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Protection Relays


MiCOM P145
Feeder Management Relay
MiCOM P145 feeder management relay provides an integrated solution for the complete protection, control and monitoring of overhead lines and underground cables from distribution to transmission voltage levels. A customizable user interface and programmable graphical scheme logic provides simple and flexible application. The integrated user function keys and tri-color programmable LEDS provide a cost effective solution for full feeder scheme applications. Simply combine the relay with a P891 (trip/ close module) and P991 (test block) in a frame, and a complete 19 rack mounted feeder scheme is engineered. Use the function keys to replace control scheme switches and save on engineering time and wiring costs. With optional High Speed - High Break contacts, the high break performance ensures no burnout of contacts during normal operation or situations such as breaker failure, or defective CB auxiliary contacts. The need for external electromechanical trip relays can be reduced/ removed by transferring the high rating and durability duties into the MiCOM device thus giving further application and cost benefits. Numerous integrated communication protocols, including IEC 61850, provides interfacing to almost any Substation Automation System or SCADA systems. Development is continuous to ensure compatibility with the latest protocol enhancements. A range of hardware interfaces are available for easy integration into any new or legacy system.

 1A & 5A in same relay  Wide auxiliary supply voltage range  Programmable Function Keys  Flexible LED indication  Option of multiple communication protocol and interfaces, including IEC 61850  High break output contact capability internal to main protection - no reliance on auxiliary devices

With a wide range of protection functions and relay exibility, the MiCOM P145 is suitable for application on varied network requirements from solidly grounded systems to the more specialized Petersen Coil grounded system requirements.

Protection Relays

MiCOM P145



50/51/67 50N/51N/67N 67N 67W YN 64 SenRefPDIF

IEC 61850

Directional / non-directional, instantaneous / time delayed phase overcurrent (6 stage) Directional / non-directional, instantaneous / time delayed, measured earth fault (4 stage) Sensitive directional earthfault (SEF/ I Cos j, I Sin j) Wattmetric earthfault Neutral admittance protection Restricted earthfault Blocked overcurrent Selective overcurrent Cold load pick-up

10 18 32 32 Option Option Option Option

51V 46 49 37P / 37N 27 59 59N 47 81U 81O 81R 81RF 81RAV VtpPhsPTUV VtpPhsPTOV VtpResPTOV NgvPTOV PTUF PTOF PFRC NgcPTOC ThmPTTR

Voltage controlled overcurrent Directional / non-directional negative sequence overcurrent (4 stage) RMS thermal overload (single / dual time constant) Phase and neutral undercurrent Under voltage (2 stage) Over voltage (2 stage) Residual over voltage (Neutral displacement) (2 stage) Negative sequence overvoltage Under frequency (9 stage) - Advanced Over frequency (9 stage) - Advanced Rate of Change of Frequency Protection (9 stage) - Advanced Frequency supervised rate of change of frequency (9 stage) Advanced Average rate of change of frequency (9 stage) Advanced Frequency based load restoration (9 stage) Advanced Rate of change of voltage protection (2 stage)

BC 50BF VTS CTS 49SR 79 25 32R/32L/32O FnkGGIO LedGGIO OptGGIO RlyGGIO RREC RSYN 2nd Harm Block RBRF

Broken conductor (open jumper) Circuit breaker failure (1/3 pole initiation) Voltage transformer supervision (1, 2 & 3 phase fuse failure detection) Current transformer supervision Silicon rectier overload protection 4 shot three pole auto reclose Check synchronising (2 stage) + System Split 2nd Harmonic Blocking Phase segregated power Sensitive power Function Keys Programmable LEDs (tri-color) Digital inputs (maximum) * Output relays (maximum) (Hi Break-Hi Speed options) * Front communication port (RS232) Rear communication port (Kbus/RS485) Rear communication port (RS485/Optic/Ethernet) Second rear communication port (RS232/RS485) Time synchronisation port (IRIG B modulated/un-modulated) InterMiCOM teleprotection for direct relay - relay communication EIA (RS) 232 for MODEM links upto 19.2kbit/sec

* Please note that there is a maximum on the I/O combination

Protection Relays

MiCOM P145


Functional Overview (Description of ANSI code nos. see Function Overview)

IEC 61850

2nd Remote Remote comm. port port

Remote Remote comm. port port Self monitoring monitoring

Local Communication Communication

Fault Fault records records Measurements Measurements 37P/ 37N

Disturbance Disturbance Record Record

Vref I V IE sen


50N/ 51N

67/ 67N

67N/67W 67N/67W /64







27/ 59


81U/81O 81U/81O /81R








Function Keys

Binary Input / output

always available optional

Fee de r Manage me nt P145


Typical P145 Scheme Application

The MiCOM P145 relay offers integral overcurrent and earth-fault protection as well as numerous protection functions. It is suitable for application on solidly grounded, impedance grounded, Petersen coil grounded and isolated systems.
Close Trip

+ Close T 2 2 2 2 1 + Trip 1 8 8 8 9 8 9 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27

+ Trip 52A 52B

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28

Va Vb Vc


Full Scheme Application The relay is especially suitable where a complete scheme solution is required and comprises function keys for integral scheme control functionality. The application shows the P145 combined with the P891 and P991 to provide a complete feeder scheme solution. The P891 provides relay independent tripping and closing functionality where required. This functionality can also be integrated with the P145 to make use of relay functions such as check synchronising or autoreclosing.

Close PB Input CB Closed A B Trip PB C Input CB Open

SEF Shorting Bars

Reduce engineering and wiring costs with this single box feeder management relay

Protection Relays

MiCOM P145



In addition to the wide range of protection functions listed in the table, the P145 has the following integral measurement, control, monitoring, post fault analysis and self-diagnostic functions. Measurement of all instantaneous & integrated values Circuit breaker control, status & condition monitoring. Trip circuit and coil supervision 4 alternative setting groups Programmable Function Keys Control inputs Fault locator Programmable scheme logic Programmable allocation of digital inputs and outputs Sequence of event recording Comprehensive disturbance recording (waveform capture) User configurable LEDs (tri-color) Local and remote communication ports Multiple communication protocol and interface options Time synchronisation Fully customizable menu texts Multi level password protection Power-up diagnostics and continuous self-monitoring of relay Read Only Mode Enhanced opto input time stamping Enhanced Check Syn. feature

Choice of IDMT Characteristics IEC/UK curves TMS = 1


100 Operating time (s) 10 UK LT I IEC SI 1 RECT IEC VI IEC EI 0. 1 1 10 Current (Multiples of Is) 100

IEEE/US curves TD = 7
10 0


10 Operating time (s) 1 IEEE MI IEEE VI US CO2 US CO8 IEEE EI 1 10 Current (Multiples of Is) 100 0.1

Protection functions are autonomous and can be individually configured or disabled to suit a particular application. Phase Overcurrent Six independent stages are available for each phase overcurrent element and the two ground fault elements. The first ground-fault element operates from measured quantities and the second element operates from derived quantities calculated from the three phase currents. Each stage may be selected as non-directional or directional (forward/ reverse). All stages have definite time delayed characteristics and three of the stages may also be independently set to IDMT tripping characteristic. The IDMT stages have a programmable reset timer for grading electro-mechanical, to reduce autoreclose dead times and to reduce clearance times where intermittent faults occur. A voltage controlled overcurrent function can be enabled on the first two stages of the main phase overcurrent elements. Voltage controlled overcurrent provides back-up protection for remote phase faults whilst remaining insensitive to load. The directionality of the ground fault elements is provided by either residual voltage or negative sequence voltage polarising.

Use MiCOM P145 for rapid and selective clearance of system faults

Protection Relays

MiCOM P145


Negative Sequence Overcurrent Four independent stages are available and each stage may be selected as non-directional or directional (forward/reverse). All stages have definite time delayed characteristics and two of the stages may also be independently set to IDMT tripping characteristic. Directionality is achieved with negative sequence voltage polarising. Sensitive Earth Fault A separate four stage sensitive ground fault element is provided and is selected as non-directional or directional (forward or reverse). Directionality of the element is provided by the residual voltage polarising. As an alternative, a directional I cos j characteristic can be used for Petersen coil ground fault protection using the sensitive ground fault input. A directional I sin j characteristic is also available for protection of insulated systems. Neutral Admittance Protection Three single stage elements are provided for non-directional overadmittance, non-directional/directional over-conductance and nondirectional/directional over-susceptance. Restricted Earth Fault Restricted earth fault protection is provided for protection of transformer winding against ground faults and may be configured as either high impedance or low impedance biased differential.

Under/Overvoltage & Rate of Change of Voltage Under/overvoltage protection may be configured to operate from either phase-phase or phaseneutral quantities. Two independent stages with definite time elements are available and one of the stages can also be configured as an inverse characteristic. Two stages of rate of change of voltage protection elements are also available, which are independently settable. Residual Overvoltage Residual overvoltage protection is available for detecting ground faults in high impedance grounded or isolated systems. The neutral voltage is derived from the three phase voltage inputs. Two independent measuring elements with definite time characteristics are available, one of the elements can also be configured to have an inverse characteristic. Negative sequence overvoltage protection provides either a tripping or an interlocking function, upon detection of unbalanced supply voltages. Frequency Nine stages each of over frequency, under frequency, rate of change of frequency, frequency supervised rate of change of frequency, average rate of change of frequency, frequency based load shedding during severe system disturbances. Phase Segregated Power Two stages of power protection are provided and each stage can be independently configured to operate as Over power or Under Power and Forward or Reverse direction. The relays provide a standard 3 phase power protection element and also a single phase power protection element. Sensitive Power Two stages of sensitive power protection are provided, these can be independently selected as reverse power, over power, low forward power or disabled depending upon the operating condition.

REF biased differential characteristics


Operate K2 Restrain


0% to 20% 0.08 to 1. 0I n 0.10 to 1. 5 I n

K2 0% to 150%

I s1 I s2

I s1


I s2


2nd Harmonic Blocking The 2nd Harmonic Blocking detects high inrush current inflows that occur when transformers or machines are connected. The function will block the Phase over current, Earth fault, Sensitive Earth fault and Negative sequence over current.

RMS Thermal Overload Thermal overload protection provides both alarm and trip stages. The thermal element may be set with either a single time constant characteristic for the protection of cables or dry transformers, or a dual time constant characteristic to protect oil filled transformers. In the event of loss of auxiliary supply, the thermal state is stored in non-volatile memory.

Autoreclose The P145 provide three-pole multi-shot autoreclosing. The user may select a single, two, three or four shot autoreclose cycle, with independently settable dead times and reclaim time. Autoreclose can be initiated from the internal protection elements or from external protection via an opto input. Advanced features include live line working and sequence coordination.

Protection Relays

MiCOM P145


Check Synchronism An adaptive two stage check synchronism function is available for use in conjunction with automatic or manual (re)closure. This function also provides advanced signal indication of system conditions and can for example be used in situations where slip frequency and phase angle for synchro check changes under certain system conditions.
0 Check Sync Stage 1 Limits VBUS Live Volts Nominal Volts Rotating Vector VLINE Dead Volts Check Sync Stage 2 Limits

CoNTroL aNd INdIcaTIoN

Programmable Scheme Logic Programmable scheme logic allows the user to customize the protection and control functions. It is also used to programme the functionality of the optically isolated inputs, relay outputs and LED indications. The programmable scheme logic comprises of gate logic and general purpose timers. The gate logic includes OR, AND and majority gate functions, with the ability to invert the inputs and outputs, and provide feedback. The programmable scheme logic is configured using the graphical MiCOM S1 Studio PC based support software. Function Keys Ten function keys are available for implementing scheme control functionality. The function keys operate in two modes, normal and toggled, and activate associated signals in PSL that can easily be used to customize the application. The following examples illustrate how scheme functionality can easily be implemented for use with the function keys. Remote CB control enable/disable Auto-reclose enable/disable Sensitive earth fault enable/disable Auto-reclose lockout reset Each function key has an associated tri-color LED (red, green, yellow) allowing for clear indication of the associated functions state.

1180 System Split Limits

Circuit Breaker Failure Protection Two stage circuit breaker failure protection may be used for tripping upstream circuit breakers and retripping of the local circuit breaker if required. The circuit breaker failure logic may also be initiated from a single pole condition from external devices if required. Voltage Transformer Supervision Voltage transformer supervision is provided to detect loss of one, two or three VT signals, providing indication and inhibition of voltage dependent protection elements. An optically isolated input may also be configured to initiate the voltage transformer supervision alarm and blocking when used with MCBs or other external forms of voltage transformer supervision. Current Transformer Supervision Current transformer supervision is provided to detect loss of phase CT signals and inhibit the operation of current dependent protection elements.

Circuit Breaker Control Circuit breaker control is available from the front panel user interface, optically isolated inputs and remotely via the substation communications. Blocking of Circuit breaker control can also be done via the function keys when programmed in PSL. Indication Eighteen tri -color LEDs are available for user programming. The LED colors (red, green or yellow) are driven via digital databus signals in PSL and can be programmed to indicate up to four conditions/states. For example: Off- Not in service, Red- CB closed, Green-CB open, Yellow-CB not healthy

Programmable Scheme Logic Editor (MiCOM S1 Studio) indicating function key application

Protection Relays

MiCOM P145


Trip Circuit Supervision Supervision of the trip circuit in both circuit breaker open and closed states can be realised using the optically isolated inputs and programmable scheme logic. Circuit Breaker State Monitoring An alarm will be generated if there is a discrepancy between the open and closed auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker. Broken Conductor The broken conductor protection detects unbalanced conditions caused by broken conductors, maloperation of single phase of switchgear or by single phasing conditions. It operates on the ratio of I2 to I1. Circuit Breaker Condition Monitoring The circuit breaker condition monitoring features include: Monitoring the number of breaker trip operations Recording the sum of the broken current quantity IX, 1.0 x 2.0 Monitoring the breaker operating time Fault frequency counter

INformaTIoN INTErfacES

Two communication ports are available as standard; a rear port providing remote communications and a front port providing local communications. The front RS232 port has been designed for use with MiCOM S1 Studio, which fully supports functions within the relay by providing the ability to programme the settings off-line, configure the programmable scheme logic, extract and view event, disturbance and fault records, view the measurement information dynamically and perform control functions. The default remote communications are based on RS485 voltage levels. Any of the protocols listed below can be chosen at the time of ordering. Courier / K-bus (optic interface also available) Modbus (optic interface also available) IEC60870-5-103 (optic interface also available) DNP 3.0 (optic interface also available) IEC 61850 (over 100 Mbit/s fiber/copper Ethernet) IEC 61850 is available when the optional Ethernet port is ordered. IEC 61850 offers high-speed data exchange, peer-to-peer communication, reporting, disturbance record extraction and time synchronization. Redundant Ethernet is available in various options (Self healing ring, RSTP and Dual homing star). P145 has 128 virtual inputs with an improved GOOSE performance.

Integration of P145 into a substation control system

SCADA Interface

Master clock (GPS)

Remote Access

IRIG-B Port SCADA Interface P145

An optional second rear courier communications port is available which may be configured as RS232, RS485 or K-Bus.

EIA232 (local access) Px30 Px20 Px20


P145 provides up-to-date versatile communication options

Protection Relays

MiCOM P145


DEVIcE TracK rEcord

 MODN launched in 1998 and over 2.000 sold units.  P14x MiCOM series introduced in 1999. Worldwide application, with over 10.000 units delivered.  Introduction of phase II hardware of MiCOM P14x in 2002.  Addition of UCA2 protocol and ethernet port in 2004  Addtion of IEC 61850 protocol in 2006

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