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AUTEX Research Journal, Vol.

8, No3, September 2008 AUTEX

Hajer Souid, Amel Babay, Mehdi Sahnoun, Morched Cheikrouhou
Textile Research Unit of ISET of Ksar-Hellal, B.P 68, Avenue Hadj Ali SOUA, Ksar Hellal, Tunisia, 5070. E-mail:

The present study was conducted to develop a credible approach to determine the quality of ring spun and slub yarns by virtue of criteria incorporating combinations of the fundamental fiber characteristics. Critical yarn parameters are to be investigated. The values of these tested properties were introduced into a database that ranked the quality of the yarn against industry standards. The paper investigates the possibilities of using the global optimization superimposed diagram response surface methodology in order to identify the spinner feasibility conditions across the customer yarn quality requirements. The spinner approach consists of optimizing the yarn count and twist. We have also studied the customer approach to optimize the yarn responses simultaneously by the use of the desirability functions. The response optimizer searches for a combination of input variables that jointly optimize the set of the responses by satisfying the customer requirements for each response in the set.

Ring spun, slub yarn, desirability function

Developments in spinning have generated many yarns structures intend for different domains and end use. In fact, the annual production of fancy yarns is roughly estimated as more than 100000 tons [1]. In denim industry, the production of slub yarns is becoming increasingly useful and prevailing compared to the conventional yarn [2]. This increase is reported to the fabric effect gotten with slub yarn. Therefore, this fancy yarn type which consists of two parts, the slubs (or flames) and the spacings (figure 1), confers an aesthetic aspect which provides the initial impulse of attraction and may be the only factor that influences the decision to buy. This innovation is beneficial economically for yarn manufacturers that find it difficult to compete in standard products [3] and also for the customer who find a decorative effect and a better texture imparted to the product.

superimposed contours. Indeed, this prediction should help the spinner to estimate whether the yarn that is produced will match the customer taste and the spinning parameters to reach the desired quality. Materials and methods In this survey, we study the following yarn aspects (Table 1):
Table 1. Yarn properties.
Yarn properties Tenacity (CN/ Tex) Tenacity evenness (%) Breaking elongation (%) Breaking work (Joule) Regularity (%) Number of thick points Number of thin points Number of neps Hairiness Instrument Uster tensiorapid 3 Uster tensiorapid 3 Uster tensiorapid 3 Uster tensiorapid 3 Uster tester 3 Uster tester 3 Uster tester 3 Uster tester 3 Uster tester 3 Symbol RKM CVRKM E% TR U% THIK THIN BOUT PILO

Figure 1. Slub yarn configuration.

This novelty generates a change in yarn properties compared to the conventional yarn. In this study, we have searched to assess slub yarns quality with comparison to that one of the conventional ring spun yarn. Traditionally, manufacturers have used yarn strength as a major measure of yarn quality [4, 5, and 6]. Here, we have quantified the level of satisfaction of customer all quality criterions simultaneously by using the desirability approach. The slub yarn studied in this paper is produced on the ring spinning system equipped with the Amsler device [7]. We predicted the ring spun and slub yarn global quality upon an experimental data base, which includes several properties. The second aim of the present study is to find a compromise zone for the spinner and customer by using the diagrams of 0281.pdf

These characteristics are measured according to international standards and represent the database outputs. For the database inputs, we used different spinning production parameters, which are related to fibers characteristics. These parameters were also evaluated according to international standards and were measured using the High Volume Instrument (HVI) testing system. The fibers properties, which cover wide range of HVI fiber property values, are summarized in Table 2. A statistical summary of all fiber property measurements (mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum) is given in Table 3.


AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 8, No3, September 2008 AUTEX Table 2. Fiber properties.
Fiber property Micronaire index Maturity Upper Half Mean Length (UHML) Length Uniformity Short Fiber index Strength Elongation Trash count Trash area Trash grade Greyness ( color reflectance) Yellowness Instrument HVI HVI HVI HVI HVI HVI HVI HVI HVI HVI HVI HVI symbol Mic Mat Len Unif Sfi Str Elg Tr cnt Tr area Tr grade Rd +b

are made using yarn count and twist as the two axes in the plot. The yarn responses are simultaneously kept at the desired level ranges as required. The white area inside each plot shows the range of yarn count and twist number where the criteria for both response variables are satisfied. So, we can input the customer tolerance interval for each property and see which is the most convenient couple of yarn count and twist to be spun. If we consider the quality of yarn as mentioned in the right of the Figures 2a and 2b for the whole ranges of yarn count and twist picked from the spinner data base, we obtain the diagrams of superimposed contours as shown in the same graph. We conclude that the zone of compromise (white zone) permitting the satisfaction of all yarn properties indicates the necessity to use ring spun yarns with yarn count (Nm)

Table 3. Summary statistics for fiber properties.

Parameters Minimum value Maximum value Standard deviation Mean Mic 4,00 4,70 0,18 4,31 Mat 0,85 0,91 0,01 0,88 Len 26,80 29,62 0,68 28,44 Unif 78,40 82,80 0,92 81,00 Sfi 4,40 10,00 1,34 7,77 Str 25,30 34,90 1,78 29,22 Elg 4,90 8,20 0,95 6,54 Tr cnt 2,00 21,00 6,42 10,84 Tr area 0,06 0,24 0,06 0,11 Tr grade 1,00 4,00 1,18 2,18 Rd 73,55 80,00 1,51 75,64 +b 9,20 14,30 1,42 10,57

Table 4-a. Summary statistics for ring spun yarn properties.

Parameters Minimum value Maximum value Standard deviation Mean RKM 14.64 22.12 1.23 17.32 CVRKM 4.54 7.96 3.17 6.85 E% 6.27 9.72 0.77 7.87 TR 1.27 6.58 0.85 2.83 U% 7.37 12.32 0.96 9.92 THIK 2.75 179.50 18.59 54.29 THIN 2.00 19.43 3.76 1.46 BOUT 0.45 220.20 17.37 64.09 PILO 6.62 11.84 6.11 9.74 Nm 10.10 21.12 3.46 13.07 Twist 364 629 66.65 463

Table 4-b. Summary statistics for slub yarn properties.

Parameters Minimum value Maximum value Standard deviation Mean RKM 12.26 16.97 1.03 16.77 CVRKM 4.61 15.00 2.06 8.22 E% 6.01 8.66 0.83 7.70 TR 1.13 6.24 0.69 2.39 Nm 9.38 17.83 4.42 14.49 Twist 408 698 80 536

The fibers characteristics are common for ring spun and slub (flame) yarns as they both preserve the same blow room spinning process .The statistical summary of ring spun and slub yarns properties measurements are given respectively in tables 4-a and 4-b. For the slub yarn, the properties U%, THIK, THIN, BOUT and PILO were not measured as the flame yarn presents provocative irregularities in its construction. The borderlines of the slub yarn properties cover the different sizes of the flames presented in the database of the present industry. Optimising ring spun and slub yarns quality with overlaid contour plot The present method consists of giving an objective and an acceptance zone for each yarn property. The goal of this study is to find the suitable and feasible ranges of the metric yarn count (Nm) and twists that the spinner can apply while holding the properties restrain imposed by the consumer at certain settings. The graphics are two overlaid contour plots (Figure 2) drawn by using Minitab software for data analysis. Contour plots

belonging to the interval [14.17; 17.78] and twist (rd/m) belonging to the interval [511; 629]. The common properties of the two yarns type are imposed to the same ranges setting (RKM [16 ; 22]; CVRKM [5 ; 10]; E% [6 ; 9]; TR [2 ; 4]). For the slub yarn, the zone of feasibility (or compromise zone) is obtained with yarn count (Nm) belonging to the interval [9.47; 16.54] and a twist belonging to the interval [390; 664]. We can conclude that the ring spun yarn quality is obtained for a yarn count (Nm) higher than that one of the slub yarn. Effectively, due to its irregular structure composed with flames and thinnesses, the slub yarn should have lower values of yarn count compared to the ring spun yarn to reach a higher quality. If we change yarn properties values according to customer demands, the spinner would have other optimal couples of yarn count and twist. Optimizing ring spun and slub yarns quality with desirability approach In desirability approach to optimization, each of the response values is transformed using a specific desirability function that reflects the yarn quality level. The steps followed in desirability approach are: 73 0281.pdf

AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 8, No3, September 2008 AUTEX

a. Ring spun yarn

b. Slub yarn

Figure 2. Overlaid contour plot for the yarn responses for ring spun yarn (a) and slub yarn (b).

1/ First, we obtain Derringer and Suich [8, 9] individual desirability function ( d i ) for each response using the provided goals and boundaries. There are three goals to choose from: to target the response (target is best) to minimize the response (smaller is better) to maximize the response (larger is better) To target a response such as the yarn count and twist, we use the following formula.

If a response is to be minimized instead such as CVRKM or hairiness, the individual desirability is defined as:
1 q Yi LSTi d i = i LSTi 0 if if if Yi LTI i

i Yi LSTi



p Yi LITi LIT if LITi Yi i i i q Yi LSTi = LST if i Yi LSTi i i if Yi = i 1 0 if Y LIT or Y LST i i i i

2/ After calculating an individual desirability for each response, they are combined to provide a measure of the composite or overall desirability D of the multi-response system. This measure of the composite desirability D (equation 4) is the weighted geometric mean of the individual desirabilities ( d i ) for the responses.
w2 wn D = w d1w1 d2 ... dn


w = wi ;

are the weight of ith response

The notation used in the formula 1 is:

Yi = predicted value of ith response

The individual and the composite desirabilities for all responses have both a range of zero to one. One represents the ideal case; zero indicates that one or more responses are outside their acceptable limits. 3/ Maximizing the composite desirability and identifying the optimal input variable settings The global desirability D was optimized by using an excel algorithm, which is modified when the definition of yarn quality is changed. The setting parameters that maximize the yarn quality are modified with the customer demands. As an example, we set these properties for both ring spun and slub yarns respectively as follow in Tables 5-a and 5-b: The weight values are accorded to make less emphasis on the target or to place more emphasis on the target. If some responses are more important than others, we can incorporate this information into the optimal solution by setting unequal importance values. In our case, we chose a weight value equal to one which places equal importance between responses. The illustrations below (Table 6) show the global desirability for ring spun and slub yarns.

i = target value for ith response

LITi = lowest acceptable value for i response LSTi = highest acceptable value for ith response p,q = weight of desirability function of ith response: two different requirement levels to make less or more importance to the response when it is lower or higher than the target. For instance, the customer can be more rigorous when the elongation is lower than the target. In this study, we took p=1 and q = 1 which means that we have the same requirement if it is under or upper the target. If we want to maximize a response such as tenacity (RKM), regularity (U %) or breaking work energy (TR), we use the desirability function according to equation 2 as follow:
0 q Y LITi d i = i i LITi 1 if if if Yi LITi LITi Yi i Yi i

[2] 0281.pdf


AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 8, No3, September 2008 AUTEX Table 5-a. Response optimization of the ring spun yarn.
Responses RKM CV RKM TR Hairiness Elongation Unevenness (U%) Yarn count Twist Objectives Maximise Minimise Maximise Minimise Maximise Maximise Target Target Lower limit 16 * 2 * 6 8 9 380 Target 19 5 4 7 7 11 10 395 Upper limit * 10 * 8 * * 11 405

Table 5-b. Response optimization of the slub yarn.

Responses RKM CV RKM TR Elongation Yarn count Twist Objectives Maximise Minimise Maximise Maximise Target Target Lower limit 14 * 3 6 11.5 475 Target 15 5 4 7 12 480 Upper limit * 8 * * 12.5 485

Table 6. The global desirability for ring spun and slub yarns.
Yarn type Response RKM CVRKM TR Hairiness U% E% Nm Twist RKM CVRKM TR Nm Twist E% Individual desirability 0.66 0.86 0.50 0.24 0.21 0.62 0.63 0.80 0.90 0.67 0.63 0.92 1.00 0.26 Weight exigency 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Predicted Responses 17.33 5.68 2.99 8.91 8.64 7.77 10.37 397 17.61 5.98 3.63 11.96 480 8.48 Global desirability

Ring spun


Slub yarn


Table7. Fiber optimum parameters.

Fiber property Mic Yarn type Ring Slub 4.30 4.60 0.88 0.89 mat Length UHML 28.90 28.60

unif 81.30 81.10

sfi 5.90 6.80

str 29.90 30.00

elg 5.60 6.40

tr cnt 11.00 24

tr area 0.08 0.24

tr grade 2.00 4.00

rd 75.6 73.3

+b 10.10 10.3

For interpreting the desirability values found, we have followed Harringtons rating system [8]. The ring spun composite desirability (Table 6) ranges between 0.40 and 0.60. In Harrington standards, this borderline specifies that the product quality is acceptable to the specification limits but improvement is desired. Effectively, for the ring spun yarn, the individual desirability of the response CVRKM is satisfied (equal to 0.86). Whereas the individual desirabilities of uniformity (U %) and Hairiness of the same yarn are unacceptable (respectively equal to 0.21 and 0.24). For the slub yarn (Table 6), the global desirability value is equal to 0.82 which lies between 0.8 and 1. This interval provides a relatively acceptable and excellent quality according to Harrington standards. For this yarn, the specifications for RKM, Nm and Twist have been easily met, whereas, the specification for CVRKM, TR and E(%) are barely satisfied. For the slub yarn, the algorithm optimises in addition to the predicted responses the most convenient program of flames that should be manipulated in the Amsler unit. In this example, the adequate program to maximize the composite desirability involves the following specifications: The number of flames per meter = 2.505

Nm = 0.937 1000

The following step consists of setting the optimal input variable levels that have maximized the yarns composite desirabilities. That is, the fiber optimum parameters would be set as mentioned in Tables 5a and 5b. In this case, the two yarn types fairly show a similar global solution (Table 7).

The idea in this article is to develop a composite yarn quality index by using the global desirability function and the individual desirability function of each property in order to aid in multicriterion yarn quality optimization. This will closely depict the perception of yam quality as preferred by the consumers. For this case, an excel program was developed to predict the level of the customer quality satisfaction. In this program, we can vary the objectives, the tolerance intervals and the corresponding weights of the yarn properties as required by the customer. Face to the customers quality constraints, the spinner can predict the feasibility and the suitable ranges of ring spun and slub yarns counts and twists by studying the 0281.pdf


AUTEX Research Journal, Vol. 8, No3, September 2008 AUTEX

compromise zone using the diagrams of superimposed contours. Nevertheless, the possibility of finding an optimal solution that satisfies simultaneously all required responses remains a little bit limited. The benefits from deriving these alternative desirability functions are limited by the fact that if only one of the individual desirabilities is null, then the global desirability will be null. References 1. Kwasniak J., application of a pressurized-air Method of Fancy-yarn Formation to industrial Rotor-spinning Machines J.Tex.Inst. 88 Part 1, No.3 (1997) pp185-197 2. Amsler B. and Olsson P. O ECONOMIC BENEFITS IN FANCY YARNS Textile Month,(Mar.1991), pp31 3. Corbman Bernard P, Textiles Fiber to Fabric Sixth edition (1983) 4. El Mogahzy, Y.E, and Broughton, R.M.,Diagnostic Procedures for Multicollinearity Between HVI Cotton Fiber Properties, Textile Res. J. 59 (8), (1989) 440-47 5. El Mogahzy, Y.E, and Lynch, W.K., Engineered Fiber Selection of cotton for selected Fabric types, research Project (1987) 82-522 Cotton Inc., Auburn University, 6. Yunus M., Rhman F., Micronaire effects, textile asia, may (1990) pp 58-61, 7. Product Review, Amsler equipment to spin fancy & elastic yarns, Indian Textile Journal, Vol. 114 Issue 8, p37, 1/2p, 1c (May,2004) 8. Ribardo Charles and Theodore T. Allen An Alternative Desirability Function for Achieving Six Sigma Quality quality and reliability engineering international Qual. Reliab. Engng. Int. 2003; 19:227240 (DOI: 10.1002/ qre.523) 9. Phan-Tan-Luu R., Methodology of the Experimental Research, Uuskatel Estatistika Editions, (1993) pp. 132 134, Spain. 0281.pdf