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Multiple choice questions: Q1 A hydraulic jack has an input piston of area 0.050 m2 and an output piston of area 0.

70 m2. How much force on the input piston is required to lift a car weighing 1.2 x 103N? (a) 42 N (b) 68 N (c) 86 N (d) 110 N (e) 130 N Q3 What is the mass of a solid gold rectangular bar that has dimensions of 4.50 cm x 11.0 cm x 26.0 cm? The density of gold = 19.3 x 103 kg/m3 (a) 24.8 kg (b) 45.6 kg (c) 11.4 kg (d) 33.2 kg (e) 19.5 kg Q5 What is the pressure at the bottom of Loch Ness, which is as much as 754 ft deep? (The surface of the lake is only 15.8 m above sea level; hence, the pressure there can be taken to be 1.013 x 105 Pa.) (a) 1.52 x 105 Pa (b) 2.74 x 105Pa (c) 2.35 x 106Pa (d) 7.01 x 105Pa (e) 3.15 x 105 Pa Q6 A wooden block floats in water, and a solid steel object is attached to the bottom of the block by a string as shown. If the block remains floating, which of the following statements is valid? (Choose all correct statements.). (a) The buoyant force on the steel object is equal to its weight. (b) The buoyant force on the block is equal to its weight. (c) The tension in the string is equal to the weight of the steel object. (d) The tension in the string is less than the weight of the steel object. (e) The buoyant force on the block is equal to the weight of the volume of water it displaces.

Wood

steel

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Q7 A horizontal pipe narrows from a radius of 0.25 m to 0.1 m. If the speed of the water in the pipe is 1.00 m/s in the larger-radius pipe, what is the speed in the smaller pipe? (a) 4.50 m/s (b) 2.50 m/s (c) 3.75 m/s (d) 6.25 m/s (e) 5.13 m/s Q10 Three vessels of different shapes are filled to the same level with water as shown. The area of the base is the same for all three vessels. Which of the following statements is valid? (a) The pressure at the top surface of vessel A is greatest because it has the largest surface area. (b) The pressure at the bottom of vessel A is greatest because it contains the most water. (c) The pressure at the bottom of each vessel is the same. (d) The force on the bottom of each vessel is not the same. (e) At a given depth below the surface of each vessel, the pressure on the side of vessel A is greatest because of its slope.

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Q11 A solid iron sphere and a solid lead sphere of the same size are each suspended by strings and are submerged in a tank of water. (Note that density of lead is greater than that of iron.) Which of the following statements are valid? (Choose all correct statements.) (a) The buoyant force on each is the same. (b) The buoyant force on the lead sphere is greater than the buoyant force on the iron sphere because lead has the greater density. (c) The tension in the string supporting the lead sphere is greater than the tension in the string supporting the iron sphere. (d) The buoyant force on the iron sphere is greater than the buoyant force on the lead sphere because lead displaces more water. (e) None of those statements is true. PROBLEMS: Q6 The four tyres of an automobile are inflated to a gauge pressure of 2.0 x 105 Pa. Each tyre has an area of 0.024 m2 in contact with the ground. Determine the weight of the automobile. Q9 A 200 kg load is hung on a wire of length 4.00 m, cross-sectional area 0.200 x 104 m2, and Youngs modulus 8.00 x 1010 N/m2. What is its increase in length? Q16 A high-speed lifting mechanism supports an 800-kg object with a steel cable that is 25.0 m long and 4.00 cm2 in cross-sectional area. (a) Determine the elongation of the cable. (b) By what additional amount does the cable increase in length if the object is accelerated upward at a rate of 3.0 m/s2? (c) What is the greatest mass that can be accelerated upward at 3.0 m/s2 if the stress in the cable is not to exceed the elastic limit of the cable, which is 2.2 x 108 Pa?

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Q19 Determine the elongation of the composite rod shown if it is under a tension of 5.8 x 103 N. Its diameter is 4 mm

aluminium

copper

1.3 m

2.6 m

Q21: (a) Calculate the absolute pressure at the bottom of a fresh-water lake at a depth of 27.5 m. Assume the density of the water is 1000 kg/m3 and the air above is at a pressure of 101.3 kPa. (b) What force is exerted by the water on the window of an underwater vehicle at this depth if the window is circular and has a diameter of 35.0 cm? Q22: Mercury is poured into a U-tube as shown. The left arm of the tube has cross- sectional area A1 of 10.0 cm2, and the right arm has a cross-sectional area A2 of 5.00 cm2. One hundred grams of water are then poured into the right arm as shown. (a) Determine the length of the water column in the right arm of the U-tube. (b) Given that the relative density of mercury is 13.6, what distance h does the mercury rise in the left arm?

Q24

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The deepest point in the ocean is in the Mariana Trench, about 11 km deep. The pressure at 9 the ocean floor is huge, about 1.13 x 108 N/m2. Bulk modulus = 2.1 x 10 Pa (a) Calculate the change in volume of 1.00 m3 of water carried from the surface to the bottom of the Pacific. (b) The density of water at the surface is 1030 kg/m3. Find its density at the bottom. (c) Explain whether or when it is a good approximation to think of water as incompressible.

Q25

A container is filled to a depth of 20.0 cm with water. On top of the water floats a 30.0 cm thick layer of oil with specific gravity 0.700. What is the absolute pressure at the bottom of the container?
Q26 Blaise Pascal duplicated Torricellis barometer using a red Bordeaux wine, of density 984 kg/m3 as the working liquid. (a) What was the height h of the wine column for normal atmospheric pressure? (b) Would you expect the vacuum above the column to be as good as for mercury?

Q29 A table-tennis ball has a diameter of 3.80 cm and average density of 0.084 g/cm3. What force is required to hold it completely submerged under water?

Q32

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A 62.0-kg survivor of a cruise line disaster rests on top of a block of Styrofoam insulation, using it as a raft. The Styrofoam has dimensions 2.00 m x 2.00 m x 0.09 m. The bottom 0.024 m of the raft is sub- merged. (a) Draw a force diagram of the system consisting of the survivor and raft. (b) Write Newtons second law for the system in one dimension, using B for buoyancy, w for the weight of the survivor, and wr for the weight of the raft. (c) Calculate the numeric value for the buoyancy, B. (Seawater has density 1 025 kg/m3.) (d) Using the value of B and the weight w of the survivor, calculate the weight wr of the Styrofoam. (e) What is the density of the Styrofoam? (f) What is the maximum buoyant force, corresponding to the raft being submerged up to its top surface? (g) What total mass of survivors can the raft support?

Q33
A wooden block of volume 5.24 x 10-4 m3 floats in water, and a small steel object of mass m is placed on top of the block. When m = 0.310 kg, the system is in equilibrium, and the top of the wooden block is at the level of the water. (a) What is the density of the wood? (b) What happens to the block when the steel object is replaced by a second steel object with a mass less than 0.310 kg? What happens to the block when the steel object is replaced by yet another steel object with a mass greater than 0.310 kg? Q37 On October 21, 2001, Ian Ashpole of the United Kingdom achieved a record altitude of 3.35 km (11 000 ft) powered by 600 toy balloons filled with helium. Each filled balloon had a radius of about 0.50 m and an estimated mass of 0.30 kg. Take the density of air as 1.29 kg/m3 (a) Estimate the total buoyant force on the 600 balloons. (b) Estimate the net upward force on all 600 balloons. (c) Ashpole parachuted to Earth after the balloons began to burst at the high altitude and the system lost buoyancy. Why did the balloons burst?

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Q38 The gravitational force exerted on a solid object is 5.00 N as measured when the object is suspended from a spring scale as shown. When the suspended object is submerged in water, the scale reads 3.50 N. Find the density of the object.

Q44 Water flowing through a garden hose of diameter 2.74 cm fills a 25.0-L bucket in 1.50 min. (a) What is the speed of the water leaving the end of the hose? (b) A nozzle is now attached to the end of the hose. If the nozzle diameter is one-third the diameter of the hose, what is the speed of the water leaving the nozzle? Q46 A liquid ( = 1.65 g/cm3) flows through a horizontal pipe of varying cross section as shown. In the first section, the cross-sectional area is 10.0 cm2, the flow speed is 275 cm/s, and the pressure is 1.20 x 105 Pa. In the second section, the cross-sectional area is 2.50 cm2. Calculate the smaller sections (a) flow speed (b) and (b) pressure.

Q52 Water moves through a constricted pipe in steady, ideal flow. At the lower point shown the pressure is 1.75 x 105 Pa and the pipe radius is 3.00 cm. At the higher point located at y = 2.50 m, the pressure is 1.20 x 105 Pa and the pipe radius is 1.50 cm. Find the speed of flow (a) in the lower section (b) in the upper section. (c) Find the volume flow rate through the pipe.

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Q55 The inside diameters of the larger portions of the horizontal pipe depicted are 2.50 cm. Water flows to the right at a rate of 1.80 x 10-4 m3/s. Determine the inside diameter of the constriction.

Q58 The Venturi tube shown may be used as a fluid flowmeter. Suppose the device is used at a service station to measure the flow rate of gasoline ( = 700 kg/m3) through a hose having an outlet radius of 1.20 cm. If the difference in pressure is measured to be p1 - p2 = 1.20 kPa and the radius of the inlet tube to the meter is 2.40 cm, find (a) the speed of the gasoline as it leaves the hose and (b) the fluid flow rate in cubic metres per second.

Q77 An iron block of volume 0.20 m3 is suspended from a spring scale and immersed in a flask of water. Then the iron block is removed, and an aluminum block of the same volume replaces it. (a) In which case is the buoyant force the greatest, for the iron block or the aluminum block? (b) In which case does the spring scale read the largest value? (c) Use the known densities of these materials to calculate the quantities requested in parts (a) and (b). Are your calculations consistent with your previous answers to parts (a) and (b)? Q90 Oil having a density of 930 kg/m3 floats on water. A rectangular block of wood 4.00 cm high and with a density of 960 kg/m3 floats partly in the oil and partly in the water. The oil completely covers the block. How far below the interface between the two liquids is the bottom of the block?

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