Sei sulla pagina 1di 7

Chemistry Notes- Week One

Elements/ Atom Chemists regard the atom as the fundamental building block of all matter. The development of the Periodic Table and our understanding of it in terms of atomic structure are key achievements in science and help us understand and predict reactions and chemical combinations. An atom is the smallest part of an element that can exist alone or in combination with other atoms. Atoms are themselves made up of a positively charged nucleus and negatively charged electrons which orbit around the nucleus. The nucleus is itself made up of protons and (usually) neutrons. Properties of electrons, protons and neutrons Every atom of an element has the same number of electrons and protons. A neutral atom has equal numbers of electrons and protons. The atomic number Z gives the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. In a neutral atom this is also equal to the number of electrons. Many atoms can, however, gain electrons to become anions or lose electrons to become cations. The mass number A is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus. Although each atom of an element has the same number of protons, the number of neutrons can vary. Atoms of an element with the same number of neutrons are called isotopes. The Atomic Symbol: Because the atomic number gives the number of protons and as this characterizes the element, it also specifies what the chemical symbol is. For this reason, the atomic number is 12 13 sometimes not given when the atomic symbol is written down. For example both C and C have Z = 6 - they just differ in the number of neutrons and so have different mass numbers. Cations and Anions: Many atoms can gain or lose one or more electrons when involved in chemical reactions. A charged atom is called an ion. Cations have lost one or more electrons. This is represented using a "+" sign on the atomic + 2+ symbol such as Li (a lithium atom with one electron removed) and Mg (a magnesium atom with two electrons removed). Anions have gained one or more electrons. This is represented using a "-" sign on the atomic symbol such as Cl (a chlorine atom with one extra electron) 2and O (a oxygen atom with two extra electrons). For an ion, number of electrons = atomic number - charge Note that (negatively charged) anions have more electrons than the neutral atom and (positively charged) cations have fewer electrons than the neutral atom. The number of protons and the number of neutrons in an ion are exactly the same as they are in the neutral atom.x

Atomic Structure 1.) Give the symbols and ground state electronic orbital configuration of the atoms having the following numbers of electrons: (1) 7 (2) 11 (3) 16 (4) 25 An atom of an element has two electrons in the n=1 shell, eight electrons in the n=2 shell, and five electrons in the n=3 shell. From this information, give for the element (1) its atomic number (2) its approximate atomic weight (3) the total number of s electrons in its atom (4) the total number of d electrons in its atom (5) the name of the element (6) two common oxidation states of the element in its compounds

List the atomic numbers of the following elements: (1) Li (2) O (3) N (4) Mg (5) Ne (6) Br For one atom of the isotope the number of protons the number of electrons the electronic configuration of the atom in the ground state an equation for one typical reaction of the element
19

E (atomic number 9) give

Give the names and symbols (including mass numbers) for the isotopes of hydrogen.

An energy of 419 kJ mol is required to convert (in the gas phase) potassium atoms to -1 -21 potassium ions and electrons. Given that 1 kJ mol equals 1.67 x 10 joule per atom, calculate the longest possible wave length of light which is capable of ionising potassium atoms.

-1

Calculate (1) the frequency and (2) the energy per quantum for electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength of 580 nm.

Calculate the wavelength of a photon that has a frequency of 1.20 x 10 energy of the photon in joules per photon? What is the energy in kJ mol of photons?
-1

15

Hz What is the

What is the name usually given to such radiation? (ie what region of the electromagnetic spectrum does it belong to?)

Calculate for 1.00 MHz broadcast band radio waves: The energy of photons in joules per photon and (2) in kJ mol . What is the wavelength of such photons? How does the energy compare with that for a C-C single bond? Would you expect radio waves to be able to produce chemical reactions? -1 Advanced question) Find the energy difference (in kJ mol ) between the ground and first excited states of the hydrogen atom. Answers: The number of electrons in a neutral atom equals the number of protons, so the number of electrons will be equal to the atomic number. (1) Atomic number 7, nitrogen (N): 1s 2s 2p
2 2 3 -1

(2) Atomic number 11, sodium (Na) 1s 2s 2p 3s


2 2 6 1

(3) Atomic number 16, sulfur (S): 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p


2 2 6 2 4

(4) Atomic number 25, manganese (Mn): 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s


2 2 6 2 6 5 2

2.)

(1) Counting the total number of electrons across all the shells we obtain 15. This must equal the number of protons in the neutral atom, so the atomic number is 15. (2) An element's atomic mass is determined by the number of protons and neutrons, since they contribute practically all mass to the atom. There are approximately equal numbers of protons and neutrons present in atoms, so the approximate mass will be 2 x 15 = 30. (3) (4) From the information given we can work out the element's atomic configuration: Two first shell electrons: 1s
2

Eight second shell electrons: 2s 2p Five third shell electrons: 3s 3p


2 3

Therefore there are a total of six s electrons, and no d electrons. (5) From the atomic number, 15, the element is identified as phosphorus. (6) Phosphorus is a non-metal, and so will form anions in ionic bonds to metals and covalent bonds to non-metals. Gaining 3 electrons (or a share of 3 electrons) fills the 3p orbital making 3it isoelectronic with Ar. Thus the -III state is common, and shown in the P ion, and in covalent molecules such as PH3. Phosphorus can also have more than 8 electrons in its outer level by incorporating the adjacent empty 3d orbitals into the valence level to form 5 covalent bonds, such as in PF5 and PCl5 where the oxidation state of P is +V. 3.) The atomic number of an element is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. In a neutral atom the protons (+1 charge) and electrons (-1 charge) are present in equal numbers, so their charges balance. The atomic number of an element is readily determined by consulting a periodic table. (1) Li has an atomic number of 3 (2) O has an atomic number of 8 (3) N has an atomic number of 7 (4) Mg has an atomic number of 12 (5) Ne has an atomic number of 10 (6) Br has an atomic number of 35 4.) 1) The number of protons equals atomic number, which is 9. (2) We assume here that the atom in question is neutral, since no charges have been explicitly mentioned. In a neutral atom the number of electrons equals the number of protons, which is 9. (3) The electronic configuration is found by assigning all available electrons to orbitals, starting with 1s.

The configuration for 9 electrons will be 1s 2s 2p . (4) Noting that the outermost orbital (the 2p orbital) is 1 electron short of being filled, the element will assume the -I oxidation state (ie will very readily accept 1 electron) to form stable compounds. Indeed, we can now identify "E" as flourine, which occurs as the F 2 molecule. A typical reaction would be the reaction of fluorine with a Group 1 metal such as lithium: 2Li(s) + F2(g) 2LiF(s) 5.) hydrogen : H (this isotope is also known as protium) deuterium : H tritium : H -21 6.) The energy required to ionise one potassium atom = 419 x 1.67 x 10 joule per atom = -19 7.00 x 10 joule per atom. This is the minimum amount of energy required from a single photon of electromagnetic radiation. Converting this energy into a wavelength: E=hc/ =hc/E = (6.626 x 10
-7 -34 3 2 1

J s) x (3.00 x 10 m s ) / (7.00 x 10

-1

-19

J)

= 2.84 x 10 m In the above equation (lambda) is wavelength (in metres), h is Planck's constant (6.626 x -34 8 -1 10 Joule seconds), c is speed of light in vacuum (3.00 x 10 m s ), and E is energy (in Joules). The minimum wavelength of electromagnetic radiation required to ionise potassium is therefore 284 nm. 8 -1 -9 7.) (1) = c / = (3.00 x 10 m s ) / (580 x 10 m) = 5.17 x 10
14

Hz

Note that frequency is denoted by the symbol (" nu "), and the units are Hertz which are -1 equivalent to s . Also take note of the units used for length which must be in metres to be consistent with energy in Joules. (2) E = h c / = (6.626 x 10
-34

J s) x (3.00 x 10 m s ) / (580 x 10 m)

-1

-9

= 3.43 x 10 J 8 -1 -9 8.) (1) = c / = (3.00 x 10 m s ) / (580 x 10 m) = 5.17 x 10


14

-19

Hz

Note that frequency is denoted by the symbol (" nu "), and the units are Hertz which are -1 equivalent to s . Also take note of the units used for length which must be in metres to be consistent with energy in Joules.

(2) E = h c / = (6.626 x 10
-34

J s) x (3.00 x 10 m s ) / (580 x 10 m)

-1

-9

= 3.43 x 10 J 8 -1 15 -1 7 8.) (1) = c / = (3.00 x 10 m s ) / (1.20 x 10 s ) = 2.50 x 10 m (2) E = h = (6.626 x 10


-34

-19

J s) x (1.20 x 10

15

s ) = 7.95 x 10
23

-1

-19

(3) There are NA photons in 1 mole = 6.022 x 10 . Therefore the energy of 1 mole of photons 23 -1 -19 = (6.022 x 10 mol ) x (7.95 x 10 J) = 479 kJ mol . (4) A wavelength of 250 nm corresponds to light in the ultraviolet region. 9.) (1) E = h = (6.626 x 10 = 6.626 x 10
-28 -34 -1

J s) x (1.00 x 10 s )

-1

J per photon.

(2) Energy per mole photons = energy per photon x NA = (6.626 x 10


-7 -28

J s) x (6.022 x 10
-1

23

mol )

-1

= 3.99 x 10 kJ mol (3) = h c / E = (6.626 x 10 = 300 m.


-34

J s) x (3.00 x 10 ms ) / (6.626 x 10

-1

-28

J)

(4) The energy of radio waves (3.99 x 10 kJ mol ) is much less than that of a C-C bond 2 -1 (3.48 x 10 kJ mol ), therefore the waves would not be expected to produce a chemical reaction. 10.) The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom can be used to predict the energy of various electronic transitions within the hydrogen atom. In this model, electrons are assumed to exist within certain "orbits" (designated by the symbol n) each of which has an associated discrete energy. The energy of an electron in a particular orbit n = E(n) = (-2.18 x 10
-18

-7

-1

J) x (1 / n ), for the hydrogen atom only.

For the n = 2 1 transition, nfinal = 1, and ninitial = 2, so E(n = 2 1) = (-2.18 x 10 = -1.64 x 10


-18 -18

J) x ((1 / 1 ) - (1 / 2 ))

J.
-1

This is the energy difference per atom, finding the energy in kJ mol :

E per mole = NA x E(n = 2 1) = (6.022 x 10


23

mol ) x (1.64 x 10

-1

-18

J)

= 988 kJ mol .

-1