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HYBRID WIND TURBINES AND SOLAR

PANELS

Submitted On:

April 12, 2012

Table of Contents

Cover page……………………………………………………………………page

1

Table of Contents…………………………………………………………… page

2

Summary………………………………………………………………………page

3

Background……………………………………………………………………page

4

Discussion…………………………………………………………………… page

5

Solar power panels ………………………………………………………….page

Wind turbines ……………………………………………………………… page

9,10

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………… page

12

Recommendations…………………………………………………………….page

13

References…………………………………………………………………….page

14

Tables

Table

1…………………………………………………………………………

page

6

Graphs

Graph

1………………

…………………………………………………………page

8

Glossary……………… …………………………………………………………pa

ge 9

SUMMARY

Wind turbines are used to generate electricity from the kinetic power of the wind.

They were more frequently used as a mechanical device to turn machinery. There

are two main kinds of wind generators, those with a vertical axis, and those with a

horizontal axis. Wind turbines can be used to generate large amounts of electricity

in wind farms both onshore and offshore and A solar panel (also solar module,

photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel) is a packaged, connected assembly of

photovoltaic cells. The solar panel can be used as a component of a larger

photovoltaic system to generate and supply electricity in commercial and

residential applications. We can save a lot of energy if we install wind turbines

and solar power panels on large scale.

The energy generated by them is renewable and cause absolutely zero pollution

with no carbon emissions. We concluded that by integrating and optimizing the

solar photovoltaic and wind systems, the reliability of the systems can be

improved and the unit cost of power can be minimized. Finally, we recommend

using HWTASP on large scale in order to do sustainable development.

BACKGROUND

Energy is vital for the progress of a nation and it has to be conserved in a most efficient manner.

solar photovoltaic and wind systems have been promoted around the globe on a comparatively

larger scale because Increase in the temperature of the earth due to emission of greenhouse

gasses on large scare which results in melting of polar ice on both poles of the earth and high

amount of natural disasters like flood, heavy rainfall/snowfall, storms, tsunamis etc. Burning

fossil fuel on large scale is the main cause to create thick layer of co2 in the atmosphere like a

blanket over earth which absorbers sunlight but did not allow it to leave the atmosphere of earth

which lead to increase in temperature and all other factors that leads to Greenhouse effect.

There is a need to minimize it in order to provide our future generation a good and healthy

environment to live.

Wind turbines and solar power panel can help us to reduce increasing carbon emissions in

the earth’s atmosphere. It is very important for our society to wane its addiction off fossil

fuels and transition to more sustainable forms of energy such as renewable sources of

energy, form of energy that can be recovered in a human time scale such as solar, wind,

and biomass.

DISCUSSION

As we discussed HWTASP is the combination of Solar and Wind. So, there is separate

equipment

Use for Solar and Wind in this system. After the combination of both the sources we connected

By them as a one system. Let us know how many types of equipment used in this HWTASP

system separately. The use of renewable energy technology to meet the energy demands has

been steadily increasing for the past few years, however, the important drawbacks associated

with renewable energy systems are their inability to guarantee reliability and their lean nature.

Import of petroleum products constitutes a major drain on our foreign

exchange reserve. Renewable energy sources are considered to be the better option to meet these

challenges. The developed model processes the input parameters pertaining to the wind velocity,

solar isolation, environment temperature, load distribution, wind and PV system parameters like

cut-in-speed, cut-off-speed, rated speed, rotor diameter, hub height, peak module power, capacity

of the PV panel and wind systems. It

Computes the output parameters like PV capacity, array configuration, number of modules, tilt

Angle, inverter capacity, battery capacity, charge controller capacity and wind machine capacity.

WIND TURBINES

A wind turbine is a rotating machine which converts the energy. If the mechanical energy is used

directly by machinery, such as a pump or grinding stones, the machine is usually called a

windmill. If the mechanical energy is instead converted to electricity, the machine is called a

wind generator or wind turbine.

Wind turbines are designed to exploit the wind energy that exists at a location.

Aerodynamic modeling is used to determine the optimum tower height, control systems, number

of blades and blade shape. It includes 3 components they are:-

• The rotor component, which is approximately 20% of the wind turbine cost, includes the

Blades for converting wind energy to low speed rotational energy.

The generator component, which is approximately 34% of the wind turbine cost, includes

The electrical generator, the control electronics, and most likely a gearbox component for

Converting the low speed incoming rotation to high speed rotation suitable for generating

electricity.

• The structural support component, which is approximately 15% of the wind turbine cost,

includes the

tower and rotor yaw mechanism.

ASSEBLY PARTS INFORMATION

Yaw Motors

The yaw motor is used to turn the nacelle so that the rotor faces into the wind. The yaw motor

has a cam wheel which fits into a large yaw bearing cam wheel. The yaw motor is controlled by

the controller.

Nacelle

A nacelle is the horizontal section that sits atop the tower of a wind turbine and is the main

housing of the controls. The word "nacelle" is a derivation of the Old French word "nacelle".

Anemometers

Anemometers measure the wind speed and transmit the wind speed information to the controller.

Brakes

The brake prevents the rotor from rotating in the event that the wind turbine needs to be serviced

or repaired.

Cables

The power output from the generator runs through large electrical cables from the generator,

down through the tower assembly and into the power grid.

Main Shafts

The main shaft is a very thick shaft that is connected to the gearbox. The main shaft is turnedby

the rotor.

Platforms

Platforms are located at various heights within the tower to allow service personnel to rest

asneeded.

Rotors

Most large wind turbines have a total of three blades. The blades are bolted together to form the

rotor or rotor assembly. The rotor assembly attaches to the nacelle by bolting onto the main shaft

located inside the nacelle.

Wind Vanes

The wind turns the wind vane. The wind vane then transmits the wind direction data to the

controller

Yaw Bearings

The yaw bearing is the large cam wheel that is turned by the small cam wheel of the yaw motor.

Lamps

There are no windows in wind turbines. Lamps are used to light the interior of the towers and

nacelles

are used to light the interior of the towers and nacelles ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages •

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

Advantages

Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel.

Produces no waste or greenhouse gases.

The land beneath can usually still be used for farming.

Wind farms can be tourist attractions.

A good method of supplying energy to remote areas.

be used for farming. • Wind farms can be tourist attractions. • A good method of

Disadvantages

The wind is not always predictable - some days have no wind.

Suitable areas for wind farms are often near the coast, where land is expensive.

Some people feel that covering the landscape with these towers is unsightly.

Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like strong winds.

However, this is rare, and we tend not to build wind farms on migratory routes anyway.

Can affect television reception if you live nearby.

Can be noisy.

SOLAR POWER PANELS

Solar power provides electrical generation by means of heat engines or

photovoltaic.

Once converted, its uses are limited only by human ingenuity. A partial list of solar applications

Includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and

disinfection, day lighting, hot water, thermal energy for cooking, and high temperature process.

GLOSSARY

HWTASP---------------------------------------------------------Hybrid Wind Turbine And Solar Panels

AC-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Alternate Current

DC----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- direct current

Duralumin---------------------------------------------------------------------------- An alloy of aluminum

Ductile--------------------------------------------------mechanical property of metal to pull into wires

Frictional Force---------------------------- negative force due to friction acting in opposite direction

Grass root level------------------------------------------------------------------------ scrutiny observation

Incompressible----------------------------------------------------------------- that cannot be compressed

Importable-------------------------------------------------------------------- that cannot be carried easily

Insignificant------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- unimportant

M.A----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- mechanical advantage

Matchless--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- incomparable

Stiff------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- tough

CONCLUSION

In the present scenario solar photovoltaic and wind turbine systems have been promoted around

the globe on a comparatively larger scale. These independent systems cannot provide continuous

source of energy, as they are seasonal. The solar and wind energies are complement in nature. By

integrating and optimizing the solar photovoltaic and wind systems, the reliability of the systems

can be improved and the unit cost of power can be minimized. The estimated value of energy

generated by the model of solar system and wind system deviates by

6.22% and 7.18% respectively with the real time values.

RECOMMEDATIONS

Based on the results found out after the completion of this project, it is recommended that:

It is beneficial to install HWTASP because its life cycle unit cost of power generation is

less compared with solar and wind systems single systems.

We recommend using HWTASP on large scale in order to do sustainable development.