Sei sulla pagina 1di 13

Basic Operations in Word


1.1 Installing Word 2000 1.2 Starting Word 1.3 Application Window Overview 1.4 Creating a Document 1.5 Saving a Document 1.6 Opening a Document

1.1 Installing Word 2000 Let's not assume that the program is already on your PC. The process of installing programs is almost too simple nowadays. Basically, put the CD-ROM in your computer, and the program will automatically boot up the installation screen (called setup). The problem is that screen reader programs cannot see this screen. To be able to see anything with your screen reader program, do the following steps: 1. Hold down the SHIFT key by inserting the CD to prevent the automatic program start up 2. Go with Windows Explorer (not with My Computer) to the root of the CD and activate there "setup.exe".

From there, simply fill out the info asked, such as your name and company, if applicable. Hint: Fill out your name as you would like it to appear when addressing a letter. Word will use this name information to automatically address documents when it thinks it is appropriate.

Follow the rest of the screens as is with the following considerations: o Choose to install the full Office program if you want all possible applications, which may include: 1. Excel (a spreadsheet application), 2. Outlook (a personal information application with phonebook, daily planner, etc.), 3. PowerPoint (a presentation creation application), and Access (database software). 4. FrontPage (a Web Page creator), 5. Other options may include downloading Internet Explorer, or plug-in software (other applications which make certain tasks easier or add functions). Chose customize if you want to pick and choose all the stuff you want. This may be good if you are not interested in making presentation slides (PowerPoint), or don't need a database creator (Access).

Don't worry, if you need something later, you can always go through the setup screen again.

I recommend not to install the Office Assistant. Its unpredictable screens could disturb you and make you nervous.

You are still at the beginning of your computer practice. Don't mind asking some more experienced computer user helping you with the installation. Let him/her explain you the installation procedure step by step. The next time you will be able to do it yourself!

1.2 Starting Word Once your program is setup, there are several ways to start the Word Application. Here are two of them:

Starting Word from the Start Menu

1. 2. 3. 4.

Press WINDOWS key to open the Start Menu Select Programs submenu Microsoft Word should be listed on the bottom of your menu. Find and select it. Press ENTER to activate it.

Starting Word from within the My Computer application

You can also start the Word application by activating the symbol of any Word Document. You will recognize a file containing a Word Document by its file extension ".DOC". Most screen reader programs will also be able to recognize the icon of Word Documents and will identify them in speech and/or Braille.

To learn to open a concrete Word Document in Word go through the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Start the My Computer application Navigate into the Accelerate Files folder Select the file "Moving around.doc" Press ENTER

1.3 Application Window Overview

Once inside Word, try to understand the appearance of its application window. Refer to foils 13 and 14. The Word Application Window contains following elements: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Title Bar on top of the window: Microsoft Word - SOME_DOCUMENT_NAME Main Menu Bar Tool Bars: It is possible to switch them all off. Document Window: A multi-line edit field containing your text. Status Bar on bottom of the window: Telling you the position of the insertion mark (cursor) in the document and some more information.

Navigate now through all the menus to come in touch and feel with Word. With some of the numerous commands we will meet soon.

1.4 Creating a Document

You create a new document as follows: 1. Open the File Menu by pressing ALT+F 2. Select the option New 3. Press ENTER twice. First to open the New Dialog, second time to create a blank document.

You achieve the same by using the keyboard shortcut CONTROL+N.

This will open a blank document (appropriately named Doc1).

1.5 Saving a Document

My first piece of advice, the golden rule of creating documents - SAVE IT! SAVE IT! SAVE IT!

Choose the option "Save" from the File Menu or use the keyboard shortcut CONTROL+S.

This is the step which must be done as soon as you create a document, before you even type a single character. You may wonder why you have to save a blank document. The reason is to establish this from the beginning, so it is out of the way, and frequent saves can be done to insure there is no loss of work. Save your work as early as possible to avoid disappointing situations.

When you choose to save, a dialog box will appear. Refer to foil 12 The selection mark is first positioned in the File name Edit field, where you should type in a name for your new document file.

Examine all Dialog fields by pressing TAB or SHIFT+TAB.

One field back from the File name field there is File and Folder List box, reachable with Shortcut ALT+0. This field acts exactly the same as My Computer application. Here you can easily choose the folder in which you want to store your file. After doing this, tab to the File mane field or to the OK button and press ENTER to save.

1.6 Opening a Document

Use the option Open from the File Menu or the keyboard shortcut CONRTOL+O to open the File Open dialog. Refer to foil 11 This dialog is very similar to the File Save dialog. Use again the Files and Folders List box (ALT+0) to find the file you will open. Then press ENTER to open it.

If you have recently worked on the document you will open, it may also be listed at the bottom of your File menu. When you first start using Word, a maximum of 4 most recent documents will be listed here as numbered menu options. The most recently processed document has the number 1.

To change the amount of fast loading options in the File Menu, execute the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. go to Menu: Tools Choose the option Options - A multi-page dialog box appears. On the dialog box, choose the Properties sheet General Towards the bottom of the list, you should find a choice for "Recently used files." Change the number here and press Enter.

I recommend using the maximum of 9 to fully take advantage of this helpful feature. word processing Using a computer to create, edit, and print documents. Of all computer applications, word processing is the most common. To perform word processing, you need a computer, a special program called a word processor, and a printer. A word processor enables you to create a document, store it electronically on a disk, display it on a screen, modify it by enteringcommands and characters from the keyboard, and print it on a printer. Recommended Reading: SOHO Business Solutions: Office Productivity Software. Word Processing Compared to Using a Typewriter

The great advantage of word processing over using a typewriter is that you can make changes without retyping the entire document. If you make a typing mistake, you simply back up the cursor and correct your mistake. If you want todelete a paragraph, you simply remove it, without leaving a trace. It is equally easy to insert a word, sentence, or paragraph in the middle of a document. Word processors also make it easy to move sections of text from one place to another within a document, or between documents. When you have made all the changes you want, you can send the fileto a printer to get a hard copy. Word processors vary considerably, but all word processors support the following basic features: insert text:Allows you to insert text anywhere in the document. delete text: Allows you to erase characters, words, lines, orpagesas easily as you can cross them out on paper. cut and paste : Allows you to remove (cut) a section of text from one place in a document and insert (paste) it somewhere else. copy :Allows you to duplicate a section of text. page size and margins :Allows you to define various page sizes and margins, and the word processor will automatically readjust the text so that it fits. search and replace : Allows you to direct the word processor to search for a particular word or phrase. You can also direct the word processor to replaceone group of characters with another everywhere that the first group appears. word wrap :The word processor automatically moves to the next line when you have filled one line with text, and it will readjust text if you change the margins. print: Allows you to send a document to a printer to get hardcopy. Features of Standard Word Processors Word processors that support only these features (and maybe a few others) are called text editors. Most word processors, however, support additional features that enable you to manipulate and format documents in more sophisticated ways. These more advanced word processors are sometimes called full-featured word processors.Full-featured word processors usually support the following features: file management :Many word processors contain file management capabilities that allow you to create, delete, move, and search for files. font specifications: Allows you to change fonts within a document. For example, you can specify bold, italics, and underlining. Most word processors also let you change the font size and even the typeface. footnotes and cross-references: Automates the numbering and placement of footnotes and enables you to easily cross-reference other sections of the document. graphics graphics:Allows you to embed illustrations and graphs into a document. Some word processors let you create the illustrations within the word processor; others let you insert an illustration produced by a different program. headers , footers , and page numbering:Allows you to specify customized headers and footers that the word processor will put at the top and bottom of every page. The word processor automatically keeps track of page numbers so that the correct number appears on each page. layout :Allows you to specify different margins within a single document and to specify various methods for indenting paragraphs. macros : A macro is a character or word that represents a series ofkeystrokes. The keystrokes can represent text or commands. The ability to define macros allows you to save yourself a lot of time by replacing common combinations of keystrokes. merges: Allows you to merge text from one file into another file. This is particularly useful for generating many files that have the same format but different data. Generating mailing labels is the classic example of using merges. spell checker : A utility that allows you to check the spelling of words. It will highlightany words that it does not recognize. tables of contents and indexes: Allows you to automatically create a table of contents and index based on special codes that you insert in the document. thesaurus:A built-in thesaurus that allows you to search for synonyms without leaving the word processor.

windows : Allows you to edit two or more documents at the same time. Each document appears in a separate window. This is particularly valuable when working on a large project that consists of several different files. WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get): With WYSIWYG, a document appears on the display screen exactly as it will look when printed. The line dividing word processors from desktop publishing systemsis constantly shifting. In general, though, desktop publishing applications support finer control over layout, and more support for full-color documents. Introduction to Operating System Operating system is a stratum of software which is responsible for taking care of technical characteristics of personal computer and its operations. It is helpful in providing protection against the users from approaching the low level machine languages. There is no specific world wide accepted definition for an operating system. . It can be considered of as being software which is already mounted on a computer machine prior to your addition to the system

The Important Elements of an Operating System Usually the operating system has some crucial key elements. The first element is known as the technical level or layer which is responsible for carrying the basic operations of the hardware. The second important element of the operating system is referred to as the file system. File system is responsible for logically arranging the files. The third element of the operating system is directly linked to the users operations and is known as command language. Command language guides the users to run different programs and manipulate their tasks. These are the key elements of operating systems however an operating system is also comprised of compilers, text editors and debuggers. This helps in smooth functioning of the system and also ensures the security of the system. Whenever we make a request it travels to the operating system in order to seek OS permission to use the resources of the computers. It is due to this reason that operating system is often considered as the care taker of the PC. Types of Operating Systems There are further sub categories of operating system depending upon the number of tasks they are able to perform. Moreover operating system can also be classified on deciding how many users can use it a t a time. These categories include multi user, single task, single user and multi task. Let us analyze some of the examples of the operating systems. Windows 3X is a single user single processor able to perform simultaneous tasks. MS DOS is a perfect example of single task single processor and single user operating system. UNIX is a multi task and multi user operating system. Windows 2000 is a multi task and multi user operating system having number of processors. Amiga DOS is a single user multi task and single processor operating system. VMS and hline MTS are multi user, multi task but single processor operating system. NT is the only processor which is able to serve single and multi users and are able to perform multiple tasks while they work on many processors. Macintosh system seven is a single user but quasi tasking OS which is capable to operate on a single processor. Quasi tasking allows the user to run several user applications alongside or simultaneously . Working of the Operating System If we take the computer system as whole then operating system is residing at the third layer of the system. Hardware is at the first layer, second layer contains the drivers, the third layer possesses OS and the fourth layer is the application layer. OS creates a link between the user and the softwares. Whenever, a user runs a set of instructions or a program to send a message to any hardware device. This message is sent to the operating system first and the OS runs the programs by making use of its drivers. Drivers facilitate the working of the system. Without drivers it is necessary for the programs to communicate directly with the intended hardware devices. Operating system is therefore helpful in simplifying the resource management task for the users. It helps the end user to overcome the complexity of dealing directly with low level machine languages. agement Services SIC 7376

inShare3 1 Companies in this industry NAICS 541513: Computer Facilities Management Services Industry report: This category includes establishments primarily engaged in providing on-site management and operation of computer and data processing facilities on a contract or fee basis. Establishments primarily engaged in providing computer processing services at their own facility are classified in SIC 7374: Computer Processing and Data Preparation and Processing Services. Industry Snapshot One of the oldest of the computer services industries, facilities management includes interactive and batch data processing, data storage and retrieval, system diagnostics and maintenance, and network management. Customers hire facilities management companies to perform any or all of these services at computer facilities located on their own premises, much as they would hire a concessionaire to run a company cafeteria. Because relatively little capital is needed for equipment or buildings, facilities management initially attracted many entrepreneurs, the vast majority of which were small, privately owned enterprises. Once a mainstay of the computer services industry in its own right, facilities management evolved into just one of many services offered by companies specializing in "outsourcing." Although companies whose primary offering was facilities management still do a substantial amount of business, many companies arrange complex service agreements to include combinations of facilities management, remote computing (doing the client's data processing off-site), contract software programming, systems integration, communications network management, and software maintenance. Because the profit margin for facilities management fell slowly but steadily over the years, its combination with more lucrative services had a growing appeal to companies in that industry. In addition, corporations with large in-house computing facilities began looking for service companies that not only could handle day-to-day processing but could also update aging computer systems. For an increasing number of computer services companies, facilities management became just a single component of complex service agreements. Strategic outsourcing became the trend of the 2000s. Strategic outsourcing consists of placing a company's computer budget and operations in the hands of another company in return for the assurance that operational savings and other improvements would result. Besides smaller corporations that hired contractors to manage their facilities and information technology (IT) needs, larger corporations hired contracting firms to manage their information systems. After the general market downturn of the early years of the first decade of the 2000s, revenues were down and corporate executives delayed major IT projects in order to allocate their expenditures to areas that would provide the most profit. However, the business climate began to improve in the mid-2000s, and in 2008, computer facilities management firms earned a combined $20.1 billion. Like many industries in the United States, computer facilities management services saw leaner years late in the decade, during the economic recession of the late 2000s, before starting to rebound as the nation entered the second decade of the twenty-first century. Organization and Structure Many companies have found that their data centers, distributed networks, and related facilities can be handled more efficiently by others than by themselves. Programmers and experienced staff are difficult and expensive to hire. For this reason, particularly in industries where wages are generally low and data processing needs high, such as the insurance industry, facilities management services are frequently used. In addition, running computers is often outside the realm of expertise of a particular company. Managing the operations of complex computer systems tends to distract management from the primary focus of the business, whether it is banking, utilities, or health care. To eliminate this distraction and to cut

costs, many companies hire a facilities management company to run their computer facilities on a contract or fee basis. Facilities management companies generally charge a fixed annual fee to maintain a data center, and then add fees based on processing volume. An in-house operation entails a large fixed cost, but with facilities management, data processing became a variable cost. Data processing costs increase when the company's business activities increase and decrease when business slows. This pricing schedule allows more efficient use of the company's funds. A facilities management company needs little capital to begin operations. Unlike a company specializing in remote data processing, which requires sizable data centers and extensive communications capabilities, a facilities management company has few equipment and building requirements. Specialized personnel, however, are a crucial component for facilities management firms, not only for the obvious technical areas, but in marketing as well. Knowledge and skill are needed to sell an intangible service to repeat customers. Facilities management companies compete not only with others who offer the same service, but also with those who offer remote processing as well as competing with the customers themselves, who could revert to in-house handling of their computer facilities. This need to constantly cost-justify their service in the face of increasing numbers of competitors led to a steady erosion of profit margins in this industry. Facilities management companies generally began by specializing in one field of business, such as banking, health care, or government agencies. They developed an expertise in the particular needs of that industry and drew new customers from within that niche. The division between companies providing facilities management to commercial customers and those catering to the government was especially strong. A company required extensive knowledge of the bidding process for government contracts and needed to meet particular government regulations to qualify as a vendor. Companies that began by providing specialized service in a niche market first expanded geographically, providing that same service over a wider area. Many then expanded into new service areas, gaining new expertise through mergers or acquisitions of companies in different fields. In an industry that changed as rapidly as the computer industry, it was often risky for companies to provide only one service. Such specialization made them vulnerable to price cuts by competitors and to new products, laws, or regulations that made services obsolete or difficult to provide. The leading service vendors then expanded into multiple fields. They combined multiple services into a package tailored to individual company needs. This increased packaging of services led to the trend of outsourcing, in which facilities management played a significant role. The most basic definition of outsourcing in the computer industry is simply the purchase of outside IT services, such as hiring a firm to handle payroll processing or manage a network. However, it often refers to the reduction or dismantling of in-house operations and the sale of fixed assets, such as a data center or a telecommunications network, to a company specializing in information technology. The IT company then agrees to provide the services connected to those assets back to the client. Frequently, outsourcing deals of this sort also involve the transfer of personnel to the IT company. In addition to relieving themselves of the burden of running and maintaining their own computer facilities, companies gain access to significant cash resources that previously were tied up in their computer equipment. Other companies enter outsourcing agreements without selling their facilities because they want an escape in case they regret the decision and because it is easier to rebuild in-house operations if the company still owns its computer facilities. Facilities management was also an integral part of the development of transformational outsourcing. Companies that purchased mainframe computers and established their computer operations in the 1970s faced updating aged and outmoded computer facilities. Many companies saw advantages in open architectures that incorporated client/server computing and local area networks (LANs), but did not have the expertise to design new systems for themselves and coordinate the shift from the old system to the new. Transformational outsourcing placed the responsibility on others' shoulders. An IT company agreed to take over the client's existing system, design a new one, and handle all operations during the transition, be it gradual or abrupt. Such a contract involved facilities management, systems integration, and perhaps off-site data processing and other services.

Background and Development Facilities management services began to be offered not long after mainframe computers and data centers became more common in the 1960s. At first, computers and the in-house operations associated with them were a matter of pride for companies profitable enough to afford this cutting-edge technology. However, it soon became apparent that specialists who could bring economies of scale to the activity could often operate these facilities more efficiently than those who owned them. From its infancy, the facilities management industry was composed of small, entrepreneurial companies. Even after more than a decade of growth, 47 percent of data processing firms had revenues of less than $1 million, and 47 percent had revenues between $1 and $10 million. Of the remaining 6 percent, only half had revenues of more than $25 million. By the late 1970s, it was already increasingly difficult to distinguish among companies that offered remote computing, software services, and facilities management. Major vendors offered several services that blended in various ways, depending on the needs of the customers. From the late 1960s to the early 1980s, the data processing industry, including facilities management, fluctuated with the economy. The annual rate of revenue growth declined approximately 10 percent during periods of recession in the early 1970s and 1980s. The ensuing periods of economic acceleration produced a corresponding increase in the growth rate. Although the data processing industry was affected by the general health of the economy, it maintained a healthy growth rate throughout the 1970s and early 1980s. The lowest growth rate in that period was in 1982, when the industry grew only 11 percent, which was nonetheless favorable compared to other industries at that time. Although facilities management individually had the smallest share of data processing revenue in the early 1980s, its annual growth rate at times exceeded the average for the industry. Revenues were $989 million in 1980 and grew an average of 13 percent annually to reach $1.4 billion in 1983. In 1981, the market researcher INPUT projected a 21 percent compounded growth rate for the facilities management industry through 1986. However, in the early 1980s, several developments in the hardware and software industries threatened the strong growth of the facilities management industry. International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) software increasingly became standardized, making computers easier to use and leading more companies to manage their facilities themselves. In addition, cheaper, more user-friendly minicomputers became common, adding to the do-it-yourself trend. However, declining prices and the need to keep up with competitors who had computerized led many more companies to buy computers, enlarging the overall market for computer services. Although the facilities management industry did not meet that 21 percent growth rate, it continued to grow steadily. By 1992, revenues in the facilities management industry reached $3.8 billion, almost double the revenues of 1988. The rate of growth was approximately 18 percent per year between 1990 and 1992. Firms also became increasingly productive as indicated by a rise in average sales per employee from $110,000 in 1990 to $135,000 in 1992. By 1997, the facilities management industry's revenues had nearly quadrupled from its 1992 level to $15.1 billion. Facilities management remained a strongly entrepreneurial industry throughout the 1990s. The vast majority of facilities management companies were privately owned and had revenues under $2 million. Private companies composed 99.3 percent of the computer services industry in 1992, though the remaining publicly held companies dominated the higher end of the revenue scale. Large information technology services firms, such as Electronic Data Systems (EDS) and Computer Sciences Corporation, continued to make inroads in the desktop technologies and networking markets in 1995, whereas companies' internal IT departments continued to feel more secure in their ability to build client/server applications. As a result, smaller and more specialized client/server integrators were forced to respond by thinking up new value-added services. The facilities management industry also remained a highly fragmented one, with companies specializing in providing services to a particular industry. Specializing often acted to a company's advantage, as long as the services it provided to a particular industry were comprehensive enough. According to data from the U.S. Census Bureau, computer facilities management was a $15.1 billion business in 1997. Census figures showed that more than 1,400 establishments with a total of nearly 72,000 employees were actively engaged in this business in the United States, and the industry's annual payroll totaled almost $3.4 billion. Although facilities management companies had incentive to develop

into full-service outsourcers, given the growing market and the improved profit margin involved, only a few had the resources necessary to offer that extended range of services. In addition to expertise in facilities management, an outsourcing vendor needed to understand systems integration, network operations, communications, and software development. Capital requirements were also higher. Frequently, a remote data center for off-site processing was required, along with an extensive communications network to transfer the data to the remote site. Additional capital might be needed to purchase the customer's existing computers or data center facilities and hire their information systems personnel. Only the larger IT service companies possessed the resources to accept such contracts. In an industry traditionally composed of small entrepreneurial companies, only a minority were expected to take full advantage of this trend. For those companies that did evolve into outsourcing vendors, many turned to "enterprise resource planning" (ERP) applications and e-commerce. Applications rental, which was a major new growth area in outsourcing, was expected to be a $6 billion business by 2002, according to Forrester Research, a consultant in the information technology field. Some of the large software companies that specialize in ERP applications were creating dynamic new business opportunities from the ground up. Working with Internet service providers (ISPs) and major hardware manufacturers, these outsourcing vendors wanted to make the latest business software applications available on a subscription basis. They targeted companies with annual revenues of less than $500 million. In perhaps an extreme example of outsourcing, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in 1998 struck a deal with Cap Gemini America to handle its information systems, Internet access, telephone switches, Web site, and virtual private network, as well as its data and voice wide-area network services. The 10-year agreement carried a price tag of $75 million, according to a spokesperson for the Washington-based Chamber. Prior to striking its agreement with Cap Gemini, the Chamber had an annual information systems (IS) budget of nearly $7 million and an IS staff of 60. Despite a poor economy, this sector of the industry enjoyed large increases in revenue into the early years of the first decade of the 2000s. Computer facilities management generated an estimated $19.1 billion in 2001, up 16.5 percent from $16.4 billion in 2000, according to the U.S. Census Bureau. Revenue grew 7.5 percent in 2000, and enjoyed an impressive 28.1 percent jump in 1999, when revenue totaled $15.2 billion. IT outsourcing as a whole had $120 billion in revenue in 2001 and was expected to grow 15 to 20 percent a year. However, despite large deals and rosy forecasts, some industry executives warned earnings were shrinking in late 2002 and that the industry was feeling the negative impact of the recession. Meanwhile, more companies continued to outsource their IT operations, and several large deals were made in the early 2000s. American Express will give IBM Global Services $4 billion to run its global IT infrastructure over the next seven years, which was expected to save Amex millions. Nextel Communications signed several IT outsourcing agreements in 2002, including a five-year $234 million deal with EDS and a $1.2 billion deal with IBM Global Services and TeleTech Holdings. The deals were expected to save Nextel more than $1.1 billion over eight years. Outsourcing, companies say, frees them to focus on their products, services, and clients rather than IT management. Although companies continued to outsource their IT operations to facility management companies in the mid-2000s, the method in which they outsourced changed. There were fewer large deals in 2005 than in 2004. Companies began to outsource to more than one management facility based on their expertise in the area or areas that they were seeking IT services. For example, French automaker Renault entered into three contracts valued at $789 million with Atos Origin, Hewlett-Packard, and Computer Sciences Corp. Offshore outsourcing of technical jobs, particularly to India and China, was expected to increase into 2015. IDC predicted that offshore outsourcing would be valued at almost $30 billion by the turn of the decade, with India accounting for well over two-thirds of that amount. About half the contracts during the first quarter of 2005 ranged from $10 million to $50 million, which suggested the majority of action was centered around "mid-size contracts" versus "mega-deals." Further, in 2007, Everest Research Institute reported that traditional outsourcing companies would have declining revenues through the end of the decade, due in part to changing contract requirements. There were 205 new contracts valued at $31.4 billion in the first quarter of 2005, of which 49 percent were delegated in the United States. The leading 10 vendors represented 66 percent of the total, with EDS

Corporation in the first-place position or 20 percent of the market. In 2005, EDS signed a 10-year contact with the Ministry of Defense of the United Kingdom, valued at $4.4 billion. EDS"s contract included desktop management, infrastructure management, and network integration and management. The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration entered into a contract with Lockheed Martin, valued at $1.9 billion over 10 years, as well. Lockheed's services included application development and support, computer engineering, and infrastructure management. Other noteworthy deals included Computer Sciences Corp. with $1.63 billion, Atos Origin with $1.6 billion, and BT Group with $960 million. The majority, or 39.3 percent of signed contracts, was valued from $1 million to $9 million during the first quarter of 2005. During the last half of the 2000s, the industry was affected by an economic recession that built up steam during 2007 and broke the economy wide open in 2008. While outsourcers can benefit in such an economic environment when businesses look to outsourcing to cut costs, the outsourcing industry also risks losing business from its established customers. Some businesses outsource facility management during high-traffic times to assist with logistics. However, as business slows, they can pull operations back in house, where it can be managed more easily when customer traffic is down. Nonetheless, CIO reported in January 2009 that IT outsourcers were generally unscathed by the economic traumas of 2008. If the economy of the late 2000s was not a significant issue for outsourcers, where U.S. businesses chose to send their outsourced business was. More and more, outsourcing meant offshoring. According to HRMagazine, citing a study on offshoring, "Offshoring often makes excellent sense in an industry like accounting, where service processes are [standardized and process based]. At the other end of the spectrum sit customer service hotlines and other jobs where service offerings are complex and loosely defined." In the latter, offshoring can be more challenging due to cultural and language barriers. For businesses looking to outsource certain services, moving operations off location to such places as India became highly inviting. In addition, as offshoring began to mature, other markets were expected to open, such as China. For example, in September 2008, Hewlett Packard (HP) announced layoffs of 24,600 of its 178,000 employees of HP and EDS, which provided outsourced services for HP. The company anticipated recovering at least half of the cut positions over the next three years as the economy improved. However, according to a report in, "The problem [is] that those 12,000-or-so jobs are 'global' and will not be recreated in the U.S." Another growing phenomenon during the late 2000s was "cloud computing." Cloud computing was the movement of IT operations, processing, and data to the Internet. Rather than store data on large in-house servers, companies could now contract to buy or lease space on the Internet, known as a "cloud," The firm is relieved from the financial burden of expensive and oft-changing computer infrastructure and software. Although some concerns remain--especially regarding the security of the data--the trend is expected to continue. If so, much of what was once done in house is likely to be moved to remote locations. Current Conditions Cloud computing indeed seemed to be the way of the future as the United States entered the second decade of the twenty-first century. According to research firm Gartner, as reported in Mortgage Technology, 80 percent of Fortune 1,000 companies will use cloud computing services in some way by 2013. According to the article, "In many cases, 'agility' rather than cost savings is the primary benefit from outsourcing infrastructure." Although U.S. companies continued to outsource jobs into the early 2010s, a study from BDO USA and reported in Professional Services Close-Up stated that in 2011, U.S. outsourcing in the overall technology industry declined for the third year in a row. According to the study, among the CFOs surveyed, only 32 percent said they were currently outsourcing services, whereas in 2009 that figure was 62 percent. According to Paul Heiselmann of BDO, "With unemployment numbers still hovering above 8 percent, pressure is mounting from Washington to bring jobs home. The tech industry seems to be moving in that direction. . . .Bringing services and manufacturing back to the U.S. is also a smart move for tech companies looking to improve the quality of service and reduce exposure to international risks and major supply chain disruptions." Of the jobs that were being outsourced in 2011, the most (63 percent) were in

the IT field. India remained the top location for outsourced IT jobs, although China was up-and-coming, as were Latin America and Western Europe. Industry Leaders No one particular company dominates the facilities management industry. As they grew, most facilities management companies added services outside the industry. EDS, headquartered in Plano, Texas, is a major player with 2008 revenues of $21.1 billion. Besides computer facilities management for businesses and government, EDS is involved in consulting services, data processing, and computer network systems integration. EDS, which had about 139,500 employees in 2008, was founded in 1962. In 2008, EDS was purchased by Hewlett-Packard. Parent company IBM expanded its IBM Global Services in 2002 with the acquisition of PwC Consulting, making IBM a leader in this segment. IBM Global Services handles strategic outsourcing, business consulting, and integrated technology. IBM Global Services operates in 170 countries and employed 175,000 employees in 2008. Revenues in 2011 were $56.4 billion. Computer Sciences Corporation, with 91,000 employees and 2011 revenue of more than $16 billion, was founded in 1959 and is headquartered in El Segundo, California. The company began by working in a niche market, like many facilities management companies, and gradually became one of the largest of the IT services companies. Computer Sciences derived the majority of its business from state, local, and federal government work, much of which involved facilities management, and developed long-standing relationships with NASA, the U.S. Navy, and other defense contractors. Although it is considered one of the primary outsourcing firms, it no longer lists facilities management as one of its primary activities. Workforce In 2010, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, 4,987 establishments in the computer facilities management services industry employed 113,000 people earning a total annual payroll of almost $8.5 million. A majority of establishments were small, with 46 percent employing fewer than five people and 63 percent employing fewer than 20. The growth in outsourcing continued to be significant in the late 2000s, despite a weak economy, as the demand for skilled workers remained very high. In the first eight years of the decade, the industry boomed, and many jobs such as programmers and systems analysts were available with very few skilled workers to fill these positions. Although the nation's workforce of computer operators declined throughout the 1990s and continued to shrink well into the 2000s, all other occupations in computer industries grew at impressive rates. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicted continued growth in employment in the overall computer systems design and related services industry, with annual growth rates expected to be around 4 percent between 2010 and 2020. More than three-quarters of the jobs in the computer services industry were classified as white collar.