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OUTLINE IN REMEDIAL LAW 1 Atty. Victor Y. Eleazar Arellano University Sc ool o!

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I. #eneral $rinci%les A. Concept of Remedial Law

FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS REMEDIAL LAW i t!at "#anc! of law w!ic! p#e c#i"e t!e met!od of enfo#cin$ #i$!t o# o"tainin$ #ed#e fo# t!ei# in%a ion [Bustos vs. Lucero, 81 Phil. 640]. It i al o &nown a Ad'ecti%e Law. (. S)" tanti%e Law a Di tin$)i !ed f#om Remedial Law

SU(STANTI*E LAW i one w!ic! c#eate + define + and #e$)late #i$!t conce#nin$ life+ li"e#t,+ o# p#ope#t,+ o# t!e powe# of a$encie o# in t#)mentalitie fo# t!e admini t#ation of p)"lic affai# . PROCEDURAL LAW i t!e met!od of cond)ctin$ a ')dicial p#oceedin$. It incl)de w!ate%e# i em"#aced in t!e tec!nical te#m + pleadin$ + p#actice+ and e%idence. It i t!e mean ", w!ic! t!e powe# o# a)t!o#it, of a co)#t to !ea# and decide a cla of ca e i p)t to action [Manila Railroad vs. Atty. eneral, !0 Phil. "!#]. -URISDICTION i t!e powe# to !ea# and decide ca e [$errera vs. Baretto % &oa'uin, !" Phil. !4"]. It i t!e powe# wit! w!ic! co)#t a#e in%e ted wit! t!e powe# of admini te#in$ ') tice+ t!at i + fo# !ea#in$ and decidin$ ca e . In o#de# fo# t!e co)#t to !a%e a)t!o#it, to di po e of a ca e on t!e me#it + it m) t ac.)i#e ')#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# and t!e pa#tie [Re(u)lic Planters Ban* vs. Molina, 166 +,RA #-]. -URISDICTION *ENUE

T!e a)t!o#it, to !ea# and dete#mine T!e place w!e#e t!e ca e i to "e a ca e !ea#d o# t#ied A matte# of )" tanti%e law A matte# of p#oced)#al law

E ta"li !e a #elation "etween t!e co)#t and t!e )"'ect matte#

E ta"li !e a #elation "etween plaintiff and defendant+ o# petitione# and #e pondent Ma, "e confe##ed ", t!e act o# a$#eement of t!e pa#tie

Fi/ed ", law and cannot "e confe##ed ", t!e pa#tie (.

R)le0ma&in$ Powe# of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t

Sec. 1+ A#ticle *III of t!e 2345 Con tit)tion tate + 6T!e S)p#eme Co)#t !all !a%e t!e followin$ powe# 7 8 91: P#om)l$ate #)le conce#nin$ t!e p#otection and enfo#cement of t!e con tit)tional #i$!t + pleadin$+ p#actice and p#oced)#e in all co)#t + t!e admi ion to t!e p#actice of law+ t!e inte$#ated (a#+ and le$al a i tance to t!e )nde#p#i%ile$ed. S)c! #)le !all p#o%ide a implified and ine/pen i%e p#oced)#e fo# t!e peed, di po ition of ca e + !all "e )nifo#m fo# all co)#t of t!e ame $#ade+ and !all not dimini !+ inc#ea e+ o# modif, )" tanti%e #i$!t . R)le of p#oced)#e of pecial co)#t and .)a i0')dicial "odie !all #emain effecti%e )nle di app#o%ed ", t!e S)p#eme Co)#t. 2. Limitation on t!e #)le0ma&in$ powe# of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t

See al o Sec. ; of A#ticle *III of t!e 2345 Con tit)tion w!ic! tate 7 6T!e Con$#e !all !a%e t!e powe# to define+ p#e c#i"e+ and appo#tion t!e ')#i diction of t!e %a#io) co)#t ")t ma, not dep#i%e t!e S)p#eme Co)#t of it ')#i diction o%e# ca e en)me#ated in Section 1 !e#eof8 Note t!at in Sec. 1+ onl, pa#a$#ap! 92: and 9;: pea& of t!e ')#i diction o%e# ca e . -)#i diction o%e# t!e e ca e #ep#e ent t!e i##ed)ci"le ')#i diction of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t. T!e, incl)de o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# ca e affectin$ diplomatic #ep#e entati%e and o%e# petition fo# certiorari+ p#o!i"ition+ mandam) + 'uo .arranto and !a"ea co#p) + and appellate ')#i diction o%e# en)me#ated t,pe of ca e . A#t. *I+ Section <=+ 2345 Con tit)tion7 No law !all "e pa ed inc#ea in$ t!e appellate ')#i diction of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t a p#o%ided in t!i Con tit)tion wit!o)t it ad%ice and conc)##ence. /a)ian v. 0esierto, >.R. No. 2;35?;+ Septem"e# 2@+ 2334 T!e SC decla#ed a )ncon tit)tional Sec. ;5 of Rep. Act No. @55= 9Om")d man Act of 2343: to$et!e# wit! Sec. 5+ R)le III of Adm. O#de# No.

=5 9R)le of P#oced)#e of t!e Office of t!e Om")d man: and an, ot!e# p#o%i ion of law o# i )ance implementin$ RA @55= in ofa# a t!e, p#o%ide fo# appeal in admini t#ati%e di ciplina#, ca e f#om t!e Office of t!e Om")d man to t!e S)p#eme Co)#t. Sec. ;5 of RA @55= #ead 7 68 In all admini t#ati%e di ciplina#, ca e + o#de# + di#ecti%e o# deci ion of t!e Office of t!e Om")d man ma, "e appealed to t!e S)p#eme Co)#t ", filin$ a petition fo# ce#tio#a#i wit!in ten 92=: da, f#om #eceipt of t!e w#itten notice of t!e o#de#+ di#ecti%e o# deci ion o# denial of t!e motion fo# #econ ide#ation in acco#dance wit! R)le ?1 of t!e R)le of Co)#t.A Acco#din$ to t!e SC+ t!i p#o%i ion %iolate t!e p#o c#iption in Sec. <= of A#t. *I of t!e Con tit)tion+ w!ic! #ead 7 6No law !all "e pa ed inc#ea in$ t!e appellate ')#i diction of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t a p#o%ided in t!i Con tit)tion wit!o)t it ad%ice and conc)##ence.A In 1ui2on v. 0esierto+ >.R. NO. 2?=@230;?+ Ma#c! 3+ ;==2+ SC e/plained t!at wit! it #)lin$ in /a)ian+ appeal f#om deci ion of t!e Office of t!e Om")d man in admini t#ati%e ca e !o)ld "e appealed to t!e Co)#t of Appeal )nde# R)le ?<. If w!at i a ailed i an incident in a c#iminal ca e+ t!e p#ope# #emed, i a petition fo# ce#tio#a#i )nde# R)le @1+ w!ic! !o)ld "e filed wit! t!e S)p#eme Co)#t. T!i wa #eite#ated in Baviera v. 3oleta+ >.R. No. 2@=3=34+ Octo"e# 2;+ ;==@+ w!e#e t!e SC #)led t!at t!e #emed, to c!allen$e t!e Re ol)tion of t!e Om")d man at t!e concl) ion of a p#elimina#, in%e ti$ation wa to file a petition fo# ce#tio#a#i wit! t!e SC )nde# R)le @1. ;. Powe# of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t to amend and ) pend p#oced)#al #)le

(ot! t!e 23<1 Con tit)tion 9A#ticle *III+ Sec. 2<: and 235< Con tit)tion 9A#ticle B+ Sec. 1 91: p#o%ided t!at #)le of co)#t p#om)l$ated ", t!e S)p#eme Co)#t ma, "e 6#epealed+ alte#ed+ o# )pplementedA ", t!e le$i lat)#e. No imila# p#o%i ion appea# in t!e 2345 Con tit)tion. Note+ in 4che5aray v. 6he +ecretary o7 &ustice 9>.R. No. 2<;@=2+ -an)a#, 23+ 2333:+ -) tice P)no aid t!at Con$#e no lon$e# !a t!e powe# to amend t!e R)le of Co)#t. Ce aid+ T e r&le 'a(in) %o"er o! t is *o&rt "as e+%an,e,. T!i Co)#t fo# t!e !irst ti'e wa $i%en t!e powe# to p#om)l$ate #)le conce#nin$ t!e p#otection and enfo#cement of con tit)tional #i$!t . T!e Co)#t wa al o $#anted fo# t!e !irst ti'e t!e powe# to di app#o%e #)le of p#oced)#e of pecial co)#t and .)a i0 ')dicial "odie . -&t 'ost i'%ortantly. t e 1/01 *onstit&tion <

too( a"ay t e %o"er o! *on)ress to re%eal. alter. or s&%%le'ent r&les concernin) %lea,in). %ractice an, %roce,&re. In fine+ t!e powe# to p#om)l$ate #)le of pleadin$+ p#actice and p#oced)#e i no lon$e# !a#ed ", t!i Co)#t wit! Con$#e + mo#e o wit! t!e E/ec)ti%e. If t!e manife t intent of t!e 2345 Con tit)tion i to t#en$t!en t!e independence of t!e ')dicia#,+ it i in)tile to )#$e+ a p)"lic #e pondent do+ t!at t!i Co)#t !a no ')#i diction to cont#ol t!e p#oce of e/ec)tion of it deci ion + a powe# conceded to it and w!ic! it !a e/e#ci ed ince time immemo#ial. T!e #)le0ma&in$ powe# of t!e SC wa applied in 8ey(es v. ,ourt o7 A((eals+ >.R. No. 2?21;?+ Septem"e# 2?+ ;==1+ ?@3 SCRA @<<. It !eld D T!e S)p#eme Co)#t ma, p#om)l$ate p#oced)#al #)le in all co)#t . 9A#ticle *III+ Sec. 1 91:+ 2345 Con tit)tion: It !a t!e ole p#e#o$ati%e to amend+ #epeal o# e%en e ta"li ! new #)le fo# a mo#e implified and ine/pen i%e p#oce + and t!e peed, di po ition of ca e . In t!e #)le $o%e#nin$ appeal to it and to t!e Co)#t of Appeal + pa#tic)la#l, R)le ?;+ ?< and ?1+ t!e Co)#t allow e/ten ion of time+ "a ed on ') tifia"le and compellin$ #ea on + fo# pa#tie to file t!ei# appeal . T!e e e/ten ion ma, con i t of 21 da, o# mo#e. To tanda#diEe t!e appeal pe#iod p#o%ided in t!e R)le and to affo#d liti$ant fai# oppo#t)nit, to appeal t!ei# ca e + t!e Co)#t deem it p#actical to allow a f#e ! pe#iod of 21 da, wit!in w!ic! to file t!e notice of appeal in t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t+ co)nted f#om #eceipt of t!e o#de# di mi in$ a motion fo# a new t#ial o# motion fo# #econ ide#ation. Cencefo#t!+ t!i Ff#e ! pe#iod #)leF !all al o appl, to R)le ?= $o%e#nin$ appeal f#om t!e M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t to t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t G R)le ?; on petition fo# #e%iew f#om t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t to t!e Co)#t of Appeal G R)le ?< on appeal f#om .)a i0')dicial a$encie to t!e Co)#t of Appeal and R)le ?1 $o%e#nin$ appeal ", certiorari to t!e S)p#eme Co)#t. T!e new #)le aim to #e$iment o# ma&e t!e appeal pe#iod )nifo#m+ to "e co)nted f#om #eceipt of t!e o#de# den,in$ t!e motion fo# new t#ial+ motion fo# #econ ide#ation 9w!et!e# f)ll o# pa#tial: o# an, final o#de# o# #e ol)tion. We t!) !old t!at petitione# ea ona"l, filed t!ei# notice of appeal wit!in t!e f#e ! pe#iod of 21 da, + co)nted f#om -)l, ?

;;+ 2334 9t!e date of #eceipt of notice den,in$ t!ei# motion fo# #econ ide#ation:. T!i p#ono)ncement i not incon i tent wit! R)le ?2+ Section < of t!e R)le w!ic! tate t!at t!e appeal !all "e ta&en wit!in 21 da, f#om notice of ')d$ment or final o#de# appealed f#om. T!e ) e of t!e di ')ncti%e wo#d Fo#F i$nifie di a ociation and independence of one t!in$ f#om anot!e#. It !o)ld+ a a #)le+ "e con t#)ed in t!e en e in w!ic! it o#dina#il, implie . Cence+ t!e ) e of Fo#F in t!e a"o%e p#o%i ion )ppo e t!at t!e notice of appeal ma, "e filed wit!in 21 da, f#om t!e notice of ')d$ment o# wit!in 21 da, f#om notice of t!e Ffinal o#de#+F w!ic! we al#ead, dete#mined to #efe# to t!e -)l, 2+ 2334 o#de# den,in$ t!e motion fo# a new t#ial o# #econ ide#ation. Neit!e# doe t!i new #)le #)n co)nte# to t!e pi#it of Section <3 of (P 2;3 w!ic! !o#tened t!e appeal pe#iod f#om <= da, to 21 da, to !a ten t!e di po ition of ca e . T!e o#i$inal pe#iod of appeal 9in t!i ca e Ma#c! <024+ 2334: #emain and t!e #e.)i#ement fo# t#ict compliance till applie . 6he 7resh (eriod o7 1" days )eco9es si5ni7icant only .hen a (arty o(ts to 7ile a 9otion 7or ne. trial or 9otion 7or reconsideration . In t!i manne#+ t!e t#ial co)#t w!ic! #ende#ed t!e a ailed deci ion i $i%en anot!e# oppo#t)nit, to #e%iew t!e ca e and+ in t!e p#oce + minimiEe andHo# #ectif, an, e##o# of ')d$ment. W!ile we aim to #e ol%e ca e wit! di patc! and to !a%e ')d$ment of co)#t "ecome final at ome definite time+ we li&ewi e a pi#e to deli%e# ') tice fai#l,. (a ic p#inciple in -)#i diction7 92: PRINCIPLE OF TCE EBERCISE OF EIUITJ -URISDICTION i a it)ation w!e#e t!e co)#t i called )pon to decide a cont#o%e# , and #elea e t!e pa#tie f#om t!ei# co##elati%e o"li$ation ")t if it wo)ld #e )lt in ad%e# e con e.)ence to t!e pa#tie and t!e p)"lic+ t!e co)#t wo)ld $o "e,ond it powe# to a%oid ne$ati%e con e.)ence in t!e #elea e of t!e pa#tie [A5ne vs. 0irector o7 Lands, 181 +,RA :-#; 8a5a 6ele(hone ,o. vs. ,A, 48 +,A0 "#-].

In A5ne vs. 0irector o7 Lands, w!e#e t!e e%idence !owed t!at t!e plaintiff i t!e t#)e owne# of t!e land )"'ect of t!e f#ee patent and title wa $#anted to anot!e# and t!at t!e defendant and !i p#edece o#0in0inte#e t we#e ne%e# in po e ion t!e#eof+ t!e Co)#t+ in t!e e/e#ci e of it e.)it, ')#i diction and wit!o)t o#de#in$ t!e cancellation of aid title i )ed )pon t!e patent+ ma, di#ect t!e defendant #e$i te#ed owne# to #econ%e, 1

t!e p#ope#t, to t!e plaintiff. F)#t!e#+ if t!e dete#minati%e fact a#e "efo#e t!e Co)#t and it i in a po ition to finall, #e ol%e t!e di p)te+ t!e e/peditio) admini t#ation of ') tice will "e )" e#%ed ", )c! a #e ol)tion and t!e#e", o"%iate t!e needle p#ot#acted p#oceedin$ con e.)ent to t!e #emand of t!e ca e of t!e t#ial co)#t. T!e Co)#t aw no need fo# #emandin$ t!e ca e fo# f)#t!e# p#oceedin$ + and !eld t!at t!e fact and t!e end of ') tice in t!i ca e #e.)i#e t!e #econ%e,ance of t!e di p)ted lot. In Poso v. Mi<ares+ A.M. No. RT-0=;02@3<+ A)$) t ;2+ ;==;+ t!e S)p#eme Co)#t !eld t!at t!e $ene#al #)le t!at it t!i doe not #e%iew a t#ial co)#tK deci ion in an admini t#ati%e p#oceedin$ ince it main conce#n t!e#ein i to dete#mine t!e et!ical #e pon i"ilitie of ')dicial cond)ct i not cont#ollin$. T!e fact of t!e ca e call fo# t!e e/e#ci e of e.)it, ')#i diction to t!e end t!at we #ende# complete ') tice to all affected pa#tie . A we !a%e aid+ 6E.)it, a t!e complement of le$al ')#i diction ee& to #eac! and do complete ') tice w!e#e co)#t + of law+ t!#o)$! t!e infle/i"ilit, of t!ei# #)le and want of powe# to adapt t!ei# ')d$ment to t!e pecial ci#c)m tance of ca e + a#e incompetent o to do. E.)it, #e$a#d t!e pi#it of and not t!e lette#+ t!e intent and not t!e fo#m+ t!e )" tance #at!e# t!an t!e ci#c)m tance+ a it i %a#io) l, e/p#e ed ", diffe#ent co)#t .A Indeed+ a co)#t of e.)it, w!ic! !a ta&en ')#i diction and co$niEance of a ca) e fo# an, p)#po e will o#dina#il, #etain ')#i diction fo# all p)#po e and awa#d #elief o a to accompli ! f)ll ') tice "etween t!e pa#t, liti$ant + p#e%ent f)t)#e liti$ation and ma&e pe#fo#mance of t!e co)#tK dec#ee pe#fectl, afe to t!o e w!o ma, "e compelled to o"e, it. In t!i ca e+ t!e #e pondent -)d$e wa not onl, di mi ed f#om t!e e#%ice ")t li&ewi e !i Re ol)tion in t!e c#iminal ca e #ed)cin$ t!e penalt, to @ ,ea# to ena"le t!e acc) ed to a%ail of p#o"ation wa con ide#ed %oid. In C#im. Ca e No. ;?55+ t!e acc) ed pleaded $)ilt, to !omicide wa entenced to ? ,ea# + ; mont! and 2 da, of p#i ion co##eccional a minim)m to 4 ,ea# and 2 da, of p#i ion ma,o# a ma/im)m. On motion fo# #econ ide#ation+ #e pondent ')d$e modified t!e entence to ; ,ea# + ? mont! and 2 da, of p#i ion co##eccional a minim)m to @ ,ea# and 2 da, of p#i ion ma,o#. T!i wa f)#t!e# #ed)ced to ; ,ea# + ? mont! and 2 da, of p#i ion co##eccional a minim)m to @ ,ea# of p#i ion co##eccional a ma/im)m+ t!) ena"lin$ t!e acc) ed to appl, fo# p#o"ation. T!e Re ol)tion wa et0a ide in t!e admini t#ati%e ca e. @

9;:

ELEMENTS OF -URISDICTION7

92: -)#i diction o%e# t!e 9;: -)#i diction o%e# t!e 9<: -)#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# o# pa#tie #e nat)#e of t!e ca e It i confe##ed ", law -)#i diction o%e# t!e It i ac.)i#ed ", t!e 9(P 2;3:+ and doe not pe# on of t!e plaintiff i eiE)#e of t!e t!in$ depend on t!e o"'ection ac.)i#ed ", t!e filin$ of )nde# le$al p#oce o# t!e act o# omi ion t!e initiato#, pleadin$+ w!e#e", it i "#o)$!t of t!e pa#tie o# an,one li&e a complaint. into act)al c) tod, of of t!em [Re(u)lic vs. law+ o# it ma, #e )lt +an5alan5, 1"- +,RA -)#i diction o%e# t!e f#om t!e in tit)tion of a "1"]. pe# on of t!e defendant le$al p#oceedin$ i ac.)i#ed ", t!e w!e#ein t!e powe# of It i not wai%a"le+ p#ope# e#%ice of t!e co)#t o%e# t!e t!in$ e/cept in ca e of )mmon + o# ", !i i #eco$niEed and made e toppel to .)e tion o# %ol)nta#, appea#ance in effecti%e [Banco> #ai e ')#i diction [6i<a9 co)#t and !i 4s(a?ol /ili(ino vs. vs. +i)on5hanoy, !# )"mi ion to t!e Palanca, #: Phil. !-1]. +,RA !-]. a)t!o#it, of t!e co)#t [Para9ount =ndustries It i dete#mined )pon vs. Luna, 148 +,RA t!e alle$ation made in "64]. t!e complaint+ i##e pecti%e of w!et!e# t!e plaintiff i entitled o# not+ to #eco%e# )pon t!e claim a e#ted t!e#ein+ a matte# #e ol%ed onl, afte# and a a #e )lt of t!e t#ial. Ca)tion !o)ld "e e/e#ci ed in appl,in$ t!e doct#ine of lac!e o# tale demand in 6i<a9. T!e p#inciple of e toppel a a defen e to a ')#i dictional e##o# i mo#e of an e/ception #at!e# t!an t!e #)le. In ,ali9li9 v. Ra9ire2+ ;=? P!il. ;1 9234;:+ t!e S)p#eme Co)#t o" e#%ed t!at 6i<a9 wa de%elopin$ into a $ene#al #)le #at!e# t!an a an e/ception. T!) + in ,ali9li9+ t!e SC #ef) ed to appl, 6i<a9 and in tead acco#ded )p#emac, to t!e time0!ono#ed p#inciple t!at t!e i )e of ')#i diction i not lo t ", wai%e# o# e toppel.

In /i5ueroa v. Peo(le+ >.R. No. 2?5?=@+ -)l, 2?+ ;==4+ -) tice Nac!)#a #e%iewed t!e diffe#ent ca e in%ol%in$ e toppel ", ')#i diction and noted t!at t!e Co)#t it elf !a wa%e#ed on t!i . Nonet!ele + we !o)ld "ea# in mind t!at e toppel i not fa%o#ed "eca) e it i in t!e nat)#e of fo#feit)#e of. Mo#eo%e#+ a ')d$ment #ende#ed wit!o)t ')#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# i %oid. 9<: ELEMENTS OF CRIMINAL -URISDICTION7

92: Te##ito#ial ')#i diction

9;: -)#i diction o%e# t!e 9<: -)#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# pe# on of t!e acc) ed

It i dete#mined ", t!e It i dete#mined ", t!e It i ac.)i#ed ", t!e $eo$#ap!ical a#ea o%e# alle$ation of t!e %ol)nta#, appea#ance o# w!ic! a co)#t p#e ide + complaint o# )##ende# of t!e and t!e fact t!at t!e info#mation in acc) ed o# ", !i a##e t c#ime wa committed+ acco#dance wit! t!e law [,hoc vs. Aera, 64 Phil. o# an, of it e ential in fo#ce at t!e time of 1066]. in$#edient too& place t!e in tit)tion of t!e wit!in aid a#ea [@+ vs. action+ not at t!e time &ueves, !# Phil. 100]. of it commi ion [@+ vs. Mallari, !4 Phil. #66]. CLASSES OF -URISDICTION7 >ene#al D powe# to ad')dicate all cont#o%e# ie e/cept t!o e e/p#e wit!!eld f#om t!e plena#, powe# of t!e co)#t. Special o# Limited D #e t#ict t!e co)#t ')#i diction onl, to pa#tic)la# ca e and )"'ect to )c! limitation a ma, "e p#o%ided ", t!e $o%e#nin$ law. O#i$inal D powe# of t!e co)#t to ta&e ')dicial co$niEance of a ca e in tit)ted fo# ')dicial action fo# t!e fi# t time )nde# condition p#o%ided ", law. Appellate D a)t!o#it, of a co)#t !i$!e# in #an& to #e0e/amine t!e final o#de# o# ')d$ment of a lowe# co)#t w!ic! t#ied t!e ca e now ele%ated fo# ')dicial #e%iew. l,

E/cl) i%e D powe# to ad')dicate a ca e o# p#oceedin$ to t!e e/cl) ion of all ot!e# co)#t at t!at ta$e. Conc)##enceHConfl)entHCoo#dinate D powe# confe##ed )pon diffe#ent co)#t + w!et!e# of t!e ame o# diffe#ent #an& + to ta&e co$niEance at t!e ame ta$e of t!e ame ca e in t!e ame o# diffe#ent ')dicial te##ito#ie . D. Nat)#e of P!ilippine Co)#t 2. Meanin$ of a co)#t

Co)#t a#e ')dicial t#i")nal in t!e admini t#ation and di pen ation of ') tice. T!e, e/i t in e%e#, ci%iliEed co)nt#, to #e ol%e and end di p)te in acco#dance wit! t!e law peacef)ll,+ o#de#l,+ a)t!o#itati%el,+ definitel,+ and finall,. A co)#t i a "od, in t!e $o%e#nment to w!ic! t!e p)"lic admini t#ation of ') tice i dele$ated. ;. Co)#t a di tin$)i !ed f#om a ')d$e

T!e wo#d 6courts and <ud5esA a#e ) ed ,non,mo) l, and inte#c!an$ea"l,+ $ene#all, pea&in$. ()t t!e#e i an impo#tant di tinction "etween t!e co)#t+ a an entit,+ and t!e pe# on w!o occ)pie t!e po ition of a ')d$e. Co)#t ma, e/i t wit!o)t a p#e ent ')d$e. T!e#e ma, "e a ')d$e wit!o)t a co)#t. T!e ')d$e ma, "ecome di .)alified+ ")t )c! fact doe not de t#o, t!e co)#t. It impl, mean t!at t!e t!e#e i no ')d$e to act in t!e co)#t. T!e co)#t of t!e P!ilippine I land we#e c#eated and t!e ')d$e we#e appointed t!e#eto late#. In a few in tance + t!e ')d$e we#e appointed "efo#e t!e co)#t we#e e ta"li !ed. A pe# on ma, "e appointed a ')d$e and "e a i$ned to a pa#tic)la# di t#ict o# co)#t )" e.)entl,. 9Pamint)an %. Llo#ente+ >.R. No. L02=2??+ -an)a#, ;5+ 2321: -)#i diction i %e ted in t!e co)#t and not in t!e ')d$e. <. ?. Cla ification of P!ilippine co)#t

Co)#t of o#i$inal and appellate ')#i diction

Co)#t of o#i$inal ')#i diction D T!o e w!e#e a ca e i o#i$inall, commenced. Appellate co)#t D T!o e co)#t w!e#e a ca e i #e%iewed. 1. Co)#t of $ene#al and pecial ')#i diction

Co)#t of $ene#al ')#i diction D Co)#t w!ic! ta&e co$niEance of all ca e + ci%il o# c#iminal+ e/cept t!o e a i$ned to pecial co)#t and co)#t of limited ')#i diction. Co)#t of pecial ')#i diction D In &alandoni v. +arcon+ >.R. No. L0@?3@+ -an)a#, ;5+ 231?+ t!e SC e/plained t!at w!en t!e t!en CFI ta&e co$niEance of election p#ote t + it act a co)#t of pecial ')#i diction. In t!i en e+ t!e, !a%e a limited ')#i diction. T!) + t!e CFI !a no ')#i diction o%e# an election p#ote t )ntil t!e pecial fact )pon w!ic! it ma, ta&e ')#i diction a#e e/p#e l, !own in t!e motion of p#ote t. T!e#e i no p#e )mption in fa%o# of ')#i diction of a co)#t of limited o# pecial ')#i diction. @. Con tit)tional and tat)to#, co)#t

Con tit)tional co)#t D T!o e c#eated ", t!e Con tit)tion it elf+ e.5.+ t!e S)p#eme Co)#t. 9A#t. *III+ 2345 Con tit)tion: Stat)to#, co)#t D T!o e c#eated ", t!e le$i lat)#e. T!e CA+ t!e RTC+ and t!e MTC we#e c#eated ", (.P. (l$. 2;3+ a amended. 5. Co)#t of law and e.)it,

Co)#t a#e fi# t and fo#emo t co)#t of law. E.)it, !o)ld "e applied onl, in t!e a" ence of an, law $o%e#nin$ t!e #elation !ip "etween t!e pa#tie . W!ile e.)it, mi$!t tilt on t!e ide of one pa#t,+ t!e ame cannot "e enfo#ced o a to o%e##)le po iti%e p#o%i ion of law in fa%o# of t!e ot!e#. E.)it, cannot )pplant o# cont#a%ene t!e law. T!e #)le m) t tand no matte# !ow !a# ! it ma, eem. o 6a9io v. 6icson, .R. 8o. 1"48-", 8ove9)er 18, !004, 44# +,RA 44

In t!i ca e+ t!e SC #eite#ated t!e #)le t!at a le ee i not allowed to c!allen$e t!e title of t!e le o#. It i immate#ial w!et!e# t!e le o# !ad an, title at all to t!e p#ope#t, at t!e time t!e lea e wa commenced. Cowe%e#+ con ide#in$ t!e pec)lia# ci#c)m tance a%ailin$ in t!e ca e+ e.)it, demand t!at )c! #)le "e #ela/ed. It wo)ld "e $#o l, )n') t if afte# !a%in$ paid t!e owne# p#io# #ental + petitione# wo)ld till "e #e.)i#ed to pa, a$ain t!e ame #ental a##ea#a$e to t!e le o# fo# t!e latte#K #etention of t!e p#ope#t, afte# t!e te#mination of t!e )"lea e cont#act. Note t!at t!e )"lea e !ad al#ead, e/pi#ed+ and t!at t!e a##ea#a$e #efe# to a )" e.)ent pe#iod not co%e#ed ", t!e aid )"lea e.

2=

E.)it, a t!e complement of le$al ')#i diction ee& to #eac! and to complete ') tice w!e#e co)#t of law+ t!#o)$! t!e infle/i"ilit, of t!ei# #)le and want of powe# to adapt t!ei# ')d$ment to t!e pecial ci#c)m tance of ca e + a#e incompetent to do o. E.)it, #e$a#d t!e pi#it and not t!e lette#+ t!e intent and not t!e fo#m+ t!e )" tance #at!e# t!an t!e ci#c)m tance+ a it i %a#io) l, e/p#e ed ", diffe#ent co)#t . Alon2o v. =nter9ediate A((ellate ,ourt, 1"0 +,RA !".R. 8o. L>:!8:#, May !8, 1-8:,

T!e .)e tion i ometime a &ed+ in e#io) in.)i#, o# in c)#io) con'ect)#e+ w!et!e# we a#e a co)#t of law o# a co)#t of ') tice. Do we appl, t!e law e%en if it i )n') t o# do we admini te# ') tice e%en a$ain t t!e lawL T!) .)e#ied+ we do not e.)i%ocate. T!e an we# i t!at we do neit!e# "eca) e we a#e a co)#t "ot! of law and of ') tice. We appl, t!e law wit! ') tice fo# t!at i o)# mi ion and p)#po e in t!e c!eme of o)# Rep)"lic. T!i ca e i an ill) t#ation. T!i ca e in%ol%e t!e application of A#t. 2=44+ w!ic! #ead 7 6S!o)ld an, of t!e !ei# ell !i !e#edita#, #i$!t to a t#an$e# "efo#e t!e pa#tition+ an, o# all of t!e co0!ei# ma, "e )"#o$ated to t!e #i$!t of t!e p)#c!a e# ", #eim")# in$ !im fo# t!e p#ice of t!e ale+ p#o%ided t!e, do o wit!in t!e pe#iod of one mont! f#om t!e time t!e, we#e notified in w#itin$ of t!e ale ", t!e %endo#.A -)#i p#)dence e/plained t!at t!e notice m) t "e in w#itin$ and not me#e act)al &nowled$e. T!e SC+ w!ile concedin$ t!e a" ence of an, w#itten notice+ co)ld not accept t!e p#i%ate #e pondent M p#eten e t!at t!e, we#e )nawa#e of t!e ale made ", t!ei# "#ot!e# and i te# in 23@< and 23@?. (, #e.)i#in$ w#itten p#oof of )c! notice+ t!e co)#t wo)ld "e clo in$ t!ei# e,e to t!e o"%io) t#)t! in fa%o# of t!ei# palpa"l, fal e claim of i$no#ance+ t!) e/altin$ t!e lette# of t!e law o%e# it p)#po e. T!e p)#po e i clea# eno)$!7 to ma&e )#e t!at t!e #edemptione# a#e d)l, notified. T!e SC wa t!en ati fied t!at in t!i ca e t!e ot!e# "#ot!e# and i te# we#e act)all, info#med+ alt!o)$! not in w#itin$+ of t!e ale made in 23@< and 23@?+ and t!at )c! notice wa )fficient.

4.

P#inciple of ')dicial !ie#a#c!,

Alt!o)$! t!e SC+ t!e CA and t!e RTC !a%e conc)##ent ')#i diction to i )e w#it of ce#tio#a#i+ p#o!i"ition+ mandam) + .)o wa##anto+ !a"ea co#p) + and in')nction+ )c! conc)##ence doe not $i%e t!e petitione# )n#e t#icted f#eedom of c!oice of co)#t fo#)m. T!e conc)##ence of ')#i diction i not to "e ta&en a acco#din$ to pa#tie ee&in$ an, of t!e w#it an a" ol)te+ )n#e t#icted f#eedom of c!oice of t!e co)#t to w!ic! application 22

t!e#efo# will "e di#ected. T!e#e i afte# all a !ie#a#c!, of co)#t . T!at !ie#a#c!, i dete#minati%e of t!e %en)e of appeal + and al o e#%e a a $ene#al dete#minant of t!e app#op#iate fo#)m fo# petition fo# t!e e/t#ao#dina#, w#it . A "ecomin$ #e$a#d fo# t!at ')dicial !ie#a#c!, mo t ce#tainl, indicate t!at petition fo# t!e i )ance of e/t#ao#dina#, w#it a$ain t fi# t le%el 96infe#io#A: co)#t !o)ld "e filed wit! t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t+ and t!o e a$ain t t!e latte#+ wit! t!e Co)#t of Appeal . A di#ect in%ocation of t!e S)p#eme Co)#tK o#i$inal ')#i diction to i )e t!e e w#it !o)ld "e allowed onl, w!en t!e#e a#e pecial and impo#tant #ea on t!e#efo#+ clea#l, and pecificall, et o)t in t!e petition. T!i i an e ta"li !ed polic,. It i a polic, nece a#, to p#e%ent ino#dinate demand )pon t!e Co)#tK time and attention w!ic! a#e "ette# de%oted to t!o e matte# wit!in it e/cl) i%e ')#i diction+ and to p#e%ent f)#t!e# o%e#0c#owdin$ of t!e co)#tK doc&et. 9C!am"e# of Real E tate and ()ilde# A ociation+ Inc. 9CRE(A: %. Sec#eta#, of A$#a#ian Refo#m+ >.R. No. 24<?=3+ -)ne 24+ ;=2=: 3. Doct#ine of non0inte#fe#ence o# doct#ine of ')dicial ta"ilit,

DOCTRINE OF -UDICIAL STA(ILITJ7 T!e doct#ine of ')dicial ta"ilit, o# non0inte#fe#ence in t!e #e$)la# o#de# o# ')d$ment of a co0e.)al co)#t+ a an accepted a/iom in ad'ecti%e law+ e#%e a an in )#mo)nta"le "a##ie# to t!e competence of a co)#t to ente#tain a motion+ m)c! le i )e an o#de#+ #elati%e to a )"'ect matte# w!ic! i )nde# t!e custodia le5is of anot!e# co)#t ", %i#t)e of a p#io# w#it of attac!ment. Indeed+ t!e polic, of peacef)l co0e/i tence amon$ co)#t of t!e ame ')dicial plane+ o to pea&+ wa aptl, de c#i"ed in Parcon vs. ,A, 222 SCRA ;@;7 ...-)#i diction i %e ted in t!e co)#t not in an, pa#tic)la# "#anc! o# ')d$e+ and a a co#olla#, #)le+ t!e %a#io) "#anc!e of t!e Co)#t of Fi# t In tance of a ')dicial di t#ict a#e a coo#dinate and co0e.)al co)#t one "#anc! tand on t!e ame le%el a t!e ot!e#. Und)e inte#fe#ence ", one on t!e p#oceedin$ and p#oce e of anot!e# i p#o!i"ited ", law. In t!e lan$)a$e of t!i Co)#t+ t!e %a#io) "#anc!e of t!e Co)#t of Fi# t In tance of a p#o%ince o# cit,+ !a%in$ a t!e, !a%e t!e ame o# e.)al a)t!o#it, and e/e#ci in$ a t!e, do conc)##ent and coo#dinate ')#i diction !o)ld not+ cannot+ and a#e not pe#mitted to inte#fe#e wit! t!ei# #e pecti%e ca e + m)c! le wit! t!ei# o#de# o# ')d$ment . a. Non0inte#fe#ence in A ociation

2;

Co)#t will not inte#fe#e wit! t!e inte#nal affai# of an )ninco#po#ated a ociation o a to ettle di p)te "etween t!e mem"e# on .)e tion of polic,+ di cipline+ o# inte#nal $o%e#nment+ o lon$ a t!e $o%e#nment of t!e ociet, i fai#l, and !one tl, admini te#ed in confo#mit, wit! it law and t!e law of t!e land and no p#ope#t, o# ci%il #i$!t a#e in%aded. Unde# )c! ci#c)m tance + t!e deci ion of t!e $o%e#nin$ "od, o# e ta"li !ed p#i%ate t#i")nal of t!e a ociation i "indin$ and concl) i%e and not )"'ect to #e%iew o# collate#al attac& in t!e co)#t . 9Lion Cl)" Inte#national %. Amo#e + 2;2 SCRA @;2: ". Non0inte#fe#ence of co)#t of coo#dinate ')#i diction No co)#t !a t!e powe# to inte#fe#e ", in')nction wit! t!e ')d$ment o# o#de# of anot!e# co)#t of conc)##ent ')#i diction !a%in$ t!e powe# to $#ant t!e #elief o)$!t ", in')nction. T!i doct#ine of non0inte#fe#ence i p#emi ed on t!e p#inciple t!at a ')d$ment of a co)#t of competent ')#i diction ma, not "e opened+ modified o# %acated ", an, co)#t of conc)##ent ')#i diction. Fo# e/ample+ ca e w!e#ein an e/ec)tion o#de# !a "een i )ed+ a#e till pendin$+ o t!at all t!e p#oceedin$ on t!e e/ec)tion a#e till p#oceedin$ in t!e )it. Since a pa#tic)la# co)#t !ad al#ead, ac.)i#ed ')#i diction o%e# t!e collection )it and #ende#ed ')d$ment in #elation t!e#eto+ it #etained ')#i diction to t!e e/cl) ion of all ot!e# coo#dinate co)#t o%e# it ')d$ment+ incl)din$ all incident #elati%e to t!e cont#ol and cond)ct of it mini te#ial office# + namel, t!e !e#iff . T!) + t!e i )ance ", anot!e# RTC of t!e w#it of p#elimina#, in')nction in wa a clea# act of inte#fe#ence wit! t!e ')d$ment of (acolod RTC. 9>o %. Cle#& of Co)#t and E/0Officio S!e#iff of Ne$#o Occidental+ >.R. No. 21?@;<+ Ma#c! 2<+ ;==3: II. 2&ris,iction A. -)#i diction o%e# t!e pa#tie 2. Cow ')#i diction o%e# t!e plaintiff i ac.)i#ed

-)#i diction i ac.)i#ed o%e# t!e pe# on of t!e plaintiff and t!e )"'ect matte# ", t!e filin$ of t!e complaint o# petition. An action o# p#oceedin$ i commenced ", t!e filin$ of t!e complaint o# ot!e# initiato#, pleadin$. (, t!at act+ t!e ')#i diction of t!e co)#t o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# o# nat)#e of t!e action o# p#oceedin$ i in%o&ed o# called into acti%it, and it i t!) + t!at t!e co)#t ac.)i#e ')#i diction 2<

o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# o# nat)#e of t!e action. It i ", t!at elf0 ame act of t!e plaintiff o# petitione# of filin$ t!e complaint o# petition ", w!ic! !e i$nifie !i )"mi ion to t!e co)#tK powe# and a)t!o#it, t!at ')#i diction i ac.)i#ed ", t!e Co)#t o%e# !i pe# on. ;. Cow ')#i diction o%e# t!e defendant i ac.)i#ed

-)#i diction o%e# t!e pe# on of t!e defendant i o"tained ", t!e e#%ice of )mmon o# ot!e# coe#ci%e p#oce )pon !im o# ", !i %ol)nta#, )"mi ion to t!e a)t!o#it, of t!e co)#t. (. -)#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte#

-)#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect o# nat)#e of action i confe##ed ", law. It i p#ope#l, in%o&ed ", filin$ t!e complaint o# info#mation. 2. Meanin$ of ')#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte#

Ca e7 Locsin v. 8issan Lease Phils. =nc.+ >.R. No. 2411@5+ Octo"e# ;=+ ;=2= D concept of p#imac, to t!e element of ')#i diction Loc in+ at t!e time of !i e%e#ance f#om Ni an+ wa t!e latte#K co#po#ate office#. >i%en Loc inK tat) a a co#po#ate office#+ t!e RTC+ not t!e La"o# A#"ite# o# t!e NLRC+ !a ')#i diction to !ea# t!e le$alit, of t!e te#mination of !i #elation !ip wit! Ni an. In t!i ca e+ t!e SC $a%e p#ecedence to t!e me#it of t!e ca e and p#imac, to t!e element of ')#i diction. -)#i diction i t!e powe# to !ea# and #)le on a ca e and i t!e t!#e !old element t!at m) t e/i t "efo#e an, .)a i0')dicial office# can act. T!e La"o# A#"ite# doe not !a%e ')#i diction o%e# t!e te#mination di p)te Loc in "#o)$!t+ and !o)ld not "e allowed to contin)e to act on t!e ca e afte# t!e a" ence of ')#i diction !a "ecome o"%io) + "a ed on t!e #eco#d and t!e law+ e%en if t!e#e wa a p#oced)#al flaw in .)e tionin$ t!e ')#i diction of t!e La"o# A#"ite#. In mo#e p#actical te#m + a cont#a#, #)lin$ will onl, ca) e )" tantial dela, and incon%enience a well a )nnece a#, e/pen e + to t!e point of in') tice+ to t!e pa#tie . T!i concl) ion+ of co)# e+ doe not $o into t!e me#it of te#mination of #elation !ip and i wit!o)t p#e')dice to t!e filin$ of an int#a0co#po#ate di p)te on t!i point "efo#e t!e app#op#iate RTC. ,ivil +ervice ,o99ission v. Andal+ >R. No. 2415?3+ Decem"e# 2@+ ;==3 D ')#i diction o%e# co)#t pe# onnel

2?

In p#e%io) ca e + t!e Ci%il Se#%ice Commi ion #eco$niEed t!e di ciplina#, ')#i diction of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t o%e# co)#t pe# onnel. T!i i con onant wit! Section @+ A#ticle *III of t!e 2345 Con tit)tion %e tin$ in t!e S)p#eme Co)#t admini t#ati%e )pe#%i ion o%e# all co)#t and t!e pe# onnel t!e#eof. T!) 7 6Sec. @. T!e S)p#eme Co)#t !all !a%e admini t#ati%e )pe#%i ion o%e# all co)#t and t!e pe# onnel t!e#eof.A (, %i#t)e of t!i powe#+ it i onl, t!e S)p#eme Co)#t t!at can o%e# ee t!e ')d$e K and co)#t pe# onnelK admini t#ati%e compliance wit! all law + #)le and #e$)lation . No ot!e# "#anc! of $o%e#nment ma, int#)de into t!i powe#+ wit!o)t #)nnin$ afo)l of t!e doct#ine of epa#ation of powe# . ReB Crder dated !1 0ece9)er !006 issued )y &ud5e Boni7acio +an2 Maceda, R6, Las Pinas Branch !:" sus(endin5 Loida M. ena)e, Le5al Researcher, sa9e court+ A.M. =50;03<0RTC+ Octo"e# ;3+ ;==3 D not e%en p#e idin$ ')d$e !a di ciplina#, a)t!o#it, o%e# !i pe# onnel T!e $)ideline in effect at t!at time t!e ca e !appened we#e al#ead, t!o e fo)nd in A.M. No. =<040=;0SC+ w!ic! too& effect in ;==? o# two ,ea# "efo#e t!e admini t#ati%e c!a#$e of ne$lect of d)t, wa made a$ain t >ena"e. -)d$e Maceda !o)ld !a%e applied t!e e new $)ideline and not Ci#c)la# No. <=032. Section 2+ C!apte# *III of A.M. No. =<040=;0SC+ w!ic! p#o%ide t!e $)ideline fo# admini t#ati%e di cipline of co)#t emplo,ee o%e# li$!t offen e + tate 7 SECTION. 2. Di ciplina#, ')#i diction o%e# li$!t offen e .D T!e E/ec)ti%e -)d$e !all !a%e a)t!o#it, to act )pon and in%e ti$ate admini t#ati%e complaint in%ol%in$ li$!t offen e a defined )nde# t!e Ci%il Se#%ice Law and R)le 9Admini t#ati%e Code of 2345:+ and t!e Code of Cond)ct and Et!ical Standa#d fo# P)"lic Official and Emplo,ee 9Rep)"lic Act No. @52<:+ w!e#e t!e penalt, i #ep#imand+ ) pen ion fo# not mo#e t!an t!i#t, 9<=: da, + o# a fine not e/ceedin$ t!i#t, 9<=: da, K ala#,+ and a cla ified in pe#tinent Ci%il Se#%ice #e ol)tion o# i )ance + filed ", 9a: a ')d$e a$ain t a co)#t emplo,ee+ e/cept law,e# + w!o "ot! wo#& in t!e ame tation wit!in t!e E/ec)ti%e -)d$eK a#ea of admini t#ati%e )pe#%i ionG o# 9": a co)#t emplo,ee a$ain t anot!e# co)#t emplo,ee+ e/cept law,e# + w!o "ot! wo#& in t!e ame tation wit!in t!e E/ec)ti%e -)d$eK a#ea of admini t#ati%e )pe#%i ion. In t!e p#ecedin$ in tance + t!e E/ec)ti%e -)d$e !all cond)ct t!e nece a#, in.)i#, and )"mit to t!e Office of t!e Co)#t Admini t#ato# t!e #e )lt 21

t!e#eof wit! a #ecommendation a to t!e action to "e ta&en t!e#eon+ incl)din$ t!e penalt, to "e impo ed+ if an,+ wit!in t!i#t, 9<=: da, f#om te#mination of aid in.)i#,. At !i H!e# di c#etion+ t!e E/ec)ti%e -)d$e ma, dele$ate t!e in%e ti$ation of complaint in%ol%in$ li$!t offen e to an, of t!e P#e idin$ -)d$e o# co)#t official wit!in !i H!e# a#ea of admini t#ati%e )pe#%i ion. In t!e ca e of a complaint 9a: filed a$ain t law,e# + o# 9": filed ", p#i%ate complainant law,e# and non0law,e# ali&e+ t!e ame !all "e -)d$e to t!e Office of t!e Co)#t Admini t#ato# di po ition. / / / 9Emp!a i )pplied: co)#t emplo,ee w!o a#e a$ain t co)#t emplo,ee + fo#wa#ded ", t!e E/ec)ti%e fo# app#op#iate action and

T!e $)ideline clea#l, p#o%ide t!at t!e a)t!o#it, of ')d$e to di cipline e##in$ co)#t pe# onnel+ )nde# t!ei# )pe#%i ion and c!a#$ed wit! li$!t offen e + i limited to cond)ctin$ an in.)i#, onl,. Afte# )c! in.)i#,+ t!e e/ec)ti%e ')d$e i #e.)i#ed to )"mit to t!e OCA t!e #e )lt of t!e in%e ti$ation and $i%e a #ecommendation a to w!at action !o)ld "e ta&en. An e/ec)ti%e ')d$e doe not !a%e t!e a)t!o#it, to act )pon t!e #e )lt of t!e in.)i#, and t!e#eafte#+ if t!e co)#t emplo,ee i fo)nd $)ilt,+ )nilate#all, impo e a penalt,+ a in t!i ca e. It i onl, t!e S)p#eme Co)#t w!ic! !a t!e powe# to find t!e co)#t pe# onnel $)ilt, o# not fo# t!e offen e c!a#$ed and t!en impo e a penalt,. In t!e p#e ent ca e+ -)d$e Maceda ) pended >ena"e fo# t!e offen e of ne$lect of d)t,. Unde# Section 1;9(:+ R)le I* of t!e Re%i ed Unifo#m R)le on Admini t#ati%e Ca e in t!e Ci%il Se#%ice+ imple ne$lect of d)t, i a le $#a%e offen e w!ic! ca##ie a penalt, of one mont! and one da, to i/ mont! ) pen ion fo# t!e fi# t offen e. Unde# A.M. No. =<040=;0SC+ an e/ec)ti%e ')d$e ma, onl, cond)ct an in%e ti$ation fo# all offen e . Afte# t!e in%e ti$ation+ t!e e/ec)ti%e ')d$e i mandated to #efe# t!e nece a#, di ciplina#, action to t!i Co)#t fo# app#op#iate action. ;. -)#i diction %e# ) t!e e/e#ci e of ')#i diction

-)#i diction i confe##ed ", )" tanti%e law w!ile t!e e/e#ci e of ')#i diction )nle ot!e#wi e p#o%ided ", t!e law it elf i $o%e#ned ", t!e R)le of Co)#t o# ", t!e o#de# i )ed f#om time to time ", t!e S)p#eme Co)#t. W!e#e t!e#e i ')#i diction o%e# t!e pe# on and t!e )"'ect matte#+ t!e deci ion of all ot!e# .)e tion a#i in$ in t!e ca e i ")t an e/e#ci e of t!at ')#i diction.

2@

<.

E##o# of ')#i diction a di tin$)i !ed f#om e##o# of ')d$ment

Afte# a co)#t !a o"tained ')#i diction o%e# t!e pa#tie and t!e )"'ect matte# of t!e action+ t!e fail)#e to $i%e notice of )" e.)ent tep in t!e p#oceedin$ doe not dep#i%e t!e co)#t of ')#i diction. If )" tantial in')#, #e )lt f#om t!e fail)#e of notice and complaint i d)l, made t!e#eof+ t!e act of t!e co)#t ma, "e !eld to "e e##oneo) and will "e co##ected in t!e p#ope# p#oceedin$ ")t i not an act wit!o)t o# in e/ce of ')#i diction and i not %oid. T!e te#m e/ce of ')#i diction i$nifie t!at t!e co)#t+ "oa#d o# office# !a ')#i diction o%e# a ca e ")t t#an cended t!e ame o# acted wit!o)t a)t!o#it,. ?. Cow ')#i diction i confe##ed and dete#mined

Onl, t!e Con tit)tion o# law confe# ')#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte#. It cannot "e fi/ed ", t!e will of pa#tie G it cannot "e ac.)i#ed t!#o)$!+ o# wai%ed+ enla#$ed o# dimini !ed ",+ an, act o# omi ion of t!e pa#tie . On t!e ot!e# !and+ w!at dete#mine t!e nat)#e of t!e action a well a t!e co)#t+ w!ic! !a ')#i diction o%e# t!e ca e+ i t!e alle$ation made ", t!e plaintiff in !i complaint. ustilo v. ustilo+ >.R. No. 251?35+ Octo"e# 23+ ;=22+ @13 SCRA @23

Petitione# Ma#, -o, Anne and #e pondent -o e *icente III a#e c!ild#en of t!e late Att,. A#mando >) tilo wit! diffe#ent mot!e# . T!e decedent owned e%e#al p#ope#tie and wa t!e p#e ident of A.>. A$#o0Ind) t#ial Co#po#ation in CadiE Cit,+ Ne$#o Occidental. Followin$ t!ei# fat!e#K deat!+ Ma#, -o, and -o e *icente ente#ed into a Memo#and)m of A$#eement 9MOA:+ ad')dicatin$ "etween t!em el%e t!ei# fat!e#K p#ope#tie . One of t!e e wa Cacienda Imelda+ w!ic! t!e MOA a i$ned to Ma#, -o,. Cowe%e#+ t!e !aciendaK title #emained in t!e name of A.>. A$#o. Ma#, -o, immediatel, too& po e ion of t!e land and planted )$a#cane on it. In 2335 -o e *icente+ a p#e ident of A.>. A$#o+ lea ed Cacienda Imelda and it fa#m implement to #e pondent Tita S, Jo)n$ fo# fi%e a$#ic)lt)#al c#op ,ea# f#om 2335 )ntil ;==;. (ein$ financiall, !a#d )p+ Ma#, -o, co)ld not do an,t!in$ a"o)t it. W!en t!e lea e cont#act wa a"o)t to e/pi#e+ Ma#, -o, ad%i ed Jo)n$ to )##ende# t!e land to !e#. ()t t!e latte# #ef) ed to ,ield po e ion and contin)ed to c)lti%ate t!e ame fo# )$a#cane. T!i p#ompted Ma#, -o, to file an action a$ain t -o e *icente and Jo)n$ fo# #eco%e#, of po e ion of t!e !acienda+ cancellation of t!e lea e cont#act+ and dama$e "efo#e t!e Re$ional T#ial 25

Co)#t 9RTC: of CadiE Cit,. -o e *icente filed a motion to di mi mainl, on t!e $#o)nd t!at t!e CadiE RTC !ad no ')#i diction to !ea# and decide int#a0 co#po#ate di p)te + t!e p#ope# fo#)m "ein$ a peciall, de i$nated comme#cial co)#t. (ot! t!e RTC and CA #)led in fa%o# of -o e *icente and di mi ed t!e complaint fo# lac& of ')#i diction wit!o)t p#e')dice to t!e #e0filin$ of t!e ca e in t!e p#ope# co)#t. ISSUE7 W!et!e# o# not Ma#, -o,K action p#e ent an int#a0co#po#ate di p)te t!at "elon$ to t!e ')#i diction of a peciall, de i$nated comme#cial co)#t. RULIN>7 It i a "a ic #)le t!at ')#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# i dete#mined ", t!e alle$ation in t!e complaint. It can "e $leaned f#om Ma#, -o,K alle$ation in !e# complaint t!at !e# ca e i p#incipall, one fo# #eco%e#, of po e ion. Immediatel, )pon t!e e/ec)tion of t!e MOA in 233<+ Ma#, -o, too& po e ion of Cacienda Imelda and ta#ted plantin$ )$a#cane on it. In 2335 Jo)n$+ wit! t!e ) e of fo#ce+ too& o%e# t!e p#ope#t, wit! t!e fa#m e.)ipment and implement . De pite e%e#al demand to %acate and )##ende# Cacienda Imelda+ Jo)n$ contin)ed to c)lti%ate and plant )$a#cane on t!e p#ope#t, )p to ;==;+ and e%en ente#ed into a new lea e cont#act wit! -o e *icente. Acco#din$ to t!e SC+ #e$a#dle of t!e act)al condition of t!e title to t!e p#ope#t,+ t!e pa#t, in peacea"le .)iet po e ion !all not "e t)#ned o)t ", a t#on$ !and+ %iolence o# te##o#. T!) + a pa#t, w!o can p#o%e p#io# po e ion can #eco%e# )c! po e ion e%en a$ain t t!e owne# !im elf. W!ate%e# ma, "e t!e c!a#acte# of !i p#io# po e ion+ if !e !a in !i fa%o# p#io#it, in time !e i entitled to #emain on t!e p#ope#t, )ntil a pe# on !a%in$ a "ette# #i$!t lawf)ll, e'ect !im. Ce#e+ -o e *icente and Jo)n$ mainl, a#$)ed in t!ei# Motion to Di mi t!at ina m)c! a t!e )"'ect p#ope#t, i in t!e name of A.>. A$#o+ t!e nat)#e of t!e claim o# cont#o%e# , i one of int#a0co#po#ate. T!e Co)#t !a #)led in t!e pa t t!at an action to #eco%e# po e ion i a plena#, action in an o#dina#, ci%il p#oceedin$ to dete#mine t!e "ette# and le$al #i$!t to po e + independentl, of title. ()t w!e#e t!e pa#tie #ai e t!e i )e of owne# !ip+ a in t!i ca e+ t!e co)#t ma, pa )pon )c! i )e to dete#mine w!o "etween t!e pa#tie !a t!e #i$!t to po e t!e p#ope#t,. T!i ad')dication+ !owe%e#+ i not final and "indin$ a #e$a#d t!e i )e of owne# !ipG it i me#el, fo# t!e p)#po e of #e ol%in$ t!e i )e of po e ion w!en it i in epa#a"l, connected to t!e i )e of owne# !ip. T!e ad')dication on t!e i )e of owne# !ip+ "ein$ p#o%i ional+ i not a "a# to an action "etween t!e ame pa#tie in%ol%in$ title to t!e p#ope#t,. Al o+ an, int#a0co#po#ate i )e 24

t!at ma, "e in%ol%ed in dete#minin$ t!e #eal owne# of t!e p#ope#t, ma, "e t!#e !ed o)t in a epa#ate p#oceedin$ in t!e p#ope# comme#cial co)#t. 1. Doct#ine of p#ima#, ')#i diction

NON0EBCAUSTION OF ADMINISTRATI*E REMEDIES It i inc)m"ent )pon t!e pa#t, w!o !a an admini t#ati%e #emed, to p)# )e t!e ame to it app#op#iate concl) ion "efo#e ee&in$ ')dicial inte#%ention. T!e Co)#t !a con i tentl, #eite#ated t!e #ationale "e!ind t!e doct#ine of t!e e/!a) tion of admini t#ati%e #emedie 7 One of t!e #ea on fo# t!e doct#ine of e/!a) tion i t!e epa#ation of powe# + w!ic! en'oin )pon t!e -)dicia#, a "ecomin$ polic, of non0inte#fe#ence wit! matte# comin$ p#ima#il, 9al"eit not e/cl) i%el,: wit!in t!e competence of t!e ot!e# depa#tment . T!e t!eo#, i t!at t!e admini t#ati%e a)t!o#itie a#e in a "ette# po ition to #e ol%e .)e tion add#e ed to t!ei# pa#tic)la# e/pe#ti e and t!at e##o# committed ", )"o#dinate in t!ei# #e ol)tion ma, "e #ectified ", t!ei# )pe#io# if $i%en a c!ance to do o8 It ma, "e added t!at t#ict enfo#cement of t!e #)le co)ld al o #elie%e t!e co)#t of a con ide#a"le n)m"e# of a%oida"le ca e w!ic! ot!e#wi e wo)ld ")#den t!ei# !ea%il, loaded doc&et . T!e fail)#e to e/!a) t admini t#ati%e #emedie + !owe%e#+ doe not affect t!e ')#i diction of t!e co)#t. Non0e/!a) tion of admini t#ati%e #emedie onl, #ende# t!e action p#emat)#e+ t!at t!e 6claimed ca) e of action i not #ipe fo# ')dicial dete#mination.A 9Me#ida Wate#wo#& Di t#ict %. (aca##o+ >.R. No. 2@133<+ Septem"e# <=+ ;==4: PRINCIPLE OF PRIMARJ -URISDICTION It ma, occ)# t!at t!e Co)#t !a ')#i diction to ta&e co$niEance of a pa#tic)la# ca e+ w!ic! mean t!at t!e matte# in%ol%ed i al o ')dicial in c!a#acte#. Cowe%e#+ if t!e ca e i )c! t!at it dete#mination #e.)i#e t!e e/pe#ti e+ pecialiEed &ill and &nowled$e of t!e p#ope# admini t#ati%e "odie "eca) e tec!nical matte# o# int#icate .)e tion of fact a#e in%ol%ed+ t!en #elief m) t fi# t "e o"tained in an admini t#ati%e p#oceedin$ "efo#e a #emed, will "e )pplied ", t!e co)#t e%en t!o)$! t!e matte# i

23

wit!in t!e p#ope# ')#i diction of t!e co)#t. 9Pimentel %. Senate Committee a a W!ole+ >.R. No. 24552?+ Ma#c! 4+ ;=22: T!i p#ecl)de co)#t f#om #e ol%in$+ in t!e fi# t in tance+ cont#o%e# ie fallin$ )nde# t!e ')#i diction of admini t#ati%e a$encie . Co)#t #eco$niEe t!at admini t#ati%e a$encie a#e "ette# e.)ipped to ettle fact)al i )e wit!in t!ei# pecific field of e/pe#ti e "eca) e of t!ei# pecial &ill and tec!nical &nowled$e. Fo# t!i #ea on+ a p#emat)#e in%ocation of t!e co)#tK ')dicial powe# i often t#)c& down+ )nle it can "e !own t!at t!e ca e fall )nde# an, of t!e applica"le e/ception . 9Ca")n$cal %. Lo#enEo+ >.R. No. 2@=<@5+ Decem"e# 24+ ;==3: -) tice Ce##e#a emp!a iEed t!at t!e doct#ine of p#ima#, ')#i diction and fail)#e to e/!a) t admini t#ati%e #emedie a#e not ,non,mo) and !o)ld "e di tin$)i !ed f#om one anot!e#. In US %. We te#n Pac. R.R.+ <1; U.S. 13 9231@:+ -) tice Ca#lan e/plained t!at e/!a) tion applie w!e#e a claim i co$niEa"le in t!e fi# t in tance ", an admini t#ati%e a$enc, aloneG ')dicial inte#fe#ence i wit!!eld )ntil t!e admini t#ati%e p#oce !a #)led it co)# e. P#ima#, ')#i diction on t!e ot!e# !and applie w!e#e a claim i o#i$inall, co$niEa"le ", t!e co)#t and come into pla, w!ene%e# enfo#cement of t!e claim #e.)i#e t!e #e ol)tion of i )e w!ic! )nde# a #e$)lato#, c!eme !a%e "een placed wit!in t!e pecial competence of an admini t#ati%e "od,G in )c! a ca e t!e ')dicial p#oce i ) pended pendin$ #efe##al of )c! i )e to t!e admini t#ati%e "od, fo# it %iew . In Ta , %. (#)n wic&+ t!e Co)#t !eld t!at t!e pe#tinent .)e tion to a & i w!et!e# #efe##al to t!e a$enc, i nece a#, to p#omote )nifo#mit, and w!et!e# t!e a$enc,K e/pe#ti e wo)ld a i t t!e co)#t in #e ol%in$ diffic)lt fact)al i )e . Simpl, p)t+ t!e p#ima#, ')#i diction doct#ine a & w!et!e# an a$enc,K #e%iew of t!e fact will "e a mate#ial aid to t!e co)#t )ltimatel, c!a#$ed wit! appl,in$ t!o e fact to t!e law. @. Doct#ine of ad!e#ence of ')#i diction

RULE OF ADCERENCE OF -URISDICTION D Afte# it ')#i diction attac!ed+ t!i ')#i diction cannot "e o) ted ", )" e.)ent e%ent )c! a t!e tempo#a#, t#an fe# of e%idence and mate#ial #eco#d of t!e p#oceedin$ to anot!e# t#i")nal e/e#ci in$ it own ')#i diction o%e# anot!e# election conte t p)# )ant to t!e Con tit)tion. T!i i t!e #)le of ad!e#ence of ')#i diction. 9MendoEa %. Comelec+ >.R. No. 244<=4+ Octo"e# 21+ ;==3: INSTANCES WCEN A COURT MAJ LOSE -URISDICTION E*EN IF IT CAS (EEN ATTACCED TO IT7 ;=

2 W!en a )" e.)ent law p#o%ide a p#o!i"ition fo# t!e contin)ed e/e#ci e of ')#i diction [Rillora2a vs. Arcia5a, !1 +,RA :1:]. ; W!e#e t!e law penaliEin$ an act w!ic! i p)ni !a"le i #epealed ", a )" e.)ent law. T!e #ea on i t!at t!e State lo e t!e powe# to p#o ec)te w!en t!e law i #epealed+ !ence+ t!e co)#t !a no mo#e powe# to decide [Peo(le vs. Pastor, :: Phil. 1000]. < W!en acc) ed i dep#i%ed of !i con tit)tional #i$!t )c! a w!e#e t!e co)#t fail to p#o%ide co)n el fo# t!e acc) ed w!o i )na"le to o"tain one and doe not intelli$entl, wai%e !i con tit)tional #i$!t [,have2 vs. ,A, !4 +,RA 66#]. ? W!en t!e p#oceedin$ in t!e co)#t ac.)i#in$ ')#i diction i te#minated+ a"andoned o# decla#ed %oid [+even vs. Pichay, 108 Phil. 41-]. 1 W!en t!e tat)te e/p#e l, p#o%ide + o# i con t#)ed to t!e effect t!at it intended to ope#ate a to action pendin$ "efo#e it enactment [Ben52on vs. =ncion5, -1 +,RA !84]. @ Once appeal !a "een pe#fected [Al9a vs. A))as, 18 +,RA 8#6]. 5 W!en t!e law i c)#ati%e [ arcia vs. Martine2, -0 +,RA ##1]. 5. O"'ection to ')#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte#

Lhuillier v. British Air.ays, >.R. No. 252=3;+ Ma#c! 21+ ;=2= L!)illie# filed a complaint fo# dama$e a$ain t (#iti ! Ai#wa, "efo#e RTC of Ma&ati. (#iti ! Ai#wa, mo%ed to di mi t!e complaint on t!e $#o)nd of lac& of ')#i diction o%e# t!e ca e "a ed on t!e Wa# aw Con%ention. Acco#din$ to SC+ t!e Wa# aw Con%ention !a t!e fo#ce and effect of law in t!i co)nt#,. It applie "eca) e t!e ai# t#a%el w!e#e t!e alle$ed to#tio) cond)ct occ)##ed wa "etween t!e UN and Ital,+ w!ic! a#e "ot! i$nato#ie to t!e Con%ention. Since t!e Con%ention applie + t!en t!e ')#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# of t!e action i $o%e#ned ", t!e p#o%i ion t!e#eof. Unde# A#ticle ;4 92: of t!e Con%ention+ t!e plaintiff ma, "#in$ t!e action fo# dama$e "efo#e7 9a: t!e co)#t w!e#e t!e ca##ie# i domiciledG 9": t!e co)#t w!e#e t!e ca##ie# !a it p#incipal place of ") ine G 9c: t!e co)#t w!e#e t!e

;2

ca##ie# !a an e ta"li !ment ", w!ic! t!e cont#act !a "een madeG o#+ 9c: t!e co)#t of t!e place of de tination. In t!i ca e+ (#iti ! Ai#wa, i domiciled in UN wit! London a it p#incipal place of ") ine . It appea# t!at t!e tic&et wa i )ed in Rome+ Ital, and t!e place of de tination i al o Rome+ Ital,. L!)illie# t!e#efo#e !a t!e option to "#in$ !e# ca e "efo#e t!e co)#t of Rome in Ital, o# in London+ UN. T!e RTC of Ma&ati did not !a%e ')#i diction o%e# t!e ca e filed ", L!)illie#. Machado v. atdula+ >.R. No. 21@;45+ Fe"#)a#, 2@+ ;=2=

T!e ca e in%ol%ed t!e ')#i diction of t!e Commi ion on Settlement of Land P#o"lem 9COSLAP:. Unde# EO 1@2+ t!e COSLAP ma, in t!e followin$ ca e + a )me ')#i diction and #e ol%e land p#o"lem o# di p)te w!ic! a#e c#itical and e/plo i%e in nat)#e con ide#in$ fo# in tance t!e la#$e n)m"e# of t!e pa#tie in%ol%ed+ t!e p#e ence o# eme#$ence of ocial ten ion o# )n#e t+ o# ot!e# imila# c#itical it)ation #e.)i#in$ immediate action7 9a: "etween occ)pant H .)atte# and pa t)#e lea e a$#eement !olde# o# tim"e# conce ionai#e G 9": "etween occ)pant H .)atte# and $o%e#nment #e e#%ation $#antee G 9c: "etween occ)pant H .)atte# and p)"lic land claimant o# applicant G 9d: Petition fo# cla ification+ #elea e andHo# )"di%i ion of land of t!e p)"lic domainG and+ 9e: ot!e# imila# land p#o"lem of $#a%e )#$enc, and ma$nit)de. In t!i ca e+ !owe%e#+ t!e p#ope#tie in%ol%ed in t!e di p)te a#e p#i%ate land owned ", p#i%ate pa#tie + none of w!o i a .)atte#+ a patent lea e a$#eement !olde#+ a $o%e#nment #e e#%ation $#antee+ a p)"lic land claimant o# a mem"e# of an, c)lt)#al mino#it,. Mo#eo%e#+ t!e di p)te "etween t!e pa#tie can !a#dl, "e cla ified a c#itical o# e/plo i%e in nat)#e t!at wo)ld $ene#ate ocial ten ion o# )n#e t+ o# a c#itical it)ation t!at wo)ld #e.)i#e immediate and )#$ent action. T!e i )e #ai ed in t!e ca e p#ima#il, in%ol%e t!e application of t!e Ci%il Code p#o%i ion on P#ope#t, and t!e Ea ement of Ri$!t of Wa,. -)#i diction o%e# a )"'ect matte# i confe##ed ", law and not ", t!e pa#tie K action o# cond)ct. E toppel $ene#all, doe not confe# ')#i diction o%e# a ca) e of action to a t#i")nal w!e#e none+ ", law+ e/i t . T!e ope#ation of t!e p#inciple of e toppel on t!e .)e tion of ')#i diction depend )pon w!et!e# t!e lowe# co)#t act)all, !ad ')#i diction o# not. If it !ad no ')#i diction+ ")t t!e ca e wa t#ied and decided )pon t!e t!eo#, t!at it !ad ')#i diction+ t!e pa#tie a#e not "a##ed+ on appeal+ f#om a ailin$ )c! ')#i diction+ fo# t!e ame m) t e/i t a a matte# of law+ and ma, not "e confe##ed ", con ent of t!e pa#tie o# ", e toppel. Cowe%e#+ if t!e lowe# ;;

co)#t !ad ')#i diction+ and t!e ca e wa !ea#d and decided )pon a $i%en t!eo#,+ )c!+ fo# in tance+ a t!at t!e co)#t !ad no ')#i diction+ t!e pa#t, w!o ind)ced it to adopt )c! t!eo#, will not "e pe#mitted+ on appeal+ to a )me an incon i tent po ition D t!at t!e lowe# co)#t !ad ')#i diction. Ce#e+ t!e p#inciple of e toppel applie . T!e #)le t!at ')#i diction i confe##ed ", law and doe not depend )pon t!e will of t!e pa#tie + !a no "ea#in$ t!e#eon. 4. Effect of e toppel on o"'ection to ')#i diction

1u*an =nternational ,or(. v. $on. Reyes + >.R. No. 24;5;3+ Septem"e# ;3+ ;=2= In t!i ca e+ ')d$ment wa #ende#ed a$ain t N)&an Inc. W!en t!e deci ion "ecame final+ a w#it of e/ec)tion wa i )ed a$ain t it. T!e S!e#iff t!en le%ied on %a#io) pe# onal p#ope#tie fo)nd at w!at wa )ppo ed to "e N)&)n Inc.K office. N)&an Inte#national Co#p. t!en filed an Affida%it of T!i#d0 Pa#t, Claim. Plaintiff in i ted t!at appl,in$ t!e p#inciple of pie#cin$ t!e %eil of co#po#ate fiction+ e/ec)tion !o)ld p#oceed e%en a$ain t N)&an Inte#national Co#p. It f)#t!e# a#$)ed t!at t!e filin$ of t!e Affida%it and )" e.)ent pleadin$ amo)nt to %ol)nta#, )"mi ion to t!e ')#i diction of t!e co)#t. T!e p#e%ailin$ #)le i La 8aval 0ru5 v. ,ourt o7 A((eals + ;<@ SCRA 54+ w!e#e SC !eld t!at a pecial appea#ance "efo#e t!e co)#t c!allen$in$ it ')#i diction o%e# t!e pe# on t!#o)$! a motion to di mi e%en if t!e mo%ant in%o&e ot!e# $#o)nd i not tantamo)nt to e toppel o# wai%e# ", t!e mo%ant of !i o"'ection to ')#i diction o%e# !i pe# on and )c! i not con tit)ti%e of a %ol)nta#, )"mi ion to t!e ')#i diction of t!e co)#t. T!e p#inciple of pie#cin$ t!e %eil of co#po#ate fiction and t!e #e )ltin$ t#eatment of two #elated co#po#ation a one and t!e ame ')#idical pe# on wit! #e pect to a $i%en t#an action+ i "a icall, applied onl, to dete#mine e ta"li !ed lia"ilit,G it i not a%aila"le to confe# on t!e co)#t a ')#i diction it !a not ac.)i#ed+ in t!e fi# t place+ o%e# a pa#t, not impleaded in a ca e. El ewi e p)t+ a co#po#ation not impleaded in a )it cannot "e )"'ect to t!e co)#tK p#oce of pie#cin$ t!e %eil of it co#po#ate fiction. In t!at it)ation+ t!e co)#t !a not ac.)i#ed ')#i diction o%e# t!e co#po#ation and !ence+ an, p#oceedin$ ta&en a$ain t t!e co#po#ation and it p#ope#t, wo)ld inf#in$e on it #i$!t to d)e p#oce . C. -)#i diction o%e# t!e i )e

An e/p#e ion ) ed to di#ect t!e attention to w!et!e# t!e i )e "ein$ t#ied and decided i wit!in t!e i )e #ai ed ", t!e pleadin$ . -)#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect i confe##ed ", law w!ile t!e ')#i diction o%e# t!e i )e i confe##ed ;<

", t!e pleadin$ and i confe##ed )pon ", t!e pa#tie and ma, t!e#efo#e "e wai%ed )c! a w!en an i )e not #ai ed in t!e pleadin$ i t#ied ", implied con ent. Note Sec. 1+ R)le 2=7 A9end9ent to con7or9 to or authori2e (resentation o7 evidence. D W!en i )e not #ai ed ", t!e pleadin$ a#e t#ied wit! t!e e/p#e o# implied con ent of t!e pa#tie + t!e, !all "e t#eated in all #e pect a if t!e, !ad "een #ai ed in t!e pleadin$ 8 If e%idence i o"'ected to at t!e t#ial on t!e $#o)nd t!at it i not wit!in t!e i )e made ", t!e pleadin$ + t!e co)#t ma, allow t!e pleadin$ to "e amended and !all do o wit! li"e#alit, if t!e p#e entation of t!e me#it of t!e action and t!e end of )" tantial ') tice will "e )" e#%ed t!e#e",8 D. -)#i diction o%e# t!e res o# p#ope#t, in liti$ation

T!e co)#t cannot ac.)i#e ')#i diction o%e# t!e pe# on of a non0#e ident defendant. P#oce e#%ed ", t!e co)#t i not enfo#cea"le "e,ond t!e te##ito#ial limit of t!e P!ilippine . An action ma, "e filed a$ain t a non0 #e ident defendant w!ic! affect t!e pe# onal tat) of t!e plaintiff o# fo# t!e p)#po e of p#oceedin$ a$ain t t!e p#ope#t, of a non0#e ident defendant )c! a fo#eclo )#e of mo#t$a$e o# to o"tain a w#it of attac!ment )nde# Section 21+ R)le 2?. ()t in )c! ca e + ')#i diction o%e# t!e pe# on of t!e defendant i immate#ial o lon$ a t!e co)#t ac.)i#e ')#i diction o%e# t!e res. -)#i diction o%e# t!e pe# on of t!e defendant i e ential in action in (ersona9 not in action in re9 o# 'uasi in re9 o lon$ a t!e co)#t doe not #ende# pe# onal ')d$ment a$ain t t!e defendant. T!) + an action to fo#eclo e a mo#t$a$e a$ain t a non0#e ident defendant )pon w!om e#%ice !a "een effected e/cl) i%el, ", p)"lication i %alid ")t no pe# onal ')d$ment fo# t!e deficienc, can "e ente#ed. -)#i diction o%e# t!e res i ac.)i#ed eit!e#7 9a: ", t!e eiE)#e of t!e p#ope#t, )nde# le$al p#oce w!e#e", it i "#o)$!t into act)al c) tod, of law D act)al eiE)#e ma, "e effected ", attac!ment p#oceedin$ G o# 9": it ma, #e )lt f#om t!e in tit)tion of le$al p#oceedin$ w!e#ein )nde# pecial p#o%i ion of law+ t!e powe# of t!e co)#t i #eco$niEed and made effecti%e D E/ample7 land #e$i t#ation ca e o# p#o"ate p#oceedin$ w!e#e ')#i diction i o"tained ", compliance wit! p#oced)#al #e.)i ite )c! a p)"lication. Lac& of notice in a land #e$i t#ation ca e confe# no ')#i diction to t!e co)#t. E. -)#i diction of Co)#t 2. S)p#eme Co)#t

;?

-URISDICTION OF TCE SUPREME COURT 9SC:7 2. Ca e affectin$ am"a ado# + ot!e# p)"lic mini te# and con )l + and ot!e# petition fo# certiorari+ p#o!i"ition+ mandam) + 'uo .arranto+ and !a"ea co#p) . ;. All ca e in%ol%in$ t!e con tit)tionalit, of a t#eat,+ inte#national o# e/ec)ti%e a$#eement+ o# law+ w!ic! !all "e !ea#d ", t!e SC en )anc+ and all ot!e# ca e w!ic! )nde# t!e R)le of Co)#t a#e #e.)i#ed to "e !ea#d en )anc+ incl)din$ t!o e in%ol%in$ t!e con tit)tionalit,+ application+ o# ope#ation of p#e idential dec#ee + p#oclamation + o#de# + in t#)ction + o#dinance + and ot!e# #e$)lation + !all "e decided wit! t!e conc)##ence of t!e ma'o#it, of t!e Mem"e# w!o act)all, too& pa#t in t!e deli"e#ation on t!e i )e in t!e ca e and %oted t!e#eon <. Ca e on matte# !ea#d ", a di%i ion !all "e decided o# #e ol%ed wit! t!e conc)##ence of a ma'o#it, of t!e Mem"e# w!o act)all, too& pa#t in t!e deli"e#ation on t!e i )e in t!e ca e and %oted t!e#eon+ and in no ca e+ wit!o)t t!e conc)##ence of at lea t t!#ee of )c! Mem"e# . ?. T!e S)p#eme Co)#t !a t!e powe# to7 9a: e/e#ci e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# ca e affectin$ am"a ado# + ot!e# p)"lic mini te# and con )l + and o%e# petition fo# certiorari+ p#o!i"ition+ mandam) + 'uo .arranto+ and !a"ea co#p) 9": #e%iew+ #e%i e+ #e%e# e+ modif,+ of affi#m on appeal o# ce#tio#a#i+ a t!e law o# t!e R)le of Co)#t ma, p#o%ide+ final ')d$ment and o#de# of lowe# co)#t in7 92: all ca e in w!ic! t!e con tit)tionalit, o# %alidit, of an, t#eat,+ inte#national o# e/ec)ti%e a$#eement+ law p#e idential dec#ee+ p#oclamation+ o#de#+ in t#)ction+ o#dinance+ o# #e$)lation i in .)e tionG 9;: all ca e in%ol%in$ t!e le$alit, of an, ta/+ impo t+ a e ment+ o# toll+ o# an, penalt, impo ed in #elation t!e#etoG 9<: all ca e in w!ic! t!e ')#i diction of an, lowe# co)#t i in i )eG 9?: all c#iminal ca e in w!ic! t!e penalt, impo ed in reclusion (er(etua o# !i$!e#G

;1

91: all ca e in%ol%ed.

in w!ic! onl, an e##o# o# .)e tion of law i

INTERNAL RULES OF TCE SUPREME COURT R)le ;+ Sec. <7 ,ourt en )anc 9atters and cases. D T!e Co)#t en )anc !all act on t!e followin$ matte# and ca e 7 9a: Ca e in w!ic! t!e con tit)tionalit, o# %alidit, of an, t#eat,+ inte#national o# e/ec)ti%e a$#eement+ law+ e/ec)ti%e o#de#+ p#e idential dec#ee+ p#oclamation+ o#de#+ in t#)ction+ o#dinance+ o# #e$)lation i in .)e tionG C#iminal ca e in w!ic! t!e appealed deci ion impo e t!e deat! penalt, o# reclusion (er(etuaG Ca e in%ol%in$ no%el .)e tion of lawG Ca e affectin$ am"a ado# + ot!e# p)"lic mini te# + and con )l G Ca e in%ol%in$ deci ion + #e ol)tion + and o#de# of t!e Ci%il Se#%ice Commi ion+ t!e Commi ion on Election + and t!e Commi ion on A)ditG Ca e w!e#e t!e penalt, #ecommended o# impo ed i t!e di mi al of a ')d$e+ t!e di "a#ment of a law,e#+ t!e ) pen ion of an, of t!em fo# a pe#iod of mo#e t!an one ,ea#+ o# a fine e/ceedin$ ?=+=== pe o G Ca e co%e#ed ", t!e p#ecedin$ pa#a$#ap! and in%ol%in$ t!e #ein tatement in t!e ')dicia#, of a di mi ed ')d$e+ t!e #ein tatement of a law,e# in t!e #oll of atto#ne, + o# t!e liftin$ of a ')d$eK ) pen ion o# a law,e#K ) pen ion f#om t!e p#actice of lawG Ca e in%ol%in$ t!e di cipline of a Mem"e# of t!e Co)#t+ o# a P#e idin$ -) tice+ o# an, A ociate -) tice of t!e colle$ial appellate co)#t G Ca e w!e#e a doct#ine o# p#inciple laid down ", t!e co)#t en "anc o# ", a Di%i ion ma, "e modified o# #e%e# edG Ca e in%ol%in$ conflictin$ deci ion of two o# mo#e di%i ion G Ca e w!e#e t!#ee %ote in a Di%i ion cannot "e o"tainedG Di%i ion ca e w!e#e t!e )"'ect matte# !a a !)$e financial impact on ") ine e o# affect t!e welfa#e of t!e comm)nit,G S)"'ect to Section 22 9": of t!i #)le+ ot!e# di%i ion ca e t!at+ in t!e opinion of at lea t < Mem"e# of t!e Di%i ion w!o a#e %otin$ and p#e ent+ a#e app#op#iate fo# t#an fe# to t!e Co)#t en "ancG Ca e t!at t!e Co)#t en )anc deem of )fficient impo#tance to me#it it attentionG and+ ;@

9": 9c: 9d: 9e: 9f:

9$:

9!: 9i: 9': 9&: 9l: 9m:

9n:

9o:

All matte# in%ol%in$ polic, deci ion in t!e admini t#ati%e )pe#%i ion of all co)#t and t!ei# pe# onnel.

R)le ;+ Sec. 227 Actions on cases re7erred to the ,ourt en )anc . D T!e #efe##al of a Di%i ion ca e to t!e Co)#t en "anc !all "e )"'ect to t!e followin$ #)le 7 9a: 9": 9c: T!e #e ol)tion of a Di%i ion den,in$ a motion fo# #efe##al to t!e Co)#t en )anc !all "e final and !all not "e appeala"le to t!e Co)#t en )ancG T!e Co)#t en "anc ma,+ in t!e a" ence of )fficientl, impo#tant #ea on + decline to ta&e co$niEance of a ca e #efe##ed to it and #et)#n t!e ca e to t!e Di%i ionG and No motion fo# #econ ide#ation of a #e ol)tion of t!e co)#t en "anc declinin$ co$niEance of a #efe##al ", a Di%i ion !all "e ente#tained.

R)le ;+ Sec. 2?7 Per curia9 decisions. D Unle ot!e#wi e #e.)e ted ", t!e Mem"e# a i$ned to w#ite t!e opinion of t!e Co)#t+ t!e deci ion o# #e ol)tion !all "e #ende#ed (er curia9 9a: 9": W!e#e t!e penalt, impo ed i di mi al f#om e#%ice+ di "a#ment+ o# indefinite ) pen ion in admini t#ati%e ca e G o# In an, ot!e# ca e ", a$#eement of t!e ma'o#it, of t!e Mem"e# o# )pon #e.)e t of a Mem"e#.

R)le <+ Sec. ;7 6he ,ourt not a trier o7 7acts . D T!e Co)#t i not a t#ie# of fact G it #ole i to decide ca e "a ed on t!e findin$ of fact "efo#e it. W!e#e t!e Con tit)tion+ t!e law o# t!e Co)#t it elf+ in t!e e/e#ci e of it di c#etion decide to #ecei%e e%idence+ t!e #eception of e%idence ma, "e dele$ated to a Mem"e# of t!e Co)#t+ o# to one of t!e appellate co)#t o# it ') tice w!o !all )"mit to t!e Co)#t a #epo#t and #ecommendation on t!e "a i of t!e e%idence p#e ented. R)le <+ Sec. ;7 Advisory o(inions (roscri)ed . D T!e Co)#t cannot i )e ad%i o#, opinion on t!e tate and meanin$ of law + o# ta&e co$niEance of moot and academic .)e tion + )"'ect onl, to nota"le e/ception in%ol%in$ con tit)tional i )e . R)le <+ Sec. <7 ,ases .hen the ,ourt 9ay deter9ine 7actual issues . D T!e Co)#t !all #e pect t!e fact)al findin$ of lowe# co)#t + )nle an, of t!e followin$ it)ation i p#e ent7

;5

9a: 9": 9c: 9d: 9e: 9f: 9$: 9!: 9i: 9': 9&:

T!e concl) ion i a findin$ $#o)nded enti#el, on pec)lation+ )#mi e and con'ect)#eG T!e infe#ence made i manife tl, mi ta&enG T!e#e i $#a%e a") e of di c#etionG T!e ')d$ment i "a ed on a mi app#e!en ion of fact G T!e findin$ of fact a#e conflictin$G T!e colle$ial appellate co)#t went "e,ond t!e i )e of t!e ca e+ and t!ei# findin$ a#e cont#a#, to t!e admi ion of "ot! appellant and appelleeG T!e findin$ of fact of t!e colle$ial appellate co)#t a#e cont#a#, to t!o e of t!e t#ial co)#tG Said findin$ of fact a#e concl) ion wit!o)t citation of pecific e%idence on w!ic! t!e, a#e "a edG T!e fact et fo#t! in t!e petition a well a in t!e petitione#K main and #epl, "#ief a#e not di p)ted ", t!e #e pondent G T!e findin$ of fact of t!e colle$ial appellate co)#t a#e p#emi ed on t!e )ppo ed e%idence+ ")t a#e cont#adicted ", t!e e%idence on #eco#dG and All ot!e# imila# and e/ceptional ca e wa##antin$ a #e%iew of t!e lowe# co)#t K findin$ of fact.

R)le 2=+ Sec. ;7 ,on7identiality o7 court sessions. D Co)#t e ion a#e e/ec)ti%e in c!a#acte#+ wit! onl, t!e Mem"e# of t!e Co)#t p#e ent. Co)#t deli"e#ation a#e confidential and !all not "e di clo ed to o)t ide pa#tie + e/cept a ma, "e p#o%ided !e#ein o# a a)t!o#iEed ", t!e Co)#t8 =n reB Letters o7 Atty. 4stelito P. Mendo2a reB .R. 8o. 1:808# D /li5ht Attendants and +te.ards Association o7 the Phili((ines E/A+APF v. Phili((ine Airlines, =nc. EPALF, et al.+ A.M. No. 2202=020SC+ Ma#c! 2<+ ;=2; D ill) t#ation w!e#e t!e SC applied it Inte#nal R)le to #ecall it Re ol)tion. In pa#tic)la#+ t!e SC di c) ed R)le ; 9T!e Ope#atin$ St#)ct)#e :+ Section 5 9Re ol)tion of motion fo# #econ ide#ation o# cla#ification of deci ion o# i$ned #e ol)tion and all ot!e# motion and incident )" e.)entl, filedG c#eation of a Special Di%i ion: and 3 9Effect o# #eo#$aniEation of Di%i ion on a i$ned ca e : t!e#eof+ and R)le 4 9In!i"ition and S)" tit)tion of Mem"e# of t!e Co)#t:+ Section < 9Effect of In!i"ition: t!e#eof. T!) + t!e ma'o#it, of t!e SC !eld t!e %iew t!at Section 5 of R)le ; !o)ld !a%e p#e%ailed in con ide#in$ t!e #affle and a i$nment of ca e afte# t!e ; nd MR wa accepted a a$ain t t!e $ene#al #)le on in!i"ition )nde# Section <+ R)le 4. T!e )nde#l,in$ #ea on i Section ? 9<: of A#ticle *III of t!e 2345 Con tit)tion+ w!ic! tate 7 6Ca e o# matte# !ea#d ", a di%i ion !all "e decided o# #e ol%ed wit! t!e conc)##ence of a ma'o#it, of t!e mem"e# w!o ;4

act)all, too& pa#t in t!e deli"e#ation on t!e i )e in t!e ca e and %oted t!e#eon+ and in no ca e+ wit!o)t t!e conc)##ence of at lea t t!#ee of )c! mem"e# . Acco#din$l,+ t!e ma'o#it, concl)ded t!at t!e ponente on t!e me#it of t!e ca e on #e%iew !o)ld "e c!o en f#om t!e #emainin$ pa#ticipatin$ ') tice + namel,7 -) tice Pe#alta and (e# amin. T!) + it #ecalled t!e Septem"e# 5+ ;=22 Re ol)tion+ w!ic! #e ol%ed to den, wit! finalit, PALK ;nd MR. I#onicall,+ a pointed o)t in t!e di ent+ -) tice (#ion+ Pe#alta and (e# amin to$et!e# wit! -) tice Pe#eE and MendoEa con tit)ted t!e Second Di%i ion t!at i )ed t!e Septem"e# 5+ ;=22 Re ol)tion. Can t!e S)p#eme Co)#t "e a pa#t, to a ca eL In A.M. No. ;=220=50SC+ Octo"e# ?+ ;=22+ @14 SCRA ?=2+ t!e S)p#eme Co)#t wa t!e complainant a$ain t t!e #e pondent 0emplo,ee of t!e SC. T!e ca e wa entitled 6+u(re9e ,ourt, ,o9(lainant verses 4ddie A. 0el5ado, @tility Gor*er ==, et al.A Afte# t!e initial in%e ti$ation+ t!e Office of Admini t#ati%e Se#%ice of t!e SC cond)cted a fo#mal in%e ti$ation. T!e OAS t!en di#ected t!e #e pondent to )"mit t!ei# #e pecti%e w#itten e/planation . T!e#eafte#+ t!e OAS )"mitted to t!e SC it #ecommendation findin$ t!e #e pondent $)ilt, of $#a%e mi cond)ct and #ecommended t!e di mi al of one of t!e #e pondent and t!e ) pen ion of t!e #emainin$ ; #e pondent . T!e SC modified t!e findin$ and #ecommendation and di mi ed f#om t!e e#%ice all < #e pondent fo# $#a%e mi cond)ct. ;. Co)#t of Appeal

-URISDICTION OF COURT OF APPEALS 9CA:7 Rep. Act No. 4;?@ D inc#ea in$ t!e n)m"e# of CA -) tice to @3 ;==3 Inte#nal R)le of t!e Co)#t of Appeal 7 P#e idin$ -) tice and @4 A ociate -) tice G it en "anc o# in ;< di%i ion of < -) tice eac! 25 Di%i ion in Manila+ < Di%i ion in Ce")+ and < Di%i ion in Ca$a,an de O#o Sit en "anc in t!e e/e#ci e of admini t#ati%e+ ce#emonial and non0 ad')dicati%e f)nction

In ReB Letter o7 Presidin5 &ustice ,onrado M. Aas'ue2 &r. on ,A> .R. +P 8o. 10#6-!, A.M. No. =4040220CA+ Septem"e# 3+ ;==4+ 1@? SCRA <@1+ t!e SC !ad t!e occa ion to di c) ome of t!e pe#tinent p#o%i ion of t!e Inte#nal R)le of t!e Co)#t of Appeal 9IRCA:. T!e ca e #e )lted in t!e di mi al of -) tice *icente I. Ro/a f#om t!e e#%ice+ t!e ) pen ion of -) tice -o e L. ;3

Sa"io -#. fo# two 9;: mont! wit!o)t pa,+ t!e e%e#e #ep#imand of P#e idin$ -) tice Con#ado M. *a .)eE -#.+ t!e #ep#imand of -) tice (ien%enido L. Re,e + and t!e admonition of -) tice M,#na Dima#anan0*idal. Ce#e+ -) tice Ro/a i$no#ed o# #ef) ed to act on t!e motion fo# !i in!i"ition in %iolation of R)le *+ Sec. < of t!e IRCA+ w!ic! p#o%ide t!at t!e -) tice conce#ned !o)ld #e ol%e )c! motion in w#itin$ wit! copie f)#ni !ed t!e ot!e# mem"e# of t!e Di%i ion+ t!e P#e idin$ -) tice+ t!e Raffle Committee and t!e Di%i ion Cle#& of Co)#t. Acco#din$ to t!e SC+ t!e o"li$ation of t!e -) tice to act on a motion fo# in!i"ition )nde# t!e IRCA i mandato#,. Unde# Sec. 22+ R)le *III of t!e IRCA+ t!e P#e idin$ -) tice o# an, one actin$ in !i place i a)t!o#iEed to act on an, matte# not co%e#ed ", t!e R)le . Acco#din$ to t!e SC+ P- *a .)eE -#. wa indeci i%e in dealin$ wit! t!e t)#moil a#i in$ f#om t!e Meralco ca e. Ce %acillated and tempo#iEed on #e ol%in$ t!e impa e "etween -) tice Sa"io -#. and -) tice (.L. Re,e o%e# t!e c!ai#man !ip of t!e Di%i ion t!at !o)ld !ea# and decide t!e Meralco ca e. Ce !o)ld !a%e con%ened t!e Co)#t en )anc a oon a t!e alle$ed "#i"e#, attempt on -) tice Sa"io -#. wa #epo#ted to !im fo# it wa an attempt to co##)pt a mem"e# of t!e Co)#t callin$ fo# t!e p#otection and p#e e#%ation of t!e inte$#it, of t!e ')dicial p#oce e of t!e Co)#t. Cence+ it wa an admini t#ati%e matte# co$niEa"le ", t!e Co)#t en )anc )nde# Sec. 1 9c:+ R)le I of t!e IRCA w!ic! p#o%ide t!at t!e Co)#t en )anc !all adopt 8 policie fo# t!e p#otection and p#e e#%ation of t!e inte$#it, of t!e ')dicial p#oce e . 2. O#i$inal ')#i diction to i )e w#it of mandam) + p#o!i"ition+ certiorari+ ha)eas cor(us+ and 'uo .arranto+ and a)/ilia#, w#it o# p#oce e + w!et!e# o# not in aid of it appellate ')#i diction ;. E/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# action fo# ann)lment of ')d$ment of RTC <. E/cl) i%e appellate ')#i diction o%e# all final ')d$ment + deci ion + #e ol)tion + o#de# + o# awa#d of RTC and .)a i0')dicial a$encie + in t#)mentalitie + "oa#d + o# omi ion + e/cept t!o e fallin$ wit!in t!e appellate ')#i diction of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t in acco#dance wit! t!e Con tit)tion+ t!e p#o%i ion of t!e -)dicia#, Act of 23?4 ?. T!e CA !all !a%e t!e powe# to #ecei%e e%idence and pe#fo#m an, and all act nece a#, to #e ol%e fact)al i )e #ai ed in 9a: ca e fallin$ wit!in it o#i$inal ')#i diction+ )c! a action fo# ann)lment of ')d$ment of RTC + 9": ca e fallin$ wit!in it appellate ')#i diction

<=

w!e#e a motion fo# new t#ial "a ed onl, on newl, di co%e#ed e%idence i $#anted ", it. <. Co)#t of Ta/ Appeal D Rep. No. 31=< inc#ea in$ t!e n)m"e# of CTA -) tice to 3 Sec. 5. -)#i diction. 0 T!e CTA !all e/e#ci e7 a. E/cl) i%e appellate ')#i diction to #e%iew ", appeal+ a p#o%ided7 !e#ein

2. Deci ion of t!e Commi ione# of Inte#nal Re%en)e in ca e in%ol%in$ di p)ted a e ment + #ef)nd of inte#nal #e%en)e ta/e + fee o# ot!e# c!a#$e + penaltie in #elation t!e#eto+ o# ot!e# matte# a#i in$ )nde# t!e National Inte#nal Re%en)e o# ot!e# law admini te#ed ", t!e ()#ea) of Inte#nal Re%en)eG ;. Inaction ", t!e Commi ione# of Inte#nal Re%en)e in ca e in%ol%in$ di p)ted a e ment + #ef)nd of inte#nal #e%en)e ta/e + fee o# ot!e# c!a#$e + penaltie in #elation t!e#eto+ o# ot!e# matte# a#i in$ )nde# t!e National Inte#nal Re%en)e Code o# ot!e# law admini te#ed ", t!e ()#ea) of Inte#nal Re%en)e+ w!e#e t!e National Inte#nal Re%en)e Code p#o%ide a pecific pe#iod of action+ in w!ic! ca e t!e inaction !all "e deemed a denialG <. Deci ion + o#de# o# #e ol)tion of t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t in local ta/ ca e o#i$inall, decided o# #e ol%ed ", t!em in t!e e/e#ci e of t!ei# o#i$inal o# appellate ')#i dictionG ?. Deci ion of t!e Commi ione# of C) tom in ca e in%ol%in$ lia"ilit, fo# c) tom d)tie + fee o# ot!e# mone, c!a#$e + eiE)#e+ detention o# #elea e of p#ope#t, affected+ fine + fo#feit)#e o# ot!e# penaltie in #elation t!e#eto+ o# ot!e# matte# a#i in$ )nde# t!e C) tom Law o# ot!e# law admini te#ed ", t!e ()#ea) of C) tom G 1. Deci ion of t!e Cent#al (oa#d of A e ment Appeal in t!e e/e#ci e of it appellate ')#i diction o%e# ca e in%ol%in$ t!e a e ment and ta/ation of #eal p#ope#t, o#i$inall, decided ", t!e p#o%incial o# cit, "oa#d of a e ment appeal G @. Deci ion of t!e Sec#eta#, of Finance on c) tom ca e ele%ated to !im a)tomaticall, fo# #e%iew f#om deci ion of t!e Commi ione# of C) tom w!ic! a#e ad%e# e to t!e >o%e#nment )nde# Section ;<21 of t!e Ta#iff and C) tom CodeG <2

5. Deci ion of t!e Sec#eta#, of T#ade and Ind) t#,+ in t!e ca e of non0a$#ic)lt)#al p#od)ct+ commodit, o# a#ticle+ and t!e Sec#eta#, of A$#ic)lt)#e in t!e ca e of a$#ic)lt)#al p#od)ct+ commodit, o# a#ticle+ in%ol%in$ d)mpin$ and co)nte#%ailin$ d)tie )nde# Section <=2 and <=;+ #e pecti%el,+ of t!e Ta#iff and C) tom Code+ and afe$)a#d mea )#e )nde# Rep)"lic Act No. 44==+ w!e#e eit!e# pa#t, ma, appeal t!e deci ion to impo e o# not to impo e aid d)tie . ". -)#i diction o%e# ca e p#o%ided7 in%ol%in$ c#iminal offen e a !e#ein

2. E/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# all c#iminal offen e a#i in$ f#om %iolation of t!e National Inte#nal Re%en)e Code o# Ta#iff and C) tom Code and ot!e# law admini te#ed ", t!e ()#ea) of Inte#nal Re%en)e o# t!e ()#ea) of C) tom 7 P#o%ided+ !owe%e#+ T!at offen e o# felonie mentioned in t!i pa#a$#ap! w!e#e t!e p#incipal amo)nt o ta/e and fee + e/cl) i%e of c!a#$e and penaltie + claimed i le t!an One million pe o 9P2+===+===.==: o# w!e#e t!e#e i no pecified amo)nt claimed !all "e t#ied ", t!e #e$)la# Co)#t and t!e ')#i diction of t!e CTA !all "e appellate. An, p#o%i ion of law o# t!e R)le of Co)#t to t!e cont#a#, notwit! tandin$+ t!e c#iminal action and t!e co##e pondin$ ci%il action fo# t!e #eco%e#, of ci%il lia"ilit, fo# ta/e and penaltie !all at all time "e im)ltaneo) l, in tit)ted wit!+ and 'ointl, dete#mined in t!e ame p#oceedin$ ", t!e CTA+ t!e filin$ of t!e c#iminal action "ein$ deemed to nece a#il, ca##, wit! it t!e filin$ of t!e ci%il action+ and no #i$!t to #e e#%e t!e fillin$ of )c! ci%il action epa#atel, f#om t!e c#iminal action will "e #eco$niEed. ;. E/cl) i%e appellate ')#i diction in c#iminal offen e 7 a. O%e# appeal f#om t!e ')d$ment + #e ol)tion o# o#de# of t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t in ta/ ca e o#i$inall, decided ", t!em+ in t!ei# #e pected te##ito#ial ')#i diction. ". O%e# petition fo# #e%iew of t!e ')d$ment + #e ol)tion o# o#de# of t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t in t!e e/e#ci e of t!ei# appellate ')#i diction o%e# ta/ ca e o#i$inall, decided ", t!e Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t + M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t and M)nicipal Ci#c)it T#ial Co)#t in t!ei# #e pecti%e ')#i diction. c. -)#i diction o%e# ta/ collection ca e a !e#ein p#o%ided7

<;

2. E/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction in ta/ collection ca e in%ol%in$ final and e/ec)to#, a e ment fo# ta/e + fee + c!a#$e and penaltie 7 P#o%ided+ !owe%e#+ T!at collection ca e w!e#e t!e p#incipal amo)nt of ta/e and fee + e/cl) i%e of c!a#$e and penaltie + claimed i le t!an One million pe o 9P2+===+===.==: !all "e t#ied ", t!e p#ope# M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t+ Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t and Re$ional T#ial Co)#t. ;. E/cl) i%e appellate ')#i diction in ta/ collection ca e 7 a. O%e# appeal f#om t!e ')d$ment + #e ol)tion o# o#de# of t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t in ta/ collection ca e o#i$inall, decided ", t!em+ in t!ei# #e pecti%e te##ito#ial ')#i diction. ". O%e# petition fo# #e%iew of t!e ')d$ment + #e ol)tion o# o#de# of t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t in t!e E/e#ci e of t!ei# appellate ')#i diction o%e# ta/ collection ca e o#i$inall, decided ", t!e Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t + M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t and M)nicipal Ci#c)it T#ial Co)#t + in t!ei# #e pecti%e ')#i diction. 9Rep. Act No. 22;1 a amended ", Rep. Act No. 3;4;: ?. Sandi$an"a,an

A #e t#)ct)#ed+ t!e Sandi$an"a,an i p#e entl, compo ed of a P#e idin$ -) tice and fo)#teen 92?: A ociate -) tice w!o it in fi%e 91: Di%i ion of t!#ee -) tice eac! in t!e t#ial and dete#mination of ca e . T!e ')#i diction of t!e Sandi$an"a,an i pe#!ap one of t!e mo t often amended p#o%i ion f#om t!e 235< Con tit)tion to RA 4;?3 of 2335. (efo#e RA 4;?3+ ')#i diction of t!e Sandi$an"a,an wa dete#mined on t!e "a i of t!e penalt, impo a"le on t!e offen e c!a#$ed. T!en+ it wa amended )c! t!at #e$a#dle of t!e penalt,+ o lon$ a a p)"lic office# committed t!e offen e c!a#$ed+ t!e Sandi$an"a,an wa %e ted wit! ')#i diction. Unde# RA 4;?3+ to dete#mine w!et!e# t!e Sandi$an"a,an !a ')#i diction+ law,e# m) t loo& into two 9;: c#ite#ia+ namel,7 t!e nat)#e of t!e offen e and t!e ala#, $#ade of t!e p)"lic official. T!) + Sec.? of RA 4;?3 p#o%ide t!at t!e Sandi$an"a,an !all !a%e o#i$inal e/cl) i%e ')#i diction o%e#7

<<

I.: *iolation of RA <=23 9Anti0$#aft and Co##)pt P#actice Law:G II.: RA 2<53 9Fo#feit)#e of Ille$all, Ac.)i#ed Wealt!:G III.: C#ime ", p)"lic office# o# emplo,ee em"#aced in C!. II+ Sec.; Title *II+ (oo& II of t!e RPC 9C#ime committed ", P)"lic Office# : namel,7 a: Di#ect (#i"e#, )nde# A#t. ;2= a amended ", (P 452+ Ma, ;3+ 2341G ": Indi#ect (#i"e#, )nde# A#t. ;22 a 2341G amended ", (P 452+ Ma, ;3+

c: I)alified (#i"e#, )nde# A#t. ;220A a amended ", RA 5@13+ Dec. 2<+ 233< 9Note7 RA 5@13 w!ic! impo ed t!e deat! penalt, on ce#tain !eino) c#ime wa #epealed ", RA 3<?@ w!ic! p#o!i"it t!e impo ition of t!e deat! penalt,:G d: Co##)ption of p)"lic official )nde# A#t. ;2; w!e#e one o# mo#e of t!e acc) ed a#e official occ)p,in$ t!e followin$ po ition in t!e $o%e#nment w!et!e# in a pe#manent+ actin$ o# inte#im capacit,+ at t!e time of t!e commi ion of t!e offen e7 2: Official of t!e e/ec)ti%e "#anc! occ)p,in$ t!e po ition of #e$ional di#ecto# and !i$!e#+ ot!e#wi e cla ified a >#ade ;5 and !i$!e#+ of t!e Compen ation and Po ition Cla ification Act of 2343 Rep)"lic Act No. @514: pecificall, incl)din$7 a: P#o%incial $o%e#no# + %ice0$o%e#no# + mem"e# of t!e panlalawi$an+ p#o%incial t#ea )#e# + a e o# + en$inee# p#o%incial depa#tment !ead G ": Cit, ma,o# + %ice0ma,o# + mem"e# pan$l)n$ od+ cit, t#ea )#e# + a e o# + en$inee# !ead G c: Official and !i$!e#G of t!e diplomatic an$$)nian$ and ot!e#

of t!e an$$)nian$ and ot!e# depa#tment

e#%ice occ)p,in$ t!e po ition of con )l

d: P!ilippine A#m, and Ai# fo#ce colonel + na%al captain and all office# of !i$!e# #an&G

<?

e: Office# of t!e PNP w!ile occ)p,in$ t!e po ition of P#o%incial Di#ecto# and t!o e !oldin$ t!e #an& of Senio# S)pe#intendent o# !i$!e#G f: Cit, and p#o%incial p#o ec)to# and t!ei# a i tant G official and t!e p#o ec)to# in t!e Office of t!e Om")d man and pecial p#o ec)to#G $: P#e ident+ di#ecto# o# t#) tee o# mana$e# of $o%e#nment owned o# cont#olled co#po#ation + tate )ni%e# itie o# ed)cational in tit)tion o# fo)ndation G ;: Mem"e# of Con$#e and Official t!e#eof cla ified a >#ade ;5 and )p )nde# t!e Compen ation and Cla ification Act of 2343G <: Mem"e# Con tit)tionG of t!e -)dicia#, wit!o)t p#e')dice to t!e p#o%i ion of t!e ion + wit!o)t

?: C!ai#men and mem"e# of Con tit)tional Commi p#e')dice to t!e p#o%i ion of t!e Con tit)tionG

1: All ot!e# national and local official cla ified a >#ade ;5 and !i$!e# )nde# t!e Compen ation and Po ition Cla ification Act of 2343. I*.: Ot!e# offen e o# felonie w!et!e# imple o# comple/ed wit! ot!e# c#ime committed in #elation to t!ei# office ", t!e p)"lic official and emplo,ee mentioned a"o%eG *.: Ci%il and C#iminal Ca e filed p)# )ant to and in connection wit! EO 2+ ;+ 2? O 2?0A i )ed in 234@ *I.: Petition fo# i )ance of W#it of mandam) + p#o!i"ition+ ce#tio#a#i+ !a"ea co#p) + in')nction and ot!e# ancilla#, w#it and p#oce e in aid of it appellate ')#i dictionG P#o%ided+ ')#i diction i not e/cl) i%e of t!e S)p#eme Co)#t *II.: Petition fo# I)o Wa##anto a#i in$ o# t!at ma, a#i e in ca e t!at ma, "e filed )nde# EO 2+ ;+ 2? O 2?0A *III.: OTCERS p#o%ided t!e acc) ed "elon$ to S> ;5 o# !i$!e#7 a.: *iolation of RA @52< 0 Code of Cond)ct and Et!ical Standa#d ".: *iolation of RA 5=4= 0 TCE PLUNDER LAW filed o#

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c.: *iolation of RA 5@13 0 T!e Ceino) C#ime Law 9Note7 #epealed ", RA 3<?@: d.: RA 32@= 0 *iolation of T!e Anti0Mone, La)nde#in$ Law w!en committed ", a p)"lic office# 9Note7 amended ", RA 2=2@5 w!ic! wai%ed t!e #e.)i#ement fo# t!e AMLC to $i%e notice to ) pected la)nde#e# t!at t!ei# "an& depo it a#e "ein$ monito#ed: e.: PD ?@ #efe##ed to a t!e $ift0$i%in$ dec#ee w!ic! ma&e it p)ni !a"le fo# an, official o# emplo,ee to #ecei%e di#ectl, o# indi#ectl, and fo# t!e p#i%ate pe# on to $i%e o# offe# to $i%e an, $ift+ p#e ent o# ot!e# %al)a"le t!in$ on an, occa ion incl)din$ C!#i tma + w!en )c! $ift+ p#e ent o# %al)a"le t!in$ i $i%en ", #ea on of !i official po ition+ #e$a#dle of w!et!e# o# not t!e ame i fo# pa t fa%o# o# t!e $i%e# !ope o# e/pect to #ecei%e a fa%o# o# "ette# t#eatment in t!e f)t)#e f#om t!e p)"lic official o# emplo,ee conce#ned in t!e di c!a#$e of !i official f)nction . Incl)ded wit!in t!e p#o!i"ition i t!e t!#owin$ of pa#tie o# ente#tainment in !ono# of t!e official o# emplo,ee o# !i immediate #elati%e . f.: PD 5?3 w!ic! $#ant imm)nit, f#om p#o ec)tion to an, pe# on w!o %ol)nta#il, $i%e info#mation a"o)t an, %iolation of A#t.;2=+ ;22 o# ;2; of t!e RPC+ RA <=23+ Sec.<?1 of t!e NIRC+ Sec. <@=? of t!e C) tom and Ta#iff Code and ot!e# p#o%i ion of t!e aid Code penaliEin$ a") e o# di !one t, on t!e pa#t of t!e p)"lic official conce#ned and ot!e# law + #)le and #e$)lation penaliEin$ $#aft+ co##)ption and ot!e# fo#m of official a") e and w!o willin$l, te tifie a$ain t t!e p)"lic official o# emplo,ee )"'ect to ce#tain condition . It !o)ld "e noted t!at p#i%ate indi%id)al can "e )ed in ca e "efo#e t!e Sandi$an"a,an if t!e, a#e alle$ed to "e in con pi#ac, wit! t!e p)"lic office#. T!e Sandi$an"a,an i %e ted wit! Appellate -)#i diction o%e# final ')d$ment + #e ol)tion o# o#de# of t!e RTC w!et!e# in t!e e/e#ci e of t!ei# o#i$inal o# appellate ')#i diction o%e# c#ime and ci%il ca e fallin$ wit!in t!e o#i$inal e/cl) i%e ')#i diction of t!e Sandi$an"a,an ")t w!ic! we#e committed ", p)"lic office# "elow Sala#, >#ade ;5. Con ide# t!e followin$7 92: If t!e acc) ed i a m)nicipal ma,o# c!a#$ed wit! mal%e# ation+ w!ic! co)#t !a ')#i diction o%e# !imL It i t!e Sandi$an"a,an t!at !a ')#i diction o%e# t!e m)nicipal ma,o#. It i t!e officialK $#ade t!at dete#mine !i o# !e# <@

ala#,+ not t!e ot!e# wa, a#o)nd. To dete#mine w!et!e# t!e official i wit!in t!e e/cl) i%e ')#i diction of t!e Sandi$an"a,an+ #efe#ence !o)ld "e made to Rep. Act no. @514 and t!e Inde/ of Occ)pational Se#%ice + Po ition+ Title and Sala#, >#ade . An officialK $#ade i not a matte# of p#oof ")t a matte# of law w!ic! t!e co)#t m) t ta&e ')dicial notice. Sec. ??? 9d: of t!e Local >o%e#nment Code p#o%ide t!at t!e m)nicipal ma,o# !all #ecei%e a minim)m mont!l, compen ation co##e pondin$ to Sala#, >#ade ;5 a p#e c#i"ed )nde# Rep. Act No. @514 and t!e implementin$ $)ideline i )ed p)# )ant t!e#eto. 9Llo#ente -#. %. Sandi$an"a,an+ >.R. No . 2;;;35034+ -an)a#, 23+ ;===: 9;: If t!e acc) ed i a m)nicipal ma,o# c!a#$ed wit! #ape+ w!ic! co)#t !a ')#i diction o%e# !imL T!e offen e wo)ld fall )nde# 6Ot!e# offen e o# felonie w!et!e# imple o# comple/ed wit! ot!e# c#ime committed in #elation to t!ei# office ", t!e p)"lic official and emplo,ee mentioned a"o%e.A T!e#e m) t !owe%e# "e a !owin$ t!at t!e offen e c!a#$ed wa intimatel, connected wit! t!e di c!a#$e of official f)nction of t!e acc) ed ma,o#G ot!e#wi e+ ')#i diction i wit! t!e #e$)la# co)#t . 1. Re$ional T#ial Co)#t

-URISDICTION OF RE>IONAL TRIAL COURTS 9RTC:7 2. In all ci%il action in w!ic! t!e )"'ect of t!e liti$ation i incapa"le of pec)nia#, e timation In +in5son5 v. =sa)ela +a.9ill+ 44 SCRA @;< 92353:+ t!e SC !eld t!at7 In dete#minin$ w!et!e# an action i one t!e )"'ect matte# of w!ic! i not capa"le of pec)nia#, e timation t!i Co)#t !a adopted t!e c#ite#ion of fi# t a ce#tainin$ t!e nat)#e of t!e p#incipal action o# #emed, o)$!t. If it i p#ima#il, fo# t!e #eco%e#, of a )m of mone,+ t!e claim i con ide#ed capa"le of pec)nia#, e timation+ and w!et!e# ')#i diction i in t!e m)nicipal co)#t o# in in tance wo)ld depend on t!e amo)nt of t!e claim. Cowe%e#+ w!e#e t!e "a ic i )e i omet!in$ ot!e# t!an t!e #i$!t to #eco%e# a )m of mone,+ w!e#e t!e mone, claim i p)#el, incidental to+ o# a con e.)ence of+ t!e p#incipal #elief o)$!t+ t!i Co)#t !a con ide#ed )c! w!e#e t!e )"'ect of t!e liti$ation ma, not "e e timated in te#m of mone,+ and a#e co$niEa"le e/cl) i%el, ", co)#t of fi# t in tance 9now Re$ional T#ial Co)#t :.

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E/ample of action incapa"le of pec)nia#, e timation a#e t!o e fo# pecific pe#fo#mance+ )ppo#t+ o# fo#eclo )#e of mo#t$a$e o# ann)lment of ')d$mentG al o action .)e tionin$ t!e %alidit, of a mo#t$a$e+ ann)llin$ a deed of ale o# con%e,ance and to #eco%e# t!e p#ice paid and fo# #e ci ion+ w!ic! i a co)nte#pa#t of pecific pe#fo#mance. T!e ca e of Lu v. Lu H9 +r.+ >.R. No. 21<@3=+ i a cla ic ill) t#ation of t!e de$#ee of diffic)lt, in%ol%ed in dete#minin$ w!et!e# a ca e i capa"le o# incapa"le of pec)nia#, e timation. T!e o"'ecti%e of t!e complaint in t!at ca e wa to decla#e a n)ll and %oid t!e i )ance of @==+=== )n )" c#i"ed and )ni )ed !a#e in L)do and L),m De%elopment Co#po#ation 9LLDC: fo# a p#ice of 2H24 of t!ei# #eal %al)e fo# "ein$ ine.)ita"le+ !a%in$ "een done in "#eac! of di#ecto#K fid)cia#,K d)t, to toc&!olde# + in %iolation of t!e mino#it, toc&!olde# K #i$!t + and wit! )n') t en#ic!ment. T!e complaint alle$ed t!e %al)e of t!e !a#e a P!p2+=45+=11+2=1. I t!i an action incapa"le o# capa"le of pec)nia#, e timateL In t!e A)$) t ;@+ ;==4 Deci ion penned ", -) tice Nac!)#a+ !e concl)ded t!at t!e )"'ect matte# of t!e complaint wa incapa"le of pec)nia#, e timation. T!e#e wa no di ent. Upon Motion fo# Recon ide#ation+ t!e ame di%i ion #e ol%ed on A)$) t ?+ ;==3 t!at t!e complaint wa capa"le of pec)nia#, e timate. -) tice Nac!)#a w#ote+ )pon deepe# #eflection and to t!e e/tent of t!e dama$e o# in')#, )ffe#ed ", t!e plaintiff f#om t!e ale of t!e !a#e + t!e action can "e c!a#acte#iEed a capa"le of pec)nia#, e timation. -) tice Ca#pio0Mo#ale w#ote a di ent. W!en t!e matte# wa "#o)$!t )p to t!e SC En (anc+ t!e Co)#t t!#o)$! -) tice Ca#pio0Mo#ale #e ol%ed t!at t!e )"'ect matte# of t!e complaint wa incapa"le of pec)nia#, e timate. 9Fe"#)a#, 21+ ;=22: -) tice Nac!)#a di ented. Note t!at t!e Co)#t cited it inte#nal #)le to ') tif, t!e ca e "ein$ decided ", t!e co)#t en "anc. Anot!e# ca e of inte#e t i Mi<ares v. $on. Ranada+ >.R. No. 2<3<;1+ Ap#il 2;+ ;==1+ in%ol%in$ t!e enfo#cement of a fo#ei$n ')d$ment a$ain t t!e Ma#co E tate. T!e petitione# o"tained a ')d$ment f#om t!e US Di t#ict Co)#t an awa#d of o%e# USP2.3@? (illion ")t paid onl, P!p?2= a doc&et fee . I t!i capa"le of pec)nia#, e timateL Acco#din$ to -) tice Tin$a+ t!e complaint to enfo#ce t!e US Di t#ict Co)#t ')d$ment i one capa"le of pec)nia#, e timation. ()t at t!e ame time+ it i al o an action "a ed on ')d$ment a$ain t an e tate+ t!) placin$ it "e,ond t!e am"it of Section 59a: of R)le 2?2. W!at p#o%i ion t!en $o%e#n t!e p#ope# comp)tation of t!e filin$ fee o%e# t!e in tant complaintL Fo# t!i ca e and ot!e# imila#l, it)ated in tance + we find t!at it i co%e#ed ", Section 59":9<:+ in%ol%in$ a it doe + 6ot!e# action not in%ol%in$ p#ope#t,.A

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Nota"l,+ t!e amo)nt paid a doc&et fee ", t!e petitione# on t!e p#emi e t!at it wa an action incapa"le of pec)nia#, e timation co##e pond to t!e ame amo)nt #e.)i#ed fo# 6ot!e# action not in%ol%in$ p#ope#t,.A T!e petitione# t!) paid t!e co##ect amo)nt of filin$ fee . Not all ca e t!at a#e incapa"le of pec)nia#, e timate a#e co$niEa"le ", t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t. Unde# t!e Rep. Act No. 52@= 9Local >o%e#nment Code: a amended+ Sec. ?25 t!e#eof+ action to enfo#ce an amica"le ettlement o# a#"it#ation awa#d #e$a#dle of t!e amo)nt in%ol%ed i co$niEa"le ", t!e cit, o# m)nicipal co)#t. Unde# Sec. ?24 of RA 52@=+ an action to #ep)diate an amica"le ettlement i li&ewi e co$niEa"le ", t!e cit, o# m)nicipal co)#t. T!e Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, Law p#o%ide fo# a two0tie#ed mode of enfo#cement of an amica"le ettlement+ to wit7 9a: ", e/ec)tion ", t!e P)non$ (a#an$a, w!ic! i .)a i0')dicial and )mma#, in nat)#e on me#e motion of t!e pa#t, entitled t!e#etoG and 9": an action in #e$)la# fo#m+ w!ic! #emed, i ')dicial. Cowe%e#+ t!e mode of enfo#cement doe not #)le o)t t!e #i$!t of #e ci ion )nde# A#t. ;=?2 of t!e Ci%il Code. T!e a%aila"ilit, of t!e #i$!t of #e ci ion i appa#ent f#om t!e wo#din$ of Sec. ?25 it elf w!ic! p#o%ide t!at t!e amica"le ettlement Fma,F "e enfo#ced ", e/ec)tion ", t!e l)pon wit!in i/ 9@: mont! f#om it date o# ", action in t!e app#op#iate cit, o# m)nicipal co)#t+ if "e,ond t!at pe#iod. T!e ) e of t!e wo#d Fma,F clea#l, ma&e t!e p#oced)#e p#o%ided in t!e Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, Law di#ecto#, o# me#el, optional in nat)#e. 9Ramnani %. Co)#t of Appeal + <@= SCRA @?1: In ,have2 v. ,ourt o7 A((eals + >.R. No. 213?22+ Ma#c! 24+ ;==1+ alt!o)$! t!e FNa )nd)anF e/ec)ted ", petitione# and #e pondent "efo#e t!e Office of t!e (a#an$a, Captain !ad t!e fo#ce and effect of a final ')d$ment of a co)#t+ petitione#K non0compliance pa%ed t!e wa, fo# t!e application of A#t. ;=?2 )nde# w!ic! #e pondent ma, eit!e# enfo#ce t!e comp#omi e+ followin$ t!e p#oced)#e laid o)t in t!e Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, Law+ o# #e$a#d it a #e cinded and in i t )pon !i o#i$inal demand. Re pondent c!o e t!e latte# option w!en !e in tit)ted Ci%il Ca e No. 12<30*035 fo# #eco%e#, of )n#ealiEed p#ofit and #eim")# ement of ad%ance #ental + mo#al and e/empla#, dama$e + and atto#ne,K fee . Re pondent wa not limited to claimin$ P21=+===.== "eca) e alt!o)$! !e a$#eed to t!e amo)nt in t!e FNa )nd)an+F it i a/iomatic t!at a comp#omi e ettlement i not an admi ion of lia"ilit, ")t me#el, a #eco$nition t!at t!e#e i a di p)te and an impendin$ liti$ation w!ic! t!e pa#tie !ope to p#e%ent ", ma&in$ #ecip#ocal conce ion + ad') tin$ t!ei# #e pecti%e po ition in t!e !ope of $ainin$ "alanced ", t!e dan$e# of lo in$. Unde# t!e FNa )nd)an+F #e pondent wa onl, #e.)i#ed to e/ec)te a wai%e# of all po i"le claim a#i in$ f#om t!e lea e

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cont#act if petitione# f)ll, complie wit! !i )ndi p)ted t!at !e#ein petitione# did not.

o"li$ation

t!e#e)nde#. It i

;. In all ci%il action w!ic! in%ol%e t!e title to+ o# po e ion of+ #eal p#ope#t,+ o# an, inte#e t t!e#ein+ w!e#e t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e p#ope#t, in%ol%ed e/ceed P;=+===+ o# fo# ci%il action in Met#o Manila w!e#e )c! %al)e e/ceed P1=+=== e/cept action fo# fo#ci"le ent#, into and )nlawf)l detaine# of land o# ")ildin$ + o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# w!ic! i confe##ed )pon t!e MeTC+ MTC+ and MCTC <. In all action in admi#alt, and ma#itime ')#i diction w!e#e t!e demand o# claim e/ceed P<==+===+ o# in Met#o Manila w!e#e )c! demand o# claim e/ceed P?==+=== ?. In all matte# of p#o"ate+ "ot! te tate and inte tate+ w!e#e t!e $#o %al)e of t!e e tate e/ceed P<==+=== o# p#o"ate matte# in Met#o Manila w!e#e )c! %al)e e/ceed P?==+=== 1. In all action in%ol%in$ t!e cont#act of ma##ia$e and ma#ital #elation @. In all ca e not wit!in t!e e/cl) i%e ')#i diction of an, co)#t+ t#i")nal+ pe# on o# "od, e/e#ci in$ ')#idicial o# .)a i0')dicial f)nction 0aichi 4lectronics Manu7acturin5 v. Aillara9a, >.R. No. 22;3?=+ No%em"e# ;2+ 233? T!e emplo,ee %iolated pa#a$#ap! fi%e of t!ei# Cont#act of Emplo,ment dated A)$) t ;5+ 233=+ w!ic! p#o%ide 7 T!at fo# a pe#iod of two 9;: ,ea# afte# te#mination of e#%ice f#om EMPLOJER+ EMPLOJEE !all not in an, manne# "e connected+ andHo# emplo,ed+ "e a con )ltant andHo# "e an info#mati%e "od, di#ectl, o# indi#ectl,+ wit! an, ") ine fi#m+ entit, o# )nde#ta&in$ en$a$ed in a ") ine imila# to o# in competition wit! t!at of t!e EMPLOJER. Daic!i claimed t!at Lim')co "ecame an emplo,ee of An$el So)nd P!ilippine Co#po#ation+ a co#po#ation en$a$ed in t!e ame line of ") ine a t!at of Daic!i wit!in two ,ea# f#om -an)a#, <=+ 233;+ t!e date of Lim')coK #e i$nation. Daic!i f)#t!e# alle$ed t!at Lim')co i !oldin$ t!e po ition of Cead of t!e Mate#ial Mana$ement Cont#ol Depa#tment+ t!e ame po ition !e !eld w!ile in t!e emplo, of Daic!i. Daic!i o)$!t to #eco%e# li.)idated dama$e in t!e amo)nt of P2==+===.== a p#o%ided fo# in pa#a$#ap! e%en of t!e cont#act+ w!ic! p#o%ide 7 ?=

T!at a %iolation of t!e condition et fo#t! in p#o%i ion No . 9;: and 91: of t!i cont#act !all entitle t!e EMPLOJER to collect f#om t!e EMPLOJEE t!e )m of ONE CUNDRED TCOUSAND PESOS 9P2==+===.==: ", wa, of li.)idated dama$e and li&ewi e to adopt app#op#iate le$al mea )#e to p#e%ent t!e EMPLOJEE f#om acceptin$ emplo,ment andHo# en$a$in$+ di#ectl, o# indi#ectl,+ in a ") ine imila# to o# in competition wit! t!at of t!e EMPLOJER+ "efo#e t!e lap e of t!e afo#e aid pe#iod of TWO 9;: JEARS f#om date of te#mination of e#%ice f#om EMPLOJER. T!i i )e i 7 I petitione#M emplo,ee #elation L claim fo# dama$e one a#i in$ f#om emplo,e#0

Petitione# doe not a & fo# an, #elief )nde# t!e La"o# Code of t!e P!ilippine . It ee& to #eco%e# dama$e a$#eed )pon in t!e cont#act a #ed#e fo# p#i%ate #e pondentM "#eac! of !i cont#act)al o"li$ation to it Fdama$e and p#e')diceF 9Rollo+ p. 15:. S)c! ca) e of action i wit!in t!e #ealm of Ci%il Law+ and ')#i diction o%e# t!e cont#o%e# , "elon$ to t!e #e$)la# co)#t . Mo#e o w!en we con ide# t!at t!e tip)lation #efe# to t!e po t0 emplo,ment #elation of t!e pa#tie . -)#i p#)dence !a e%ol%ed t!e #)le t!at claim fo# dama$e )nde# pa#a$#ap! ? of A#ticle ;25+ to "e co$niEa"le ", t!e La"o# A#"ite#+ m) t !a%e a #ea ona"le ca) al connection wit! an, of t!e claim p#o%ided fo# in t!at a#ticle. Onl, if t!e#e i )c! a connection wit! t!e ot!e# claim can t!e claim fo# dama$e "e con ide#ed a a#i in$ f#om emplo,e#0emplo,ee #elation . Husen Air and +ea +ervice v. Ailla9or+ ?@5 SCRA 2@4 Claim fo# dama$e )nde# A#t. ;25 of t!e La"o# Code to "e co$niEa"le ", t!e La"o# A#"ite# m) t !a%e #ea ona"le ca) al connection wit! an, of t!e claim p#o%ided fo# in t!at a#ticle. W!en t!e ca) e of action i "a ed on .)a i delict o# to#t w!ic! !a no #ea ona"le connection wit! an, of t!e claim p#o%ided fo# in A#t. ;25+ ')#i diction o%e# t!e action i wit! t!e #e$)la# co)#t . In J) en Ai#+ t!e claim fo# dama$e i "a ed on "#eac! of emplo,ment cont#act p#o!i"itin$ en$a$ement in competin$ ") ine afte# two ,ea# f#om #e i$nation. ,o9elec v. &ud5e 6rinidad>Pe A5uirre + >.R. No. 252;=4+ Septem"e# 5+ ;==5 D Section ;@4 of t!e Omni") Election Code pecificall, p#o%ide + #e$ional t#ial co)#t !a%e e/cl) i%e ')#i diction to t#, and decide an, c#iminal action o# p#oceedin$ fo# %iolation of t!e Code Fe/cept t!o e #elatin$ to t!e offen e ?2

of fail)#e to #e$i te# o# fail)#e to %ote.F Cow a"o)t %iolation of Section ;@2 9E: 9<: of t!e Omni") Election Code w!ic! penaliEe FAn, pe# on w!o %ote in )" tit)tion fo# anot!e# w!et!e# wit! o# wit!o)t t!e latte#K &nowled$e andHo# con entF wit! a penalt, of imp#i onment of not le t!an one ,ea# ")t not mo#e t!an @ ,ea# L W!ile (P (l$. 2;3 lod$e in m)nicipal t#ial co)#t + met#opolitan t#ial co)#t and m)nicipal ci#c)it t#ial co)#t ')#i diction o%e# c#iminal ca e ca##,in$ a penalt, of imp#i onment of le t!an one ,ea# ")t not e/ceedin$ i/ ,ea# + followin$ Section ;@4 of t!e Omni") Election Code+ an, c#iminal action o# p#oceedin$ w!ic! "ea# t!e ame penalt,+ wit! t!e e/ception of t!e t!e#ein mentioned two ca e + fall wit!in t!e e/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction of #e$ional t#ial co)#t . 5. In all ci%il action and ci%il p#oceedin$ fallin$ wit!in t!e e/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction of a -)%enile and Dome tic Relation Co)#t and of t!e Co)#t of A$#a#ian Relation a now p#o%ided ", law 4. In all ot!e# ca e in w!ic! t!e demand+ e/cl) i%e of inte#e t and dama$e of w!ate%e# &ind+ atto#ne,K fee + liti$ation e/pen e + and co t o# t!e %al)e of t!e p#ope#t, in cont#o%e# , e/ceed P<==+===+ o# in )c! ot!e# ca e in Met#o Manila w!e#e t!e demand+ e/cl) i%e of t!e a"o%e0mentioned item e/ceed P?==+=== @. Famil, Co)#t

Rep. Act No. 4<@3 9Famil, Co)#t Act of 2335: Sec. 1. -)#i diction of Famil, Co)#t . 0 T!e Famil, Co)#t !all !a%e e/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction to !ea# and decide t!e followin$ ca e 7 a: C#iminal ca e w!e#e one o# mo#e of t!e acc) ed i "elow ei$!teen 924: ,ea# of a$e ")t not le t!an nine 93: ,ea# of a$e ")t not le t!an nine 93: ,ea# of a$e o# w!e#e one o# mo#e of t!e %ictim i a mino# at t!e time of t!e commi ion of t!e offen e7 P#o%ided+ T!at if t!e mino# i fo)nd $)ilt,+ t!e co)#t !all p#om)l$ate entence and a ce#tain an, ci%il lia"ilit, w!ic! t!e acc) ed ma, !a%e inc)##ed. Unde# RA 3<??+ Sec. @ t!e#eof+ a c!ild in conflict wit! t!e law w!o i 21 ,ea# of a$e o# )nde# at t!e time of t!e commi ion of t!e offen e !all "e e/empt f#om c#iminal lia"ilit,. A c!ild a"o%e 21 ,ea# of a$e ")t "elow 24 ,ea# of a$e !all li&ewi e "e e/empt f#om c#iminal lia"ilit, )nle !e acted wit! di ce#nment.

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T!e entence+ !owe%e#+ !all "e ) pended wit!o)t need of application p)# )ant to P#e idential Dec#ee No. @=<+ ot!e#wi e &nown a t!e FC!ild and Jo)t! Welfa#e Code.F ": Petition fo# $)a#dian !ip+ c) tod, of c!ild#en+ !a"ea #elation to t!e latte#G co#p) in

c: Petition fo# adoption of c!ild#en and t!e #e%ocation t!e#eofG d: Complaint fo# ann)lment of ma##ia$e+ decla#ation of n)llit, of ma##ia$e and t!o e #elatin$ to ma#ital tat) and p#ope#t, #elation of !) "and and wife o# t!o e li%in$ to$et!e# )nde# diffe#ent tat) and a$#eement + and petition fo# di ol)tion of con')$al pa#tne# !ip of $ain G e: Petition fo# )ppo#t andHo# ac&nowled$mentG f: S)mma#, ')dicial p#oceedin$ "#o)$!t )nde# t!e p#o%i ion of E/ec)ti%e O#de# No. ;=3+ ot!e#wi e &nown a t!e FFamil, Code of t!e P!ilippine FG $: Petition fo# decla#ation of tat) of c!ild#en a a"andoned+ dependent of ne$lected c!ild#en+ petition fo# %ol)nta#, o# in%ol)nta#, commitment of c!ild#enG t!e ) pen ion+ te#mination+ o# #e to#ation of pa#ental a)t!o#it, and ot!e# ca e co$niEa"le )nde# P#e idential Dec#ee No. @=<+ E/ec)ti%e O#de# No. 1@+ 9Se#ie of 234@:+ and ot!e# #elated law G !: Petition fo# t!e con tit)tion of t!e famil, !omeG i: Ca e a$ain t mino# co$niEa"le )nde# t!e Dan$e#o) D#)$ Act+ a amendedG ': *iolation of Rep)"lic Act No. 5@2=+ ot!e#wi e &nown a t!e FSpecial P#otection of C!ild#en A$ain t C!ild A") e+ E/ploitation and Di c#imination Act+F a amended ", Rep)"lic Act No. 5@14G and &: Ca e of dome tic %iolence a$ain t 9RA 3;@; of *AWCA:7 2: Women 0 w!ic! a#e act of $ende# "a ed %iolence t!at #e )lt + o# a#e li&el, to #e )lt in p!, ical+ e/)al o# p ,c!olo$ical !a#m o# )ffe#in$ to womenG and ot!e# fo#m of p!, ical a") e )c! a "atte#in$ o# t!#eat and coe#cion w!ic! %iolate a womanM pe# on!ood+ inte$#it, and f#eedom mo%ementG and

?<

;: C!ild#en 0 w!ic! incl)de t!e commi ion of all fo#m of a") e+ ne$lect+ c#)elt,+ e/ploitation+ %iolence+ and di c#imination and all ot!e# condition p#e')dicial to t!ei# de%elopment. If an act con tit)te a c#iminal offen e+ t!e acc) ed o# "atte#e# )"'ect to c#iminal p#oceedin$ and t!e co##e pondin$ penaltie . !all "e

If an, .)e tion in%ol%in$ an, of t!e a"o%e matte# !o)ld a#i e a an incident in an, ca e pendin$ in t!e #e$)la# co)#t + aid incident !all "e dete#mined in t!at co)#t. 5. Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t HM)nicipal T#ial Co)#t

-URISDICTION OF METROPOLITAN TRIAL COURTS+ MUNICIPAL TRIAL COURTS+ MUNICIPAL CIRCUIT TRIAL COURTS7 In Ci%il Ca e D 2. E/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# ci%il action and p#o"ate p#oceedin$ + te tate and inte tate+ incl)din$ t!e $#ant of p#o%i ional #emedie in p#ope# ca e + w!e#e t!e %al)e of t!e pe# onal p#ope#t,+ e tate+ o# amo)nt of t!e demand doe not e/ceed T!#ee !)nd#ed t!o) and pe o 9P<==+===.==: o#+ in Met#o Manila w!e#e )c! pe# onal p#ope#t,+ e tate+ o# amo)nt of t!e demand doe not e/ceed Fo)# !)nd#ed t!o) and pe o 9P?==+===.==:+ e/cl) i%e of inte#e t+ dama$e of w!ate%e# &ind+ atto#ne,M fee + liti$ation e/pen e + and co t + t!e amo)nt of w!ic! m) t "e pecificall, alle$ed7 P#o%ided+ T!at inte#e t+ dama$e of w!ate%e# &ind+ atto#ne,M fee + liti$ation e/pen e + and co t !all "e incl)ded in t!e dete#mination of t!e filin$ fee 7 P#o%ided+ f)#t!e#+ T!at w!e#e t!e#e a#e e%e#al claim o# ca) e of action "etween t!e ame o# diffe#ent pa#tie + em"odied in t!e ame complaint+ t!e amo)nt of t!e demand !all "e t!e totalit, of t!e claim in all t!e ca) e of action+ i##e pecti%e of w!et!e# t!e ca) e of action a#o e o)t of t!e ame o# diffe#ent t#an action T!i 9Sec. << 92: of (.P. 2;3 a amended: em"odie t!e totalit, #)le+ w!ic! impl, mean t!at w!e#e t!e#e a#e e%e#al claim o# ca) e of action "etween t!e ame o# diffe#ent pa#tie + em"odied in t!e ame complaint+ t!e amo)nt of t!e demand !all "e t!e totalit, of t!e claim in all t!e ca) e of action+ i##e pecti%e of w!et!e# t!e ca) e of action a#o e o)t of t!e ame o# diffe#ent t#an action . E/ample i t!e ca e of Pantranco 8orth 4I(ress v. +tandard =nsurance ,o.+ >.R. No. 2?=5?@+ Ma#c! 2@+ ;==1+ w!e#e t!e %ictim

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and t!e in )#ance compan, we#e co0plaintiff compan, #e pon i"le fo# t!e %e!ic)la# accident.

in a

)it a$ain t t!e ")

Note t!at t!e fi# t le%el co)#t now !a%e ')#i diction o%e# p#o"ate p#oceedin$ + te tate o# inte tate+ w!e#e t!e %al)e of t!e e tate doe not e/ceed in P!p<==+===+ o# in Met#o Manila w!e#e )c! e tate doe not e/ceed P!p?==+===. On t!e ot!e# !and+ R)le 5<+ Sec. 2 tate t!at 6If t!e decedent i an in!a"itant of t!e P!ilippine at t!e time of !i deat!+ w!et!e# a citiEen o# an alien+ !i will !all "e p#o%ed+ o# lette# of admini t#ation $#anted+ and !i e tate ettled+ in t!e Co)#t of Fi# t In tance in t!e p#o%ince in w!ic! !e #e ide at t!e time of !i deat!+ and if !e i an in!a"itant of a fo#ei$n co)nt#,+ t!e Co)#t of Fi# t of an, p#o%ince in w!ic! !e !ad e tate8A R)le 5< and R)le 5? !o)ld "e con ide#ed a !a%in$ "een amended "eca) e of Rep. Act No. 5@32. ;. E/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# ca e of fo#ci"le ent#, and )nlawf)l detaine#7 P#o%ided+ T!at w!en+ in )c! ca e + t!e defendant #ai e t!e .)e tion of owne# !ip in !i pleadin$ and t!e .)e tion of po e ion cannot "e #e ol%ed wit!o)t decidin$ t!e i )e of owne# !ip+ t!e i )e of owne# !ip !all "e #e ol%ed onl, to dete#mine t!e i )e of po e ion <. E/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction in all ci%il action w!ic! in%ol%e title to+ o# po e ion of+ #eal p#ope#t,+ o# an, inte#e t t!e#ein w!e#e t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e p#ope#t, o# inte#e t t!e#ein doe not e/ceed Twent, t!o) and pe o 9P;=+===.==: o#+ in ci%il action in Met#o Manila+ w!e#e )c! a e ed %al)e doe not e/ceed Fift, t!o) and pe o 9P1=+===.==: e/cl) i%e of inte#e t+ dama$e of w!ate%e# &ind+ atto#ne,M fee + liti$ation e/pen e and co t 7 P#o%ided+ T!at in ca e of land not decla#ed fo# ta/ation p)#po e + t!e %al)e of )c! p#ope#t, !all "e dete#mined ", t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e ad'acent lot .F Rep)"lic Act No. 5@32 e/panded t!e MTCK ')#i diction to incl)de ot!e# action in%ol%in$ title to o# po e ion of #eal p#ope#t, 9 accion (u)liciana and reinvindicatoria: w!e#e t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e p#ope#t, doe not e/ceed P;=+=== 9o# P1=+===+ fo# action filed in Met#o Manila:. (eca) e of t!i amendment+ t!e te t of w!et!e# an action in%ol%in$ po e ion of #eal p#ope#t, !a "een filed in t!e p#ope# co)#t no lon$e# depend olel, on t!e t,pe of action filed ")t al o on t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e p#ope#t, in%ol%ed. Mo#e pecificall,+ ince MTC now !a%e ')#i diction o%e# accion (u)liciana and accion reinvindicatoria 9dependin$+ of co)# e+ on t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e p#ope#t,:+ ')#i diction o%e# )c! action !a to "e dete#mined on t!e "a i of t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e p#ope#t,. 9C#)E %. C#)E+ >.R. No. 25;;25+ Septem"e# 24+ ;==3: ?1

W!at if t!e complaint doe not tate t!e %al)e of t!e p#ope#t,L In Bernardo v. Aille5as+ >.R. No. 24<<15+ Ma#c! 21+ ;=2=+ t!e complaint failed to alle$e t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e #eal p#ope#t, in%ol%ed. Alt!o)$! appellant indeed #ai ed t!e i )e of ')#i diction in !i an we#+ !e !ad not filed a motion to di mi on t!i $#o)nd no# #eite#ated t!e matte# t!e#eafte# ")t acti%el, pa#ticipated in t!e p#oceedin$ afte# t!e denial of !i dem)##e# to e%idence anc!o#ed on t!e fail)#e of t!e plaintiff to identif, in t!ei# complaint all t!e !ei# of t!e #e$i te#ed owne# and )ppo ed lac& of tec!nical de c#iption of t!e p#ope#t, in t!e ce#tificate of title. T!e Co)#t t!en con ide#ed t!e appellant e topped to .)e tion t!e t#ial co)#tK ')#i diction o%e# t!e )"'ect matte# and nat)#e of t!e ca e !a%in$ acti%el, p)# )ed t!#o)$!o)t t!e t#ial+ ", filin$ %a#io) pleadin$ and p#e entin$ all #ele%ant doc)menta#, and te timonial e%idence+ !i t!eo#, t!at t!e po#tion occ)pied ", !im i not co%e#ed ", t!e To##en title of *ille$a . In Juina5oran v. ,ourt o7 A((eals + 1<2 SCRA 2=?+ Co)#t !eld t!at a complaint m) t alle$e t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e #eal p#ope#t, )"'ect of t!e complaint o# t!e inte#e t t!e#eon to dete#mine w!ic! co)#t !a ')#i diction o%e# t!e action. T!i i "eca) e t!e nat)#e of t!e action and w!ic! co)#t !a o#i$inal and e/cl) i%e ')#i diction o%e# t!e ame i dete#mined ", t!e mate#ial alle$ation of t!e complaint+ t!e t,pe of #elief p#a,ed fo# ", t!e plaintiff and t!e law in effect w!en t!e action i filed+ i##e pecti%e of w!et!e# t!e plaintiff a#e entitled to ome o# all of t!e claim a e#ted t!e#ein. A" ent an, alle$ation in t!e complaint of t!e a e ed %al)e of t!e p#ope#t,+ it cannot "e dete#mined w!et!e# t!e RTC o# t!e MTC !a o#i$inal and e/cl) i%e ')#i diction o%e# t!e petitione#M action. T!e co)#t cannot ta&e ')dicial notice of t!e a e ed o# ma#&et %al)e of t!e land. In t!e ca e of Ru)y +helter Builders and Realty 0evelo(9ent ,or(. v. /or9aran ===, 154 SCRA ;4<+ t!e defendant filed an Omni") Motion in w!ic! !e contended t!at t!e doc&et fee !o)ld "e comp)ted in acco#dance wit! Section 5 9a:+ not Section 5 9": 92:+ of R)le 2?2 of t!e R)le of Co)#t+ a amended ", A.M. No. =?0;0=?0SC w!ic! too& effect on A)$) t 2@+ ;==?. T#)e eno)$!+ a #ecomp)ted ", t!e Cle#& of Co)#t+ t!e doc&et fee !o)ld !a%e "een P5;=+<3;.@= and not onl, P2<+@??.;1 a w!at t!e plaintiff paid w!en it filed t!e complaint. Section 5 9a:+ R)le 2?2 of t!e R)le of Co)#t #ead 7 SEC. 5. Cle#& of Re$ional T#ial Co)#t . D

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a: Fo# filin$ an action 8 if t!e total )m claimed+ INCLUSI*E OF INTERESTS+ PENALTIES+ SURCCAR>ES+ DAMA>ES OF WCATE*ER NIND+ AND ATTORNEJKS FEES+ LITI>ATION EBPENSES AND COSTS andHo# in ca e in%ol%in$ p#ope#t,+ t!e FAIR MARNET %al)e of t!e REAL p#ope#t, in liti$ation STATED IN TCE CURRENT TAB DECLARATION OR CURRENT QONAL *ALUATION OF TCE (UREAU OF INTERNAL RE*ENUE+ WCICCE*ER IS CI>CER+ OR IF TCERE IS NONE+ TCE STATED *ALUE OF TCE PROPERTJ IN LITI>ATION ... AS ALLE>ED (J TCE CLAIMANT+ i 7 RTa"le of fee omitted.S If t!e action in%ol%e "ot! a mone, claim and #elief pe#tainin$ to p#ope#t,+ t!en t!e fee will "e c!a#$ed on "ot! t!e amo)nt claimed and %al)e of p#ope#t, "a ed on t!e fo#m)la p#e c#i"ed in t!i pa#a$#ap! a. Manchester 0evelo(9ent ,or(oration v. ,ourt o7 A((eals 92?3 SCRA 1@;: D T!e co)#t ac.)i#e ')#i diction o%e# an, ca e onl, )pon pa,ment of t!e p#e c#i"ed doc&et fee. An amendment of t!e complaint o# imila# pleadin$ will not t!e#e", %e t ')#i diction in t!e co)#t+ m)c! le t!e pa,ment of t!e doc&et fee "a ed on t!e amo)nt o)$!t in t!e amended pleadin$. +un =nsurance C77ice, Ltd. E+=CLF v. Asuncion 925= SCRA ;5?: 00 Modified #)lin$ in Manchester and dec#eed t!at w!e#e t!e initiato#, pleadin$ i not accompanied ", t!e pa,ment of t!e doc&et fee+ t!e co)#t ma, allow pa,ment of t!e fee wit!in a #ea ona"le pe#iod of time+ ")t in no ca e "e,ond t!e applica"le p#e c#ipti%e o# #e$lementa#, pe#iod. T!e afo#e aid #)lin$ wa made on t!e ') tification t!at+ )nli&e in Manchester, t!e p#i%ate #e pondent in +un =nsurance C77ice, Ltd. E+=CLF demon t#ated !i willin$ne to a"ide ", t!e #)le ", pa,in$ t!e additional doc&et fee #e.)i#ed. In C#iminal Ca e D 2. E/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# all %iolation of cit, o# m)nicipal o#dinance committed wit!in t!ei# #e pecti%e te##ito#ial ')#i dictionG and ;. E/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e# all offen e p)ni !a"le wit! imp#i onment not e/ceedin$ i/ 9@: ,ea# i##e pecti%e of t!e amo)nt of fine+ and #e$a#dle of ot!e# impo a"le acce o#, o# ot!e# penaltie + incl)din$ t!e ci%il lia"ilit, a#i in$ f#om )c! offen e o# p#edicated t!e#eon+ i##e pecti%e of t!e &ind+ nat)#e+ %al)e o# amo)nt t!e#ofG p#o%ided+ !owe%e#+ t!at in offen e in%ol%in$ dama$e to p#ope#t, ?5

t!#o)$! c#iminal ne$li$ence+ t!e, !all ')#i diction t!e#eof. RSec. ;+ RA 5@32S.

!a%e

e/cl) i%e

o#i$inal

In /i5ueroa v. Peo(le+ >.R. No. 2?5?=@+ -)l, 2?+ ;==4+ t!e offen e committed wa #ec&le imp#)dence #e )ltin$ in !omicide w!ic! wa filed wit! t!e RTC alt!o)$! t!e impo a"le penalt, fo# t!e c#ime wa (rision correccional in it medi)m and ma/im)m pe#iod + o# ; ,ea# + ? mont! and 2 da, to @ ,ea# + and t!e#efo#e wit!in t!e ')#i diction of t!e MTC. Dele$ated ')#i diction D Dele$ated -)#i diction in Cada t#al and Land Re$i t#ation Ca e . D Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t + M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t + and M)nicipal Ci#c)it T#ial Co)#t ma, "e a i$ned ", t!e S)p#eme Co)#t to !ea# and dete#mine cada t#al o# land #e$i t#ation ca e co%e#in$ lot w!e#e t!e#e i no cont#o%e# , o# oppo ition+ o# conte ted lot w!e#e t!e %al)e of w!ic! doe not e/ceed One !)nd#ed t!o) and pe o 9P2==+===.==:+ )c! %al)e to "e a ce#tained ", t!e affida%it of t!e claimant o# ", a$#eement of t!e #e pecti%e claimant if t!e#e a#e mo#e t!an one+ o# f#om t!e co##e pondin$ ta/ decla#ation of t!e #eal p#ope#t,. T!ei# deci ion in t!e e ca e !all "e appeala"le in t!e ame manne# a deci ion of t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t . Note7 T!) + deci ion of t!e Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t e/e#ci in$ dele$ated ')#i diction wo)ld "e appeala"le to t!e Co)#t of Appeal + wit! t!e appellant filin$ a notice of appeal. 4. +hariah Co)#t

St#ictl, pea&in$+ S!a#iMa Di t#ict Co)#t do not fo#m pa#t of t!e inte$#ated ')dicial , tem of t!e P!ilippine . Section ; of t!e -)dicia#, Reo#$aniEation Act of 234= 9(.P. (l$. 2;3: en)me#ate t!e co)#t co%e#ed ", t!e Act+ comp#i in$ t!e inte$#ated ')dicial , tem. S!a#iMa Co)#t a#e not incl)ded in t!e en)me#ation notwit! tandin$ t!at+ w!en aid (.P. (l$. 2;3 too& effect on A)$) t 2?+ 2342+ P.D. No. 2=4< 9ot!e#wi e &nown a FCode of M) lim Pe# onal Law of t!e P!ilippine F: wa al#ead, in fo#ce. T!e S!a#iMa Co)#t a#e mentioned in Section ?1 of t!e Act onl, fo# t!e p)#po e of incl)din$ t!em Fin t!e f)ndin$ app#op#iation .F 9(a# Matte# No. 5=;+ Ma, 2;+ 233?: Note !owe%e# t!at A#ticle 2<5 of PD 2=4< tate t!at t!e S!a#iKa co)#t a#e c#eated a pa#t of t!e ')dicial , tem and a#e co)#t of limited ')#i diction. 2. T!e S!a#iMa Di t#ict Co)#t !all !a%e e/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e#7 ?4

9a: All ca e in%ol%in$ c) tod,+ $)a#dian !ip+ le$itimac,+ pate#nit, and filiation a#i in$ )nde# t!i CodeG 9": All ca e in%ol%in$ di po ition+ di t#i")tion and ettlement of t!e e tate of decea ed M) lim + p#o"ate of will + i )ance of lette# of admini t#ation o# appointment of admini t#ato# o# e/ec)to# #e$a#dle of t!e nat)#e o# t!e a$$#e$ate %al)e of t!e p#ope#t, 9c: Petition fo# t!e decla#ation of a" ence and deat! and fo# t!e cancellation o# co##ection of ent#ie in t!e M) lim Re$i t#ie mentioned in Title *I of (oo& Two of t!i CodeG 9d: All action a#i in$ f#om c) toma#, cont#act in w!ic! t!e pa#tie a#e M) lim + if t!e, !a%e not pecified w!ic! law !all $o%e#n t!ei# #elation G and 9e: All petition fo# mandam) + p#o!i"ition+ in')nction+ ce#tio#a#i+ !a"ea co#p) + and all ot!e# a)/ilia#, w#it and p#oce e in aid of it appellate ')#i diction. ;. Conc)##entl, wit! e/i tin$ ci%il co)#t + t!e S!a#iMa Di t#ict Co)#t !all !a%e o#i$inal ')#i diction o%e#7 9a: Petition ", M) lim fo# t!e con tit)tion of a famil, !ome+ c!an$e of name and commitment of an in ane pe# on to an a ,l)mG 9": All ot!e# pe# onal and #eal action not mentioned in pa#a$#ap! 2 9d: w!e#ein t!e pa#tie in%ol%ed a#e M) lim e/cept t!o e fo# fo#ci"le ent#, and )nlawf)l detaine#+ w!ic! !all fall )nde# t!e e/cl) i%e o#i$inal ')#i diction of t!e M)nicipal Ci#c)it Co)#tG and 9c: All pecial ci%il action fo# inte#pleade# o# decla#ato#, #elief w!e#ein t!e pa#tie a#e M) lim o# t!e p#ope#t, in%ol%ed "elon$ e/cl) i%el, to M) lim . Appellate ')#i diction 92: S!a#iMa Di t#ict Co)#t !all !a%e appellate ')#i diction o%e# all ca e t#ied in t!e S!a#iMa Ci#c)it Co)#t wit!in t!ei# te##ito#ial ')#i diction. ?3

9;: T!e S!a#iMa Di t#ict Co)#t !all decide e%e#, ca e appealed to it on t!e "a i of t!e e%idence and #eco#d t#an mitted a well a )c! memo#anda+ "#ief o# o#al a#$)ment a t!e pa#tie ma, )"mit. F. -)#i diction o%e# mall claim + ca e co%e#ed ", t!e #)le on S)mma#, P#oced)#e and (a#an$a, Conciliation

RULES ON SUMMARJ PROCEDURE Section 2. Scope. T!i #)le !all $o%e#n t!e )mma#, p#oced)#e in Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t + t!e M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t in Citie + M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t + and t!e M)nicipal Ci#c)it T#ial Co)#t in t!e followin$ ca e fallin$ wit!in t!ei# ')#i diction. A. Ci%il Ca e 7

2. All ca e of fo#ci"le ent#, and )nlawf)l detaine# i##e pecti%e of t!e amo)nt of dama$e o# )npaid #ental o)$!t to "e #eco%e#ed. W!e#e atto#ne,K fee a#e awa#ded+ t!e ame !all not e/ceed P;=+===.==. ;. All ot!e# ca e + e/cept p#o"ate p#oceedin$ + w!e#e t!e total amo)nt of t!e plaintiffK claim doe not e/ceed P2==+===.== o# P;==+===.== in MeTC+ e/cl) i%e of inte#e t and co t . (. C#iminal Ca e 7

2. *iolation of t#affic law + #)le and #e$)lation G ;. *iolation of t!e #ental lawG <. *iolation of m)nicipal o# cit, o#dinance G ?. *iolation of (ata Pam"an a (ilan$ ;; 9(o)ncin$ C!ec& Law: D ee al o R)le 222+ Sec. 2 9":G 1. All ot!e# c#iminal ca e w!e#e t!e penalt, p#e c#i"ed ", law fo# t!e offen e c!a#$ed i imp#i onment not e/ceedin$ @ mont! + o# a fine not e/ceedin$ P2+===.==+ o# "ot!+ i##e pecti%e of ot!e# impo a"le penaltie + acce o#, o# ot!e#wi e+ o# of t!e ci%il lia"ilit, a#i in$ t!e#ef#om7 P#o%ided+ !owe%e#+ t!at in offen e in%ol%in$ dama$e to p#ope#t, t!#o)$! c#iminal ne$li$ence+ t!i R)le !all $o%e#n w!e#e t!e impo a"le fine doe not e/ceed P2=+===.==. T!i R)le !all not appl, to a ci%il ca e w!e#e t!e plaintiffK ca) e of action i pleaded in t!e ame complaint wit! anot!e# ca) e of action )"'ect to t!e o#dina#, p#oced)#eG no# to a c#iminal ca e w!e#e t!e offen e c!a#$ed i nece a#il, #elated to anot!e# c#iminal ca e )"'ect to o#dina#, p#oced)#e. 1=

RULES ON (ARAN>AJ CONCILIATION Adm. Ci#c)la# No. 2?03< I. All di p)te a#e )"'ect to (a#an$a, conciliation p)# )ant to t!e Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, Law Rfo#me#l, P. D. 21=4+ #epealed and now #eplaced ", Sec . <330?;;+ C!apte# *II+ Title I+ (oo& III+ and Sec. 121+ Title I+ (oo& I*+ R.A. 52@=+ ot!e#wi e &nown a t!e Local >o%e#nment Code of 2332S+ and p#io# #eco)# e t!e#eto i a p#e0condition "efo#e filin$ a complaint in co)#t o# an, $o%e#nment office + e/cept in t!e followin$ di p)te 7 R2S W!e#e one pa#t, i t!e $o%e#nment+ o# an, )"di%i ion o# in t#)mentalit, t!e#eofG R;S W!e#e one pa#t, i a p)"lic office# o# emplo,ee and t!e di p)te #elate to t!e pe#fo#mance of !i official f)nction G R<S W!e#e t!e di p)te in%ol%e #eal p#ope#tie located in diffe#ent citie and m)nicipalitie + )nle t!e pa#tie t!e#eto a$#ee to )"mit t!ei# diffe#ence to amica"le ettlement ", an app#op#iate L)ponG R?S An, complaint ", o# a$ain t co#po#ation + pa#tne# !ip o# ')#idical entitie + ince onl, indi%id)al !all "e pa#tie to (a#an$a, conciliation p#oceedin$ eit!e# a complainant o# #e pondent RSec. 2+ R)le *I+ Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, R)le SG R1S Di p)te in%ol%in$ pa#tie w!o act)all, #e ide in "a#an$a, of diffe#ent citie o# m)nicipalitie + e/cept w!e#e )c! "a#an$a, )nit ad'oin eac! ot!e# and t!e pa#tie t!e#eto a$#ee to )"mit t!ei# diffe#ence to amica"le ettlement ", an app#op#iate L)ponG R@S Offen e fo# w!ic! t!e law p#e c#i"e a ma/im)m penalt, of imp#i onment e/ceedin$ one R2S ,ea# o# a fine of o%e# fi%e t!o) and pe o 9P1+===.==:G R5S Offen e w!e#e t!e#e i no p#i%ate offended pa#t,G R4S Di p)te w!e#e )#$ent le$al action i nece a#, to p#e%ent in') tice f#om "ein$ committed o# f)#t!e# contin)ed+ pecificall, t!e followin$7 RaS C#iminal ca e w!e#e acc) ed i )nde# police c) tod, o# detention RSee Sec. ?2; 9": 92:+ Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, LawSG R"S Petition fo# !a"ea co#p) ", a pe# on ille$all, dep#i%ed of !i #i$!tf)l c) tod, o%e# anot!e# o# a pe# on ille$all, dep#i%ed of o# on actin$ in !i "e!alfG 12

RcS Action co)pled wit! p#o%i ional #emedie )c! a p#elimina#, in')nction+ attac!ment+ deli%e#, of pe# onal p#ope#t, and )ppo#t d)#in$ t!e pendenc, of t!e actionG and RdS Action w!ic! ma, "e "a##ed ", t!e Stat)te of Limitation . R3S An, cla of di p)te w!ic! t!e P#e ident ma, dete#mine in t!e inte#e t of ') tice o# )pon t!e #ecommendation of t!e Sec#eta#, of -) ticeG R2=S W!e#e t!e di p)te a#i e f#om t!e Comp#e!en i%e A$#a#ian Refo#m Law 9CARL: RSec . ?@ O ?5+ R. A. @@15SG R22S La"o# di p)te o# cont#o%e# ie a#i in$ f#om emplo,e#0 emplo,ee #elation RMonto,a % . E ca,o+ et al.+ 252 SCRA ??;G A#t. ;;@+ La"o# Code+ a amended+ w!ic! $#ant o#i$inal and e/cl) i%e ')#i diction o%e# conciliation and mediation of di p)te + $#ie%ance o# p#o"lem to ce#tain office of t!e Depa#tment of La"o# and Emplo,mentSG R2;S Action to ann)l ')d$ment )pon a comp#omi e w!ic! ma, "e filed di#ectl, in co)#t RSee Sanc!eE % . T)paE+ 214 SCRA ?13S. II. Unde# t!e p#o%i ion of R. A. 52@= on Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, conciliation+ a implemented ", t!e Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, R)le and Re$)lation p#om)l$ated ", t!e Sec#eta#, of -) tice+ t!e ce#tification fo# filin$ a complaint in co)#t o# an, $o%e#nment office !all "e i )ed ", (a#an$a, a)t!o#itie onl, )pon compliance wit! t!e followin$ #e.)i#ement 7 R2S I )ed ", t!e L)pon Sec#eta#, and atte ted ", t!e L)pon C!ai#man 9P)non$ (a#an$a,:+ ce#tif,in$ t!at a conf#ontation of t!e pa#tie !a ta&en place and t!at a conciliation ettlement !a "een #eac!ed+ ")t t!e ame !a "een )" e.)entl, #ep)diated 9Sec. ?2;+ Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, LawG Sec. ;R!S+ R)le III+ Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, R)le :G R;S I )ed ", t!e Pan$&at Sec#eta#, and atte ted ", t!e Pan$&at C!ai#man ce#tif,in$ t!at7 RaS a conf#ontation of t!e pa#tie too& place ")t no conciliationH ettlement !a "een #eac!ed 9Sec. ?RfS+ R)le III+ Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, R)le :G o# R"S t!at no pe# onal conf#ontation too& place "efo#e t!e Pan$&at t!#o)$! no fa)lt of t!e complainant 9Sec. ?RfS+ R)le III+ Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, R)le :. R<S I )ed ", t!e P)non$ (a#an$a, a #e.)e ted ", t!e p#ope# pa#t, on t!e $#o)nd of fail)#e of ettlement w!e#e t!e di p)te 1;

in%ol%e mem"e# of t!e ame indi$eno) c)lt)#al comm)nit,+ w!ic! !all "e ettled in acco#dance wit! t!e c) tom and t#adition of t!at pa#tic)la# c)lt)#al comm)nit,+ o# w!e#e one o# mo#e of t!e pa#tie to t!e afo#e aid di p)te "elon$ to t!e mino#it, and t!e pa#tie m)t)all, a$#eed to )"mit t!ei# di p)te to t!e indi$eno) , tem of amica"le ettlement+ and t!e#e !a "een no ettlement a ce#tified ", t!e dat) o# t#i"al leade# o# elde# to t!e P)non$ (a#an$a, of place of ettlement 9Sec . 2+? O 1+ R)le IB+ Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, R)le :G and R?S If mediation o# conciliation effo#t "efo#e t!e P)non$ (a#an$a, p#o%ed )n )cce f)l+ t!e#e !a%in$ "een no a$#eement to a#"it#ate 9Sec. ?2= R"S+ Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, LawG Sec. 2+ c. 92:+ R)le III+ Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, R)le :+ o# w!e#e t!e #e pondent fail to appea# at t!e mediation p#oceedin$ "efo#e t!e P)non$ (a#an$a, 9<#d pa#. Sec. 4+ a+ R)le *I+ Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, R)le :+ t!e P)non$ (a#an$a, !all not ca) e t!e i )ance at t!i ta$e of a ce#tification to file action+ "eca) e it i now mandato#, fo# !im to con tit)te t!e Pan$&at "efo#e w!om mediation+ conciliation+ o# a#"it#ation p#oceedin$ !all "e !eld. III. All complaint andHo# info#mation filed o# #affled to ,o)# alaH"#anc! of t!e Re$ional T#ial Co)#t !all "e ca#ef)ll, #ead and c#)tiniEed to dete#mine if t!e#e !a "een compliance wit! p#io# (a#an$a, conciliation p#oced)#e )nde# t!e Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, Law and it Implementin$ R)le and Re$)lation a a p#e0condition to ')dicial action+ pa#tic)la#l, w!et!e# t!e ce#tification to file action attac!ed to t!e #eco#d of t!e ca e compl, wit! t!e #e.)i#ement !e#eina"o%e en)me#ated in Pa#. IIG I*. A ca e filed in co)#t wit!o)t compliance wit! p#io# (a#an$a, conciliation w!ic! i a p#e0condition fo# fo#mal ad')dication 9Sec. ?2; RaS of t!e Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, Law: ma, "e di mi ed )pon motion of defendantH + not fo# lac& of ')#i diction of t!e co)#t 9o#: fo# fail)#e to tate a ca) e of action ")t fo# p#emat)#it, o# fail)#e to compl, wit! a condition p#ecedent fo# filin$ t!e claimG and #efe# t!e ca e mot) p#op#io to t!e app#op#iate (a#an$a, a)t!o#it, appl,in$ ", analo$, Sec. ?=4 R$S+ ;nd pa#.+ of t!e Re%i ed Nata#)n$an$ Pam"a#an$a, Law w!ic! #ead a follow 7 FT!e co)#t in w!ic! non0c#iminal ca e not fallin$ wit!in t!e a)t!o#it, of t!e L)pon )nde# t!i Code a#e filed ma,+ at an, time "efo#e t#ial+ mot) p#op#io #efe# ca e to t!e L)pon conce#ned fo# amica"le ettlement. SMALL CLAIMS COURT 1<

SEC. ;. Scope. T T!i R)le !all $o%e#n t!e p#oced)#e in action "efo#e t!e Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t + M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t in Citie + M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t and M)nicipal Ci#c)it T#ial Co)#t fo# pa,ment of mone, w!e#e t!e %al)e of t!e claim doe not e/ceed One C)nd#ed T!o) and Pe o 9P2==+===.==: e/cl) i%e of inte#e t and co t . SEC. ?. Applica"ilit,. T T!e Met#opolitan T#ial Co)#t + M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t in Citie + M)nicipal T#ial Co)#t + and M)nicipal Ci#c)it T#ial Co)#t !all appl, t!i R)le in all action w!ic! a#e7 9a: p)#el, ci%il in nat)#e w!e#e t!e claim o# #elief p#a,ed fo# ", t!e plaintiff i olel, fo# pa,ment o# #eim")# ement of )m of mone,+ and 9": t!e ci%il a pect of c#iminal action + eit!e# filed "efo#e t!e in tit)tion of t!e c#iminal action+ o# #e e#%ed )pon t!e filin$ of t!e c#iminal action in co)#t+ p)# )ant to R)le 222 of t!e Re%i ed R)le Of C#iminal P#oced)#e. T!e e claim o# demand ma, "e7 9a: Fo# mone, owed )nde# an, of t!e followin$7 2. Cont#act of Lea eG ;. Cont#act of LoanG <. Cont#act of Se#%ice G ?. Cont#act of SaleG o# 1. Cont#act of Mo#t$a$eG 9": Fo# dama$e a#i in$ f#om an, of t!e followin$7 2. Fa)lt o# ne$li$enceG ;. I)a i0cont#actG o# <. Cont#actG 9c: T!e enfo#cement of a "a#an$a, amica"le ettlement o# an a#"it#ation awa#d in%ol%in$ a mone, claim co%e#ed ", t!i R)le p)# )ant to Sec. ?25 In Cr)e v. u9aran5, A.M. No. MT-0220253;+ Septem"e# ;4+ ;=22+ @14 SCRA ;<2+ #e pondent ')d$e wa fo)nd $)ilt, of )nd)e dela, in #ende#in$ a deci ion and %iolation of t!e #)le of p#oced)#e fo# mall claim ca e . Acco#din$ to t!e SC+ t!e t!eo#, "e!ind t!e mall claim , tem i t!at o#dina#, liti$ation fail to "#in$ p#actical ') tice to t!e pa#tie w!en t!e di p)ted claim i mall "eca) e t!e time and e/pen e #e.)i#ed ", t!e o#dina#, liti$ation p#oce i o di p#opo#tionate to t!e amo)nt in%ol%ed t!at it di co)#a$e a ') t #e ol)tion of t!e di p)te. T!e mall claim p#oce i de i$ned to f)nction .)ic&l, and info#mall,. T!e#e a#e no law,e# + no fo#mal pleadin$ and no t#ict le$al #)le of e%idence. 1?

T!) + t!e intent of t!e law in p#o%idin$ t!e pe#iod to !ea# and decide ca e fallin$ )nde# t!e R)le of P#oced)#e fo# Small Claim Ca e w!ic! i wit!in 1 da, f#om t!e #eceipt of t!e o#de# of a i$nment i %e#, clea#. T!e e/i$enc, of p#ompt #endition of ')d$ment in mall claim ca e i a matte# of p)"lic polic,. T!e#e i no #oom fo# f)#t!e# inte#p#etation. Ce i d)t,0"o)nd to ad!e#e to t!e #)le and decide mall claim ca e wit!o)t )nd)e dela,. >. Totalit, R)le

W!e#e t!e#e a#e e%e#al claim o# ca) e of action "etween t!e ame o# diffe#ent pa#tie + em"odied in t!e ame complaint+ t!e amo)nt of t!e demand !all "e t!e totalit, of t!e claim in all ca) e of action+ i##e pecti%e of w!et!e# t!e ca) e of action a#o e o)t of t!e ame o# diffe#ent t#an action. 9Sec. << 92:+ (.P. No. 2;3+ a amended: NOTE7 We will follow t!e totalit, #)le in (P 2;3 "eca) e it i elementa#, in tat)to#, con t#)ction t!at in ca e of conflict+ )" tanti%e law p#e%ail o%e# p#oced)#al law . END OF FIRST PART oooOOOooo

11