Sei sulla pagina 1di 19

Centrale electrice

Fvenlatorul Thonas Alva (1847-193j)a Edison prima construit cenyork Valileci pE M Pea Street dinNew in l Bg2, revo ulioneid asiiei nrcdliircaro oamnii {olosea! energia. inainie eiergia lre::ra prcdusd:frf.o lorme ltildinlocul unde era nevoie deea.prif cererarea etedid6lila o centra]d electrica, plieali trans, eneoia pc'iah crrf.airLrd inlr.o Jofnr, ecologicd spre alle locatii. 9ipractjcd
i n r r F . , i. , c er r r ilee l ,' r.r,i .. s s te g e n e rrro np | tro p u lsnl de l LrLbi ne. ,r geneiitor,un cr.ctrontagnet rorativ lnduceun c$renteleciric i i$brn.le de juilLu ce-l ircoDloari. in cazutrnei cenkal. tcF r1 c elc c ll' c e, c ildLrm g e n c rl rd d e a d e re ac o n rb !s ti b j ti tor fosi l i esreiol,:,si:iprntru d transfomra apa in abur.Acstaburenc r:nsporirr lrt Fresiunc ridicart sple o rulbini carcsc rorcSrc tr ant.nerzii grne'rronrl.O c.nrati ternroclecrrici pe b!z:lde cirblrni krnrior.Ii doir.lj9'r dir sncr-qia etiberati prin ardere in energid .l .cr n. l: r es lul r c p rc z i n tti enc|gie te rn ri c lrh i p j ri t. N oi l ecentrate c! do! i c ic lur iit i in rb L rn rri ree s fi c cienia ,v d n d a u n setsecundor d. (ublne prif cire se exn.:rgc nai nNtll energie oe arderc

co.hal. htdrc.t..td.. l. atuluhei centtab hidteelectic',enetsi. cih.ticta apei io cndae i.vtne atutbint.ze,la ahdrl et,inee^.,n ge.e?lat .lecllic. Apapoate fi luBtd dtnt-un ezeMt pantu a g.n a nocasatut da enet1ia pa timp de zil"i paat. ti ponpale inapoi in tinput naplii. Acesr pDc6s se nun6tt6 rczeNephn ponparc

Ce nr ralc ele c t r i cc eu d o u i c i c l u r i
O asllelce cenraeaiedoua prtmutset seu darudnqilefsraloar6. de 11F,lca.e r-b,.e rs:eous o" garete dea.oe.e au,o n eipa.s.-ne Cid!6 galelor oeardsro esre toosjiipenhu e pfoduce abur care saplnd i . h i c ar euna c ot ea s C e tu /o n e .A c s ps d e c e n tra a en6cu '5 r, na r lc e. r . ar A oc ee i -j te ec . u . j n g j s e r d e ,-.o ,a e

1""':

Generatorul
ln 1831, chinlistul :ila.ic Michael (1791n67)a clseNai ca Faraday allncicend!n dii de dpru so lotsgle inlre poiionurFa,ct, se i.dlce in disc un curenl electncGeneEloarele centra elorelechc! lolosesc acela$ penlrLr a 3.verS ene.gi. PdnclpN jieralcrde cuenl in cazur unur altemalNbobina:: ftetal onectatata doualnelese rct.q:e inlre poliiunu magnel. Celedo!: )4tu ale boblnei strebar caop!|43!.e!c, insaso depiaseaza in sensopLs ace3iuia.Acesl fapt cau2eaze scuEeBa clEntuluir'nsusde o pa.tea bobine i injG de calaLta. Pddilebobineiii *hi6be pozilia La liecare ie lot.tie, nvercand tumalate Aceslcurentallenaliv sens!lcurenlului lfecapin pnrls ce ca6on care.lunecl pe ineel6rotarive I nd inlr.unci.clit

rFurl- 1
-| -

)' ,

J q [l
s ' ll

ry,":,..
P na luneEb .t. rcttli. CA.d pattea verne E babhal parcutge cehpd naQnelicspo ihldiat,.pa@un .u@hl 1asus1naceapatle a bobinei A doraluhat.ta d. .ot.tl. pan.a voda a bobnt6ipatcuryo CAnd cenput naghelic sprc erbnat, cuEntul r,d!5 l9i schidba se,sll

l--

+
rur!/nJd.an'Br!'.6,:.|.1.'ie!n+

::1i.1::r: ::.::i::_ ***" T ^ I

Ess

I7 1 """ '

Energianucleard,
Asifel,seelibcreaza energic termica nucleard enercie ieftie. Spredeosebirc de Puterea e o sursade ti aparnui mulli nerirofli carc la rAndul lor vor bombarda nucleele atomilor din apropicre. reactoarele nucleare nudepind centralele eleckice clnvenionale, declantand o reaqicln lanf.AIaNridecaldLrrl scenani radiatii pepdncipiuldesfaJosili. Ele lunclioneaza darderea clmbushbililor pecare nocive, centralele termonuclearc lrcbuie si le retinat cle proces pdn deuraiiu. care seelibeaareazd enrgi6. ceriialomilor trcbuie de reactic. Nucle-ele nrnimici ce sacontrolcze si viteza genera puterea nucle3ra arpulea mult mai mulld enercie apar TeoreUc, in tirnpulfisiunii astfclca deterrile suntfoanradioactive,

toate fezeruelo Ceco mDuslibil losil inse clstllconslrucliei decet reacloarelor fadroaclive s!ntimpedimenle sedoase. !i degeurji:

periculols nucleare nranevrnre cu aienlie sunt $i trebuie in vinor,fisiuna nucleori ar purea 6 abrndon.la in livonrer uneisurse dc energie nrai,, mte"ti xnrll nraieucinrc - tirziuprocesul prezent neanuclearl, in sosr..intr-orcaclie de fLrziune. inrilniti in niturl - aronlii s'rbstanlelor Raoroacrivirrre. sre nuclcclc dc hidrogcn - secombin!ioF - celmailtor elenrent arfi uraniul aunuclre nahral instrbile care sedescompun nfnd clcmcntc cunr proces cu el'berare de energie. maigrclc, insl chinnce n )a iu to a rc iponra n i n d oui r uc le: r le un o t e l e m e n re aceastd datoritA temperaNnlor. cnergic cstcgreu des$penit
(fisirne). Rcactoarele nuclearesunt constnite astfelincdtsd producafisiuneintr-un lonl de rescliecontrolatin carprodusele dr re a cl i e rj n ds dc ont inue f isi u n e aC i l d u rac l i b c ra tA c s tefo l o aburulastfelincet si rili pentru! ficrbc ap. ti penlru a proCuce plodtrca, abur carc rore$e rurbinelepent a genera eleclricitat iD rcc.Jtr mrnrerl cr in centraleleconventionole. Penrrua obtinefisiune se foloselte o padiclu subatonicnnu!a bonrbarda mita neutrcntacesta utomul de urani! desftcandu-I.

puteriinucleare StipAnirea
Malb nddedoua t.ihidin cenlraele lemo.ucleare alegLobului.olin tlslune i6lnte.iorulunor reacloar cuaoeorosudzale.ln acosrg Drocssulde ponlru E.cloar6, lll6zaneulronilor apa osl6 tolosila ! conlrcla care sunr e ipdntisluie b6Blidln nuclols dowaniu. Eneq a lrnlcd ellbratA incazegl6 gneEloarelor 5papenli!a poducs varolitudLnsls aburul, cra electrice.

Fisiunea nucleari

R.ct ltttnkntn P@rstd.n tun

#
..\

Fkiui.. pdduc. !r 6d!.lr qan. ed lunt icto vr.tjr lr hbuia h '.!nr6

Tojiatomi iicdfcate numile co.linparicule negaliv e eclroni, carseinradl. jurulnucleulu compusdn p.otonr potlivi9inertronl cu inc5.care neull.,Unelernnl esledefinil de.lmatulde pblofi.AlomiLde ace pot@nline neua:i element un nunardiiedtd,e lroni. A.esle te aleaceluia9i element se tpundifer

numesc izologi. Lamajo.itatea num,rulde izotopilof, neutrc.iesteaplopiat de clal polonilor, insdunii prctooi. g.eiau izolopi rnull maimulli ieulrcni decal Aesl dezechilibru ii laceinstabiii. esle UEniu.235 unexemplu deasfeldeizolop ladioactiy Lnstabil elg ene supus descompune i Edioaclive.

""

17 2

Re.limentare. rca.toru| ui De$eutil' Ezltate in uha epuhani reacbtutui tebuie hanevGte cu atehle _ chia. daca Dareto de u6niu nu naicantin uGniu, et6 .antin canizti nati da .ne natedate @dbac|ve 9i sunl ih cantinuarc poi culo. se linp de nii de ani Mai inthi oatete sLnl .Acila, sunt apai lmsponab penttuafi preluc@ta, no su.t depazitate, ideala nind depazitete subte? ne.

&: r. p,.e!a! i.s! dh v-ui (rdoturu

-J

173

nergtasoiarb -.E
!e,'i, oen'n, r:e,,' ;;ril;ilil',T:Tli::'i:: r,::.e:ic *"ue c:re jll-;,:,1.'_lo:=,,:"
a ',.:rr s pr enr \ et e I n rmi c e , i n (c n d i rn d !-t. i"

T-]!

se(otut3l II-ter i.Hr.ornrencrau ln.l-din conrrren{r depurcrcJ Lumr:l' sotarc focatrzare Matemalcranut erec Ar

/arcL-s. 0

penrru "enede Inov:rlir c obtine encrgie elecrricj

,;" ;.;;;;;;,;;:" i:.:[ilI"ffi::

onenrau fascrcure aerumrn.i io_

Potenliatut 6n6r9tejsotare
E P irinr qL.ng! o crnl rre cnornrl dc ltlmrnesotart carecslc ibsor:rd san rcflecr.rtA rnipoi in sprfiu;n rinrput zjtci. Votoarca c J t dur idec irc . tu n ri n l . C :rn rrta tc dc ee n e rg re sol arjcapimrnturui

**"r cnergl circcch.vitenra cU u0wari _ purerca .llil'l " - o"..* **, E. ji pepinllinr {un8e ll.,l nlJl degrab.j sLb ,q n r_ (e
de oa nevo.3 de nereetectflci. :.-::.,.. :ncgrt rsraburrJ sr flLrc(mnr. Rcgirhrie ur, ,:-crrerer ecurro-1rtur plrmcsc nn.hnr!r.nulrr tunrin6 decir zon<Ic ru trritudinc nrrr,"=,,* *ri*, *"",

::"T.1" *dl' :. :,1.1ft,1 ie 10000

esr consrderarl a n srncicnr,

;,.;;:i;;;;

;lii: ;"::::: :::i::r:;;;;i sor'rc sunr prrc'licabire doar inzone cu


;:I::''

*;;::ixffiiri;;;.wiix ;;;';:;*;i:;:'".-"
Panourlsolare

*,"'.*u,'" f"t" "*, -*," ;;;Jil;::ilT:::i":il:

nrr! s'n,rru d,spoTi,iv sori, cs,e cuprorur :.1 so,Jr .:" "::::-:l: de srjctr crrepcrr.r.Intnrea l:_"* ".,". ", "" "aprc tu. nrer ormerrr,c nesru care l.il ill'l ,u,u rngtr -'jllii. \oiJii (u crrc ;nrrr ir conract "o.o*0. si rzotar.t cu o"o,o,o. carr.rs.) (rre-pJ..ine p'crdente de crta"r,, fo t_,,nA p"o.,.1, *p,*rl uJrc )ige a r.mp.rr(sifoartc nrrnr,,,,r, . nx (pcste ^.." puncrulde fieE t"",t' n ro,os''--'-"x1 oo". "".',9'

-. " -" -'"' * ' cal durJ- un ah .,6." s qe " ' ---^ , condtctean. Dl$xt e

]-,^,-l . , , , 2 , ,1",..,,", ra r o r J c i t J L t r J e s r e k J . . f <r a t j sD r ! un ^!


dcc.3pJ

o. ,0,. F.risrr srpanoun .ohre

m ru|lm F 4
t<

fF-

st
rF.

"#:!'",i:ii!!f{i[i! :'j
ii::,::': ""':" * ***" "@t @h ..i ad',.te k ..:,t:::

sistetua dsincebitu sotarc

,.. .:i

:t

Acestt@$ sotatdin F6hta.apta.za tunha,at.ta b@snd a efrectu@4$ nat tonat dn agtn. Dtate cu@Ete de akulatd a@rt rctectot, cohpus dh tauu de cg\nzi tndtltdaate tacahzeaze..a(,a satata tu@se paab .ptopa

*-r_' ,,, ,iij.l iii "y** " "i, -' ' JrpsctGpent n, n)Iri rede?r. u, i" i ns..conrorni rl c .;,. ;"1;;,,;;:";':i.lli::': 'ru- ",p,n,;,,". :lJ"Ji ne,s,xsohrr vxjuc.ur,",,0.,"",," Celulefotovoltaice
O c6lLJtl tolovotraicd e lornaEdtndoua stErud semrconducroare desitdudopat. cualre e e_ 6e.l pehrr! a risnod'fe p.opieratiie etec. trce,Unshala.emaimuti eteclronicu incin cafenegariv6 N),iarcetale[ftai ideUp p!lini

rc4,o prcaisemiconducroar. ce rrrnsform, enersiJjuminri,in energie (,*"," ,","".,,i",i'," . _ **",",. r'or.penrru,sareliri.ri ion& spllirte. ins.in pre?cnt rprr In once aporir, de t3crlcutaror h m.rtinite cxperrmentrle buir var.antr e.nrlu senerarii viiroore o senenro3re -,-::1.!|]r, focarur sorrr Acesr3 forose,re panoufl cnormc :.::j:f:.:l: de o-gunzr mobjlc.nunrire hcliosrate, carcserorcsc dupA Soarc fo, ii cat'z!iz, r.zel. acestuta pecolecror, arnDlrsrr rccull h inllti' "' d. me,inrr-un "c rum o* *'.*" o.r" ""r..1",

jliTll;iTTi; fi:::: ::l ";:;'::il:':iil

Eloctrlcitat dtn tumtn, sotara ln prczcnr.xisra doui n)odun pr|nciprte de ee_

d'r'onarc d cners,e din cru,,

de enerpi _ . h,,r- J._._. . a..-p., .,.tl;;i;:: "-,"", ; ::l::""i]'," ',"a, "' "'.*. prrerea *ri". nare. sorara nuvi i"r"*,,

*:,j"l.n.reckice \orarc con,r br,, desr.,r ,,"T:"11_",' deprF In raS enenrea gtob!l !
"",;;;""T'.,"'.r.'. "

AcerstJ n.rbinl rnkene.r7l unEener or cnre prcouce etecrric|l.rrc ,n:::i,::To: il nlL,rte ir,e t,pL,.i oe cenr're.eicrr,.e

-i, -

",;,I".,r'.,r,.-",,r.

*fr*:trd#ffi d'ffiH*if*
a)
l!
Pot.nlialut p. johc ne liu Datodtd hircdli elact.onilot , a galuilot pti. )@ct.tuna aparco dnerenlddo patenlatihtb somtcanductaaetede tp N de tip p ,i

Sttuctutaunei cetutesotar. Saniconducloatete de p N ,i de tip p sunt )rezate inre daui bohe carcendlc cuten. Irt. celula e prcteia!. cd u^ capacde sttl;

Lunina sala.j ajunqepe ceJute,i distoce aed@",. ,]ftifE,e l1d sDb t.nrenla dnetenteire patent1 d-a aet.lclDne

175 . . , . . . . . . .

Baterii
Eiecticitata nupoale fi generald intotdealna acob !nd6 hebuie dor elecrrozr. $i Cdndbareria e5re conecrr|i tn un c cand lreblie, Ce ace6a aulost inyentalo ," bateiJe ch'mrcc casurse produc deenea un exces d".,."";;; ' '."", ; il.i;;'"' gieltof dlGnsportat. El diic,r funclioneazd deebcrrotu pdn iimagazjnarca inerecr,"r,,, energiei ;;";,1 ;;;'"'H::'"#.i. sub tornd c,himici 9itranstormaroa acesleja in energiE electrjce athcicand e neloio. Batedile alimertea2A o game hrge d6malini, n rmeiqi,e in pr'ma,e 0eraceasud giapa.ate defotogEfiat s,sccunda,e ccrl,rerc lasateliliidin l:'batearte spafu. pnmrre sunt jhrlnc fo,oiile -^:e]1elc
,e caft gcnereazl encrsir p."

m on., Prr"cu'e :;:ili:il::;:l;::il:il: ee 'c.cr


oeregLtJ in lrnrcmc,.etr,*"r,,r"r.",;"",.,

principor. .recrrod poznv, llli]"^"."_"lll1.,..,"' :"^ponenrc crcqro\rncg]|N I' un clectrotrr.


reprezentindLonhcrulohtre cel

*" sau maimurrc _ o,spozr'lv ceiurc -*" -.,:i::^1,J:lln crrc,:nsfornaencrsir chrmrc6 in cnersrc cr.c. :].:.jro^cn,.nr::

suusr"nrc,caur.re'."ru-na'a.cil:i:::li:T
Lrn, renr prnee nsens l"J:,:?il::i:::;'ilnrrecerer cr
tmr. cuhrdrlr $rccle dcnichet-merat (Nrl\ Hr,lolosrre lJ r,ct*" **ebile dcerurcrc prjmnrc, <e(un. ceje llll"ll..:,r:,".

.l
i, '. :l

.t

.+ t

L,f
:1

t.l.ctbd..e.tu

t:

Bateriile alcaline
, tr.o oa,ene c! b,oro oe zinc_magneiu, aDdJ,(boma -aga'vr) ene 'onatj d,rk.o oasri de anq c:.e eje m e ed@ cotedol Caroour {bona po.iv5) esr6(r. rdt, d,n(-unpbi oe o@{d de magnenuin sEtr,, o arcasade mehl. gohete etectrcror suntde met;l Lrntrotilur, o $t_de de hiorord de pohsiJ, hrl ir Lon-cu arb,iee(troz ron.r din eteclrorrr Dot,ee!nl, sepaf.toruporoe d nte etectbzi _. . . . . 178 Fun.lionarc. u^oi batqil alcatina La anod, ziocul se kanstirtme ih axtd de zjnc ti etbeteaze ebcttoni @@h@ pnn ci@jtul ertem s4o catod, unde suht cotectalide bio,i. tlut de nEgneziu.ln tntetiarut bate. neL i@i de hid@ritinceeal pozitiv s. deptaseazadin catod s4e anad creAndlnnstetui d6 sa.cini.

u**-s
&::n:; @
o .,,"
&
g

ii.,r

!;i:,:i

Baterii tiD nasture


Acesle baieflsunr tolcsrein carcutatoar Aiodlt(tclrcdul t ceasuri, negalivJ e5re deasup6 celutei Catodut{stctrod tiestedi. p.atds zinc, poziriv) seaflala b6:aceruet contine oxd h6rcufc.lnrrece dor ete.rrc, exsraunacsorbant inh!iatin etectrolit dehidroxid de potastu.ln timpul pie.d tun4ionrdi anodul de?l|lc etsctroni oxtd d6zjnc. Aegr i lomeaze pdncirclitdene orgiseintorc eectrcnise deFbseaza tn etod,unde oxldurmercunc accepta eeclronil9 lomeazA morcur metatic.

Baterii de magini
Unacumulalo.cu acid.onli.e trelsa!Fse ceu6 separare, monrar6 r.tr.o .uli6rszislenla d6plasdc, Fieca cetulE conlino o seri!deptactde ptumb si bioxid d. plufibcu sparat@.6 Lts ee ti!n t.c!rctildeacid sutfuiclitoat ln [mp!lfunlion,diacldutsultunc setranstoma trptar t apd biox]dutde p umb d6 ptunb srlanstomarnsutt iisled,o2ii t deptumb, iarbatria i9i pled6, tpht,put6l6a.lnsa, spr deosdbirs pfmarc, ds cerutete acasrd poate n Incarcala pdne. in s opus, !cend u-s o uncuEnt proces ca.e hv'ss.zdfe.ctiib chimice.

Celulede energie
Spr6 daosebie deo bateds car6 itipirde Iplalepaotala de 3 genefa eLecl cital6, deoarece slbslanlere dininreno.se eplizeaza.o cer!lA de ,pneG e Senreiaza etectcilate avend o surs,continu, deslbsranle, ca tto betne, o.elull de energie 616 steclroztnegaiiviti Fozlrivl acettia. cetLrti unerectroiitifk6 le deenergl suntfolositein sondere spaliats red echipaj Seaieapi ln MvetaSpaliata. tdsaie lolosile la m3Ein tevitorululdeoaGce sunlde doua orimaieficlente decal notoareie cucombustie inlema produc doar apA, 9i cun runclione.za o bat ,t..l.atiae La..est tp de bateie hidrcgenut (Ht ti axigenLt (ol se corbine, rczu@nd ape, enegie eleclrice celdud. La electrcdul tl gazutde hidtagen nesati.l, e acli@eaza cu iani de hidroxit(Ott) din etecxotit qi ramea2dape Etectrcnil suntptetu;ti de paznir ti suntcanbinaljcu etectrodut oxigenut9i apapentuatana bniido hidtuxil,cahpteGndastletcictulrcactiital

tbr.-"..".

Energraalternativb
Eectricitalea gene.ale esle in mod tradilional p.if afderea unor corn. blstibili fosiji, i.sdprcblemele demediu a consumutui $idesustine.e conlinuu deconlbLrstibil iosil atiorientat cercetarca spre metode mai curalo deobltnefe a electdcilelii tolosind surse inepuizabile. Chial $i companiile multiiatonale auinceput seinvesieasce masiv in dez. vollarea unei astietde lhnologii, estmaid jumatate cein S0 dani, produsa crn energia vaprcveiidin asileld6 surse. Ardrea combLrstibililor fositi nunumaict sa|ice$c resrrsele,
.j"r cre.rzi ir enlsride bioud deccrbon circ inrinrcerau retrnut in scoa(a tercstra Excesut dcbioxid decarbon din armosied ! fosrprs in legdruri cu incalzirer gtobutui $i cu schimbirilc clinraticc. Astfcl,este n.ccsar! folosrrco unorsurse denersic care au un inrpacr minimaslpramednrhi secotutui al XXl.lei Rcsursel. ,neDU zrbile ,unrsulse deenrgie care nu sc.d viribil odati cu folosirca tor Anfel desurse denergie inch'dndiatiilesolarc, fo4avdnrutui, a valuriloqi a fluxuritof, fort! decidcrca apciti cltdumprnranrutui. Soarcle conkotazt cl'nraiindnd in miscarc co.tinuanlasc enomre de acr Arnclia gnvitalionali a Luniinritcr naricantirali dc apa pc plnran! iar pAntantului cildLrra rezidlrald dc la fornrarea esie enranara pe nituura ceac.lta serice$t!.cenrafea clccrricirrlii din aceste surse Leducc senrnificariv potuarea. comparariv cu surselc de conrbustibili fosili

t, cebv. bclti din luhe nunlt, .zan6 n.'t.ihli., cua s; n,L.Eua, Alb.srd. dih Sv.rlseng, tstsnda,d.ptasetib sco.4.i teash. sdu. ap.o.D. d. suptalalt nagda. Apa @E cncub tn subt'En .st. ihceE . si i.s. ta supotalA ptln ghei2o@tj i.voaa. Enoryia s.ote@la es' caa' t.tothd abLtutnaturat pe.tu 6 o"n",n .,5""n ,u+,n"," o"n"o,o"n",

Fenal' aolten , @ @a din lnagi.., sunt 6 ptivalitte dk c. in c. nat namtta. Eto sunt Msl,aite p.laAtlini, in cenpii. pe coedt s6u,n |ae. lurbin ta de vtut .u cebva conpohonte sihpte _ piniaane .tu otionteaze pabtete tutbtnei in vent ti un g.neat l tegat de axul lurbi.ei _ jnse.isb Sl eana.te cfiplcat9. l, ptuzent, tatneta eoliene asigud etechcitate panltu cahuhitatj nici sau suplima.te aze suoete pdncipate Caslul unui gendatot eotjan scade cantinuu, ia. tehholagiaat Putea taca din acaasE attehativd o swse sennilicativt de enetgie

'. '. , , .

176

Puterea oceanelor
C.a na m.ret' mar roosra.te suBj deenercie deFeFshanr seanJin enomamas.a o.ea: nelor re sunt punaG pesupra,aia re.est|e de ro.1a vrntuntortide {orta gGvitaliofatd a L!n i. reredou,tipun dehrrcare a aper o.eanet.f suni, cetapr, micarea cofrrnu,.vat!ritorgi scn.Dante F6nodtce de nui Serotosescdiiedte rehncdeexploarare a acesror m5carcu scopul
.. idd..tur.sr ih@. h !u! i d.j.

Gene.atoaete cu canat tctasesc hacaes aproape .ecantenita a vatunbt pentu a abtihe enerqte. l canea de b.tan canstlib la hat asie deschise sp.. nate aslet i.clt hiv@lut apei ,uctuoaza odatAcu vatutil A.tut d6 de.. sup6 3ta estecahpdnat,t deconprmat, @tindas et o tu.bine conectate la un genetatal

q,rur._ap.ntrah ba.a, t, Lrde sstJarur. Lao,.ux. ec,uze e sJrtinchse, lo!ru.cu+e o Azetu:deapa,Apa ost,saras6curo, t r-roneconeclat6.: ge.ratosl

j H:r; :;::::" :::"?.1i:,,i h,;:":"i,,"," ""jff iiJ:il: ""

E'.'.. t","fu.',P.d"|.\

IfydroelectricityContents
. . . . I lnpodance 2 Advantases 3 Dsadvantsqeg 4 Hvdro-clecaic frds o 4.1 Oldcst

4.2.1 in riroeress
caoaci -elecaic

Hvdraulicturbiaeendelecbicaleenerator.

Hydroelectric dam il crosssection

Tle upper reservoit and damofthe Ffestiniog pumped_Storage Scheme in nonn \\'rles.The porverstationat theIowerreseruoir hasfour watertu.bines rvhichcan generare 360megawatts ofelectdcitywithin60 seconds ofthe needadsing. Thewaterof theupperreservoir (Llyn Stylan) canjustbe glimpsed on the right.

1y:Ercnlau
H] droelectricityis eleddcity obtained from hvdroporver. Most hydroelectric power contes from thepqlentialenerev ofdammed lvaterddving a waterturbineandgg!.gfa!Sf. Lesscornnonvaliationsmakeuseof water,s kineticenerey or und*J roura", ,u"n asridalpower.Hydroelectricity is a renewable enerqy source. or y on the volumebut on thedifference in heightbenveen thesource andthewater,s outflow.This heightdifference isca eOthe !.9d. 'Ihe amountofpotentialerersvin wateris directlvproportional to thehead, To obtain very high head,water for a hydraulicturbine rnay be run throigf, u h.g" pip" calleda pqnstock, while manysupplypublic electricify networks, some projects werec*ated for pnvate commercial pu4roses. Fo! example, aluminium processing requires substantial amounrs ofelectricity,artdin Britain'sScottish Hjehlands th"r. *" u, flntoif"u"n _a. Lochaber, "*u_pt", designed and constlucted during theearly years of the20,n rr_r,*rr, the 'l a4_Blglqloestein, lake. dam andoowersrauonwere constructed "ffi in Suriname to provide electricity for the Abqa aluminumindustry.In many paft, otCJJaiA" provLnces of British Columbia.Maniroba.Ontario, Ouebecana}{ewfounatan--a anO Labrador) hydroelectricity is usedsoextensively thatrheword ,,hydro;i.iJ,o ."I.", ,o anyelectricitv delivered by a powerutiiity.The govemment-run porrerutirities m these prot'inces arecalledBC Hvdrc,Manitoba Hydro,HvdroOne(formerly,,Ontario Hydro',), Hvdro-Oudbec andNewfoundland andLabrador Hvdrorespectivelyflydro_ The energy extnctedfrom waterdepetrds not

is theworld,slargest Qudbec hydroelecrnc genentrng company, with a total installed capacity (:Qgt of 31,512MW.

Importance
Hydroelecrric powersupplies 20%of worldelectricity. Norwavprcduces virtuallyall of its electricity ftom hydro,while lceland g3% produces ofits requirements (ZQED, Austria produces 67Zo ofall electricitygenerated in thecountry from hydro(over70io of its requirements). Canada is thewo(ld,s largest producer ofhydro powerandproduces over 70%of irs electricitl. from hydroelecrric sources. Apartfrom a few countries with an abundance ofit, hydrocapacityis normallyapplied to peak-loaC demand, because it canbe readilystofed duringoff-peakhours(in fact, oumoed-storaqe hydroelectric rescrvoirs aresometirnes usedto storeelectricity produced by thermal plantsfor useduringpeakhours). k is nota majoroptionfor thefuturein the developed countries because mostmajorsites in these count eshavingpotential for hamessing gravityin this way areeitherbeingexploited aheadyor areunavailable for otherreasons suchas environmental considerations. Regions rvhere thermalplantsprovidethedominant supply ofpower utilizehydropower to providerheimportant firnctions ofload follo\ying aildregulation. This permitsthermal piantsto be operated closerto thermodynamicaliy optimal pointsrather thanvaded continuously, which reduces efficiency andpotentially increases pollutantemissions. Concurenrly, plants hydro arethenutilizedto provide for hour-to-hour adjustnents (load following)andto respond to changes in system frequency andvoltage(regulation), with no additional economic or environmental effect.

Advantages

Houseflooded since 1955,revealedfollowing prolonged dry

weather

nyurocrectnc Keservorr vlanden, Luxemboule (tower)

Hydroelectric Reservoi! Vianden, Luxembouq Themajoradvantage ofhydro systems is elimination ofthcostof fuel. Hydroelectdc plantsareimmune to priceitcleases for fossilfuelssuch asgi!, naturalsasor ggal and do not rcquireimported fuer.Hydroelechic plants tend to have long", ti.,o",tml.,n generation, with some "t-r*a plantsnowin servicc having been built 50 to I OO yealsago, Labo! costalsotends to be low since plantsaregenerally heavily automated andhavefew personnel olr siteduringnormaloperation. plantscuFentlyplovidethemostsignificant Pumped storase means of storage of energy on a scale usefulfor a utility, allowinglow_value generation in off-peaktimes(which

)'
"Ti

occurs because fossil-fuel plantscannot be entirclyshutdo\T on a dailybasis) to be used 1ostorewaterthatcanbe released duringhigh loaddailypeaks. Operation ofpumpedstorage plantsimproves the daily loadfactorofthe generation system. Reservoi6created by hydroelectric schemes oftenprovide excellent leisue facilitiesfor watersports. andbecome touristatt.actions in themselves. Multi-use damsinstalled for inigation,flood control,or recreation, may havea hydroelectric plantadded with relativelylow conslruclion cost,providinga usefulrevenue stream to offsetthecostof damoperation.

Disadvantages
ln practice, theutilization ofstoredwateris sometimes complicated by demand lbr itrisarionwhich mayoccurout ofphasewith peakelectricit), demand. Tirnesof drought cancause severe problems, since waterreplenishment latesmay not kecpup with desired usage rates. Minimumdischarge requirements represent an efficiency lossfor the station if it is uneconomic to installa smallturbineunit for thatflorv. Concems havebeen raised by environmentalists thatlargehydroelectric projects might be disruptive to sunounding aquatic ecosvstems. For instance, studies haveshownthat damsalongtheAtlanticandpacificcoasts ofNorth Americahavgreduced salmon populations by preventing access to spawnins grounds upsrream, evan,houffi, du., in salmonhabitat havefish ladders installed, Salmon g1qqtarealsoharmed-on their migrationto seawhentheymustpass though turbines. This hasredto someareas balqinssmoltdownstream dulingpartsofthe year.Turbine andpowe!_plant designs that areeasier on aquatic life arean activearea ofresearch. ceneration ofhydroelectric powe!canalsohavean impact on thedownstream'ver envlrorunent. Fi$t, waterexiti[g a tubine usuallycontains very little suspended sediment, which canleadto scouring ofriver bedsandlossofriverbanks. Second, since turbines are often openedintermittentry,rapid or evendaily fluctuationsin ver flow ale observed. In the GrandCanyon, thedaily cyclic flow variation caused by GlenCanvon Da& v,'asfound to be contributingto erosionof sandbars.Dissorved oxve;nte.rt of the watermay change from preceding conditions. Finany,warerexiting;; turbines is tlpically muchcolderthanthepre-dam water,whichcanchange aquatic faunal populations. including endaneered soecies.

emissions from thereservoir may be higherthantt o"eofu conu"ntionot oil-fired thermal generationplant reservoirsofcanada andNorthem lu. In bgrg&r Europe, however, greenhouse gasemissions aretypicallyonly 2 ," ,* *rnd conventional themal generation. "i"", " Anotherdisadvantage ofhydroelectric dams is theneed to relocate thepeople living lvhere thereservoirs planned. are In mr

or rhe rorests inthe a."u,"", ffi;:;::::ffi "nd"n"k:::'jo';qf greenhouse gas

Theresewoirs ofhydroelechic powerplants in topical regionsmayproduce subslantial amounts ofmethane andcarbon dioxide. This is dueto plantmateriat in n"*ly RooA"a andre-0ooded areas beinginundated with water, decaying in an a*.-Ui" and foming methane,a very potentgreerhouse "nr,.on_"*, qas.Th" i, ,"leosed,oro ue atmosphere oncethe water is discharged -ethane ftom thc damand tums the turbines,according to the $y'orldCommissionon Damsrcpor! wherc the reservoir is f*g" .;rn;*"a to th" generating capacity (lessthan 100wat

crearine fl"ff,d.no

important sitescanbe flooded and lost.Suchproblems havearisen at theThree Gorees Damp.j"O in Chnu,tf," Cfua" Dqq in New Zealand andtheIhsu Damin Southeastem Turkev.

ancesrrar and curtular u*u"n o,lt",'ffi ,,:l$:ffi1.":lt'ffi:ilil:Tr"no,o popularion. Additionally,historically andculturally

TheDnieperHydroelectric Station (1927-32) wasthe centerpiece oflg4i!,s GOELRO Finally,thecreation ofa damin a geologically inappropriate localionmaycause disasters iike the oneofthe VaiontDam in ltaly,wherc almost2000p"opledied,i; ;;;;

Some hydroelectric projectsalsoutilizecanals, typicallyto divert a river at a shallower gndientto increase the headofthe scheme, In some cases, the entireriver may be diverted leaving a dry riverbed. Examples include theTekapo andpukaki Rivers.

Hydro-electric facts
Oldest . Craeside. Rothbury, Eneland completed l!fQ.
Appleton. Wisconsin, !!\ completed on the Fox river -l!!2, A waterwheel supplied the first commercial hyd.oelectc powerfor lighting to two paper mills 'l anda house, t\\'o years after homas Edison dernonstrated incandescent liehtinc to thepublic.Within a matterofiveeksofthis installation, a powerplantwasalso put into commercial service at Minneapolis. DuckReaclr, f.aunccston. Tasmania. Completed 1895. Thefirstpublicly-owned hydro-electric plant in the Southem Hemisphere, Supplied powerto thecity of Launceston for street lighting. DecewFalls l, St. Catharines, Ontario, Canada completed 25 Augustlg9g. Owned by OntarioPowerGeneration. Fourunitsarc still operational. Recognized asanIEEEMilesrone in Elecrrical Engineering & Computing by rheIEEE Executive Committee in 2002.

Largesthydro-elctric powerstations

ItaipuOam

The hydroelectric powerstation ofAswan Dam,Egypt The La Grande Complexin Ouebec, Canada, is the lvorld,s largest bydroelectric genentingsystem. The eight generating stations ofthe complex havea total generating capacity of 16,021 MW. The Robert Bourassa station alone hasa capacityof5,6l6 MW. A ninth station (EastmainI ) is currently under conshuction andwill add4g0 MW to the total.An additional projecton thRupert River,cunently undergoing environmental assessments, wouldaddtwo stations with a combined capacity of ggg MW. It is believed thattheoldestllydro Powersitein theUnitedStates is locatecl on Claverack Creek, in Stottville, NY I 1721. The turbine, a Morgan Smith,wasconstructed in l g69 andinstalled 2 years later.[t is oneofthe earliest water wheelinstallations in theUnited States andalsogenerated electricity. It is owned today by EdisonHydro.

BrazillParaguay 19841199112003 14,000 MW 93.4TW-hous Venezuela 1986 10,200 MW 46 TW-hou$ UnitedStates t942/t980 6,809 MW 22.6TW-hours Savano Shushenskava Russia 1983 6,721 MW 23.6 TW-hours Robert-Bourassa Canada 1981 5,61M 6W Chu.chillFalls Canada 19'11 5,429 MW 35TW-hours Yacireta Algentina,/Paraguay 1998 4,050 MW l9.l TW-hours Iron Gates Romania/Serbia 1970 2,280 MW I1.3Tw-hours Aswan Egypt 1970 2,100 MW
These areranked by maximumpowe!. In progress

Itaipri Guri Grand Coulee

Ilsu Dam,oneofthe Southeastem Anatoliaproiect Damsin Turkev, Construction stdrted on Au'rust5. 2006. ThreeGorsesDam,China.First powerin July200f, scheduled completion 2q09,

18,200 Mw

Countries with the most hydro-electric capacity . . . . . . . r . Canada, 341,312 GWh (66,95.1 MW installed) cwh (19,51r USA,319,484 NtW installed) Brazil, 285,603 GWh(57,517 MW installed) cvh (65,000 ehE4, 204,300 MW installed) Russia, 169,700 OWh(46,100 MW installed) (2005) Nonuy, 121,824 CWh(27,528 MW iNtalled) Japan, 84,500 CWh (27,229 NfW installed) India,82,237 GWh (22,083 NIW installed) France.77,500 GWh(25,335 NIWinstalled)

These are 1999figuresandinclude pumoed-storaee hydroelectricity schemes. leditl

References
l. 2. 3. 4.
FluxesandProcesses. Sprineer. 732p.

tedu Seealso

Wikimedia Commons hasmedia related to: