn (bt), nc ra xe, nc ra sn nh, du gi u, nc git m c, v.v Nguyn liu dng sn xut CCGR dng lng gn tng t nh i vi kem git v bt git.

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Di y l mt s loi nguyn liu ch yu m hng Yatai (TQ) thng dng trong sn xut cc cht git ra dng lng: xt (NaOH), LAS (C12H25C6H4SO3H), - olefin sunfonat (RCHCH SO3 Na), cht lm trng pht quang (Fluorecent Whitening Agent 31# v loi High Efficient Fluorecent Whitening Agent), ete alcol bo polyglycol RO(CH2CH2O)7H (R=C12-C15), ete natrilauryl sunfat, EDTA, v.v Trong CCGR dng lng, ngoi nc l dung mi ha tan chnh, ngi ta cn c th cho thm mt s dung mi khc. Cc dung mi ny gip cho s ha tan cc cu t c d hn. Hm lng rn trong mt s nc git ra m c c th t trn di 50%. Di y l thnh phn ca mt s sn phn git ra dng lng (Bng 2 v 3): Bng 2. Cng thc ca mt s loi nc git STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Nguyn liu s dng Cht HBM (v d LAS) X phng kali Toluen sunfonat (gim nht) Natri tripolyphtphat Natri silicat Enzym Natri peborat Cht pht quang Glyxrin Cht thm Nc Loi git bng tay,% 9,0 - 12,0 1,5 - 2,2 27 - 30 2,0 0,1 0,4 Theo yu cu 100% Loi git bng my,% 9,5 2,6 1,0 25 c 2,0 0,1 0,2 Theo yu cu 100%

35

Bng 3. Cng thc ca mt s loi nc ra chn (bt), men s, knh STT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Nguyn liu s dng Cht HBM (v d LAS) Alkyletesunfat (mui natri) R-O-(CH2CH2O)n-SO3Na Alkyletesunfat (mui amoni) R-O-(CH2CH2O)n-SO3NH4 - olefin sunfat Dietanolamit Xylensunfonat (mui natri) Ur Etanol Cht thm, cht mu Nc Loi git bng tay,% 13 - 15 0-3 0-7 0-3 1-2 0-3 2-3 1 Theo yu cu 100%

IV.3. Vn an ton lao ng v bo v mi trng trong sn xut v s dng cc cht git ra L mt ngnh sn xut thuc cng nghip nh, trong mt s cng on sn xut c th t ng ho, nn kh nng cng nghip sn xut CCGR gy mt an ton lao ng (ATL) cng nh gy nhim mi trng khng qu nghim trng nh mt s ngnh cng nghip nng khc. Tuy nhin i vi mt s c s sn xut CCGR cn s dng nhiu lao ng th cng th vn ATL v bo v mi trng vn phi c t ln hng u. Mt s kh nng mt ATL v gy nhim mi trng trong cng nghip sn xut CCGR l: - Tai nn lao ng khi lm vic vi in v my mc c kh ca cc dy chuyn ch bin, gia cng, ng gi. - Tai nn lao ng khi tip xc v lm vic vi cc ho cht. c bit trong sn xut cc cht git ra c s dng cc enzym, vn phng h lao ng cn lun lun c lu .

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Cc enzym l nhng loi nguyn liu dng bt mn, d to bi v gy vim ng h hp khi ht phi, hoc gy d ng nim mc v da rt mnh khi tip xc. V vy trong sn xut cc cht git ra c s dng enzym, ngi lao ng cn c trang b cc phng tin bo h cn thit (khu trang, gng tay, m trm, knh bo h, v.v Khng enzym pht tn v r r ra mi trng. Cc phn xng sn xut bt git cn c trang b h thng qut ht kh hoc thng kh tt. Trong s dng cc li bt git, nht l cc loi c cha enzym, cn lu khng tr em tip xc vi sn phm. V. Tnh hnh pht trin sn xut v th trng cc cht git ra V.1.Th gii Nm 2000 th trng CCGR th gii c nh gi l ln hn 60 t USD. n nm 2005 th trng ny c c tnh l 90 t USD, tng ng t l l 5,5 kg cht git ra/u ngi/nm, bao gm CCGR gia dng, phc v bo dng, ty ra cng nghip, v.v Trong c nhiu mng th trng mi xut hin nh th trng ty ra cho cng nghip dt, ng hp c trong cng nghip thy sn, v.v Mng th trng nguyn liu sn xut cc cht HBM dng cho sn xut CCGR lun c s xen k ca cc sn phm i t cng nghip du m v t cng nghip cc loi du m ngun gc thin nhin. Nm 1995 ton th gii sn xut 94 triu tn du m t nhin (tng 55 % so vi nm 1980). Nm 2000 sn xut 107 triu tn v d kin n nm 2010 s t sn lng 135 triu tn (tng gn gp i so vi nm 1995). Nu nh trc nm 1995, 50% trong s 1,2 triu tn alcol bo trn th gii c ngun gc t du thc vt th t l ny c chiu hng tng ln do gi du m ln cao v cn do cc sn phm i t thin nhin thn thin mi trng hn (d phn hy sinh hc, t pht tn NOx, SOx, CO). Nm 2000 tng lng alcol bo s dng trn ton th gii, nhiu nht l Ty u v Bc M (Hnh 8) l 1,6 triu tn, tng 33% trong vng 5 nm. Ngi ta ang hy vng cc loi du m t nhin s ng vai tr ngy cng ln hn trong tng lai (Bng 4).

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Bng 4. Sn lng cc sn phm dn xut i t du m t nhin (n v:1.000 tn)


khu vc Sn lng cc sn phm i t du m t nhin

1995 1.650 1.225 1.725 370 4.970

2000 1.760 1.355 2.270 375 5.760

2010 1.955 1.660 3.545 590 7.750

% tng trng 2010/1995 20 35 105 60 55

Chu u Chu M Chu Cc k.vc khc C th gii

Tuy nhin c nhng nh gi li cho rng, hin nay ch c khong 5% lng du m t nhin c s dng cho cng nghip sn xut CCGR, ch yu l x phng. Phn ln cn li c s dng trong nhiu ngnh cng nghip khc. Lng nguyn liu sn xut cht HBM l c ngun gc du m. LAS (nguyn liu sn xut LAS) c s dng nhiu ti khu vc chu - Thi Bnh Dng (Hnh 8).

Hnh 8. T l s dng LAB v cc alcol bo ti cc khu vc Cc nh sn xut CCGR ln v ni ting nht trn th gii l cc cng ty a quc gia nh Unilever, Procter & Gamble (P&G), Colgate - Pamolive, Henkel, Rekitt, Benckiser, Dial, Kao, v.v Di y l phn im qua tnh hnh sn xut v th trng CCGR ti mt s nc v khu vc chnh.

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Cc nc chu u Nhn chung, chu u l khu vc sn xut v s dng nhiu cht git ra. Tuy nhin s pht trin cng nghip sn xut CCGR ca cc nc khu vc chu u rt khng u. Sn lng sn phm git ra ti cc nc ng u v Trung u ch khong 7,5 kg/ngi/nm v ch yu l sn xut cc loi bt git (git my v git tay). Ti khu vc ny t l s gia nh s dng my git chim t 78 n 90% v t l dng my git bn t ng vn cn cao (30-60% tu tng nc). Ti cc nc khu vc ny, cng nghip sn xut CCGR vn lc hu hn cc nc thuc khu vc Ty u. Hu ht cc nguyn liu sn xut (tr cc cht HBM) nh enzym, cht thm, cht ty trng pecacbonat v peborat, v.v u phi nhp khu. Th trng ti cc nc ng v Trung u ni chung cn kh rng, nht l khu vc th trng cc sn phm git ra cao cp. Trong khi ti cc nc Ty u sn lng bnh qun CCGR l khong 16 kg/ngi/nm vi chng loi a dng hn nhiu, trong c nhiu chng loi cao cp, khng cha pht pht. Mt phn sn phm c xut khu. Cc nc thuc khi EU l khu vc sn xut v s dng nhiu cht git ra, Trung bnh cng nghip sn xut CCGR ca EU chim khong 11-12% tng doanh thu cng nghip. Thi k nhng nm 1996-1998 l thi k sn lng CCGR khu vc ny t gi tr cao nht (nm 1998 t 4,52 triu tn), trong c cc nc sau y c sn lng ln nht: Php 940 nghn tn (20,8%); Ty Ban Nha 890 nghn tn (19,7%); 840 nghn tn (18,6%); Anh 675 nghn tn (14,9%); c 610 nghn tn (13,5%); Khi cc nc Bc u (Thu in v Na Uy) 150 nghn tn (3,3%); B 140 nghn tn (3,1%). Cc nc EU cng l nhng nc sm nhn thy nh hng tiu cc n mi trng ca CCGR. Trong nhng nm 1950-1960 vn nhim bt trn cc dng chy chu u l vn nghim trng v mi trng u tin lin quan n CCGR. T u nhng nm 1970, EU a ra chnh sch quy nh vic s dng cc cht to bt nhm lm gim thiu bt tri trn cc sng, ng thi cng quy nh hn ch s dng cc loi cht HBM kh phn hu sinh hc. 39

Tip theo, Ngh nh s 98480 EC (ngy 22/7/1998) cng nu li nhng vn lin quan n CCGR gia dng v quy nh n cc mc m bo mi trng. Ngh nh a ra 5 mc tiu, trong c mc tiu gim khi lng sn xut v tiu th CCGR gia dng. Theo mc tiu ny EU s phn u gim s dng CCGR trong thi k 1996-1998 l 2,2%; thi k 1999-2000 gim 4,6% cn t 2001 tr i c gng gim 10%. Thc t th t nm 1997 n nm 2000, ti cc nc EU ch gim lng tiu th CCGR t 10,2 kg xung cn 9,4 kg/u ngi/nm, cn bnh qun lng cc cht hu c kh phn hu (nh cc cht hu c kh phn hu sinh hc) tnh theo u ngi vn khng v th m gim xung nhiu, v vn dao ng xung quanh gi tr 0,68-0,69 kg/u ngi/nm. Theo s liu ti Hi ngh du m quc t (4-8/9/2000) ti Kuala Lumpur (Malayxia) th trong thi gian 1991-1998 ti Ty u sn lng ca nhiu loi cht HBM gim mnh (Bng5). Bng 5. Lng cc cht HBM tiu th ti khu vc Ty u thi k 1991- 1998 n v: nghn tn Loi cht HBM 1. Anionic 1.1 LaBS 1.2 FaS/FeS 1.3 X phng 1.4 SaS 2. Cationic 3. Nonionic 4. Lng tnh Tng cng 1991 710 410 170 50 60 100 190 5 1,005 1998 610 285 245 60 20 135 285 10 1,040 Chnh lch - 100 - 145 + 75 + 10 - 40 + 35 + 95 +5 + 35

Tuy nhin s liu ca IBM li cho bit trong vng 5 nm (1996-2001) 15 nc thuc EU ct gim lng cht git ra s dng 7,9%, trong khi lng cht hu c kh phn hu gim xung 23,7%. Cc nc c mc gim 40

mnh s dng CCGR l an Mch (18,8%), Anh (17,1%), Php (15,6%), Ty Ban Nha (11,4%), v.v, trong khi vn c mt s nc c lng s dng CCGR tng, trong c Phn Lan tng n 13,7%. Ti chu u, vic p dng pht pht v cht ty trng gc clo cng c p dng mi nc mt khc. V d v mc cm s dng pht pht: v c cm hon ton, trong khi cc nc EU khc vn cn t l sn phm s dng pht pht nh: Slovenia 5%, Thu in 15%, Anh 40%, Php 50%, Sc 65%, Hunggary 70%, Ba Lan 85%, Rumani v Bungary ln hn 90%. Mt thng k khc cho thy trong nhng nm gn y tng doanh thu t CCGR (bt git, nc ra bt a l khong 50 t Euro/nm (trong khi M gn 30 t Euro/nm, Nht Bn 25 t Euro/nm) vi s lao ng thng xuyn trong ngnh sn xut ny t 200.000 ngi, cha k s ngi dch v (vn ti, i l, bn l) ln n 450.000 ngi. Cc sn phm thng dng ti cc nc EU l cc loi bt git nng, m c, hoc cc loi dng vin. Tuy nhin cc nc c t l tiu th CCGR khc nhau cng khc nhau, tu thuc vo thi quen v kh hu. V d H Lan v c tiu th nhiu loi bt git m c hn cc nc khc. Ngoi ra c, khch hng li tiu th nhiu cht git ra dng cho my git (cht git my chim n 68% th trng ca nc ny. Trong thi gian gn y, sn phm git ra dng vin c xu hng chim u th. y l loi sn phm c sn xut bng cch trn bt git vi cht ph gia to vin, sau p vin. Rt nhiu nh sn xut cho rng th phn CCGR dng vin c th chim n 25% th trng chung. Xu hng chung ca th trng CCGR ti khu vc EU l: + Chuyn t bt git thng dng sang bt git m c. + Chuyn t dng lng sang gel. + Chuyn t dng ht sang dng vin. Ngoi ra cn xu hng chuyn dch t s dng cc cht ty trng gc clo sang cc cht ty trng dng mui pe (pecacbonat, peborat), trong peborat cng c thay dn bng pecacbonat do l do kinh t (r hn) v mi trng. Ti chu u, nht l ti khu vc Ty u, th trng CCGR do mt s hng sn xut ln thng tr nh P&G, Unilever, Henkel, Benckiser, Colgat-Pamolive. Trong Unilever v Henkel l hai hng tiu biu. Nm hng ny chim n 41

80% sn lng bt git v CCGR dng lng ti th trng khi ny. S canh tranh ca cc hng ny hin nay ch yu l tp trung pht trin th phn i vi cc sn phm mi, cn kinh ph nghin cu (R&D) ln (n 25% doanh thu i vi sn phm) v ph hp yu cu th trng. M S pht trin cng ngh sn xut x phng v cc cht git ra ti M t trc nhng nm 1940 c gii thiu phn trn. Nm 1939 cc nh sn xut CCGR M bt u sn xut cc sn phm ty ra c dng cht HBM l DBSA v sau l cc loi ABS. Nm 1951 Hip hi cc nh sn xut x phng v glyxerin (tin thn ca Hip hi X phng v cht git ra M hin nay) ln u tin a ra khi nim phn hu sinh hc i vi cc cht HBM. Vo nhng nm 1960 LAS, cht HBM alkylbenzensunfonic mch thng (d phn hu sinh hc) c nghin cu pht trin nhng phi n nm 1965 cc nh sn xut CCGR M mi bt u dng LAS trong cc sn phm git ra gia dng. Cch y 20-30 nm bt git vn l sn phm thnh hnh M. Tuy nhin c mt thi k vo nhng nm 1970, mt na s thp sy phun sn xut bt git M phi ng ca do th trng suy gim nhng hin nay khi tro lu s dng cc loi bt git m c ln cao th s thp sy li tng ln nhiu. u nhng nm 1970 cc nh sn xut CCGR M phi i din vi vn pht pht trong sn phm git ra, nhng phi n nm 1992 nc ny mi cm hn vic s dng cc mui pht pht trong cc sn phm git ra gia dng ti hu ht cc bang, tr cc bang Connecticut, Florida v Maine khng cm tuyt i m ch hn ch s dng. Theo cc chuyn gia th chnh s cm pht pht kch thch s pht trin CCGR dng lng M vo nm 1970. n cui thp k 1980 CCGR dng lng rt ph bin M v chim n 50 % th trng CCGR nc ny v c xu th cng tng. Hin ti M CCGR dng lng chim th phn ln (60-65%) trong th trng CCGR ni chung v t khong 3 triu tn/ nm, gp gn 3 ln so vi bt git. Ring cc loi nc git ra m c chim 40% th trng. Hin nay trong khi chu u ngi tiu dng thch bt git th ti M ngi tiu dng li s dng rt nhiu chng loi sn phm git ra vi cc tnh nng khc nhau (tnh ty sch, gi bn mu qun o, c mi thm quyn r, thn mi trng, v.v). 42

c tnh mua hng ca khch hng M cng tng i c bit, trong phn ln mong mun sn phm git ra t cc my bn hng t ng v chung cc dng sn phm git ra dng lng hn, mt s khch hng li c thi quen thu git ti cc im git thu ti a bn. Ti M c cc hng sn xut CCGR ln hot ng l P&G, Degussa, Henkel, Akzo Nobel Surfactants, Unilever, v.v... Trong P&G l nh sn xut dn u vi sn phm bt git Tide ni ting. Degussa cng l nh sn xut CCGR ln chim gn 20% th phn trong th trng M. V bt git: P&G chim th phn ln ti th trng bt git M vi nhiu mc bt git nh Gain (chim 12%), Cheer (chim 7%), trong c bit c bt git Tide (chim 46% th trng bt git ca M). Hng Unilever cng sn xut bt git nh sn phm bt git Surf,All ,Wisk, v Tuy nhin cc sn phm ny c th phn nh v my nm gn y khng tng. V CCGR dng lng: Hng P&G chim n 37% th trng CCGR dng lng v th phn tng mc 4,6%/nm (nm 2002) vi cc sn phm c trng nh Olay Complete, Clairol Herbal Essence, v.v Henkel thng qua Dial Corp. chim th phn chim gn 10% v gii thiu rt nhiu loi cht git ra dng lng ra th trng M. Unilever cng a ra sn phm Dove ni ting ca mnh. Hin ti, th trng CCGR ni chung ca M c nh gi l khong 30 t USD Cc nh sn xut CCGR M cng c xu hng s dng cc cht pht quang, dng pecacbonat thay cho peborat v l do hiu qu kinh t v mi trng ng thi cng ng gi nh theo yu cu ca ngi s dng. Ring v cc loi x phng v cc sn phm CSCN, cng nh chu u, ti M dng lng v gel ang ln t loi dng bnh truyn thng. Xu hng chung l cc sn phm c pha cc cu t (dng da, to hng) c ngun gc t nhin ngy cng c a chung hn. Trung Quc Trong 20 nm pht trin gn y, sn xut v th trng CCGR ca Trung Quc pht trin rt nhanh chng. V d th trng du gi u (shampoo) cui thp nin 1980 cha n 10 triu NDT, nhng vo nm 2005 t 20 t NDT (khong 2,5 t USD), tc l sau 20 nm gi tr th trng tng ln 2000 ln. Cng trong thi gian ny s c s sn xut cng tng t 5-6 ln 3000. 43

C Trung Quc hin nay c ti 350 nh my sn xut cht git ra c ln vi cng sut sn xut hng nm l 1,5 triu tn x phng v 3,5 triu tn cht git ra tng hp cc loi (ang ng th 2 th gii). Trong nhng nm qua, Trung Quc u t mi hoc m rng nhiu dy chuyn sn xut sn phm git ra vi cng ngh v thit b hin i nhp khu. Cc nguyn liu nh LAS, cc alcol mch thng, 4Azeolit, enzym cho sn xut CCGR ngy cng c nhu cu ln. Theo k hoch, cng nghip cht git ra Trung Quc s tip tc pht trin mnh trong 10 nm ti. Trung Quc c k hoch sn xut 5 triu tn cht git ra (trong c 4,2 triu tn cht git ra tng hp v 0,8 triu tn x phng) vo nm 2010. Song song vi pht trin sn xut, th trng tiu th cc cht git ra ti Trung Quc cng c hng tip tc pht trin nhanh. Trong nhng nm ti trong lnh vc cc cht git ra, Trung Quc s tp trung v 5 hng sau: - a dng ha sn phm. - Pht trin cc sn phm c th. - Sn phm hng ti tng lp trung lu. - Ci tin bao b hin i. - Tng dn gi bn sn phm. Ti Trung Quc cng c mt s hng sn xut nc ngoi vo u t sn xut v kinh doanh cc sn phm git ra nh Unilever, Procter & Gamble (P&G), v,v Sn phm ca cc hng ny ang phi cnh tranh ht sc quyt lit vi sn phm ca cc nh sn xut trong nc. Cng ty Diao l cng ty trong nc hin ang c th phn ln nht trn th trng ni a v CCGR ti Trung Quc, chim 25% th phn bt git. Trong khi sn phm ca hng Unilever (vi sn phm chnh l bt git OMO) ch chim 10% th phn. c th cnh tranh c vi cc sn phm bn a, cc hng nc ngoi ti Trung Quc phi a ra chin lc gim gi, khuyn mi hoc nghin cu pht trin cc sn phm bnh dn v ph hp vi tp qun ca dn a phng hn, ng thi lun phi c gng ha nhp v pht trin cng ngh, thit k mu m sn phm, phng thc bn hng ph hp vi ngi Trung Quc. Ngoi cc nh sn xut nu trn, hin nay Trung Quc c mt s hng ln sau y c sn xut kinh doanh CCGR v CSCN: Guangzhou Liby Co Ltd; 44

Guanghou Lonkey industry Co Ltd ; Shanghai Johnson Ltd ; Shanghai WhiteCat Co Ltd ; Shanxi Nafine Chemicals Group Ltd, Zhejiang Nice Daily Use Chemical Co Ltd, v.v Hin nay nhu cu v nguyn liu sn xut ngy cng cao. Ring nhu cu v ru bo, nm 2000 Trung Quc sn xut 152,2 nghn tn, nhng nm 2005 t 367 nghn tn (tng 19,6%/nm). Tuy nhin do nhu cu s dng m nm 2000 Trung Quc phi nhp khu 35 nghn tn ru bo v trong nhng nm sau, lng nhp khu cn cao hn d tng sn lng sn xut trong nc. pht trin cng nghip sn xut CCGR, Trung Quc cng tm cch pht trin cng nghip sn xut v kh nng cung cp nguyn liu cho ngnh cng nghip ny. Hin nay cng nghip ca Trung Quc c th t sn xut cc loi nguyn liu c bn ca cng nghip sn xut CCGR, thm ch c kh nng xut khu cng ngh v thit b sn xut i vi mng sn phm ny. n n l nc c 70% dn s sng vng nng thn, trong khi th trng thnh ph trn ngp hng ho v rt kh cho cc doanh nghip mi len chn vo, v vy th trng nng thn n ang l th trng tim nng v ang pht trin rt nhanh. Th trng cc cht ty ra v git ra gia dng n c nh gi l khong 3 triu tn vi tr gi 45 t rupi, vi mc tng trng bnh qun hng nm trong my nm gn y l 7-8%. y l mt trong ba th trng ln nht th gii, ch sau M v Trung Quc, trong x phng chim t l khong 20% v lng v 15% v gi tr. Sn phm gm 60% dng thi (bnh), 32 % dng bt. Trong my nm gn y nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng n c s thay i: dn nng thn thch dng bt git v kem git hn l dng x phng. Vic qung co bt git v mc tiu th cc loi my git khu vc ny cng tng rt mnh. Trong 5 nm gn y n mc tng trng bnh qun hng nm vi cc sn phm git ra tng hp, nht l bt git, t 10-11 %, trong khi mc tng trng x phng li l s m. Th trng CCGR nng thn n c mc tng trng t 13-14% cn th trng thnh ph t 8-9%. Cc nh sn xut cht git ra ln n l hng Hindu Lever Ltd. (HLL) vi sn phm Surf, Lux, Lifebouy, Dove; hng Nirma Ltd. vi sn phm Nirma v Nirma Super; hng Procter & Gamble (P&G) vi sn phm 45

Ariel, Gain, Tide ; hng Henkel-Spic India Ltd. vi sn phm Henkoc trng. Theo nh gi, th phn cc sn phm git ra ca cc hng sn xut n l: HLL 39%; Nirma 26%; P&G 8%; Henkel 2%; Tng s cc hng cn li l 25%. Ngoi ra cn mt lot nh sn xut khc cng s mt trn th trng CCGR v sn phm CSCN nh: Balsara Home Products Ltd; Karamchand appliances Pvt Ltd; Modicare Ltd, v.v Ring th trng cc sn phm lm sch v CSCN n c chia lm hai khi (sn phm thng dng v sn phm cao cp) v c cu trc thp, ngha l cc sn phm bnh dn gi r chim th phn ln cn cc loi sn phm cao cp gi cao chim th phn nh dn t l nghch vi gi bn. Trong khi sn phm cao cp, x phng cao cp li tng trng cao hn, t n 10%. Cc nh sn xut ch yu cung cp sn phm cho cc th trng ny l HLL (sn phm Lux, Lifebuoy, Breeze, Rexona), Nirma Ltd. (vi sn phm Nirma), Godrej Sara Lee Ltd (vi sn phm Cithol, Fair Glow, v.v) v Reckitt & Colman (vi sn phm Dettol). Tuy nhin vn cn 50% dn thnh th v 80% dn nng thn vn ch dng tro bp hoc cc cht ty ra r tin ra bt a. Trong tnh hnh ny HLL, nh cung cp CCGR ln nht ti n , ang a ra nhiu sn phm ra bt a ra th trng, c bit sn phm c tn l Vim Bar. Cc sn phm khc nh nc lm sch sn nh, nc ra toilet cng c mc tng trng khong 20%/nm. Cc nh cung cp chnh vi dng sn phm ny l HLL, Reckitt & Colman India (RCI), Henkel Spic, Bayer India v Balsara Hygien. Ngoi ra, ti n cc sn phm du gi u v cc loi khc cng rt pht trin. Ti n , cc cng ty sn xut CCGR rt ch n chnh sch phn phi v thm nhp th trng. C mt im c bit l cc cng ty ln, vi mng li phn phi hng mnh ca mnh, li vn k kt bao tiu sn phm cho cc nh sn xut khc. Bng cch ny cc nh sn xut mi vn c th thm nhp th trng m khng cn phi thit lp h thng phn phi ring ca mnh. thnh cng trong phn phi ti khu vc nng thn, cc nh sn xut thng a ra cc sn phm theo phng chm tin no ca y (value-formoney products), ng thi cn thc hin c cch ng gi nh (mini packing) tho mn mi yu cu ca ngi tiu dng. Gi bn sn phm cng c 46

nghin cu k v l mt chnh sch thng c p dng, nht l i vi cc nh sn xut ln. Cc nc ASEAN c trng ca khi cc nc ng Nam (ASEAN) l c sn lng du thc vt ln nht th gii v chim t trng ngy cng tng trn th trng th gii (Bng 6). Khi ny cng pht trin mnh nn cng nghip v ch bin du thc vt v sn xut cc dn xut t du m t nhin s dng lm nguyn liu trong cng ngh sn xut CCGR. Bng 6 . Sn lng cc sn phm i t du m t nhin ca mt s nc ASEAN thi k 1990 2000, d on n 2010 (tn) Nc Malayxia Philippin indonexia Thi Lan Tng s Th gii T trong ca cc nc aSeaN/th gii, % 1990 262.000 172.470 62.000 11.000 508.370 4.170.000 12 1995 806.950 285.000 199.500 22.000 1.313.450 5.264.00 25 2000 1.360.000 480.000 400.000 44.000 2.284.000 6.258.000 36 2010 4.000.000 8.000.000 50

Ti khu vc ny c rt nhiu nh sn xut bn a v nc ngoi tham gia vo th trng cc sn phm dn xut t du thc vt. Nhn chung cng nghip sn xut CCGR v sn phm CSCN ti cc nc ASEAN u nh, ch yu phc v nhu cu ti ch. hu ht cc nc trong khi, bn cnh cc nh sn xut trong nc lun lun c mt cc hng sn xut ni ting ca nc ngoi (a quc gia) nh Unilever, P&G, Colgate-Palmolive, Kao, Lion, v.v Ti Innxia c cc cng ty sau y sn xut kinh doanh trong lnh vc CCGR v sn phm CSCN: Birina Multidaya PT; Joenoes Ikamulya PT; Kinocare Era Kosmetindo PT; Unitama Sari Mas PT, v.v

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Ti Thi Lan c cc cng ty sau y sn xut kinh doanh trong lnh vc CCGR: ARS Chemical Company Ltd; Colgate-Palmolive Ltd; Lion Corp Ltd; Unilever Thai Holdings Company Ltd, v.v Ti Philippin c cc cng ty sau y sn xut kinh doanh trong lnh vc CCGR: ACS Manufacturing Corp; Cymar international; Lamoiyan Corp; Philusa Corp, v.v Ti Malayxia c cc cng ty sau y sn xut kinh doanh trong lnh vc CCGR: De Free (M) Sdn Bhd; Fumakilla Malaysia Bhd; Lam Soon (M) Bhd; Southern Lion Sdn Bhd; united Detergent Industries Sdn Bhd, v.v V.2. Vit Nam V.2.1. Tnh hnh pht trin sn xut CCGR Cng nghip sn xut CCGR ti Vit Nam c pht trin t nhng nm 1960. Vo thi k ti Khu cng nghip Cao-X-L (cao su, x phng, thuc l) Nh my X phng H Ni (ln nht min Bc khi ) c thnh lp vi sn phm sn xut l x phng cc loi (ch yu l x phng git, x phng thm, x phng dit khun, v.v). Ti min Nam cng c hng loi x nghip x phng t nhn c ra i. Cc sn phm kem git ch c sn xut v s dng nhiu Vit Nam sau nhng nm 1970. Cc sn phm bt git c sn xut v s dng ph bin vo nhng nm 1980. Trc khi cc hng nc ngoi hot ng trong lnh vc cht git ra c mt ti Vit Nam, trn th trng Vit Nam c hn 10 c s chyn sn xut v kinh doanh CCGR, trong c mt s nh my, x nghip quc doanh trung ng v a phng c quy m sn xut tng i ln nh: Cng ty X phng H Ni, Cng ty Bt git LIX (LIXCO), Bt git NET (NETCO), Phng ng, VICO- V dn, DACO, TICO, P/S, Nh Ngc, v.v Ngoi ra khi cn c hng lot c s sn xut nh ca cc c quan, trng hc, vin nghin cu bung ra sn xut theo k hoch 3 v cc hp tc x hoc t hp t nhn cng tham gia sn xut cc sn phm git ra, ch yu l cc loi kem git v x phng. 48

Nhn chung trong thi gian 1970-1990, th trng cc loi x phng v kem git nc ta rt ln xn, cht lng sn phm thp v vic qun l b th lng. S c mt ca cc hng v tp on a quc gia vi thng hiu ni ting v nng lc ti chnh v cng ngh ln nh Unilever, P&G, to ra mt cuc cnh tranh rt khc lit trn th trng CCGR nc ta. Sau vi nm, hu ht cc doanh nghip trong nc phi chp nhn gia cng cho cc doanh nghip c vn u t nc ngoi hoc chu ph sn, sp nhp, bn hoc chuyn sang kinh doanh ngnh ngh khc. Tnh n nm 2000 c nc ch cn li mt s rt t doanh nghip ln trong s hn 10 doanh nghip thuc ngnh ho m phm trc cn tn ti ng vi ngnh ngh ng k. Hin nay trong sn xut CCGR ti Vit Nam c th thy cc cng ty lin doanh c vn u t nc ngoi c cc dy chuyn sn xut c trang b tng i hin i, cng sut dy chuyn sn xut ln. Tuy nhin mt s cng ty lin doanh vn thu gia cng sn phm tn dng nng lc sn xut ca cc c s sn xut trong nc. Mt s c s sn xut CCGR trong nc cng ang c xu hng vn ln trn c s u t chiu su v cng ngh, thit b v tng cng khng nh thng hiu ca mnh. V nguyn liu sn xut Trc y nc ta nguyn liu sn xut CCGR hu nh hon ton c nhp khu, tr mt lng khng ng k cc loi du, m t nhin sn xut x phng git . Hin nay c mt s loi nguyn liu c sn xut v cung cp ton phn hoc mt phn trong nc nh du thc vt (da, lc, vng) hoc mt s nguyn liu ho cht nh LAS, thy tinh lng, natri tripolyphtphat, v.v... Tuy nhin cn nhiu loi nguyn liu vn phi nhp khu hon ton nh sa, natri sunfat, cc loi cht ty trng, cht lm trng quang hc (pht quang), cht thm, zeolit, enzym, v.v Ngay i vi cc nguyn liu, ho cht c sn xut trong nc, th sn xut vn phi nhp khu cc nguyn liu u nh; sn xut thy tinh lng vn phi nhp khu sa; sn xut LAS vn phi nhp khu LAB (alkybenzen mch thng) v lu hunh, v.v 49

Di y l s lc v tnh hnh sn xut mt s nguyn liu chnh cho cng nghip sn xut CCGR trong nc: - Sn xut LAS v cc cht HBM Hin ti Vit Nam c 4 c s sn xut LAS vi nguyn liu u vo l LAB v lu hunh, cng ngh v thit b sn xut nhp khu. Cng sut tng cng ca cc dy chuyn l 50 nghn tn/nm. Trong Cng ty Bt git v Ha cht c Giang (H Ni) cng sut 12 nghn tn/nm, song thng xuyn ch hot ng 70% cng sut (t khong 8.000 tn/nm). Hai c s khc ti Hi Phng l Cng ty PPM, cng sut 15 nghn tn/nm; v DASO, cng sut 24 nghn tn/nm. Ti thnh ph H Ch Minh c cng ty TICO cng sn xut LAS v cc cht hot ng b mt khc nh lauryl sunfat v lauryl ete sunfat (mui natri v amoni) vi cng sut tng cng khong 20 nghn tn/nm (tnh theo LAS). Tuy nhin hu nh cc c s u khng chy ht cng sut ti a do hn ch v nhu cu. Cht lng LAS do cc c s sn xut trong nc tng ng vi sn phm cng loi ca cc nc trong khu vc. Sn phm sn xut ra ch yu t tiu th hoc bn cho cc c s sn xut CCGR khc. - Sn xut natri silicat (thy tinh lng). Trc y nc ta c mt s c s sn xut natri silict theo phng php t vi nguyn liu l xt lng v ct trng. Tuy nhin trong sn xut ny sinh khng t vn v ATL do thit b khng m bo khi hot ng p sut cao. Hin ti nhiu c s sn xut natri silicat k c doanh nghip trung ng v a phng sn xut theo phng php kh vi nguyn liu l sa (nhp khu) v ct trng. Ring cc n v thnh vin ca Tng Cng ty Ho cht Vit Nam (VINACHEM) c 6 doanh nghip c sn xut natri silicat vi nng lc sn xut 50 nghn tn/nm. Tuy nhin do gii hn v yu cu th trng m hu ht cc dy chuyn sn xut u khng chy ht cng sut ti a. Trong cc nm 2000-2005 sn lng natri silicat ca VINACHEM thng xuyn ch t 25-35 nghn tn/nm.

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Ngoi tiu th ni b ti mt s c s c sn xut CCGR, phn ln natri silicat sn xut u c bn cho cc c s sn xut CCGR, tuyn khong, sn xut que hn in, v.v Nhu cu chung v natri silicat c nc c th t 100 nghn tn/nm. Cc cng ty lin doanh sn xut CCGR l nhng h tiu th ln sn phm ny. Mt s c s sn xut c th sn xut c kali silicat (lm nguyn liu sn xut que hn in) i t nguyn liu KOH (hoc K2CO3) khi c yu cu. - Sn xut natri tripolyphtphat Hin nay nc ta natri tripolyphtphat c sn xut t axit phtphoric (H3PO4) nhp khu hoc sn xut trong nc theo phng php nhit vi nguyn liu u l pht pho vng (P4). Nhu cu natri tripolyphtphat nc ta ring cho lnh vc sn xut CCGR c nh gi l khong 100 nghn tn/nm (20-25% tng sn lng CCGR/nm). Tuy th kh nng cung cp trong nc ch t khong trn di 20 nghn tn/nm do nhiu nguyn nhn, nht l do gi P4 cao, sn xut trong nc khng hiu qu bng nhp khu. Cc c s sn xut axit phtphoric ln nht nc ta l Cng ty C phn Bt git v Ho cht c Giang v Cng ty TNHH mt thnh vin Ho cht c bn min Nam. C hai cng ty ny u l thnh vin ca VINACHEM. Tuy nhin sn xut natri tripolyphtphat ch yu ch c Cng ty C phn Bt git v Ho cht c Giang. Di y l sn lng natri tripolyphtphat ca VINACHEM trong my nm gn y (ch yu l do Cng ty C phn Bt git v Ho cht c Giang sn xut) 2001-2005 (n v: nghn tn): 11,9; 18,0; 15,6; 7,5; 11,2. Nm 2006 c k hoch sn xut 15 nghn tn. Ngoi ra cn mt s t hp v danh nghip t nhn cng tham gia sn xut axit phtphoric v natri tripolyphtphat song sn lng nh khng ng k. - Sn xut xt Cng nghip sn xut xt-clo nc ta c pht trin t nhng nm 1960. Hin nay c nc c gn 10 c s sn xut vi tng nng lc sn xut di 150 nghn tn xt (quy kh)/nm. Cc c s sn xut ln nht l Cng ty VEDAN (100% vn u t nc ngoi, cng sut 60 nghn tn/nm); Cng ty 51

TNHH Ho cht c bn min Nam (cng sut 20.000 tn/nm); Cng ty C phn Ho cht Vit Tr (cng sut 10 nghn tn/nm); Cng ty Giy Bi Bng v Cng ty Giy ng Nai (thuc Tng Cng ty Giy Vit nam, mi cng ty c cng sut di 10 nghn tn/nm). Ngoi ra cn mt s c s sn xut ca a phng cng sn xut xt-clo vi cng sut nh (3 nghn n 5 nghn tn/nm). Tt c cc c s sn xut nc ta u sn xut xt lng (30-32% NaOH). Hu ht cc c s sn xut u s dng thng in phn De- Nora () vi ant titan ph RuO2 v catt li st, mng ngn (diaphram) amian (hoc vt liu tng hp). Mt s c s sn xut (nh VEDAN, Cng ty TNHH mt thnh vin Ho cht c bn min Nam) dng thng in phn c mng trao i ion (membrane) v sn phm xt nhn c kh tinh khit, t phm cp dng trong cng nghip thc phm. C mt c s dng thng in phn catt thu ngn vi cng sut rt nh (3 nghn tn/nm) v khng hot ng thng xuyn. Hin nay xt sn xut trong nc ch yu c s dng trong cng nghip sn xut giy, ch bin qung bxit, sn xut ho cht, x phng v CCGR, v.vNhu cu v xt ngy cng ln nh hu ht cc nh my sn xut xt li khng th chy ht cng sut v khng cn bng c clo. Lng xt thiu u phi nhp khu, ch yu nhp xt rn t Trung Quc. - Sn xut du, m Theo quy hoch pht trin ngnh Du thc vt Vit Nam n nm 2010, sn lng du thc vt tiu th 420-460 nghn tn (nm 2005) v 620-660 nghn tn (nm 2010), trong sn xut trong nc 70-75 nghn tn (nm 2005) v 210220 nghn tn (nm 2010). Trong Quy hoch c nu r din tch pht trin vng nguyn liu v u t ch bin du thc vt th, ch yu sn xut du n v xut khu. Khng c hng s dng du thc vt trong cng ngh x phng. V m ng vt: nc ta cc c s git m phn tn v quy m nh v m ng vt (ch yu l m ln) vn ch s dng trong nu n v ch bin thc phm ti ch. Ring m c, nc ta c ngun tng i phong ph. Hng nm ng Bng Sng Cu Long sn xut 400 nghn tn c da trn (c basa v c tra), thi ra khong 60 nghn tn m c. Tuy nhin hin nay lng m ny ang phi thi b hoc nghin cu chuyn thnh biodiesel v khng c hng nghin cu cng ngh s dng m ny trong sn xut x phng. 52

V cng ngh v thit b sn xut Trong mt thi gian di trc khi c s tham gia th trng ca cc cng ty nc ngoi, cng nghip sn xut CCGR nc ta hu nh t c u t nng cp v cng ngh v thit b. Cc cng ty lin doanh ra i gp phn kch thch u t trong nc theo hng hin i ha dy chuyn sn xut, u t nghin cu thay i v ci tin mu m v cht lng sn phm cnh tranh. Tuy nhin nc ta cho n nay trong cng nghip sn xut CCGR, nhiu c s sn xut CCGR trong nc, nht l cc c s sn xut nh, vn cn s dng nhng dy chuyn my mc c hoc t ch to, trnh cng ngh ch vo khong nhng nm 1970-1980 ca th gii. Ti mt s c s sn xut trong nc, dy chuyn sn xut CCGR c c b sung v ci tin mt s thit b mi nh thit b cung cp nhit cho thp sy phun, trang b thm my ng gi t ng, v.v, ng thi cc c s sn xut cng tch cc nghin cu v cho ra i cc sn phm mi vi mu m a dng hn, cht lng cao hn, trong c mt s loi bt git c cha cht lm trng quang hc, enzym, v.v Trnh thit k v c kh ch to ca nc ta hin nay c th p ng i vi ch to, lp t h thng thp sy phun, thng phn ng, cc thit b lc, v.vTuy nhin cc thit b phc tp i hi t ng ha cao, mt s thit b l (bm, van, v.v) vn phi khp ngoi. V th trng Hin nay tham gia hot ng trong lnh vc sn xut kinh doanh CCGR ti Vit Nam c cc cng ty trong nc v cc cng ty lin doanh c vn u t nc ngoi. Cc c s sn xut CCGR trong nc bao gm cc cng ty thuc VINACHEM v mt s doanh nghip thuc cc ngnh kinh t khc (nh VICOV Dn) hoc thuc cng nghip a phng (nh DASO, TICO). VINACHEM c 2 doanh nghip chuyn sn xut cht git ra l Cng ty c phn Bt git LIX v Cng ty c phn bt git NET. Ngoi hai doanh nghip trn, mt s cng ty khc thuc Tng Cng ty cng sn xut sn phm git ra nh mt sn phm ph. l cc Cng ty: Cng ty c phn Phn bn v Ha cht Cn Th, c phn Ha cht Nng, c phn Ha cht Vit Tr, v.v 53

Ti Vit Nam c mt s hng nc ngoi tham gia th trng CCGR, trong ch yu l Unilever v P&G. C hai hng ny u lp cng ty lin doanh vi VINACHEM hoc vi n v thnh vin ca Tng Cng ty: Lever Vietnam l lin doanh gia Unilever vi VINACHEM; P&G Vietnam l lin doanh gia P&G vi Cng ty Phng ng (ORDESCO). n nay, bnh qun lng cht git ra tnh trn u ngi Vit Nam cn cha cao. S liu thng k sn lng CCGR sn xut ti Vit Nam ca mt s c s ln nm 2005 l vo khong 450 nghn tn (trong c khong 5% c xut khu), tng ng khong 5,5 kg/ngi/nm, tng ng t l bnh qun trn th gii (cng khong l 5,5 kg/ngi/nm). R rng th trng trong nc v CCGR vn cn rng i vi cc nh sn xut v tim nng pht trin cng nghip sn xut CCGR nc ta cn ln khi mc sng v nhu cu tiu th ca nhn dn c nng ln. Nm 2005 sn lng ca mt s c s sn xut CCGR ln nht nc ta nh sau: Khi lin doanh (ch yu l Lever Vietnam v P&G): 300 nghn tn, chim khong 66% th phn. Khi cc nh sn xut trong nc, gm: - Cc doanh nghip thuc Tng Cng ty Ha cht Vit Nam (tr lng gia cng): 100 nghn tn, chim khong 22 % th phn; - Cc c s sn xut cn li (thuc cc thnh phn kinh t khc hoc ca a phng): 50 nghn tn, chim 11 % th phn. Trn th trng nc ta ch yu c mt cc sn phm: Bt git ca Unilever (OMO, VISO), bt git ca P&G (Tide) v cc loi nc ra, du gi ca cc hng ny; cc loi bt git mang thng hiu LIXCO (LIX Extra, LIX Compact, YES, v.v), NETCO (White NET, NET Vit Nam, RAID, Test, v.v), bt git ca DASO (DASO), bt git ca TICO (TICO) v ca VICO- V dn (VICO) cng rt nhiu sn phn ty ra dng lng, nc lm mm vi, nc ra chn bt, sn nh, v.v Trn th trng CCGR nc ta hin nay n 80 % sn phm git ra l sn phm sn xut trong nc. Cc sn phm nhp khu ch yu t Thi Lan, Nht Bn, Hn Quc v ch yu l cc hng cao cp hoc c dng. Sn phm ca Trung Quc hu nh khng thy xut hin ti th trng nc ta. 54

V.2.2. Cc nh sn xut Khi cc nh sn xut trong nc 1/ Cng ty c phn Bt git LIX Cng ty bt git LIX trc y l Nh my Bt git Linh Xun c thnh lp t nm 1974. Sau gii phng min Nam Nh my nm trong Cng ty Bt git min Nam. Nm 1980 Nh my tch ra khi Cng ty Bt Git Min Nam tr thnh mt n v c lp. Nm 1992 Nh my chuyn thnh Cng ty Bt git LIX Doanh nghip nh nc. Nm 1993 Cng ty ng k kinh doanh li theo Ngh nh 388/HBT. Cng trong nm ny Cng ty thnh lp Chi Nhnh H Ni (ti huyn Gia Lm, H Ni). Nm 1995 tr thnh thnh vin ca Tng Cng ty Ha cht Vit Nam. Thng 6/2003 theo Quyt nh ca B Cng Nghip, Cng ty Bt git LIX chuyn thnh Cng ty C phn Bt git LIX (LIXCO) u nm 2005 Cng ty mua li Nh my bt git ca Lever Vit Nam (cng sut 25.000 tn/nm) ti Thng nh, Thanh Xun, H Ni v chuyn Chi nhnh H Ni c chuyn sang a im ny (3/2005). Hin ti nng lc sn xut ca LIXCO l: 100.000 tn sn phm/nm (bao gm: Bt git: 60.000 tn/nm; Kem git: 20.000 tn/nm; Cht ty ra dng lng: 20.000 tn/nm). Sn phn lun lun c thay i v ci tin mu m. Sn lng CCGR ca LIXCO nhng nm gn y nh sau: Nm 2001 t 40 nghn tn, nm 2002 t 56 nghn tn, Cc nm 2004-2005 u t mc tng trng sn phm sn xut trn 20%. Trong nhng thng u nm 2006 Cng ty c mc bt ph mnh vi mc tng trng t trn 40% (tnh cho 9 thng u nm). Sn phm Cng ty cng c xut khu sang cc th trng Xingapo, Madagasca, i Loan, Trung Quc, Campuchia v cc nc Trung ng. Cng ty c BVQI chng nhn v t chc UKAS cng nhn H thng qun l cht lng theo tiu chun quc t ISO 9002 (nm 2000). 55

2/ Cng ty c phn Bt git NET Cng ty c phn Bt git NET (NeTCo) khi u s nghip ca mnh vo nm 1968 min Nam (Bin Ho- ng Nai). Trong sut thi k trc ngy gii phng min Nam, Cng ty c qun l di hnh thc t bn t nhn. Ton b h thng dy chuyn sn xut do cc chuyn gia M & italia thit k, ch to. Nhng sng lp vin t tn cng ty l NeT (vit tt ca ch NeTWoRK) vi k vng cc sn phm ca mnh s hnh thnh mng li bn hng a quc gia, xuyn lc a. T 1975 n 1990 NeTCo l doanh nghip nh nc. Cc sn phm chnh trong thi k ny l bt git v kem git. Trong nhng nm1990-1995 NeTCo bt u chuyn giao hot ng theo c ch th trng. Cng ty c coi l mt trong nhng doanh nghip nh nc lm n kh hiu qu trong c ch th trng vi cng sut ln n 12 nghn tn sn phm/nm. NETCO c c phn ho thng 7/2003. Cc sn phm ca NeTCo c ng o ngi tiu dng chp nhn. NeTco tr thnh thng hiu ni ting v ginh c nhiu huy chng vng ti cc k hi ch trong nc v quc t. NeTCo c tp on Henkel ca c ngh hp tc lin doanh sau khi nghin cu v kho st th trng. S ra i ca cc cng ty lin doanh c tim lc ln v ti chnh v cng ngh nh Lever Vietnam, P&G Vietnam vi cc sn phm c thng hiu mnh nh OMO, Tide, v.v c mt thi lm cho cc sn phm ca NETCO b chn p mnh trn th trng, sn xut sa st, cng nhn thiu vic lm. u nm 2000 vi s thay i qun l v mnh dn u t cng ngh,thit b sn xut ca NETCO c rt nhiu bin chuyn: u t thp sy phun nng lc sn xut ca Cng ty v m bo nhn gia cng cho cc lin doanh; nhiu dy chuyn sn xut nc ra chn, ng gi sm phm bt git v kem git c t ng ho. NeTCo c hai c s sn xut: c s 1 ti khu cng nghip Bin Ho, c s 2 ti H Ni vi nng lc sn xut tng cng trn 120 nghn tn sn phm/nm (80 nghn tn bt git v 25 nghn tn cht ty ra lng/nm). Sn lng mt s nm gn y ca NETCO: Nm 2001 t 44.776 tn, nm 2002 t 41.810 tn, nm 2003 t 45.422 tn, nm 2004 t 64 nghn tn, nm 2005 t 80 nghn tn (k c khi lng sn phm gia cng). 56

Mc tiu u t ca Cng ty l t c cng sut ca dy chyn chnh ti ng Nai l 150 tn sn phm/ngy v pht huy ht cng sut thp sy bt git 40 tn/ngy ti H Ni. NeTCo hin ang thc hin theo h thng qun l cht lng iSo 9001: 2000 do t chc uKaS anh Quc nh gi v cp giy chng nhn. 3/ Cng ty VICO- V dn VICO V dn (gi tt l VICO) l cng ty c phn chuyn sn xut cht git ra c tr s ti thnh ph Hi Phng. Tin thn ca VICO l cng ty Sao Bin (doanh nghip nh nc) chuyn sn xut bt git Hi Phng, nhng lm n thua l trn b vc ph sn do cng ngh v thit b lc hu. Bng cch i mi cng ngh v thay i qun l, lin doanh v s dng cng ngh ca CHLB c, cc sn phm ca VICO c nng ln v c ngi tiu dng chp nhn. Cng ty p dng h thng qun l theo ISO 9001-2000 t nm 2002. Sn phm ca VICO ng thng mt s huy chng cp vng hi ch. Trong 7 nm (1997-2004) Cng ty tng cng sut sn xut ln 5 ln (t 5.000 tn/nm ln 24.000 tn nm). Hin nay Cng ty c h thng vi trn 50 nh phn phi sn phm ti 30 tnh thnh khu vc ph Bc v ang c hng pht trin tiu th ti khu vc pha Nam, chp nhn cnh tranh vi cc sn phm c thng hiu ni ting khc. VICO hin ang chim 25% th phn v bt git ti cc tnh pha Bc (khong 910% th phn bt git c nc). VICO ang phn u tng th phn trong thi gian ti. Hin VICO l mt trong nhng doanh nghip ho m phm cn tn ti v pht trin sau cuc b vo Vit Nam ca cc hng nc ngoi, c thng hiu ni ting v tim lc ti chnh hng hu. 4/Cng ty TNHH Ho m phm DASO-DACCO Doanh nghip c tin thn l X nghip hp doanh ho m phm Nh Rng (Tp. H Ch Minh), c thnh lp nm 1988. Hin nay Cng ty TNHH Ho m phm DASO-DACCO l doanh nghip hot ng a ngnh. Ngoi kinh doanh trong lnh vc ho m phm, DASODACCO cn hot ng kinh doanh du thc vt, bao b, h tng c s khu cng nghip, khai thc dch v cng bin, v.v Trong lnh vc ho m phm, Cng ty c nh my sn xut Bnh Dng v chi nhnh mt s tnh thnh trong nc. Cng ty sn xut v a ra th trng cc sn phm bt git, du gi u, kem nh rng, x phng thm v 57

nc hoa xt phng. Vi cc nhn hiu Daso, Dacco, Bnh An, Ogold, Delta, v.v Cng ging nh cc doanh nghip bn a khc, DASO-DACCO cng phi vn ln cnh tranh vi cc cng ty ln c vn u t nc ngoi, khng nh thng hiu tn ti v pht trin. 5/ Mt s c s sn xut kinh doanh khc: - TICO L cng ty c phn c thnh lp trn c s c phn ha doanh nghip nh nc thuc s cng nghip Tp. H Ch Minh. Chc nng chuyn sn xut bt git, kem git nc ra chn v cc cht ty ra khc Cng ty cng sn xut cc ha cht phc v sn xut CCGR nh LAS, lauryl sunfat T nm 1972, Nh my bt git TICO c trang b cng ngh sn xut bt git hin i nht Min Nam vi cng sut 10.000 tn / nm. Nm 1992, Nh my c trang b thm 1 dy chuyn sn xut mi nng cng sut Nh my ln 20.000 tn bt git v 10.000 tn kem git/nm. Cc sn phm bt git, kem git vi cc nhn hiu quen thuc nh: Si Gn, Tico, Hoa Hng, FI-TICO, TICO, v.v tiu th trong nc v xut khu n i Loan, Campuchia, c, Philipppin. Nh my ABS - TICO (u t giai on I vo nm 1993) ca Cng ty chuyn sn xut cc cht hot ng b mt nh LAS, lauryl sunfat v lauryl ete sunfat (mui natri v amoni) vi tng cng sut 20.000 tn / nm (tnh theo LAS) - Cng ty sn xut v thng mi Ha m phm M Ho chuyn sn xut du gi u, kem git, nc ra chn v cc loi nc ty ra khc. Khi cc cng ty lin doanh Ti Vit Nam c mt s hng nc ngoi, ch yu l cc cng ty a quc gia, tham gia sn xut kinh doanh cc sn phm git ra v CSCN nh Unilever, P&G, Colgate - Pamolive, Henkel, v.v Di y ch nu mt s cng ty lin doanh ln c sn phm c th chim th phn ln trn th trng CCGR. 1/Unilever Vietnam Unilever c thnh lp nm 1929 trn c s sp nhp cng ty Margarine Unie (chuyn sn xut margarin- mt sn phm sa- ca H Lan) v cng ty Lever Brother (chuyn sn xut x phng ca Anh). Ti thi im sp nhp, c hai cng ty hot ng 40 nc. 58

Trong nhng nm 1960-1970, Unilever pht trin nhanh chng v tr thnh mt tp on a ngnh mnh vo u thp k 1980. Cc ngnh hng chnh m Cng ty tham gia l sn phm sa, cht git ra, thc n chn nui, thc phm ch bin, du n, bia, sn phm dt, ho cht, v.v Ring v sn phm git ra, Cng ty c 24 nh my ng gi chu u. T y hng ho ca Unilever c phn phi khp th gii. Unilever l mt hng kinh doanh ln nht, ng thi cng s hu mt cng ty tu bin ln nht Anh trong thi gian . Khi mi thnh lp, sn phm x phng v du bo chim 90% doanh thu ca Cng ty song n nm 1980 t l ny ch cn 40%. Ngun doanh thu bn ngoi th trng chu u cng tng t 20% nm 1934 ln 40% nm 1980 v Unilever lun nhm ti cc th trng Nam M, chu Phi v nht l chu . c thi k s nhn vin ca Unilever ln n 350 nghn ngi (nm 1970), gp 7 ln so vi cng ty P&G cng thi gian. Nm 1999, Unilever l mt nh phn phi ln nht th gii trong lnh vc CCGR vi th trng c nh gi vo khong 82 t USD. tng hiu qu, Cng ty gim bt cc chi nhnh (t 1600 chi nhnh trn ton th gii xung cn 400 chi nhnh) v tp trung vo cc vng trng im. u nm 2000 th trng ca Cng ty ch cn 40% so vi thng 6 nm 1999. Hin ti khi CCGR dng vin ang chim u th v c nhu cu cao th kh nng tng trng ca Unilever cng tng v hng ny l nh cung cp sn phm git ra dng vin ln nht. u t chnh ca Unilever l ti Trung v ng u (Sc, Ba Lan, Rumani, Hunggary, v.v Unilever l cng ty a quc gia c mt v kinh doanh ti Vit Nam 10 nm tr li y- Unilever Vietnam (UVN) vi ngnh ngh tham gia l sn xut kinh doanh CCGR v thc phm. Thng 12 nm 1999 cng ty lin doanh Lever Vietnam chuyn sn xut CCGR c thnh lp trn c s lin doanh gia Tng Cng ty Ha cht Vit Nam, Cng ty X phng H Ni v chi nhnh ca Unilever ti H Lan (Cng ty Maatschappij Voor internationale Beleggingen B.V). Ngoi ra UVN cn c cng ty TNHH Unilever Bestfood (100% vn nc ngoi) hot ng trn lnh vc kinh doanh, ch bin thc phm. UVN vt ln cc kh khn ban u v t c nhng thnh tch rt ngon mc. c bit trong thi gian gn y UVN chng minh s thnh cng ca Unilever qua vic kinh doanh hiu qu ti th trng Vit Nam: Tc tng 59

trng doanh thu trung bnh hng nm trn 60%. Tng doanh thu k t nm 1995 n nm 2004 t 22.000 t ng. Tng lng bn hng v cc sn phm git ra trong 10 nm t 1,3 triu tn trong xut khu t hn 92 nghn tn. T nm 2003 tr li y tng sn lng t v vt mc 200 nghn tn/nm (trong lng t sn xut thng xuyn chim 50%) v nm 2005 t 250 nghn tn. Cc sn phm ca cng ty lun c a dng ha dn u th trng v lin tc c ngi tiu dng bnh chn l sn phm c cht lng cao t nm 1997 cho n nay. c bit UVN nm trong nhm 5 cng ty a quc gia hng u trong lnh vc sn xut hng tiu dng c mc thu nhp bnh qun trn u ngi cao nht trn th trng. Trong khi th vic hon thnh ngha v np ngn sch nh nc c ghi nhn bng tng s ly k t nm1995-2004 Cng ty np cho Nh nc Vit Nam hn 2.000 t ng. Ngn sch np nm 2004 gp gn 40 ln so vi nm 1995. Cho n nay, UVN c khong 76 nh cung cp nguyn vt liu v 54 nh cung ng bao b v hn 150 nh phn phi trn ton quc vi tng doanh s giao dch vi UVN khong 34 triu USD/ nm. Cc cng ty thuc UVN hin ang s dng khong 60% nguyn vt liu v 100% bao b sn xut trong nc Qua vic hp tc vi 7 nh sn xut gia cng trong nc m ch yu l cc n v thuc VINACHEM gia cng mt s sn phm theo yu cu. Sn lng gia cng cho UVN ca cc doanh nghip trong nc tng gp hn 40 ln t 3 nghn tn nm 1995 ln ti 125 nghn tn nm 2004. UVN cam kt tt c cc nh my ca UVN u hot ng sn xut khng thi nc thi cng nghip ra mi trng; m bo thit lp nhng h thng qun l cn thit duy tr nhng tiu chun an ton v mi trng; lin tc pht trin v lin tc ci tin cc h thng qun l c p dng trong tt c cc c s sn xut nh h thng qun l cht lng quc t ISO 9001-2000, h thng qun l mi trng ISO 14001, h thng qun l sc khe v an ton ngh nghip OHSAS 18001 v c bit l chng trnh TPM Bo tr nng sut ton din. Cng ty ny dnh hn hng trm t ng cho cc hot ng h tr t thin, pht trin x hi v chm sc sc kho cng ng. 2/ P&G Vit Nam Hng Procter & Gamble (P&G) do William Procter (gc Anh) v Jammes Gamble (gc Ireland) thnh lp ngy 31 thng 10 nm 1837 vi sn phm u 60

tin l nn thp sng v x phng. Sau 20 nm, Hng vn ch c 80 ngi v t doanh thu 1 triu USD. Vo nm 1862 Hng c nhiu hp ng cung cp sn phm x phng cho qun i M. Nm 1933 P&G a ra mu cht git ra tng hp u tin ca mnh mang nhn hiu Dreft, sau l Drene, cc loi nc gi u (shampoo), v nm 1934 a ra cc mu x phng git dng cho nc cng. Trong 2 thp nin 1960-1980 P&G c mc bt git ni ting l Tide. P&G kt hp cng ngh cao vi chin lc nghin cu th trng thc y tng trng doanh thu ca cc sn phm, nht l i vi Tide. Nm 2005 Tide c mc tng trng doanh thu 2,5% so vi nm 2004, trong khi tng trng chung ca th trng bt git th gii cha y 1%. B quyt ca P&G l lun ch trng nng cao thng hiu. Ring vi thng hiu mc Tide, P&G nghin cu cho ra i mt seri bt git v thuc ty ra mang nhn hiu ny. Cc sn phm Tide bao trm mi iu kin git ra nh bt git nc lnh Tide Coldwater", thuc ty vt bn Tide Kick a nng, v.v Ngoi ra P&G cn tham gia nghin cu v thng mi ho hng lot sn phm khc lin quan n chm sc c nhn. Trong cng tc th trng P&G rt ch tn dng cc knh thng tin, s dng v a dng ho mt cch hp l cc hnh thc qung co nh bo ch, pht thanh,truyn hnh, lp trang web, v.v Vi t duy ph qut ngoi vic nng cao uy tn ca Hng thng qua cc sn phm, P&G c gng vn rng cnh tay vi n gii quyt cc yu cu ca mi c nhn v gia nh, p ng sn phm cho cc ch trng th trng. P&G tham gia vo th trng Vit Nam t cui nm 1994 vi sn phm bt git Tide ni ting. Cng ty lin doanh P&G Vietnam c thnh lp trn c s lin doanh gia Cng ty Phng ng- ORDESCO (thnh vin ca VINACHEM) v Procter & Gamble Far East INC chuyn hot ng trong lnh vc ha m phm (sn xut v kinh doanh cc sn phm git ra, kem nh rng, du gi u, nc x vi). Trong khi cha xy dng xong nh my sn xut ca mnh, P&G Vietnam thu mt s c s sn xut trong nc gia cng sn phm bt git Tide v mt s sn phm dng lng khc.

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Trong cc nm 2001- 2004 P&G Vietnam l mt trong s cc cng ty sn xut cht git ra c mc tng trng cao (40-70% so vi cng k), sn lng cng tng kh (nm 2003 l 39 nghn tn; nm 2004 l 55,5 nghn tn). T nm 2005 tr li y tnh hnh sn xut kinh doanh ca Cng ty khng sng sa lm, sn lng khng tng thm ch st gim (nm 2005 l 57,3 nghn tn; nm 2006 lng sn phm sn xut c qu I st gim ch bn 90 % cng k), tuy nhin P&G Vietnam vn l mt trong nhng doanh nghip hng u hot ng trong lnh vc cht git ra v ho m phm Vit Nam. V2.3. Chin lc pht trin ngnh v trin vng pht trin Theo Quyt nh s 343/2005/Q-TTg ngy 26/12/2005, Th tng Chnh ph k ph duyt Quy hoch pht trin ngnh Cng nghip Ha cht Vit Nam n nm 2010 c tnh n nm 2020. Trong mc cng nghip sn xut cc sn phm git ra, Quy hoch nhn mnh phi p ng ton b nhu cu v sn lng bt git, kem git, x phng thm, nc c ra, v.vcho th trng trong nc. a dng ho cc loi sn phm ph hp vi yu cu ca ngi tiu dng v th trng. Sn phm sn xut trong nc phi t tiu chun quc t, c kh nng cnh tranh cao. Quy hoch pht trin cng nghip sn xut CCGR: - Giai on n ht nm 2010: p ng ton b nhu cu v bt git, kem git, x phng thm, nc c ra cho th trng trong nc. u t mt nh my LAB cng sut 30.000 tn/nm cung cp cho cc c s sn xut LAS. Nghin cu u t mt hoc hai nh my sn xut ha m phm cao cp. - Giai on t 2011-2020: trn c s pht trin ca cng nghip ha du, nhng sn xut mt s chng loi cht hot ng b mt khc. Nh vy cn c vo hin trng pht trin sn xut vi nhu cu ngy cng ln v cc sn phm git ra nc ta v yu cu pht trin theo Quy hoch, c th thy trin vng pht trin sn xut CCGR nc ta l tng i kh quan. Bn cnh cc cng ty lin doanh vi nc ngoi vi cc thng hiu mnh c khng nh, khi cc doanh nghip c phn ho v t nhn cng ang rt tch cc u t chiu su, nng cp cng ngh, thit b v sn phm, kt hp vi khng nh thng hiu trn th trng. Vi thc t din ra trn th trng CCGR nc ta trong thi gian qua c th hy vng th phn cho cc c s sn xut trong nc c th c ci thin hn na trong nhng nm ti. 62

VI. Kt lun Trn c s pht trin k thut, cng ngh v th trng, cng nghip sn xut CCGR trn th gii hin nay din ra theo hng cc sn phm x phng truyn thng vn c vai tr nht nh trong mng sn phm CSCN v CCGR tng hp tng th phn nhanh v mu m sn phm ngy cng a dng. Cc nc pht trin (M, cc nc thuc khi EU) vn l nhng nc c cng nghip sn xut CCGR ln nht. Tuy nhin cng nghip ny ang dch chuyn v cc nc ang pht trin ln nh Trung Quc, n v mt s nc khc. Cng nghip sn xut CCGR trn th gii tp trung vo mt s cng ty xuyn quc gia ln nh Unilever, P&G, Henkel, v.vS c mt ca cc cng ty nc ngoi ti nhiu nc s lm cho s cnh tranh v sn phm quyt lit hn nhng cng l mt nhn t kch thch s pht trin cng nghip sn xut CCGR ca nc s ti. Cng nghip sn xut CCGR nc ta nm mc trung bnh ca th gii. Kh nng pht trin cc sn phm git ra, nht l cc dng hng cao cp, cn c nhiu tim nng. tip tc pht trin CCGR cn phi tip tc i mi cng ngh, my mc thit b, loi b cc thit b qu c v lc hu v u t thay th bng cc thit b tin tin, t ng ha cao. Cn phi nm bt v p dng cc cng ngh sn xut mi, a dng ha sn phm, ci tin mu m, m rng mt hng cht lng cao, tha mn nhu cu trong nc, y li hng ngoi nhp, tng dn xut khu sn phm v tin ti xut khu c nguyn liu sn xut. Phn u t tc bnh qun trn 15%/nm trong c thi k t nay n nm 2010.

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Ti liu tham kho


1. Bangum D (2000). Issues and Challenges in Indonesias Palm oil Business. Paper presented at the oils and Fats International Congress 2000, 4-8 September 2000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 2. Wiese D (1995). Non-Food and Technical applications of oils and Fats. Malaysian oil Science and Technology, 4(2): 68-77. 3. Low L (2001). Palm-Based Oleochemical Value-added Downstream Products New Healthy Cosmetic ingredients for the New Millennium. Paper presented at the oils and Fats International Congress, 4-8 September 2000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Mal oil Sci Tech 10(2): 73-79. 4. Hovelmann P (2001). Natural Oils and Fats: Best Choice for Growing Surfactant-Based Consumer Markets. Paper presented at the Oils and Fats international Congress 2000, 4-8 September 2000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Mal oil Sci Tech 10(1): 36-43. 5. Salmiah a and Kang YM (1997). Oleochemicals and other Non-Food applications of Palm Oil and Palm oil Products. Malaysian oil Science and Technology, 6(1): 24-44. 6. Soon TK (1998). Chemical industry and its Perspective in Malaysia. Paper presented at the International Conference on Chemistry for Industrial, Agricultural Development and Environmental Protection, 22-24 July 2000, HoChiMinh City, Vietnam. 7. Yusof Basiron, Mohd Nasir amiruddin and Ramli abdullah (1999). Palm Oil in the Next Millennium, Palm oil Developments 31: pp 1-6. 8. Ting Kueh Soon, Report on the Second World oleochemicals Conference, 56/12/ 2000, amsterdam. 9. Nguyn nh Triu, Ho hc cc cht Hot ng b mt (Gio trnh ging dy cao hc chuyn Ho Hu c), Khoa Ha hoc, Trng i hc T nhin, i hc Quc Gia H Ni, 1999.

10. Soap in Australia Industry Profile Reference Code: 01250208, Publication date:
May 2004

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Mc lc
Trang I. M u II. Lch s pht trin cc cht git ra III. Qu trnh lm sch IV. Nguyn liu, sn phm v cng ngh sn xut IV.1. Nguyn liu IV.1.1. Nhm cc nguyn liu HBM IV.1.2. Nhm cc nguyn liu ty trng v pht quang IV.1.3. Nhm cc cht nn (builder), to mi trng v lm mm nc IV.1.4. Nhm cc nguyn liu khc IV.2. Sn phm v cng ngh sn xut mt s sn phm git ra IV.2. 1. X phng IV.2. 2. Cc cht git ra tng hp 1/ Nhn xt chung 2/ Kem git 3/ Bt git 4/ Cc cht git ra dng lng IV.3. Vn an ton lao ng v bo v mi trng trong sn xut v s dng cc cht git ra V. Tnh hnh pht trin sn xut v th trng cc cht git ra V.1. Trn th gii V.2. Ti Vit Nam V.2.1. Tnh hnh pht trin sn xut CCGR V.2.2. Cc nh sn xut V.2.3. Chin lc pht trin ngnh v trin vng pht trin VI.Kt lun Ti liu tham kho 3 4 7 9 9 9 14 15 19 21 21 25 25 26 28 32 34 35 35 46 46 53 60 61 62

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