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CHAPTER

2

CHAPTER 2 Sixth Edition MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. John T.

Sixth Edition

MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf David F. Mazurek

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Stress and Strain Axial Loading

© 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Contents

Stress & Strain: Axial Loading Normal Strain

Stress-Strain Test

Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity

Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior

Fatigue Deformations Under Axial Loading Example 2.01 Sample Problem 2.1

Static Indeterminacy

Example 2.04 Thermal Stresses Poisson’s Ratio

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Stress & Strain: Axial Loading

Suitability of a structure or machine may depend on the deformations in the structure as well as the stresses induced under loading. Statics analyses alone are not sufficient.

Considering structures as deformable allows determination of member forces and reactions which are statically indeterminate.

Determination of the stress distribution within a member also requires consideration of deformations in the member.

Chapter 2 is concerned with deformation of a structural member under axial loading. Later chapters will deal with torsional and pure bending loads.

Sixth

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Normal Strain

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Normal Strain Fig. 2.1 P A  L 

Fig. 2.1

P

A

L

stress

normal strain

 L   stress    normal strain  Fig. 2.3 Fig. 2.4  

Fig. 2.3

L   stress    normal strain  Fig. 2.3 Fig. 2.4   2

Fig. 2.4

 

2

P

P

P

 

 

2

A

A

A

 

2

 

L

2 L

 

L

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Stress-Strain Test

• Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Stress-Strain Test Fig 2.7 This machine is used to test

Fig 2.7 This machine is used to test tensile test specimens, such as those shown in this chapter.

tensile test specimens, such as those shown in this chapter. Fig 2.8 Test specimen with tensile

Fig 2.8 Test specimen with tensile load.

Sixth

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials

• Mazurek Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
• Mazurek Stress-Strain Diagram: Ductile Materials © 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sixth

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials

• Mazurek Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials Fig 2.1 Stress-strain diagram for a typical brittle
• Mazurek Stress-Strain Diagram: Brittle Materials Fig 2.1 Stress-strain diagram for a typical brittle

Fig 2.1 Stress-strain diagram for a typical brittle material.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity

DeWolf • Mazurek Hooke’s Law: Modulus of Elasticity Fig 2.16 Stress-strain diagrams for iron and different

Fig 2.16 Stress-strain diagrams for iron and different grades of steel.

Below the yield stress

E

E Youngs Modulus or Modulus of Elasticity

Strength is affected by alloying, heat treating, and manufacturing process but stiffness (Modulus of Elasticity) is not.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior

• DeWolf • Mazurek Elastic vs. Plastic Behavior Fig. 2.18 • If the strain disappears when

Fig. 2.18

If the strain disappears when the

stress is removed, the material is said to behave elastically.

The largest stress for which this

occurs is called the elastic limit.

When the strain does not return to zero after the stress is

removed, the material is said to

behave plastically.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Fatigue

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Fatigue Fig. 2.21 • Fatigue properties are shown on

Fig. 2.21

Fatigue properties are shown on S-N diagrams.

A member may fail due to fatigue at stress levels significantly below the ultimate strength if subjected

to many loading cycles.

When the stress is reduced below the endurance limit, fatigue failures do not occur for any number of cycles.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Deformations Under Axial Loading

• DeWolf • Mazurek Deformations Under Axial Loading Fig. 2.22 • From Hooke’s Law:  

Fig. 2.22

• From Hooke’s Law:

E

P

 

E

AE

From the definition of strain:

L

Equating and solving for the deformation,

PL

AE

With variations in loading, cross-section or

material properties,



i

P L

i

i

A E

i

i

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 2.01

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Example 2.01  6 29 D  1.07 in.

6

29

D 1.07 in.

E

10

psi

d 0.618in.

Determine the deformation of the steel rod shown under the

given loads.

SOLUTION:

Divide the rod into components at

the load application points.

Apply a free-body analysis on each component to determine the

internal force

Evaluate the total of the component deflections.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

SOLUTION:

Divide the rod into three

components:

Mazurek SOLUTION: • Divide the rod into three components: • Apply free-body analysis to each component

Apply free-body analysis to each component to determine internal forces,

P

1

P

2

P

3

60



15

30

3

10 lb

3

10 lb

3

10 lb

Evaluate total deflection,

PL

i

i

i

A E

i

i

1

1

1

P L

2

2

P L

3

3

E

A

A

P L

1

A

2

3

10

3

1

60

12

29

10

6

0.9

10

3

15

12

0.9

75.9

10

3

in.

10

3

30

16

0.3

L

1

A

1

L

2

A

2

12 in. 0.9 in

2

L

3

A

3

16 in.

0.3in

2

75.9

10

3

in.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 2.1

• Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sample Problem 2.1 The rigid bar BDE is supported by

The rigid bar BDE is supported by two

links AB and CD.

Link AB is made of aluminum (E = 70

GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of 500

mm 2 . Link CD is made of steel (E = 200

GPa) and has a cross-sectional area of (600

mm

2 ).

For

the 30-kN force shown, determine the

deflection a) of B, b) of D, and c) of E.

SOLUTION:

Apply a free-body analysis to the bar

BDE to find the forces exerted by

links AB and DC.

Evaluate the deformation of links AB and DC or the displacements of B

and D.

Work out the geometry to find the deflection at E given the deflections at B and D.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 2.1

SOLUTION:

Free body: Bar BDE

Problem 2.1 S O L U T I O N : Free body: Bar BDE 

M

0
B

0 

30 kN

0.6 m

F

CD

F

CD

 90 kN

tension

M

D

0

0 

30 kN

0.4 m

F

AB

F

AB

 60 kN

compression

Displacement of B:

PL   B AE  3   60  10 N 0.3m 
PL
B
AE
3

60
10 N 0.3m
-6
2

9
500
10
m
70
10
Pa
6

514
10
m

Displacement of D:

0.2 m

B

0.514mm

PL   D AE  3  90  10 N 0.4 m 
PL
D
AE
3

90
10
N
0.4 m
-6
2

9
0.2 m
600
10
m
200
10 Pa
6
300
10
m
D
 0.300mm 

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 2.1

• Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sample Problem 2.1 Displacement of D: BB  DD 
• Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Sample Problem 2.1 Displacement of D: BB  DD 

Displacement of D:

BB

DD

BH

HD

0.514 mm

0.300 mm

x 73.7 mm

EE

DD

HE

HD

E

0.300 mm

200 mm

x

 
 

x

400

73.7 mm

73.7 mm

E

1.928 mm

E

1.928mm

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Static Indeterminacy

Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Static Indeterminacy • Structures for which internal forces and reactions
Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Static Indeterminacy • Structures for which internal forces and reactions

Structures for which internal forces and reactions cannot be determined from statics alone are said to be statically indeterminate.

A structure will be statically indeterminate whenever it is held by more supports than are

required to maintain its equilibrium.

Redundant reactions are replaced with

unknown loads which along with the other

loads must produce compatible deformations.

Deformations due to actual loads and redundant

reactions are determined separately and then added or superposed.

L

R

0

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 2.04

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Example 2.04 Determine the reactions at A and B
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Example 2.04 Determine the reactions at A and B

Determine the reactions at A and B for the steel

bar and loading shown, assuming a close fit at

both supports before the loads are applied.

SOLUTION:

Consider the reaction at B as redundant, release

the bar from that support, and solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads.

Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant reaction at B.

Require that the displacements due to the loads

and due to the redundant reaction be compatible, i.e., require that their sum be zero.

Solve for the reaction at A due to applied loads

and the reaction found at B.

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 2.04

Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Example 2.04 SOLUTION: • Solve for the displacement at
Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Example 2.04 SOLUTION: • Solve for the displacement at

SOLUTION:

Solve for the displacement at B due to the applied loads with the redundant constraint released,

P

1

0

A

1

A

2

L L

1

2

L

i

P

2

P

3

400 10

600 10

6

m

2

3 N

A

3

L

3

PL

i

i

A E

i

i

L

4

0.150 m

1.125 10

9

E

P

4

A

4

900 10

3 N

250 10

6

m

2

Solve for the displacement at B due to the redundant constraint,

P P

1

2



R

B

A

1

400 10

6

m

2

A

2

250 10

L

1

δ

R

L

2

i

0.300 m

PL

i

i

A E

i

i



3

1.95 10

R

B

E

6

m

2

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Example 2.04

• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to the redundant reaction
• Require that the displacements due to the loads and due to
the redundant reaction be compatible,
 0
L
R
9
3
1.125 10
1.95 10
R
B
 0
E
E
3
R 
577
10
N
577 kN
B
• Find the reaction at A due to the loads and the reaction at B
 F
 
0
R
300kN
600kN
577kN
y
A
R
 323kN
A
R
A 323kN
R
B 577kN

Sixth

Edition

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS

Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Thermal Stresses

• Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Thermal Stresses • A temperature change results in a change
• Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek Thermal Stresses • A temperature change results in a change

A temperature change results in a change in length or thermal strain. There is no stress associated with the thermal strain unless the elongation is restrained by the supports.

Treat the additional support as redundant and apply the principle of superposition.

T

T L

P

PL

AE

thermal expansion coef.

The thermal deformation and the deformation from the redundant support must be compatible.

T

P

0

P

T



L

PL

AE

AE

T

P

A



E

0

T