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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 1: "A Twisted History" (Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel)

by: Charles N. Pope HOME | BOOK ONLINE | REFERENCE ESSAYS | LINKS | DISCUSSION

by: Charles N. Pope

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs

Chapter 1

"Sons of a Greater Goddess" (Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel)

by Charles N. Pope Copyright ©1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

The God-Man Adam

In the mythology of ancient Egypt, the god who arrived first on the Earth was called Atum, signifying "Totality." Atum, as with Biblical Adam, was naked and required a civilizing influence. "The loincloth given to Atum served less to clothe him, in the strict sense of the word, than to permit him to manifest his royalty by means of a specific garment." a One cannot help but compare the royal undergarment of Atum with the fig leaf loincloth made for Biblical Adam. In the Egyptian creation story, the first goddess, Tefnut, was said to come forth out of Atum. One of her Mesopotamian nicknames was Nin-ti, meaning "Lady Life," or "The Lady (Who Makes) Live." S.N. Kramer states that ti is also the Sumerian word for "rib," therefore Nin-ti could variously be interpreted as "the Lady of the Rib." b In the Bible, Eve is of course formed from the rib of Adam.

The Hebrew name Adam means "a man, ruddy." Genesis 2:23 (KJV) c states: "she [Eve] was taken out of man." However, the Hebrew word translated in this particular verse as "man" is not Adam but iysh (376). d Like the Egyptian name Atum, this word iysh also conveys a sense of both unity and totality. It is commonly translated elsewhere in the Bible as "every, everyone," i.e., all men. There is an obvious phonic similarity between Adam and Atum. A true linguistic link is also not so unreasonable given that the names of all of the other major Egyptian deities have definite Semitic etymologies. 1

In the Bible, Adam and Eve become the parents of rival sons Cain and Abel. Genesis 4:1 (KJV) states: "And Adam knew Eve his wife; and she conceived, and bare Cain, and said, I have gotten a man from the Lord." The Schocken Bible translates the last part of this verse as, "I-have-gotten a man, as has YHWH!" The phrase "I have gotten a man" is the Hebrew kaniti iysh. Kaniti is a word play with the name Cain/Kayin. The use of iysh, "everyone," again serves to designate that it is a god who has been born. The final phrase, "as has YHWH," explains why. In the Patriarchal bias of Genesis, Cain was a god, because his father was also considered to be a god.

We are next told that Cain struck down his younger and more favored brother Abel, and that his blood cried out from the ground. Among the ancient pantheon, the god Anu can be identified as the Biblical Cain. According to the Hittite epic "Kingship in Heaven," Anu attacked his more favored brother Alal and caused him to go "down to the dark earth." e This is a metaphor for murder. After vanquishing his superior Alal (Abel), Anu (Cain) was then attacked by a mysterious avenger named

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 1: "A Twisted History" (Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel)

Kingu. f Kingu was also defeated, but not before injuring the genitals of Anu. Kingu is not explicitly mentioned in the Book of Genesis, however Cain speaks personally of the injury sustained to his male organ in Genesis 4:13. The King James Version reads, "My punishment is greater than I can bear." However, the graphic, literal translation of this verse is: "My perversity/bent-ness g is more twisted/elongated h than I can lift/make rise. i "

Cain (Anu) retained his throne, but was exiled. His chastening also included at least temporary loss of sexual powers. Yet, out of recognition of his importance and concern for his security, he was given a form of protection. 2 According to Jewish tradition, the mark of Cain was a "set of horns capable of warding off potential attackers." j In Mesopotamian tradition, the horned cap designated a god-king. The god Cain (Anu/El) was strangely absent from the day-to-day affairs of the "world." It has been commonly assumed that this was by choice, but the Bible indicates otherwise. Nevertheless, he was celebrated for the triumph over his brother Abel (Alal), and was called "First Among the Gods." Consistent with this, the genealogy of Cain given in Genesis is that of the kingly succession among the gods known to us from archaeology and myth.

Biblical Cain was a farmer. For lack of rain, the ground was "cursed" and would not provide abundant yields during his reign. The gods did engage in agriculture, but also broke or "tilled" the soil in search of precious stones and metals. The name Cain does not actually mean "farmer," but a "smith." In a manner of speaking, Cain had beaten his ploughshare into a sword in order to strike down the herdsman Abel. This imagery reflects the author's bias that shepherding was a more noble occupation than farming. It was also a subtle denouncement of the great river cultures of Mesopotamia and Egypt. It was there that "Vulcan" kings claiming authority and descent from god- king Cain (Anu) put an iron yoke on their less fortunate brothers, especially for cultivating the irrigated fields of temple and state, and as conscripts in the military. In turn, those same kings came to see themselves as enslaved by a system that emulated the vicious cycle of the gods, and which was made all the more tragic given the shorter life spans of mortal men.

Her Story or His Story?

In the Greek (Olympian) creation myth, male and female roles are reversed. It was not a god, but Gaia ("Mother Earth") who emerged first from the watery chaos and produced Uranus (Anu of Mesopotamian), the "First Father." Uranus (Anu/Cain) then became the consort of Gaia and sired the first gods. k In another (Pelasgian) version of the Greek creation myth, it is again a goddess Eurynome ("Wide Wandering") who "moved upon the face of the waters." l Through her initiative she located Ophion, "Native Snake," and mated with him. However, strife soon arose between the first couple. Eurynome "bruised his head with her heel, kicked out his teeth, and banished him." m This event is echoed in Genesis 3: 15 (KJV), which reads: "And I will put enmity between thee [the serpent] and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel."

Combining the two Greek accounts, the goddess first mated with an indigenous hominoid male, and then with her own son by that male. Her grandsons, the first gods, would have possessed 3/4ths of her own genes (in round terms). The next generation of gods, if also birthed by her, would have possessed 7/8ths of her original genes. From the Greek perspective, it is the sons of the goddess ("sons of Gaia") n who are all-important in the creation of the new race. Gaia may have required a wet nurse from among the indigenous females. However, after acquiring a son by the native male, she would have had no further use for him. Ophion (timid Atum/Adam) was literally kicked out of her garden.

In Egyptian mythology, the god Atum hovered over the Nun (waters of chaos) in the form of the

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 1: "A Twisted History" (Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel)

Benu Bird or Phoenix until a dry place was found for him to alight. He was "self-created," and originally alone. In a variant of the Egyptian creation myth, Atum was animated and gave birth to the god Shu (Enlil) and the goddess Tefnut/Hathor (Nin-ti) while still in the Nun. Atum brought Tefnut and Shu into being either through the act of masturbation or by spitting them out of his mouth. Rather than acknowledge the need to mate with a goddess or native female, Atum was said to produce offspring completely on his own, or by some artificial means. However, the memory of an original goddess was preserved in part. "In general terms the feminine complement to the solar creator [Atum] is the goddess Hathor, but for the aspect of aide to creation the Egyptians used a more specific name, Iusaas 'She who grows as she comes'." o Iusaas is depicted as a goddess. The epithet "grows as she comes" seems to imply that she also was "self-created" in the same sense as Atum. In some accounts, she was considered the progenitor of Shu and Tefnut rather than Atum. p After the birth of Tefnut/Hathor (through Iusaas/Gaia or other means), Atum was then instructed by the Nun to kiss (couple with?) her so that his heart (genome?) might live. Although less explicit than Greek myths, Egyptian sources also suggest that reconstitution of genes may have been necessary. In both cases it was accomplished through a process of parent-child inbreeding.

Another common characteristic of Greek, Egyptian and Hebrew creation stories is that the original male and female are not "created equal" or together. One precedes the other in time, and therefore in importance. In Greek myth, the goddess appears to mate with an "Adam" of the older race or species and subsequently dominates him. In Egyptian myth, it is Atum who arrives out of the blue and becomes the first god. In the Hebrew account of Genesis, we are told that Eve was formed from the "rib" of Adam, and woman is therefore to be subjugated to man. However, the subtle word play of the patristic author encodes the critical role of the goddess "Ti" (Hathor/Nin-ti) in the creation of the human race. Looking beyond the age-old battle of the sexes, 3 the Bible and other ancient stories may preserve that a new race or even species is "created" with help from a pre-existing one. In a practical sense, the new beings might not otherwise have a fully effective immune system, and possibly lack other genetic adaptations needed to survive and thrive.

Egyptian and Hebrew accounts may not be purely the product of misogyny. Creative procedure might be partly to blame. Let us assume that Greek creation myths are the more accurate, and that modern man resulted from interbreeding with a "superior" woman (from whatever origin). Ophion would have been of a previous "creation," and in that sense, was "first." Moreover, the mission of this newly arrived "goddess" would have initially been to produce male offspring (sons and grandsons) who possessed a high percentage of her own genome. The sons of the goddess Gaia were the "sons of God." Any daughters of Ophion/Atum would have been the equals of their brothers, but possibly still of secondary importance for inbreeding purposes.

Ironically, the male would be given priority in a new creation brought on by a goddess (Gaia). Only after "gods" were created would the task change to producing sister-wives for them who were of like quality (see next chapter). In this two-step process, mother-son conjugations would precede father-daughter unions. Both types were prominent among the first gods and goddesses as attested in mythology. Half-sister marriages were also common, especially among the younger gods and goddesses. Upon the "arrival" of a new genetic strain, the goal would have been to first mate with an older line, and then breed out most of their traits. Assuming this was the case, it may make the extent of our genetic inheritance or lack thereof from extinct ancestors such as Neanderthals very difficult to determine. However, we can't expect to fully understand the various creation myths until we better understand our own genome and its relation to earlier hominoids.

From analysis of the paternal Y-Chromosome, the common male ancestor of modern man is estimated to have lived about 50,000 years ago. This does not necessarily mean that this "Adam" was "created" 50,000 years ago. It may only mean that all competing lines died out. Based on

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 1: "A Twisted History" (Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel)

studies of the maternal mitochondrial (mt) DNA, the common female ancestor was once thought to have lived at least 200,000 years ago. However, it has recently been discovered that the mutation rate of mtDNA is twenty times greater than that of the Y-Chromosome. This means that genetic "Eve" is not far older than genetic "Adam" after all, but could be of equal age or even considerably younger. 4 It is not at this time possible to say whether there is a mismatch between the Y- Chromosome and mtDNA of modern humans. Nor does it seem possible to determine whether our common ancestors started with a clean genome, i.e., were created in the traditional sense. Therefore, exploration of the full inner workings of DNA emerges as the ultimate historical pursuit.

a. Meeks and Favard-Meeks, Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, p 59, citing Goyon, Confirmation, p 62 (III, 13).

b. S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 159.

c. King James Version

d. Numerical values represent the index number in Strong's Concordance.

e. James Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, p120.

f. See next chapter for additional discussion of Kingu.

g. Heb. avon (5771) from avah.

h. Heb. gadol (1419) from gadal.

i. Heb. nacah (5375).

j. James Kugel, In Potiphars House, p 164.

k. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (3.a, 6.a), pp 31, 37; World Mythology, Roy Mills, ed., p 129. Exegetes have long perplexed over the identity of the wife of Cain!

l. Cf Genesis 1:2

m. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (1.c), p 27.

n. Biblical Jehovah embodies Gaia. The phrase "sons of God" can reasonably be interpreted as "sons of Gaia."

o. Stephen Quirke, The Cult of Ra: Sun-Worship in Ancient Egypt, p 31.

p. Anthony Mercatante, Who's Who in Egyptian Mythology, p 76.

Note 1:

The Biblical place name Etham (spelled variously as attem in Hebrew) is of Egyptian origin, and may be related to the Hebrew words uwth (225), meaning "to come," and athah (857), "arrived." The Hebrew word atten (865) means "heretofore, yesterday, times past." According to Strong's Concordance, the Hebrew atham (6272) means "prob. to glow, i.e., (fig.) be desolated: - be darkened." Compare atham ("glow") with adam ("ruddy").

Note 2:

Laurence Gardner identifies the mark of Cain (Heb. K'ayin) as the insignias of divine kingship, the the rosi-crusis ("fiery red cross") enclosed by the ayin ("all seeing eye"). (Genesis of the Grail Kings, p 103-104.)

Note 3:

Laurence Gardiner notes that a variant of the rosi-crucis is that of the Venus symbol. The Venus symbol is a cross that is attached to a circle, and used today as the icon of the female gender. Gardiner further states that the cross was the female element of the Venus symbol, and the enclosed circle, or ouroboros, was the male element. In the Venus symbol, the cross is below (subservient to) the circle. The Egyptian Cross, or Ankh symbol, was a Venus Symbol. The cross is

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 1: "A Twisted History" (Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel)

suspended from a ring, which the king or queen clasped in their hand. However, when the cross is instead placed on top of the circle, the Venus symbol becomes "the Orb of sovereign regalia." (Genesis of the Grail Kings, p 104, citing Robert Graves and R. Patai, The Hebrew Myths - Genesis, p 106.)

Note 4:

In 1987, it was announced that the mtDNA of modern humans is about 200,000 years old. 10 years later, scientists announced that mtDNA mutates 20 or more times faster than the Y-Chromosome. This has led to a significant reduction in the estimated age of mtDNA. Creationists argue that the mtDNA of modern man may be only 6,000 years old. The age of modern man based on mutation of the Y-Chromosome is estimated by scientists to be about 50,000 years old. Creationists also argue that this date needs to be lowered. Although it once appeared that mtDNA was far older than the DNA of the Y-Chromosome, the opposite may actually be the case. Alternatively, a new male and female may have indeed been introduced on Earth at the same time. If true, one or both may have also mated separately with indigenous hominoids to ensure long-term viability of the new race or species.

Selected DNA articles on the web:

BOOK ONLINE - Living in Truth -Contents | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16

©1999-2000 by Charles N. Pope, US Library of Congress. All rights reserved.

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 2: "The Fair Daughters of Godly Men" (Patriarch Enoch)

by: Charles N. Pope HOME | BOOK ONLINE | REFERENCE ESSAYS | LINKS | DISCUSSION

by: Charles N. Pope

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs

Chapter 2

"The Fair Daughters of Godly Men" (Patriarch Enoch)

by Charles N. Pope Copyright ©1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Tale of Two Sons and One City

Upon the injury and exile of Anu (Cain), his two "sons" named Enlil and Enki became progenitors of the divine race. Although Enlil was more favored by Anu, it was Enki who acted to save Atrahasis (Noah). For this reason, the Book of Genesis omits the kingly line that passed through Enlil. Enlil himself is not identified by name, only in deed. On the other hand, both the name and "genealogy" of Enki are preserved. Enki son of Anu is "righteous" Enoch son of "wicked" Cain. We are told in Genesis 5:24 (KJV), "Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him." We are not explicitly told that any of the Patriarchs were themselves once considered to be gods, or sons of gods. However, the description of Enoch (Enki) comes the closest to revealing that former state.

In the text of Genesis 4:17, there is ambiguity regarding whether it was Cain (Anu) or his son Enoch (Enki) who built the first city. The uncertainty was probably intentional. The author recalls that the city in question was named after the builder's son, but the city's name was either lost or deliberately withheld in the narrative. The divine Cain (Anu) was not known for building a city, or even for living among men. There is no record of his banishment, but in Mesopotamian lore he always seems to be away. It is generally assumed that he is preoccupied with affairs in "heaven," which is the meaning of the name Anu. Anu did not himself build a city, however a temple was built for him on "earth," and was called the E-Anna ("House of Anu"). The city of Erech (Uruk) later grew up around this temple. Erech appears to be a variant of Enoch, and it was Enoch (Enki) who was recognized in Mesopotamian tradition as builder of the world's first city named Eridu(k).

Eridu(k) and Erech are presently thought to be two different cities, but possibly this is mistaken and Erech is simply a short form of Eridu(k). The fuller form Er-i-du(k) can be translated as "City (of the) Mound," that is, city of the elevated temple. It can also be broken down as E-Ri-Du ("House-Ri- Mound"). Translated more freely this becomes, "House with the Shining Apex" or "House of Re's Mound." In Babylon, the son of Enki (Ptah) was called Marduk (Re), a name that also seems to be related to that of Eridu. 1 Even more illuminating, the son of Enoch is called Irad in the Bible. The correspondence between these two names, Eridu and Irad, is even closer than that of Erech and Enoch. Irad means "Fugitive." Among the gods, it was not so much Anu (Cain), but his grandson Marduk/Re (Irad) who was known as the brandishing outlaw. The god Marduk-Re was not banished once, but twice. a Unfortunately, after all of this word study, it is no more clear than in the Biblical text whether Erech/Eridu was built by Anu and named after his son Enki, or if it was built by Enki and named for Marduk his son.

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 2: "The Fair Daughters of Godly Men" (Patriarch Enoch)

A Single Mother and Two Families

We can at least say that it was in the city of Eridu that the mortal Atrahasis (Biblical Noah) served his god Enki and interceded on behalf of a suffering mankind. Enki not only rescued Atrahasis and his family, but he had also earlier been the "father" and "creator" of his race. A tablet dating to the 1 st Dynasty of Babylon and called "The Creation of Man by the Mother Goddess," reads:

"The goddess they called,

the help (?) of the gods, the wise Mami:

'Thou art the mother-womb, the creatress of mankind; Create Man that he may bear the yoke Nintu opened her mouth and said to the great gods:

'With me alone it is impossible to do; with his help there will be Man. He shall be the one who fears all the gods' Enki opened his mouth and said to the great gods:

Let them slay a god, and let the gods Let Ninhursag mix clay. God and man

'

with his flesh and his blood " b

united (?) in the clay

Nintu/Ninti was the first goddess, and later became the "helpmeet" of the gods in creating mankind. The proper name of Ninti was Nin-hur-sag, which is translated as "Lady (of the) Mountaintop." This associates her with the cloud-kissed summits. Ninti was called Tefnut in Egypt. This name signifies "Moisture" and therefore the atmosphere. Another name or epithet of Tefnut in Egypt was Hat-hor, meaning "House (of the) Falcon." The falcon flies higher up into the heavens than any other bird. But, there is no more lofty a title than Mami. As a mother to both "gods" and "men," Nin-ti was more than deserving of this term of endearment.

The primary consort of Tefnut was Shu, signifying "Dryness" or the air space itself. Shu was the Egyptian name of Enlil, "Lord of the Air." However, Tefnut also had children by Ptah, and as his consort she was instead called Neit, 2 the "Warrior Goddess" and "Weaver of Forms." c The gods possessed the secrets of longevity. They were called "immortals," but it was not believed in ancient times that they actually lived forever. Tefnut/Hathor also aged, and was in her later years depicted as an ugly old cow. However, she would have maintained her beauty and fertility many times longer than normal women.

In the Old Babylonian birthing incantation, "Creation of Man by the Mother Goddess," we learn that Ninhursag created man by "mixing god and man in the clay." Taken alone, this phrase could be interpreted as some kind of clinical merging of two different hominoid races or species. However, another ancient text indicates that it refers to a more mundane process. An earlier Sumerian epic provides a second perspective and helps us read between the lines of the Babylonian verses. It is called "Enki and Ninhursag: A Paradise Myth." d In that tale, Enki and Ninhursag have a daughter named Nin-mu. Nin-mu is not conceived by any artificial method, but by good old-fashioned lovemaking. However, what happens next is much more unusual. Enki goes on to sire a granddaughter named Nin-kurra through this daughter. After that, he produces a great- granddaughter Uttu through the granddaughter. Finally, Enki woos even his own great- granddaughter. All along, he is encouraged and guided by his "two-faced" advisor Isimud. (Isimud is an obvious epithet of the great middleman and physician of the gods, Thoth/Nudimmud.)

As in the Old Babylonian text, "Creation of Man by the Mother Goddess," it is the goddess Ninhursag who initially performs the "mixing" of god and man. e The daughter of Enki and Ninhursag is called "the fair." Likewise is the daughter of Enki by his own daughter called "fair." However, the great-granddaughter is described over and over again as "the fair lady." Fair is of course the very

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 2: "The Fair Daughters of Godly Men" (Patriarch Enoch)

same adjective used in the Bible to describe the "daughters of men." Enki tries to ensure that the genetic make-up of these human offspring will be primarily his own. After several generations of re- concentrating his genes, Ninhursag becomes angry and intervenes. She first poisons Enki and then cures him. After Enki is restored, Ninhursag persuades Enki to bless their many children. In Egyptian lore, the fair daughter of Tefnut/Hathor is called Nut. The prized children of Nut are given to one another in marriage just as the children of Ninhursag and Enki are in Mesopotamian legend. They are likewise given sovereignty over the Earth. The Babylonian text mentions fourteen human children, seven male and seven female. In the Sumerian account, eight other male and female children are born to Enki by Ninhursag, in addition to the three generations of fair daughters.

Genesis 6:2,4 (KJV) tells us that the "sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and

they took them wives of all which they chose

also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown." In Egyptian Mythology, there is a dramatic change in the divine nature beginning with the grandchildren of Tefnut/Hathor through her "fair daughter" Nut. Nut struggled within her mother's womb, and later with her appointed spouse Geb. Parity was being reached between the sexes, and along with it came strife. The three sons (Horus, Seth and Osiris) of Nut and two daughters (Isis and Nephthys) were very attractive and intelligent, but also extremely aggressive. They were the great joy and bitter grief of the older gods. In some traditions, they are not all considered the natural children of Geb. These "Children of Nut" as they were called were a "breed apart." They were gifted, but also given to self- interest and violence. It was in this generation of deities that were found the tendencies toward "wickedness" condemned in the Book of Genesis.

There were giants in the earth in those days; and

The Children of Nut were the first Biblical champions and the heroes of Mythology. The Hebrew word used in Genesis 6:4 is Nephilim (5303), meaning "giants, tyrants, bullies." The word nephilim is from the verb naphal (5307) and connotes one who fells but also falls, one who smites but is also smitten, one who judges but is also judged. They became great in strength and in power, but were brought to an ignominious end. In mythology, the female Nephilim, i.e., Isis and Nephthys, were equally competitive and combative. In Egyptian, the word nef means "beautiful, perfect." f These large and active children of legendary talent and beauty became the preferred offspring of the gods. We are told that they were "created" by the gods in order to remove their great burden of labor. But far from being mere servants of the elder gods, they were designated as heirs and successors in the task of kingship.

In the Babylonian creation story quoted above, it was Enki who proposed using the blood of a disgraced god in order to designate the new race as "servants" of the gods. The sacrificed god was identified by Berossus as the condemned rebel Kingu. g The name Kingu was also applied to the Moon, which orbits as if sentenced to perpetual servitude to the Earth. All of mankind was to be cursed with the mark of Kingu. This is the first example of children being punished for the "sins of the father," a custom later prohibited by law as unjust. The use of Kingu's blood may not have been purely symbolic. It could have served a "creative" function or to imprint a genetic "trait." 3

Man is said to have been "conceived in sin." h From the Biblical perspective, Adam (the god Atum) was not to eat of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. This metaphor can now be understood as a prohibition against "genetic manipulation," not necessarily in a scientific sense, but possibly it concerned inter-breeding or inbreeding. The senior god Enlil was against the "creation of mankind," and did not change his mind afterwards. On the contrary, he determined to destroy them. The mixed offspring of the gods were endowed with the kingship that Kingu fought in vain for. They were later also condemned to die, especially by Enlil, for bloodshed and other indiscretions arising from their "evil imaginations." But one protégé was found by Ea/Enki to be "righteous" in the hour of

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 2: "The Fair Daughters of Godly Men" (Patriarch Enoch)

the Flood.

The "creation of mankind by the mother goddess" is the basis for the second type of twisting in Genesis - that of "god" and "man." It involves two families, but revolves around a single mother Eve. Eve, that is Ninti/Nihursag (Tefnut), became the mother of the first generation of both "gods" and of "men." Ninti (Eve) bore "divine" Anu (Cain) through Atum. Later, she gave birth to the first "mortals," which were fathered by the god Enki/Ptah. In Egypt, Ptah as fertility god was called Minh. Thoth (Isimud) was later also associated with this deity. The fair daughters produced by Ptah (through the counsel of Thoth/Isimud) were not ordinary "daughters of men," but the fair "daughters of Minh." Both sets of children were bred by a "goddess" and created for kingship. As noted in the previous chapter, the Biblical phrase "sons of God" can be translated as the "sons of Gaia." It was these sons of Gaia who saw that the daughters of Minh were fair. The new race created from inbreeding was in many respects an improvement over the old, but not all were invited to share in the longevity of the gods.

As Shrewd as a Serpent God

Fertile and furtive Enki chose the primitive but symbolically rich emblem of the intertwined serpents. Over the millennia, the serpent increasingly came to be associated with evil. However, in most ancient times, the serpent was a metaphor for duality, being "simultaneously creative and destructive." i The purity of the serpent's straight and narrow form is an inherent contrast to its crooked path and the duplicity of its forked tongue. The double helix formed from two serpents is an

ideal symbol for the duality of life itself. 4 Sperm and ovum DNA is not in the form of a double helix, but contain only one strand. In the reproductive process, a single DNA strand from the mother and

one from the father are combined to form a new life. Genesis 2:24 states, "a man

unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. This is not crudely referring only to sexual intercourse, but

also to the creation of one life from the genetic contributions of two.

shall cleave

In Egypt, the serpent icon stood for "a guardian spirit or a hostile force." j The lowly serpent strikes suddenly from the ground, or can ascend the loftiest tree and even "fly" among its branches in

pursuit of a victim. In this regard, the serpent was a fearful deterrent to intruders. In addition to its other unique properties, male and female serpents have two sets of reproductive organs, which came to be associated with fertility. In Egypt, the serpent represented not only earthly but cosmic fertility. The sloughing and renewal of a serpent's skin symbolizes immortality and therefore, divinity. The progress of the serpent is comparable to the path of a seeker, and for that reason the serpent symbolizes wisdom. The serpent was characterized as wise and clever, but in a negative sense, "

also devious and beguiling. Genesis 3:1 states that "the snake was more shrewd than all Intriguingly, we find in the Garden of Eden that the serpent-god Enki is not performing his expected role of guarding the Tree of Knowledge, but is actually inducing Adam and Eve to learn first hand about everything in their world.

The gods Enki and Enlil were dueling brothers. Enlil was a working god, attending to his throne. Enki was a playing god with creatures of his own. While Enlil was prohibiting, Enki was proliferating. While Enlil was concealing knowledge, Enki was searching out new things and revealing them, even to mortal men. Enlil represents authority. He considered it to be irresponsible and dangerous to create an intelligent new race of beings that could reproduce rapidly. Enlil especially did not approve of their initiation into the business and intimate company of the gods. The author of Genesis actually takes the side of Enlil in this matter.

Mortal man and woman would not have hidden themselves from their benefactor, the "shrewd" Enki. However, they did have cause to fear the "prude" Enlil. It would have been Yahweh-Enki who

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prompted the man and woman to taste fruit that Yahweh-Enlil had forbidden. Fig-uratively speaking, it would also have been Yahweh-Enlil who asked, "Who told you that you are nude?" Shrewd and nude rhyme in English, but the Hebrew words used in Genesis are homonyms. k This was itself a clever way of telling the discerning listener that it was the serpent, i.e., slinky Enki, who had made the husband and wife as the Wise.

The structure of Genesis is a triumph in abstract thought, but very strange to the linear modern mind. It is a vestige of the "wide understanding" once kindly imparted by the gods to only a few, but gradually lost after they were dearly departed. The author of Genesis did not wish to reveal everything that was held true about the gods. Many of their ways were by then considered backward, embarrassing and even downright devilish. Nevertheless, it was still possible and desirable to find and express the deeper significance of their tenure. The genius of twisting traditions together is that the author could selectively hide his secrets and his ignorance. Only simple truths and morals are to be grasped by the naïve reader. However, for those whose eyes have been opened and have become as the gods, life is full of subtlety. For the initiate, a far more complex history and world of meaning can be discerned. As an example, Enki (Enoch) is both creature and creator, and represents the cosmic cycle of life. Enki is first described as "the most clever of all the creatures that God had made." l Through his ingenuity, Enki himself then became a fashioner of men. Still later in the Genesis text, he is re-introduced as the builder of a city. Enki's city was a beachhead and home away from home for the "gods." In time, it became a place for "earthlings" too. The gods came first. Humans made in their image came next. It was either all a part of the plan, or the grand mix-up we call modern man.

Even with our limited understanding of science, it seems possible for life to propagate throughout the expanses of the Universe. Although we have ourselves only been in Space for less than a century, we are already sending out probes beyond the Solar System. By what "higher intelligence" and for what purposes new life forms have been intermittently "created" on our planet are not questions that can be answered here. It shall suffice for now to say:

The palm tree can reach a far away beach, There's got to then be, in the cosmic sea, Space traveling pods sent by hopeful gods, With prize-winning spores, for our distant shores.

The Twisted History of the Torah

The Biblical Book of Genesis m is a book of origins, a book of creation, and a book of life. It is not a book of science, but does faithfully transmit the one quality that is shared by all living things. Today, we have at least a working understanding of how life is constructed. The three billion genes (genome) of a human being are formed by linked molecules of Deoxy-Ribonucleic-Acid (DNA) that tightly coil up in the shape of a double helix, or twisted ladder. In other words, the genetic contributions of two parents are bound together to imprint a unique "Book of Life" for every person, animal or plant. Similarly, the basic building block of the Book of Genesis is the twisted pair. Through the coupling of related themes, the author spun a history that loops progressively through time.

The initial mapping of the human genome has taken less than 50 years since the discovery of the double helix of DNA by Crick and Watson. Yet, as we spiral headlong into the Genetic Age, it is not without a wrenching sense of deja vu. We are not the first "creatures" to deliberate in the deadly paradise of genetics. "The Tree of Life" and "Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil" were within the grasp of Biblical Adam and Eve. We are told that they abused the latter and lost access to the

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former. Through genetics, this generation now "hovers over the face of the deep." But before we re- create a world in chaos, first let there be enlightenment. By virtue of genetic science and technology, let us make the knowledge of our origins something very good. And through archaeology, let us breathe life back into the pages of old testaments.

As it turns out, the basic structure of life is not only a modern revelation, but certainly amongst the oldest. The double helix or twisted pair was used as the fundamental literary structure of the Torah. Torah is customarily translated as "Teachings" or "Law." However, the ruling class of ancient royal society was conversant in many languages. According to the early 1 st Century AD Jewish master Philo of Alexandria, Moses studied the languages of all 70 nations of the known world. n The related roots "tor," "tort," "tur," "ter," etc. are found in many other tongues, including Greek and Latin. They are the basis of common English words such as tornado, torture, torment, torsion, turbine, storm, turban, tour, tower, turret and turn - all of which either denote or connote "twisting." 5

Perle Epstein writes, "In eleventh-century Spain a philosopher named Ibn Gabirol labeled these secret oral teachings 'Kabbalah,' or tradition." o Epstein continues, "Trying to practice kabbalistic 'meditation' without understanding its foundation in the Torah (the Pentateuch) would be like trying to fly without wings." This title, Kabbalah, is highly symbolic, and connotes much more than mere "tradition" or "received doctrine." It is a priceless vestige of a truly ancient interpretive key associated with the Torah and its underlying structure. The Hebrew chaba (khaw-baw') means "to hide." The Hebrew chabal (khaw-bal') means "to wind tightly (as a rope), i.e., to bind." Another Hebrew word, kebel, means "to twine or braid together." The Hebrew cabab means to "revolve, to turn (self about)." p

The Torah does appear to be a history cobbled together somewhat clumsily from disparate traditions. However, there is an underlying method to the madness. The Torah is a hidden history. The title of Torah itself indicates hiding or encryption. It also embodies the nature of the encoding technique that was used, and is therefore a clue for its decoding. The "twisted history" of the Torah is extremely delicate and tightly interwoven, almost imperceptible to the unaided eye. However, under the microscope of archaeology the separate components become quite distinct once again.

Twisting occurs on three main levels in the Torah. The first and highest level involves the nature of God himself. In Mesopotamian tradition, it was Ea (Yah) who is credited with the creation of Man. Ea is a Semitic name, and means "(Whose) House (is) Water." The Sumerian name of this god was Enki, "Lord (of the) Earth." This creator god was not only known by two major names in Mesopotamia (one Sumerian, Enki, and one Semitic, Ea), but he also had two distinct names in Egypt. In Lower Egypt, he was called Ptah. However, in Upper Egypt he was Khnum, regulator of the annual inundation of the Nile. Both names, Ptah and Khnum, signify "Molder" or "Fashioner." Ptah is depicted "creating life on a potter's wheel." q The god Khnum of Upper Egypt was specifically "The Potter God," and was sometimes depicted as shaping a man or a king on his potter's wheel. r This is a well-known Biblical metaphor used in association with Jehovah. s

In the Bible, the Semitic/Akkadian name Ea takes the Hebrew forms of Ye/Yehow/Yow (English Je/Jeho/Jo), as in Je-hu ("Jehovah is He"), Jeho-shaphat ("Jehovah Judged") and Jo-ab ("Jehovah Fathered"). As a suffix, Ea becomes the Hebrew -yah/yahuw (English -iah), as in Biblical names Jerem-iah and Hezek-iah. But is it really that simple? It is simple, but not that simple. Although the name Yahweh patently derives from the god Ea (Yah), the Biblical deity became much more mighty (weh). Although a great creator, Enki/Ea was not the "Great Creator." Biblical Jehovah is a supreme, universal and eternal being, to which is attributed all previous creative works on Earth. In this respect, Jehovah is a greatly aggrandized deity with respect to Ea.

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In addition to creating mankind, various Mesopotamian histories also venerate Ea as the god who acted to save the human Noah from the Flood. (Noah is variously named in Sumerian and Akkadian histories as Utna-pishtim, Ziusudra, Atrahasis and Adapa.) However, Ea was not the first or foremost among the ancient pantheon. His act of mercy toward Noah was actually one of civil disobedience with respect to a superior god. It was not Ea, but his more favored brother Enlil (Egyptian Shu), who determined that both gods and men had sinned and it was all going to come to an end. The words and actions of both of these venerated gods became twisted together as the One in the Biblical narrative. 6

The Creation Story of Genesis is a highly condensed and stylized version of far older Sumerian and Babylonian accounts. For example, Genesis only briefly mentions the Elohim ("the Gods") in passing. We must learn about the individual members of the ancient pantheon from Mesopotamian sources, and by comparing them with the mythologies of Egypt, Canaan, Greece, India and even China and the Americas. In ancient Egypt, all eight of the major male gods of the ancient pantheon, including Ptah/Khnum and Shu, were once merged in the cult of Amen, "the Hidden God." A Leiden "

papyrus reads: The Eight gods were thy first form, until thou didst complete them, being One The Greeks equated Amen (also spelled Amun and Amon) to their supreme god Zeus (Zeus- Ammon), who also embodied the full godhead. The genesis of the Biblical concept of the "One God" is to be found in this same theological creation of ancient man. t

7

a. See next Chapter for further discussion.

b. Abridged quote from Alexander Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis, pp 67. See also J. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, pp 99-100.

c. Rosemary Clark, The Sacred Tradition in Ancient Egypt, p 65.

d. Translation in James Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, pp

37-41.

e. James Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, p 99.

f. The root nef was used to form both male and female names, e.g., Nefertiti and Neferhotep.

g. Alexander Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis, p 118. Berossus was a historian in 3rd Century BC Mesopotamia.

h. Psalm 51:5

i. John Anthony West, Serpent in the Sky, pp 58-60.

j. Rosemary Clark, The Sacred Tradition in Ancient Egypt, p 76.

k. Everett Fox, The Five Books of Moses, The Schocken Bible, Vol. I, p 16.

l. Genesis 3:1

m. a The word genesis is defined as "the coming into being of anything; origin; creation." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.

n. Jonathan Kirsch, Moses: A Life, p 65.

o. Kabbalah: The Way of the Jewish Mystic, p xvi-xvii.

p. Hebrew word definitions from Strong's Exhaustive Concordance.

q. Heike Owusu, Symbols of Egypt, p 85.

r. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 190.

s. Isaiah 41:25; Jeremiah 18:6; Romans 9:20-21.

t. See Chapter 6 of this book for an in depth comparison of Amen and Jehovah.

Note 1:

Ri/Re means "bright" or "shining." Cf English words ray, radiate, etc. There is a close resemblance between the names Marduk and Eridu(k). Marduk is translated by

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Sitchin as "son of the pure mound." This elicits the memory of the mound of creation, which arose from the watery chaos. A mound is also a tell, i.e., an elevated ancient city. Therefore, Marduk again connotes "City of the Son." In Latin, the root mar signifies the sea, as in the English word marine. The Via Maris ("Way of the Sea") was the major road along the Mediterranean coast leading into Egypt. Eridu was also a city originally founded on the edge of the water.

Enki was called Ptah in Egypt, and his son was indeed called Re in that region. In Egyptian, the word mr (as in Mar-duk) stands for more than a mere mound, city, house or temple. It is the word for pyramid.

Note 2:

Neit and Tefnut have Hebrew derivations. Tef is the Hebrew tsaph/tseph meaning an extension or covering. Nut is related to Hebrew words netophaph (5199) "distillation" and natsah (5327) "expelled," as in water vapor/condensation. Natah (5186) denotes "stretched out" or "stretched forth," as the atmosphere is spread over the earth. The Hebrew word natash has a similar connotation to natah. The name of bellicose Neit can be derived from the same Hebrew words. Natash cited above denotes "smite, join (battle)." Natsah cited above connotes "desolate, be laid waste." Natah cited above connotes "overthrown, cause to yield." The matching connotations and denotations of these words link the two forms of Nut and Neit. In the case of Neit, also compare the Hebrew words nathaq (5420) "to tear up," and nathats (5422) "to tear down, destroy," and topheth (8611) "a smiting."

Cf Hebrew word taphar (8609) "sew" and Tefnut/Neit, goddess of weaving. Cf The Canaanite goddess Anat, corresponding either to Neit, or to the Egyptian goddesses Nut or Nephthys. There seems to have been a tendency for goddesses to pass down titles and epithets to their daughters, even as gods did to their sons.

Note 3:

Zecharia Sitchin concludes that the blood of the slain Kingu was used as a solution for fertilizing the mortal ovum with the sperm of Enki.

Note 4:

The twisted flax is one of four ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs corresponding to the modern letter "h", and the particular one found in the name Ptah. It is pronounced "with the throat more constricted than in English h, producing more of a hiss but not a rasp." (Stephane Rossini, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, p 9.) In the twisted flax hieroglyph, the flax thread is first folded such that the head and tail are brought together. The resulting loop is then twisted about itself. We now know that "when two strands of DNA wind around one another in the double helix they do so 'head to tail' (Susan Aldridge, The Thread of Life, p 37) Serpents are highly unusual in that they can do more than pleasure their partners in the '69' position. Both male and female snakes have two sets of sexual organs. This enables them to actually mate in a 'head to tail' fashion!

"

The twisted flax ('h') appears to have been deliberately incorporated into words connoting life, but this is only a conjecture. For example, the twisted flax (h) combined with the quail hieroglyph (w) has the meaning (hw): "the genius of the creative utterance." (Stephane Rossini, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, p 30) Other words employing the twisted flax hieroglyph include mummy (sah), phallus (hnn), long life (wah), ointment (wrh), and grain (wahyt). The names of a number of gods include this hieroglyph. Examples would be Hapy, Ihi and Thoth (Dhwty). A pair of twisted flax hieroglyphs (hh or nhh) stood for eternity. Pictorially, the two twisted flax hieroglyphs were

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separated by a circle hieroglyph. (Stephane Rossini, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, p 16) However, the twisted flax hieroglyph possibly occurs too frequently to make these kinds of generalizations.

To quote more from Susan Aldridge (p 55): "Organisms whose cells do not have a nucleus (or at least not one surrounded by a membrane like the eukaryotic nucleus) are called prokaryotes. Their

DNA lies free in the cell, usually in a closed loop." The DNA of species with cell nuclei (eukaryotes) is looped in another way. "Even bacteria, with their streamlined genomes, have had to evolve

efficient packing strategies to pack their DNA into their cellular

loop it would never fit into the cell. In 1963 Jerome Vinograd discovered that looped DNA can exist in a 'supercoiled' form inside the cell, where the sides of the loop are further twisted around one

another

is packed within cells as loops within loops. One of the most familiar of ancient symbols, the ouroborus, is the snake drawn in a closed loop, which appears to be swallowing its own tail. Real- life snakes do not swallow their tails. Real-life DNA appears to do so.

If it was left as a single

the two sides of the loop wind round another over and over again." (Aldridge, p 58) DNA

In the Book of the Dead (Spell 175), the god Re promises the deceased, "You are destined (to live) for millions of millions of years. But I will destroy all that I have created; this land will return to its state of Primeval Ocean, to the watery state, like its first state. I am that which will remain with Osiris, when I have changed myself back into a serpent that men cannot know, that the gods cannot see." (Translation by: Meeks and Favard-Meeks, Daily Life of the Egyptian Gods, p 18).

It may be modern man's greatest conceit that he is the most intelligent and advanced species that has ever explored the Universe, or even walked the Earth. Yet, it isn't possible to "prove" that ancient man (or his gods) understood genetics, or had knowledge of biological structures that can only be seen today with electron microscopes. Has Zecharia Sitchin gone too far in suggesting that the ancients had scientific knowledge of DNA? Quite likely. However, mythology does indicate that "wide understanding" was once imparted by the double-serpent-god Ea to an adept named Adapa. (J.B. Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p 101). Would "Genetics 101" not have been part of the curriculum? Moreover, someone or something had to first impart that knowledge to the so-called gods.

Note 5:

tur (variants twer and ster) to turn, whirl (e.g., turbine, storm) turban, a scarf wound around the head turn (root ter-2 to rub, turn; with some derivatives referring to twisting) tower, a round structure tour, literally "to make a circuit" from Old French tour, turn, circuit, from Latin tornus (Cf Greek tornos) The diminuative or femine ending -et (which would be transliterated into Hebrew as "ah") implies a fine or tight twisting. turret, "a small ornamented tower. military. A low, heavily armored structure, usually rotating horizontally." (e.g., a tank turret)

Etymologies from the New American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language.

Note 6:

In Divine Encounters, Zecharia Sitchin favorably compares the "pro-life" Mesopotamian god Ea (Sumerian Enki) with the Biblical Yahweh. Nevertheless, Sitchin ultimately rejects this association, because he finds in Yahweh attributes of other leading Mesopotamian gods, especially Anu (the Canaanite El, "father of the gods"), Enlil (a strict disciplinarian) and Ishkur (a god of storms and

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mountains). Sitchin notes that the Assyrian supreme god Asshur was not unique, but actually a composite of Enlil and his father Anu. However, Sitchin does not also consider that Biblical Yahweh was the result of theorizing by the ancient royal family - the same family who had earlier "created" the super-god Amun.

Note 7:

From a Leiden papyrus translated by Alexandre Piankoff, Mythological Papyri, Bollingen Series XL, 3, Pantheon Books, New York, 1957, Vol I, Texts, p. 12. See commentary by Robert Temple in The Crytal Sun, p 365.

BOOK ONLINE - Living in Truth -Contents | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

by: Charles N. Pope HOME | BOOK ONLINE | REFERENCE ESSAYS | LINKS | DISCUSSION

by: Charles N. Pope

Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs

Chapter 3

"In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

by Charles N. Pope Copyright ©1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Sacrifice and Conflict

Despite their desirability, some of the selected women of the new mixed race had to be "sacrificed" in order to become one flesh with their divine masters. Genesis 3:16 (KJV) a reads: "Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception." Complications and especially death in childbirth in the very first generation point not to sin, but implies that "Adam and Eve" were not created together and were not particularly well matched for reproduction. Robert Graves writes, "Her [Eve's] Sumerian name was Iahu ('exalted dove'), a title which later passed to Jehovah as the Creator. It was as a dove that Marduk symbolically sliced her in two at the Babylonian Spring Festival, when he inaugurated the new world order." b

In Greek Mythology, another related and recurring theme is the cutting open of pregnant women. It was the final service for many a little woman of the mixed race to bear children to their monstrous masters. In Myth, the mother is on occasion slain, but her baby boy miraculously rescued, delivered as if by emergency C-Section. The child is spirited away from an angry or jealous "god-father" who seems to no longer want them or their mothers around any more. Gods were long-lived, and in no particular hurry to be outdone or undone by a gifted human son. They feared, justifiably so, that they would produce an heir who was more capable than themselves. However, the progenies of father- daughter unions were guarded with equal jealousy by the goddesses! It seems that the younger Ladies came to prefer dashing young demi-gods to their lumbering old Lords as companions and sexual partners. These so-called demi-gods were also just as often their brothers, which is again to be expected. For genetic purposes, father-daughter/mother-son coupling would soon be replaced with sister-brother bonds.

If "human" and "divine" blood was mixed from the start, then what separated a god from a demi-god or mortal? Possibly very little other than manifest greatness and access to the secrets of longevity. Prospective gods and goddesses appear to have been subjectively judged ("favored") based on an optimal mix of best qualities from both genetic lines. Membership of the Greek (and Mesopotamian) pantheon was limited to only 12 at any one time, and included a balance of gods and goddesses. If one god or goddess expired or relinquished their post, another could be initiated. However, transfer of power was not peaceful. Each new generation of the mixed race proved to be more vital than the previous one. This points again to a program of genetic reconstitution and the goal of achieving an ideal admixture. However, the process depended on "inferior" elder gods and goddesses yielding to "superior" but younger ones. Conflict was inevitable.

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

Hated Love Child

One such prodigy was Adonis ("the lord"), who was born to King Cinyras ("plaintive cry") by his beautiful daughter Smyrna ("myrrh"). c When Cinyras learned that he was the father, he took his sword and split her in half. However, baby Adonis popped out and was claimed by Aphrodite. Aphrodite in turn placed Adonis in the care of her sister Persephone. When Adonis became a man he was coveted both by Persephone and Aphrodite. They could not resolve their dispute, so it was finally ruled that Adonis should spend half of the year with each. However, Aphrodite provoked Persephone by persuading Adonis to make her his exclusive partner. Aphrodite also alienated Apollo by blinding or killing his son Erymonthus, because Erymonthus had made unwanted sexual advances toward her. d Apollo and Persephone, having a mutual grudge against Aphrodite, appealed to Ares. In response, Ares took the form of a boar (Apollo) and gored Adonis to death. In other traditions, Apollo is explicitly named as the killer of Adonis. e

In the Egyptian version of the story, the role of Apollo is played by the belligerent god Set, whose thoughtless aggression is on occasion compared to the wild pig. Moreover, when Seth (a.k.a. Set) murdered his rival Osiris, he was said to have had 72 accomplices. This implicitly identifies the god Re as having an indirect role in the act. In the Book of the Dead, Re has 72 names. For most of the pharaonic period, Re was worshipped as the supreme god in Egypt. Therefore, it is not surprising that his role in the death of Osiris would later be disguised. After the death of Osiris, Re mourned for seven years. Ciny-ras, meaning "plaintive cry," and A-res, "warrior," are both easily identified as Greek aliases of the Egyptian god Ra/Re. As with Adonis, Osiris is thought to have been the son of Re by his own daughter or granddaughter, and not the true son of Geb. The name of Erymonthus (son of Apollo) is an obvious transliteration of Iry-Monthu, "heir/eye of Montu/Set." Persephone ("bringer of destruction") is the Egyptian goddess Nephthys and the Canaanite Anat ("destroyer"). Aphrodite is the Egyptian goddess Isis, also known in Canaan as Asherah and in Mesopotamian as Inanna/Ishtar.

In Egypt, the murdered Osiris was remembered as the god who had taught them to "train vines to grow on poles." f Osiris (along with Geb) is credited with inventing wine and beer. Naturally Osiris was greatly celebrated for this. The Greek counterpart of Osiris in this regard was Dionysos, god of wine. Dionysos, son of the supreme god Zeus and Semele ("moon"), was "a horned child crowned with serpents." g This is a clear indicator of his privileged status within the line of serpent-kings. As an infant, Dionysos was mutilated and then boiled by order of Queen Hera. However, attacks on expectant mothers may represent something other than infanticide. If a "divine" baby was too large to be delivered vaginally, then there may have been no other choice but to sacrifice the mother in order to save the child. This would of course have been a very bloody ordeal and may have been construed later as a hate crime against mother and child. It would also have required sterilization and treatment of the newborn.

The abuse Dionysos suffered was evidently not intended to kill him, but to save his life. He was resuscitated by his grandmother Rhea, who then placed him in the care of Persephone (as was Adonis). As a further precaution against rivals Persephone arranged for him to be cloistered among women and raised as a little girl. Upon reaching manhood his identity was "discovered" by the jealous Hera, after which he traveled abroad and led military campaigns. As he did, the art of wine making was spread from Egypt to India along with his fame. h

Michael Astour wrote: "No Greek god had so many names and surnames as Dionysos, whom Sophocles i called 'thou of the many names.' " j In addition to Adonis son of Cinyras mentioned above, he was also called Actaeon son of Aristaeos ("the Best"), Aqht son of Danel/Danaos ("the

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

Judge"), and Pentheus ("Grief") son of Echion ("the Serpent Man"). Other common names of Dionysos were Bassareus, Bacchus, Iacchos, Zagreus, Orpheus, Orion, and Euphemos. Almost all of these names have meanings that allude to his divinity and tragic death. k Outside of Greece, Dionysos was known by many more names. We have already mentioned Osiris (Ser/Asar) in Egypt. In Babylon, he was known as Siris, the god of wine, and as the "dying-god" Dumuzi. In Phoenicia, he was called Eshmun and Attis. In the Old Testament, Dionysos is variously called Tammuz and Rimmon.

The "dismemberment" and "reconstitution" of Dionysos occurred when he was an infant. As an adult, Dionysos did not die but ascended to Heaven to be at the right hand of the father Zeus. With the advent of Adonis-Dionysos and his generation, the distinction between gods and men becomes less clear. Egyptian Osiris and Mesopotamian Dumuzi were considered fully divine. However, in Greek legend, Adonis was a mere mortal. The characterization of Dionysos was much more lofty, but he was still considered only a demi-god. In Classical Greece, he was included among the pantheon of 12 Olympic gods, not by inheritance alone, but by virtue of his achievements. In the Book of Genesis, all of the gods are instead demoted to the status of Patriarchs, and were not especially venerated even as such. The goddesses were scarcely mentioned at all.

Dionysos had the favor not of one goddess but two. This undoubtedly was a factor in his greatness, but also led to his demise. Dionysos was trapped in a classic love triangle. He could not give himself equally to both sisters and aroused the jealous fury of the one he neglected. The "other woman" who had raised, educated and desired him turned against him in her personal struggle with her sister. The obsession of both sisters for the effeminate Dionysos deprived macho Apollo of respect and provoked him to wrath. His "male warrior" father, Ares, had evidently also favored Apollo over the dandy Dionysos. Ares and Apollo (Re and Seth) must have been made even more insecure by the military successes and increasing popularity of Dionysos (Osiris).

Eternal Memory, Eternal Life

In the Mesopotamian tradition, the dying-god Dumuzi (Osiris/Dionysos) is also the victim of a vicious love triangle formed with his two sisters Inanna (Isis/Aphrodite) and Ereshkigal (Nephthys/Persephone). The conflict escalates when the farmer god Enkimdu (Seth/Apollo) enters into a hot dispute with the shepherd god Dumuzi over the love of Inanna. As an obvious repetition of the Cain and Abel story, the shepherd Dumuzi is ultimately murdered. Despite the best efforts of Utu (Thoth/Ningishzidda), he cannot be revived. l The various accounts of this god's death (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Greek, Syrian and Biblical) include diatribe, beating, mauling by animals, hanging, spearing, mutilation, dumping ("baptism") of his dead body in a watery grave, and the descent of his soul into the Underworld. 1

Deuteronomy 21:22-23 (KJV) reads: "And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree: His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God;) that thy land be not defiled, which the Lord thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." Because of the stigma associated with the brutal execution and post-mortem defamation of Osiris, the event was later euphemized. In the Egyptian New Kingdom rendition of the story, the body of Osiris was first sealed within a cedar coffin. After being thrown into the Nile, the coffin containing the dead body of Osiris washed up on the shore, not at morbid Abydos in Egypt, but at Byblos of Phoenicia. A tamarisk seed sprouted under it and grew into a great tree. The coffin was lifted up and became encased in the trunk of the tree as it grew. An even more abstract version states that a pine tree grew where the blood of Osiris was shed, and thereby assimilated his essence or spirit. In these later tales, the dead body of Osiris was not directly exposed, but hidden in a wooden chest or within the trunk of a

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

tree.

The tree of Dionysos was also the straight-trunk pine. The symbol of Dionysos was the pole, with a clambering grape vine coiled around it rather than a serpent as in the common caduceus. It was also sometimes crowned with a pinecone. The trained vine again associates him with grape cultivation and wine making. A pomegranate tree was also said to have grown where the blood of the infant Dionysos was shed. m This is connected to the Syrian cult of Osiris called Rimmon or Rimmon-Parez, which means "pomegranate-breach," i.e., a splitting open or breaking forth out of a pomegranate. The belly of a pregnant woman is compared in this case to the pomegranate. This imagery relates to the violence of his birth rather than to that of his death. Dionysos was born of the tree (his mother Smyrna, the "split myrrh"), and was in his death reborn of the tree (pine, cedar or acacia). The image of a dead god hanging upon a pole or tree is the ultimate contradiction. It represents the duality of life and death.

The name of Dionysos itself provides further clues to his death and resurrection. The conventional definition of Dio-nysos is "Son (of) God" or "God of the Underworld/ Afterlife" from the Greek Nyseion, "Fairyland." n However, given the context, other connotations are appropriate:

a. "Bound (and) Pierced," from Gk. deo, "to bind" and nusso (3572) "pierce." 2 In John 19:34, there is the deliberate choice of the archaic Greek word nusso to describe the piercing of Christ on the cross.

b. "Bound (to) Pole/Stake/Tree," i.e., hung from a pole or tree, from nysa "tree" or nes, "pole/stake." o The divine Biblical epithet, Jehovah-Nissi (Ex. 17:15), means "Jehovah is my Standard," i.e., the pole with a flag/emblem.

One of the most potent and mysterious symbols of the Torah is that of the brazen serpent lifted upon a pole. In the Exodus account, the Israelites challenged the authority of Moses and were attacked by serpents. Num 21:6-9 (KJV) reads:

"And the Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people; and much

people of Israel died

set it upon a pole: and it shall come to pass, that every one that is bitten, when he looketh upon it, shall live. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and put it upon a pole, and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass, he lived."

And the Lord said unto Moses, make thee a fiery serpent, and

The symbol of the serpent on a pole represented the slain Osiris. It instantly evoked sentiments of compassion, forgiveness and consolation. In this sense, the pointless tragedy of his death had a purpose. He had not died in vain. Euphemistically, it had been the will of God, and his literal Father, to strike him down for some greater good. Those who mourned his death were comforted by the hope that he had been resurrected, and that faith in him brought mercy, healing and immortality. Moreover, evildoers would ultimately be judged and punished. Throughout all of pharaonic history, the resurrected Osiris played the part of Judge of the Dead. This and other aspects of Osiris were later assimilated into resurrected and ascended Jesus, the Christian Osiris. 3

The crucified and resurrected Osiris was originally not a god of the living, but of the dead and dying. At the time of Osiris' death, mourners were comforted with his bodily preservation and symbolic resurrection. Veneration of Osiris was the essential element in the funeral cult of the pharaohs. If one's DNA is preserved, the essence of that person is also preserved and could be theoretically brought back to life on some future day. This practice of the pharaohs was extended to the noble class in the Egyptian Middle Kingdom, and eventually even to commoners. Ultimately, embalmment

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

was no longer considered necessary for identification with Osiris, but only faith. The condemned and terminally ill, even those who were poor or dispossessed, could be comforted with the hope of sharing in the immortality of Osiris. Those who were "snake-bit" in the Numbers passage quoted above did not live on in the literal sense, but only in a spiritual one. Likewise, in John 11:25 (KJV), Jesus, the New Testament Osiris, asserts: "I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live."

In the Book of Genesis, the pseudonym given to Osiris is itself a telltale epitaph. It very simply reads: Mehujael, meaning "Smitten of God." The murder of Osiris was tragic in and of itself. However, he had been taunted, tortured, killed and then desecrated with such extreme prejudice. This served to permanently transfix his memory. It also forever raised him up as the champion of all who were victims of misfortune, injustice and tyranny. However, the cult of Osiris was later tainted by its association with the drunken excesses of the Dionysos-Tammuz cult and the erotic rites of Aphrodite-Ashtaroth worship. In Ezekiel 8:24, women weeping for the slain Tammuz are called a detestable thing. Prior to Ezekiel's time, King Hezekiah, a contemporary of the prophet Isaiah, destroyed the "brasen serpent" that represented the crucified Osiris. 4

The Patriarch Mehujael is not the first casualty in the Genesis narrative. However, he does represent the archetypal crucified messiah. The first martyr of Genesis is Abel, who was struck down by his "brother" Cain. The name Abel (1893) means "emptiness or vanity," from the verb habal (1891) "to be vain; spec. to lead astray." This pseudonym indicates that the author considered the divine Abel (Alal) to be unworthy of his station. In fact, there is no record outside of the Bible that Cain (Anu) had been punished. On the contrary his victory was celebrated. Dionysos/Osiris was certainly not without faults, however his brutal death was seen by most as entirely undeserved. In Egypt, "he was given the epithet Wennefer, 'the perpetually good being', in recognition of his beneficence." p One of the many epithets of Greek Dionysos was ortho, meaning "straight," i.e., correct, possessing integrity and being morally upright.

The list of the seven Patriarchs who preceded Noah is not a pure genealogy, but a succession list among the gods. The senior gods did grow old and yield with reluctance and conflict to the younger ones. However, most if not all of the gods were still very much alive when Osiris was put to death. This made his killing all the more exceptional and poignant. It was unimaginable that a god should go the way of all the earth at such an early age, especially one endued with such ability and beauty. The rare crime drew an equally unusual reaction. It was deemed that the Chief Justice, even Re himself, was not at all beyond reproach. Re, who was the "father" of Seth, was held primarily if not solely accountable for the killing of Osiris. With the urging of the widowed Isis, Re was sentenced to death for having passed premature judgment on Osiris. Re was sealed away in solitary confinement within his own Great Pyramid. However, on the third day, his accusers relented. Re was rescued and the death penalty was commuted to exile. This became the source of Re's Biblical pseudonym, Irad, the "fugitive."

All gods were guilty, as guilty as Sin, Goddesses unclean, unclean as the men. When the sun had fallen twice from the path, So did blinding rays of self-righteous wrath.

Re traveled restlessly around the earth. Nightly war alone ensured his rebirth. Osiris lived in freedom, peace and mirth. Never to suffer from excess or dearth.

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

Guilty by Association

There is no record that Seth was prosecuted or punished for his role. The lynch men were not held responsible. Seth and his companions could be excused for having carried out the order of a superior. In the short term, it was Seth who benefited the most from the disposal of Osiris. However, Seth was increasingly demonized in later tradition, because of his continued aggression. Disapproval of Seth is not surprising, but in the Pyramid Texts (Utterances 218 & 219) we unexpectedly find the incrimination of another vigilante:

"See what Seth and Thoth have done, your two brothers who do not know how to mourn

Seth, this one here is your brother Osiris, who has been caused to be restored that he may live and

punish you

that he may live and punish you." q

O

O Thoth, this one here is your brother Osiris, who has been caused to be restored

Joseph Kaster writes, "[This is] one of the few references to Thoth as another brother of Osiris and an accomplice of Set." In most other texts Thoth is not a 'villain' but the scribe and attorney of the gods and the executor of their decrees." r

The Biblical name of Thoth is Lamech, who is the seventh and final Patriarch before the Flood. 5 Lamech also is implicated in the death of a noble youth. Genesis 4:23-24 (KJV) reads, "And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.

Based on the testimony of the Pyramid Texts, the young man or youth killed by Thoth (Lamech) was certainly Osiris (Mehujael). But, did Thoth kill in self-defense or out of slavish obedience? Was his act motivated by jealousy or retaliation? Thoth (Utu) was the twin brother and also a suitor of Isis (Inanna). (See Note 2) Like Re and Seth, he resented Osiris (Dumuzi), and was therefore willing to be a party to the crime. The Genesis text also indicates that the murder was not accidental but deliberate, which is in character for Thoth. The verse in question can be translated in the future

tense. That is, "I will kill a man

" In Egyptian lore, Thoth tried to resuscitate Osiris, but the Pyramid

Texts reveal that he had no regrets. In Genesis, Lamech identifies with the pain suffered by the victim. However he justifies himself and declares his relative innocence by comparing his killing to

that of Abel by Cain. 6 Another interpretation is that when compared with Abel, Osiris was eleven times as vain and unworthy! This possibly reflects a shared bias against Osiris (Tammuz) that is found in the Book of Ezekiel. As in the case against Abel, the shepherd god Mehujael was perceived by some as only leading the sheep astray. In this view, it was only proper that he was "killed by God."

Released but not Reformed

The exile of Re did not put an end to the strife. It only led to greater conflict and to a permanent rift in the divine family. Horus the Elder (Methushael) was able to gain the upper hand and wrest the sovereignty of Upper Egypt away from Seth. However, after re-establishing himself in Phoenicia, Seth then defeated and killed Horus the Elder. Henceforth, Horus the Elder became known as "Horus who is in Osiris." In the Bible he is called Hadad-Rimmon (Horus-Osiris). From Zechariah 12:10-11, we can deduce that the site of the final conflict between Seth and Horus the Elder had been at the Valley of Megiddo (Armegeddon). It was prophesized both in Zechariah and in other Old and New Testament books that this awesome battle would be repeated, but with Set (Satan) being defeated in the rematch. After the death of Horus the Elder, another Horus, known as Horus the Younger, was groomed to succeed the king of chaos, Seth.

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

In the final act of the New Kingdom story, the perennial troublemaker Seth is bound and brought before the assembly of the gods for judgment. Like the defeated Satan of the Book of Revelation, he no longer appears strong and defiant, but meekly concedes the throne to Horus the Younger. His fate is not made explicit. It is thought that he was either banished or forced to commit suicide. However, his favor with Re was always remembered. Seth was given a place in the solar barque (boat), where he assisted Re in his nightly battles. In one tradition, he was said to have been adopted as the son of Re-Harakhty ("Re and Horus in the Two Horizons"). s

In Greek tradition, Apollo was also bound and required to serve one year of hard labor. He thereafter reformed his ways and actually preached moderation! In the Classical Age of Greece, Apollo was further revered as a sun god. Nevertheless, in Jewish and especially later Christian tradition, the notion that Set/Apollo could ever reform was flatly rejected. He was himself emphatically libeled as the perennial bully and accuser, Satan. He remained the "Prince of Darkness," and became all the more insidious for disguising himself "as an angel of light," i.e., a sun god. t The Book of Revelation is careful to explicitly tell us the Greek form of his name, that is, Apollyon, the "Destroyer." u The original Egyptian form of the name Seth was Sutekh, which also meant "Destroyer" or "Instigator of Confusion." v

Succession without Aggression

Another Greek appellation of Apollo is that of Perseus son of Acrisius. w The name Perseus also means "Destroyer" and is synonymous with Apollo and Sutekh. Acrisius ("Ill-Judgment") is patently a pun on the name Re, the jostling judge of Egypt. Heracles (Horus the Younger) was specifically sired by the Supreme God Zeus to replace Perseus. x However, when the inauguration day of Horus the Younger finally came, changes were made. The prolonged and bitter conflict of both Osiris and Horus the Elder with Seth led to reforms in the rules of succession (co-regency) and a new balance of power. The authority of the destructive, younger gods would be curtailed. Horus the Younger was after much debate declared to be the rightful heir. He would be successor, however absolute power was not granted to him. According to the ancient king-lists, it is instead Thoth who heads the final dynasty of the gods. Egypt was ruled with Thoth as regent and elder advisor, Maat as divine queen, Horus as co-regent, and 30 demi-gods as ministers. (Maat is possibly Sheshat, consort of Thoth, and/or "queen mother" Isis). For better or worse, this basic model of government prevailed for the next 3500 years.

In the murder of Osiris, Thoth had taken an active role in carrying out the will of the "father" Re. He was later able to wash his hands of the deed, or was officially "justified" as having acted under duress. After the final judgment of Set, Thoth was appointed the intermediary between the aging and retiring older gods and emerging mankind. On the positive side, Thoth was patient, meticulous, reliable, faithful, and obedient. He specialized in written records and formal oratory. He was fast to do for others, and fastidious in his own work. He formed close bonds with all of his contemporaries. He pursued peace through compromise. He was the ideal political animal. However, Thoth also tended to be deliberate, calculating, organized, strict, stoical, pedantic and pompous. As with the other gods, Thoth was later parodied with animal humor. The baboon provided a well-suited lampoon of his love for contemplation and ceremony. The ibis was his most familiar icon, and depicts Thoth as the original "pencil-neck geek."

Thoth assumed the role of Atum as the self-created god. Ala Enlil, he was a god of clean hands, who hated evil and meted out severe punishment for disobedience. From Ptah he learned genetics, medicine, magic and mischief. Like Geb, he excelled in the knowledge of plant life and nutrition. Thoth became a master of astronomy and mathematics in the manner of Seth. He was the constant companion of Re and became known as his very heart and tongue. In other words, he spoke for Re

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

and did much of his thinking! In his later years, Re was alternately indecisive and arbitrary and couldn't seem to function at all without the wise counsel of Thoth. In Egypt, Thoth was mainly associated with the moon and stars. However, in Syria and Mesopotamia, Thoth was known as the sun god Utu/Tutu and Shamash, respectively. The solar identity of Thoth would have been transferred to him by his patron, the sun god Marduk-Re.

The Greek identity of Thoth is Hermes, "messenger of the gods." The staff or Caduceus of Hermes is the traditional symbol of the medical profession. It is distinguished from others by the symmetry of its two intertwined serpents and matched pair of wings. The wings are usually thought to represent the wide and speedy travel of Hermes, or to signify his diplomatic immunity. The wings of a bird rest on the "shoulders" of the Hermes Caduceus. This signifies the favor of Thoth given to him by the senior gods. A falcon shown resting on the shoulder of a king designated him as "the Horus," the rightful heir to the throne. However, in the ancient world, wings and birds in general were just as commonly the symbols of the healing gods and of the afterlife. For example, a bird is shown hovering over the body of Osiris to signify the flight of his soul (ba) after death. Malachi 4:2 (KJV) reads: "But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his "

wings

The intertwined serpents of the Hermes Caduceus were inherited from the iconography of Enki/Ptah, and represented both life and healing in a genetic sense. Resurrection from the dead was the ultimate form of healing, which under certain circumstances Thoth was said to perform. Osiris was too badly damaged for Thoth to revive in a literal sense, however the mummification process was intended to preserve his essence, that is, his DNA, for "millions of years." One of the identities of Hermes/Thoth in Mesopotamia was as the fertility god Ningishzida. This name has been variously translated as "Lord of the Upright Pole" or "Lord of the Tree of Life" y , i.e., master of the genome. The emblem of Ningishzida was the same as that of Enki, the intertwined copulating serpents. Thoth excelled not only in medication, but also in mediation. Applied to Hermes/Thoth, the dual serpents represented the synthesis of diametrically opposed forces, and to the healing of relationships through arbitration. The bird of prey and the snake were natural enemies. The snake eats the eggs of the bird. The bird of prey eats the snake. Yet, even they seem to be reconciled in the emblem of Thoth/Hermes.

The Seventh of Seven Gods

In Greek legend, Hermes was celebrated for his musical ability and inventiveness. He is also credited with devising the musical scale. z The common musical scale is that of seven distinct notes that repeat in octaves. The reign of Thoth also represented the fulfillment of a grand cycle. Thoth was not the first note of a new cycle, but the seventh and final note of a completed scale. The number seven is the Biblical number of completion, and is emphasized in the narrative of Lamech. He is said to have lived 777 years. Thoth was the final Patriarch before the Flood, which signaled the end or completion of an Age. In the Book of Genesis, Thoth (Lamech) is the 7 th Patriarch in the line of Adam. This was made possible by removal of the god Seth from the succession list. Lamech was to be avenged 77 times if killed in retaliation for helping Seth murder Osiris.

The god Thoth changed the Egyptian calendar from ten-day weeks to seven-day weeks. In the Bible, the seventh day, i.e., the Sabbath, was considered holy and a day of solemn rest. Sheshat, the consort of Thoth wore an ornamental headdress notable for its unique seven-pedal flower or seven-spiked star. The number seven is integral to the pyramid with its square base and triangular faces. The Great Pyramid also embodies the number Pi, which is closely approximated with whole numbers by the ratio of 22 divided by 7. Thoth was made the final custodian of the Great Pyramid. The Greek name Hermes means "cairn, or pillar" aa , i.e., a monument or heap of stones. As a

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

fertility god, Thoth was called by the name of Min in Egypt. The Egyptian word men also means monument, as in the name Akh-menu, "most glorious of monuments." ab

The symmetry, serenity and solemnity of Thoth's character are misleading. The world he ruled was becoming an increasingly hectic place. Genesis 6:5,11 (KJV) states, "The wickedness of man was great in the earth and every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. The earth also was corrupt before God, and the earth was filled with violence." Maintaining control was a

Herculean labor, even for mighty Horus the Younger. However, Thoth (Hermes) and the other gods already realized that it didn't really much matter. The end of the Age was at hand. It was no time for

piety or for sobriety. The plan of the day was "eat, drink and be merry

for tomorrow we die."

The god Enlil had opposed both the making and the educating of man. Yet, an even greater sin in his eyes had come next. The "cursed" creatures became one with their blessed begetters. Enlil was enraged at this "evil" and determined to put an end to it. The coming Flood provided the perfect opportunity. The other gods, especially Enki, did not share the sentiment or sentence proposed by Enlil. Nevertheless, as senior god, Enlil pulled rank and imposed his will. Although a difference of opinion among the gods was to blame, it was their children who ultimately bore the shame.

We too are bloodthirsty like Cain and Seth. Completely unworthy both Ben and Beth. Our Judgment comes and Nun will thrive. Is an Ark ready? Will knowledge survive?

Peace is to have purpose in every breath. Lasting contentment comes only with death. We are the happiest when we can strive, To make life better for being alive.

a.

King James Version

b.

Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (1.1), p 28.

c.

Definitions by Robert Graves, The Greek Myths.

d.

Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (126 a,1), pp 475, 477.

e.

Ibid, (18.h) pp 69-70.

f.

Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 56.

g.

Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (27.a), p 103. Cf Smyrna and Semele.

h.

Ibid, pp 103-106.

i.

Antigone, line 1115.

j.

Michael Astour, Hellenosemitica, p190.

k.

Associations and definitions by Michael Astour, Hellenosemitica.

l.

Compare especially Psalm 22, Isaiah 53, and 1 Peter 3:19-22.

m.

Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (18.6), p 72; (27.10), p 110.

n.

Michael Astour, Helenosemitica, p 191.

o.

Michael Astour, Helenosemitica, p 107.

p.

Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 56.

q.

Translation by R.O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, pp 46-47.

r.

The Wisdom of Ancient Egypt, p 81.

s.

Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 83.

t.

2 Corinthians 11:14

u.

Revelation 9:11

v.

Margaret Bunson, A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p 242.

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

w. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, (73, 118), pp 237, 446.

x. Ibid, (118.d), p 448.

y. Michael Astour, Hellenosemitica, pp 156, 161, 229, 301.

z. Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 14, pp 63-67.

aa. Definition by R. Graves, The Greek Myths, p 764. ab. Nigel & Helen Strudwick, Thebes in Egypt, p 55.

Note 1:

The murder can be reconstructed from the various sources, namely from the legends of "Dumuzi and Enkimdu: the Dispute between the Shepherd-God and the Farmer-God," "Inanna's Descent to the Nether World," and from "The Death of Dumuzi." The first two epics are published by Pritchard in Ancient Near Eastern Texts. The last text is pieced together by S.N. Kramer, et.al., and outlined in The Sumerians, pp 156-160.

Michael Astour (Hellenosemitica, p 159) notes that Geshtinanna ("the heavenly vine") was the consort of Ningishzida. The goddesses Bau (Ba-ba) and Belit-Seri were also consorts of Ningishzida. These three names may represent unique goddesses, but are more likely different names of the same goddess, the Egyptian Isis-Sret.

Texts relating to the death of Dumuzi are also commented upon by Zecharia Sitchin (The Wars of Gods and Men, pp 216-220). He cites another text (CT.15.28-29) in which Dumuzi rapes his sister Gesht-inanna. Gesht-innana is generally assumed to be another unattested sister of Dumuzi, (as by Kramer, cited above, and Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p 637 footnote 2; and on p 639). In the city of Lagash, Geshtinanna was the consort of the god Ninurta (Geb). Perhaps Geshtinanna was an unknown sister or even an epithet of Ereshkigal (Nephyths/Persephone), and the attention showed her by Dumuzi provoked the jealously of Inanna. However, it seems more likely that G'esht- innana is an epithet derived from the two common Mesopotamian names of Isis, those being Inanna and Ishtar/Eshdar. The exclusive relationship between Dumuzi (Osiris) and Inanna (Isis) was at the root of the conflict. In the Greek account, Adonis (Dionysos-Osiris) is not killed for raping Aphrodite (Isis), but for withholding his sexual favors from Persephone (Nephthys).

Nephthys was not alone in her jealous fury. Many of the gods were also angry at Osiris for monopolizing the affections of Isis. Among these were not only Seth, but Geb (Ninurta) and Thoth. In Mesopotamian tradition, Geshtinanna was also the consort of Ningishzidda (Thoth). According to the Pyramid Texts, Thoth not only had a hand in the "resurrection" of Osiris, but also in his death! The rape of Geshtinanna by Dumuzi, or rather her exclusive relationship with Osiris, would have been equally an offence to Ningishzidda (Thoth).

Unfortunately, Sitchin does not associate Mesopotamian Dumuzi (Canaanite Tammuz) with the Egyptian god Osiris. If Sitchin had recognized the equivalence of Osiris and Dumuzi, his thesis and chronology would have been greatly simplified.

Note 2:

Piercing is a crucial aspect of the Old Testament memory of the death of Osiris.

Ps 22:16 (KJV) "For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet." "pierced" from Heb. ariy (738) ar-ee'; a lion:- (young) lion, + pierce from arah (717) to pluck

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

A play on words alluding to Re/Ares, the god held responsible for the death of Osiris.

Isaiah 27:1 (KJV) "… punish leviathan the piercing serpent." "piercing" from Heb. bariach (1281) a fugitive, i.e. the serpent (as fleeing) and the constellation by that name:- crooked, noble, piercing

from barach (1272) to bolt, i.e. fig. to flee suddenly:- chase (away); drive away, fain, flee (away), put

to flight, make haste, reach, run away, shoot.

A play on words alluding to Levi/Montu/Set, the god who performed the killing of Osiris.

Isaiah 36:6; 2 Kings 18:21 (KJV) "… it will go into his hand, and pierce it:"

"pierce" from Heb. naqab (5344) to puncture, lit. (to perforate with more or less violence) or fig. (to specify, designate, libel):- blaspheme, curse, pierce, strike through

cf naqam (5358) to grudge, i.e. avenge or punish

naqam, "avenged," is the word used by Lamech in Gen. 4:24

Zechariah 12:10-11 (NIV) "They will look upon me whom they have pierced, and they will mourn for him as one mourns for an only child, and grieve bitterly for him as one grieves for a firstborn son. On that day the weeping in Jerusalem will be great, like the weeping of Hadad Rimmon in the plain of Megiddo." The word translated by the New International Version as "pierced" is the Hebrew daqar (1856) to stab; by anal. to starve; fig. to revile:- pierce, strike through, wound. Cf deqaq (1855) corresp. to (1854) beat in pieces (small); to crumble or (trans.) crush:- break to pieces

Rimmon (Osiris) and Hadad-Rimmon (Horus the Elder, "Horus who is in Osiris") were both slain by Seth. Horus the Elder and Seth staged their final battle at Megiddo (Armageddon).

Note 3:

In identification with the Osiris cult, there are strong agrarian themes in the Gospels. There is also a deliberate emphasis on wine. The critics of Jesus call him a "wine-bibber." Jesus changes the water into wine, and compared his shed blood to wine.

Jesus receives the adoration of women, as did Osiris. However, the sexuality and marriage of Jesus

is entirely repressed. This discouraged the association of Jesus with licentious forms of the Osiris

cult. It was important to present Jesus as being without sin, a sacrifice without defect. "The good

shepherd lays down his life for the sheep." - John 10:11 (NIV)

Jesus raised L'azarus ("The Osiris") from the dead, symbolizing that the Osiris cult was itself being "resurrected." At this time, Jesus also predicts his own death and resurrection.

Jesus weeps for Lazarus. His followers would in turn weep for him, but are comforted with his symbolic resurrection. Mourners at his empty tomb are told: "He is risen."

Jesus is "anointed" for burial prior to his crucifixion, and again when taken down from the cross. This was in recognition of the embalmment of Osiris. However, these substances were intended to disinfect and heal the wounds of Jesus, and not to preserve his corpse. His death and resurrection would not have been literal.

Christ forgives the criminal being crucified next to him. In the Osiris tradition, there was hope not only for the misfortunate of this world, but even for the damned.

Note 4:

2 Kings 18:4 (KJV) states that a later king, Hezekiah, "brake into pieces the brasen serpent that

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

Moses had made: for unto those days the children of Israel did burn incense to it: and he called it Nehushtan.

"brasen serpent" (5180) Nehushtan (Heb. Nechushtan), from nechosheth (5178) "something made of copper, i.e., the copper serpent of the desert." The name Nehushtan is a play on Hebrew words with "serpent," nachash (5175), and "consolation," nacham (5163/5164).

Cf Sheth/Seth (8352) "substituted" as in Osiris the substitute for sinners. Cf Sheth (8351) "tumult", an alternate form (8352) and an epithet of the Egyptian Set, the "noisy boaster."

Cf fiery serpents AND scorpions in Deut. 8:15; Cf Isaiah 14:29; 30:6; 2 Kings 18:4

Note 5:

Strong considers the etymology of the Hebrew name Lemekh/Lamech to be uncertain. However, related Hebrew words are instructive:

limmud (3929) instructed:- accustomed, disciple, learned, taught, used. from lamad (3925) to goad, i.e (by impl.) to teach (the rod being an Oriental incentive):- expert, skilful, teach (er,-ing).

Among the gods, Thoth was the wise but strict teacher and preserver of knowledge.

The root lum means "light." The Latin luna is the word for "moon." Thoth was especially associated with the moon in Egypt. Likewise, on Crete he was called Minos ("the moon's creature"). Definition that of Robert Graves. This connects to another form of Thoth in Egypt, the god Min, who was worshipped at Coptos and Akhmin. Outside of Egypt, Thoth was known as the sun god, and named variously as Utu/Tutu and Shamash.

In the Book of Enoch, the name of Thoth/Lamech is Uriel, meaning "flame (or light) of God." Another Biblical pseudonym of Thoth is the wise Lemuel (Proverbs 31:1, 4) The full etymology of the related names Min and Menes is found in the notes of the next chapter.

Thoth ruled Egypt with the help of his 30 "sons." The Bible only mentions 3 "sons" of Lamech. They are Jabal, Jubal, Tubal-cain. All three of these names are derived from the Hebrew yabal (2986) yaw-bal'; to flow; causat. to bring (espec. with pomp):- bring (forth)

Noah is not mentioned as one of these sons, unless Jabal/Jubal/Tubal are pseudonyms of Noah. In the various myths of the ancient world Noah himself has many names, including Utnapishtim, Ziasudra, Adapa and Deucalion.

Note 6:

Genesis 4:23-24 (KJV), "And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.

Thoth was inventor of the alphabet and writing ("from Adah to Zillah"). He was the messenger and spokesman of the gods. In the Bible, he addresses even his own wives in a formal speech!

According to the Schocken Bible: "The names [Ada and Tzilla] suggest 'dawn' and 'dusk.' " [from Theodor H. Gastor] This etymology connects Thoth with the cycles of the sun and moon. His

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 3: "In Love and War" (Patriarchs Irad, Mehujael, Mehushael and Lamech)

consort Sheshat ("goddess-zilla") assisted him in surveying and shadow measurements. Zecharia Sitchin writes (When Time Began, p 163), "Sesheta too was associated with the number seven. One of her epithets was 'Sesheta means seven' and her name was often written hieroglyphically by the sign for seven placed above a bow."

Adah (5711) ornament from (5710) to advance, i.e. pass on or continue Zillah (6741) fem. of (6738) tsel, shade :- shadow

hear (8085) shama, to hear intelligently (often with impl. of attention obedience, etc.; caus. to tell, etc.) voice (6963) qowl, to call aloud; a voice or sound:- proclamation wives (802) ishshah (cf Sheshat, pronounced similarly to ishshah) hearken (238) azan, to expand; but used only as a denom. from 241; to broaden out the ear (with the hand) … Cf Azriel, the name of an angel. speech (565) imrah, commandment, speech, word. from (561) emer and (559) amar slain (2026) harag, smite with deadly intent (cf Har/Hor/Horus) Cf (2029) to be (or become) pregnant, conceive (helped Isis conceive Horus) man (376) iysh, every(one), (good-, great, mighty) man young man (3206) yeled, something born, i.e. a lad or offspring:- boy, child, fruit, son, young man (one). wounding (6482) petsa, a wound from the verb (6481) patsa "to split" cf (6483) pitstets to dissever; a priest:- Apses (apogee or perigee, the altar or east end of a church) (6475) patsah, to rend, i.e. open (espec. the mouth:- deliver, gape, open, rid, utter. hurt (2250) prop. bound with stripes, i.e. a weal (or black and blue mark itself) from chabar (2266) to join (lit. or fig.); spec. (by means of spells) to fascinate:- charm (-er), have fellowship with, heap up, join (self, together), league.

avenged (5358) naqam, to grudge, i.e. avenge or punish (cf Nabu) truly, Heb. emoth or amen

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 4: "Deadly Drought, Fatal Flood" (Noah to Nimrod)

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Living in Truth:

Archaeology and the Patriarchs

Chapter 4

"Deadly Drought, Fatal Flood" (Noah to Nimrod)

by Charles N. Pope Copyright ©1999-2002 by Charles Pope United States Library of Congress All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions

Sin of Commission

Thoth was considered a spirit while he was yet living and active. He was also associated with the "spirits" of the dead. He had perfected the embalmment process, which was an attempt to preserve the DNA or spirits of the deceased. He was Executor of the last will and testament of the gods. He was Executioner of those whom the gods had sentenced to die. His final proclamation was to be one of silence. The rapidly multiplying offspring of the gods with the daughters of men were not to be warned of what was soon to befall them. Through this non-action, the association of Thoth with death was made complete.

Chapter 175 of the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead describes the "Children of Nut" as fractious and guilty of atrocities. 1 The Creator asks Thoth what is to be done about it. Thoth urges the Creator to limit their days. The Creator determines to do just that - to destroy them altogether and return the Earth to its primordial flooded state. The gods were getting old and their patience exhausted. New members were not being admitted into the ranks of the immortals to replace them. Even the days of the Great Reckoner Thoth were numbered. The end of an Age was at hand.

Genesis 6:3 (Schocken Bible) reads: "YHWH said: My rushing-spirit shall not remain in humankind for ages, for they too are flesh; let their days be then a hundred and twenty years!" The Hebrew word translated as "rushing-spirit" by the Schocken Bible is ruwach (7307): "wind; by resemblance breath, i.e. a sensible (or even violent exhalation; figuratively life, anger; by resemblance spirit, but only of a rational being (including its expression and functions." a The rushing-spirit of the gods was Thoth-Hermes. He traveled widely and quickly in order to carry out their commands. As the senior gods grew old and tired, Thoth became, figuratively speaking, the breath, and literally the voice of the gods. He expressed their wishes and displeasure; he was their heart and their mind.

Thoth was also the mediator of disputes among the gods and among men. The Hebrew word translated above as "remain" by the Schocken Bible and "strive" by the King James Version is duwn (1777), defined as "to rule; by implication to judge (as umpire); also to strive (as at law)." b There had been strife and bloodshed from the beginning, first among the gods and then between gods and men. Alal (Abel) was violently deposed by Anu (Cain). Anu was then wounded by a rival named Kingu, which forced him to yield to his son Enlil (brother of Enoch). Enlil-Shu was in turn defied by his brother Enki-Ptah (Enoch), and was disrespectfully ousted by his own designated heir Geb (Gabriel). Those olden gods, that is the Titans, were next pushed aside by their "human" offspring.

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The five "mixed" children of Geb by the goddess Nut vied for dominance. First Osiris (Mehujael) and then Horus (Mehushael) was killed by Seth. Re (Irad) was made a fugitive for his role in the death of Osiris. Seth was replaced by Horus the Younger only after decades of further conflict and arbitration on the part of Thoth (Lamech).

The Torah echoes the sentiment found in the Book of the Dead. Thoth and the elder gods were weary of settling disputes between the "Children of Nut" and amongst emerging mankind. However, the wickedness of men, who were the offspring of the gods themselves, was only a partial explanation for the Flood. It was primarily a rationalization. The cataclysm could be predicted, but not prevented, not with prayer or by repentance. The power of the gods was in this case manifested by their ability to keep secret the knowledge of impending doom.

Go West Old Man

Even Ptah had to agree that the new race was behaving badly, but still argued that the solution was not to drown the baby in the bath water. c The Earth, i.e., Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean Basin was going to be repopulated eventually. Should it not be by the descendants of a man who had shown at least some redeeming qualities? As for the gods themselves, they were abandoning that world and going away. Where they went is somewhat of a mystery. Their own days being short, an extensive rebuilding program in the Old World was not a viable option. Instead, it seems they chose to spend the remainder of their "golden years" in the warmth of the Americas - a Netherworld that was evidently not destroyed by the waters of that particular flood. According to Egyptian beliefs, the gods entered the "beautiful West," which was connected to their world, but could only be reached with considerable difficulty and danger. It was the hope of the Egyptian to follow the gods to that place in death. d

Although bound by oath, it was nonetheless the god of the living waters, Ea/Enki, who leaked news of the killing flood to Noah. In the Book of Enoch, God sends his messenger Uriel to advise Noah. Uriel, meaning "Flame of God," is a Hebrew epithet of Thoth and corresponds to his New Testament identity, the Holy Spirit. e The god who sent Uriel/Thoth to help Noah would have been Ea/Enki. Biblical Noah is given boat building specifications, and a final "heads up" only seven days prior to the Flood. f The interval of seven days further points to an intervention by Thoth. In the Mesopotamian account, Utnapishtim also receives a seven days notice. Enki sees to it that Utnapishtim is instructed in building a submersible ship, and also provides him with materials and labor for the effort. The townspeople are told that Enlil had become angry with Utnapishtim, and that he had to leave the land of Enlil and go to the watery realm of his god Enki. With the wine of Utnapishtim flowing freely, his neighbors are more than happy to help him build the boat and make his exodus.

Greek Mythology names the "drunken sailor," Deucalion (Noah), as the grandson of Iapetos [Ea- Ptah]. 2 The father of Deucalion is named as the king of Crete, Minos ("the moon's creature"), probably the local epithet of Thoth, a moon god in Egypt. In the Gilgamesh Epic, Utnapishtim is named as the son of Ubar-tutu, which is yet another regional identity of Thoth. Ubar-Tutu has been defined as "friend of Tutu." However, this title is better translated as "over-ruler Tutu," i.e., regent Thoth. Thoth was the final god-king of the pre-dynastic period and ruled with Horus as his junior co- regent, and with 30 other "sons" as his ministers. Thoth was likely not the literal son of Ptah. However, he became the vicar of Ptah, as well as all of the other senior gods, including the sun god Re. As such, he assumed many of their attributes and titles.

Noah's Flood may have been confined to the Mediterranean and Middle East. The ancient Sumerians defined the "earth" as being the Fertile Crescent and the four regions or "corners" which

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framed it. This definition is also implicit in the Bible. However, the Biblical Flood may include elements of a much earlier flood or floods associated with the end of the last Ice Age. The extent of flooding at that time would have been considered worldwide, even by a modern definition. The arrival of the gods coincided with a time of widespread flooding, probably even more extensive than that of Noah's day. The Flood that marked the departure of the gods from the "world" was associated with the eruption of Thera (Santorini), a volcanic island in the Mediterranean Sea. 3

Neither the Day Nor Hour

The Thera eruption is estimated to have been up to 100 times more severe than that of Krakatoa in 1883 making it the second largest eruption of all history. Only the 1815 eruption of Tambora on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa was greater. The tidal waves caused by Thera's collapsing shell, and the fallout from spewing volcanic ash resulted in catastrophic loss of life around the Mediterranean, especially on the eastern rim. The great cultural centers on Thera (Santorini) and the nearby island of Crete were swept away. Traditional estimates for the date of the eruption have ranged between 1380 BC and 1500 BC. A modern study based on tree-ring analysis placed the eruption in 1628 BC. However, the way in which tree-ring dating was applied has been contested. g The chronology proposed here (See Charts 5a, 5b, 14, 15 & 16) can support the 1628 BC date, but is more compatible with the 1380 - 1500 BC time frame.

The Thera eruption would surely have had a devastating impact on Mediterranean and Mesopotamia populations. The blast of Thera would in itself have affected weather all over the planet. Yet, it must now be suspected that Thera was not the main event, but only a side effect of a more massive cataclysm. A 2-mile diameter crater has only recently been discovered near the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. It was caused by a meteor hit, and may have only been one of many strikes from a meteor shower. 4 The preliminary estimate is that it happened about 4,000 years ago. Of course, such an event could well have triggered earthquakes and volcanic eruptions the world over. Convulsive shifting of tectonic plates along the major fault line of the Middle East, that of the Jordan Rift Valley, is known to have occurred in ancient times.

Was a "meteor shower" actually expected by the gods? If so, then it should now be possible for us to predict the same. It does not necessarily require space age technology, but could be deduced from "historical data" of the Earth, the Solar System and its natural cycles. In ancient times, the calendar was the Earth's cyclical precession relative to the night sky over a period of thousands of years. The return of "near earth objects" (NEO's), such as comets and meteors could be anticipated as a function of elapsed time measured on an astronomical scale. Zecharia Sitchin (in his "Earth Chronicles" series) presents evidence from mythology that trouble returns to Earth every 3,600 years due to the highly eccentric and retrograde orbit of a NEO called Nabiru.

If the 1628 BC date of the Flood is correct, then history should have already repeated itself. 1628 BC is now 3,632 years into the past. However, if previous estimates of the Thera eruption date are more accurate, then we may still suffer the "End of the World," and of our "Age" sometime within the next 200 years. Calculating a more precise date for the meteor strike (triggering the Thera eruption) mentioned above is therefore more than of academic importance. We may not be able to determine the day and hour, but it may be possible to know the year of its coming. Considering its location in modern day Iraq, a closer inspection may require a dash of diplomacy. Yet, the insight to be gained more than justifies whatever measures must be taken. It is also necessary to revisit the tree-ring analysis, and correct any flaws in procedure or application to the dating of the Thera eruption.

Every End a New Beginning

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As the celestial ark of the gods had earlier searched for a landing place amidst the high waters, so Noah looked for a mount to bring his mystery ship to rest. 5 In the Legend of Adapa, the Flood Hero and survivor is called the "model human," as though he were another Adam/Atum. h In a sense of loneliness and innocence, he was. Genesis 8:1 (NIV) states that "God remembered Noah and sent a wind (ruwach) over the earth and the waters receded." In the Sumerian Deluge Epic, Flood hero Ziusudra [Noah] opened a window, and "Utu [Thoth] brought his rays into the giant boat." i After Noah arrived safely on dry land, he built an altar and offered up a burnt sacrifice. Genesis 8:21 continues: "the Lord smelled" (ruwach) the pleasing aroma and made a silent declaration "in his heart." The repeated and varied use of the Hebrew word ruwach emphasizes the perceived role of Thoth in the unfolding drama. Moreover, as mentioned above, Thoth was called the "heart" of the gods. 6

The Biblical benediction of Jehovah made through his ruwach (Thoth) is consistent with Mesopotamian myth. In the Gilgamesh Epic, Enlil is at first furious that he had been disobeyed. After a lecture by Enki, he then relents and decides to make Utnapishtim and his wife as the gods. j Likewise, in the Legend of Adapa, Adapa challenges the gods by exercising a "lord-like" ability to command and curse, and thereby defies the Deluge. He was summoned before the great god Anu to give a report. After Adapa humbly apologizes for his anger, Anu poses the rhetorical question:

"Why did Ea to a worthless human of the heaven and of the earth the plan disclose?" k Without waiting for the reply, he concedes that there is nothing more to do than offer Adapa immortality. However, as he had earlier tricked Enlil, Ea also tricked Adapa into refusing the "bread of life." The meek one Adapa was granted "mercy," but he did not attain "eternal life."

Whether it was a real event or just another one of man's later "imaginations," the great orator Thoth makes a formal farewell speech in the Genesis text. The best the aging despot could do was to leave his charges with a threat and a promise. Thoth quoted nothing from the elaborate legal codes he wrote during the preceding Golden Age of Strife. Mortal men, left to their own devices, would do well if only to avoid slaking the blood of animals and spilling the blood of their fellows. It is a sad commentary that the gods considered it futile to expect any more from humans than this. Even animals are averse to killing members of their own social units.

In the Book of Enoch, the birth of Noah was looked upon not as a sign of judgment and doom, but of imminent relief from oppressive living conditions. The Flood did come as a punishment to those who perished, but was a godsend for those who survived. With the Flood came a dramatic change in climate. The reappearance of abundant surface water and rainfall abruptly ended a long period of increasing drought. The ground once again could sustain life. The traumatized clan of Noah were comforted with the promise that the Earth would never again be destroyed by the waters of a flood, and to date it hasn't. Nevertheless, promises are only as good and lasting as those who make them. The Mediterranean has continued to be active geologically, and is presently the home of the Earth's most active volcano, Mt. Etna on Sicily. On this, the "Water Planet," two-thirds of the globe is covered by ocean. It is not a matter of if, but when, a major flood will occur. The possible list of causes is great, including eruptions, earthquakes, collapse of a continental shelf or glacier, and especially the rogue asteroid or regular meteor impact. This is the mixed blessing of abundant water.

Covenant Without Kingship

Gen. 9:1 (KJV) states, "And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, 'Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.' " Earlier, in Genesis 1:28, God commanded Adam and Eve, "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it." Strong's Concordance defines subdue (Heb. kabash, 3533) as "to tread down; hence negatively to disregard; positively to conquer,

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subjugate, violate:- bring into bondage, force, keep under, subdue, bring into subjection." Adam and Eve were created not only to serve their Creator, but also to attain mastery over the Earth and all life in it. The Bible implicitly confirms the right of their children to rule as god-kings. Likewise, after the Flood, a line of god-kings emerged from Noah. However, the Torah implicitly rejects the authority of that line of kings. As with Adam and Eve, Noah and those with him are told to "be fruitful and multiply." However, the command to "subdue" the Earth is conspicuously absent. There is only the prohibition of drinking the blood of animals and shedding the blood of men. The Torah is either denying that kingship was "lowered from heaven" after the Flood, or claiming that this kingship had been made null and void, because the terms of the "covenant" had been broken.

The author of the Kings/Chronicles history expresses a strong anti-kingship sentiment. 1 Samuel

8:6-22 states, "This will be the manner of the king that shall reign over you: He will take your sons

he will take your daughters

your fields

your vineyards

the tenth of your seed

your

asses

the former kingship of the Patriarchs in Egypt is suppressed, however their sovereignty in Palestine is celebrated. The humbled scions of David and Solomon had drunk their fill of world domination. They had lived by the sword and died by it. Ultimately, they all became victims of the traditional royal "smiting scene." No longer were they the oppressors, but the oppressed. Pride in their glorious past was tempered by the decried hardship of their present new beginnings in post-Exile Israel.

your sheep

And you shall cry out

but the Lord will not hear you." In Kings/Chronicles,

The Torah takes this anti-kingship sentiment to the next logical level. In that history the legitimacy of kingship itself is called into question, and the sovereignty of the Patriarchs is completely renounced. Many clues to the royalty of the Patriarchs are carefully interwoven into the text of the Torah, but their kingship is never made explicit, not in Egypt, Palestine or anywhere else. The Torah is the autopsy of a fallen line of autocrats. It is not a "history written by the winners," but by losers. There is a distinct "sour grapes" taste in the vintage Torah narratives. After the Patriarchal line lost its kingship, the institution itself was denounced. The Torah is also a tell-all expose. Discretely, yet fully, the shocking details of ancient royal family life are revealed.

In the time of the gods, the excesses of Seth and his generation led to reforms in the kingship model. Thoth tried to assure an orderly succession through the institution of co-regency. Upon the death of a king, the co-regent would duly succeed him. At the same time, the new king would appoint a co-regent from among his own sons or "brothers." The co-regent was fully a king, but did not hold absolute power. If a co-regent died, a new co-regent would be appointed to replace him. Moreover, if the co-regent was found to be unworthy, his "birthright" could be revoked and given to another. In the reign of Thoth, the co-regent was Horus the Younger. He is not named in the succession list of the Patriarchs. His co-regency was either annulled by the gods, or by the Flood.

Ea/Enki did not accept the decision of Enlil to rid the "world" of all men. He secretly crowned a new "co-regent," one in whom he found no sin. Noah was evidently more of a lover than a fighter. Enki must have hoped that this compassionate, wine-bibbing seaman would replenish the earth with a happy, peace-loving race. After the Flood, Noah put away his sail and was ready to settle down. However, Noah's "youngest son" intended to subdue the earth even as the gods had done before him. To Ham, the complacency of Noah was the greater disgrace.

Boarding the king ship, Noah made a slip. Warm-hearted tiller harbored a killer. Noah had new wine alone on his mind. Ham lusted for fruit of another kind.

A Curse With a Cause is Retracted

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Ham repaid his praying father by preying on him. No sooner had big brother Thoth departed, we are told that Ham sodomized Noah and then boasted about it to Shem and Japheth. This heinous act of Ham toward his father indicates that he may not have been a true son of Noah. If he had been, then the seed of Noah would have already resided in Ham. The name Ham suggests that he was of the line or at least of the nature of the god Har (Horus/Heracles). In a primitive ritual, Ham determined to put his seed in Noah, and thereby usurp his station as "father." In the Legend of Adapa, the Flood hero (Noah) justly curses the south wind of the Deluge. Strangely, despite being violated again after the Flood in an equally degrading fashion, Biblical Noah does not curse his southerly son Ham directly, nor all of his descendants.

In Genesis, we are told that Ham was the grandfather of Nimrod, the first great figure of the Post- Flood Age. Nimrod is further named as a son of Cush. This is a true statement, however it is only half the story. The author is deliberately trying to throw the untrained bloodhound off the "grail trail," and he succeeds like a red fox. The author wants very much to disassociate his Semitic ancestors from the great tyrants of the past, and also avoid becoming the quarry of Nimrod's in his present day.

Ham is not specifically cursed. Equally surprising, Shem, the favored son of Noah, is himself not explicitly blessed. More precisely, it is the god of Shem that Noah blesses. The reader naturally assumes that the god of Shem is Jehovah, but that was not strictly the case. In the Legend of Etana, l we learn that the god of Shem was Shamash (a form of Thoth). We can also discern from that same epic something even more profound. Shem and his royal wife could not have children. Therefore, Nimrod was fathered by Cush on the behalf of Shem. By right and by choice, Shem became the legal and spiritual father of the first great king and tyrant Nimrod. For this reason, the Biblical author cleverly removes from Ham the curse and withholds from Shem a blessing.

Through a covenant between Cush and Shem, the "mighty hunter" Nimrod was born. The legacy of both Ham and Shem became twisted together as one. Therefore, the curse with a cause had to be partially undone. However, Nimrod, as the founder of post-Flood kingship, could not be explicitly blessed. Kingship, in the eyes of the Genesis author, was not a blessing. Oddly, only the capable Canaan is consigned to perpetual servitude. The curse had been uttered by Noah. It could not be fully denied, so it was placed on the head of the scapegoat Canaan. The author of Genesis refused to recall any curse on Ham or his son Cush. To have done so would have been tantamount to cursing Shem. (The "sons born to Shem" listed in Genesis 10:21-22 are identified in the following essay.)

House of Eternity

The Gilgamesh Epic informs us that after the Flood Utnapishtim was made to "reside far away, at the "mouth of the rivers." m In the "The Deluge" epic, Ziusudra was "caused to dwell" in the "land of the crossing" or the "land of rule" called Dilmun. n Although these descriptions are not very helpful, we can deduce that Noah lived out his days in Egypt, the place where the spirits of the dead were considered to live on indefinitely through a proper embalming and burial. Noah assumed the Egyptian name or title of Nutjeren or Ny-netjer, which is translated as "belonging to the gods" or "as the gods." The Greek root ny also means "god." Therefore, Ny-netjer would suggest "god (of) gods." Noah did not merely reside or dwell in Egypt. He established his family as the "great house" o of Egypt, the source of all future pharaohs, the god-kings of that land. It is perhaps the name and status of Noah in Egypt that led to the Mesopotamian legends of his deification and attainment of eternal life "as the gods."

Noah was deified in Egypt, as were his leading sons with him. The name of Ham/Khem is also

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found among the early dynasts of Egypt. The Biblical name is a shortened form of Sekhemwy, who took the throne name of Bau-netjer, "power of the gods to punish and kill." p The favored son of Noah, Shem, can similarly be seen as an abbreviation of his Egyptian name Semerkhet, "thoughtful friend." q Shem took the throne name of Iri-netjer, "eye of the gods," i.e., favored/heir of the gods. However, as indicated in the Bible, the aggressive Ham usurped the place of both Shem and Noah. Upper Egypt fell to Ham's son Cush ("Ethiopia"), who assumed the names of Scorpion and Horus- Aha. 7 Lower Egypt became the domain of Ham's son Mizraim ("Egypt"). He was known in that region as Netjer-i-khet ("divine of the body"), r Djoser ("serpent-king") 8 and possibly Cobra, which is also one of the king names or epithets of early dynastic Egypt.

The major cities of Mesopotamia were also claimed by these same two sons of Ham. In the Sumerian king-list, Aha (Cush) was called Agga and also Zukakip ("Scorpion"), as in Egypt. Djoser (Mizraim) corresponds to Labasher in the Sumerian king-list. s However, he was best remembered in Mesopotamian lore by the name of Gilgamesh, and his virtues are recounted in the lengthy Gilgamesh Epic. In that tale, the hero Gilgamesh (Misraim) is put forth as the paragon of irrepressible manhood, as his Egyptian name Netjerikhet suggests. Gilgamesh is cut out of the same mold as the earlier Horus action figures. Like Horus the Elder (Adad), Gilgamesh is both "fierce" and "beloved." Like the younger Horus (Greek Heracles), he enjoys the patronage and special favor of Utu-Shamash (Thoth-Hermes). He also strives as Heracles did to win immortality with his mighty labors. Gilgamesh is both athletic and articulate. He gets dirty and dresses dapper. He is honest to the point of irreverence. He is spontaneous and joyful. He is competitive, but not obsessed with winning. He cares more about living than ruling. In pursuit of immortality, a perilous journey is undertaken by Gilgamesh to find "The Faraway" Utnapishtim. Along the way, he is advised by the "scorpion-man," t who is likely a memory of his brother Scorpion/Horus-Aha.

However, the Epic of Gilgamesh doesn't completely hide the hero's flip side. He is adventurous, but recklessly destructive. He is virile, but also vain. He is a loyal friend, but often also a fiend. He spurns the love of a "goddess," but bursts in uninvited upon ordinary brides. He is capable of deep grief, but is specifically called "the killer." He and his sidekick Enkidu not only slay the "bull of heaven" and the "watchman of the forest," but also the "young lions [i.e., princes] in the mountain passes." It is this last excess that his elders and his brother Agga/Scorpion probably found inexcusable. In the Gilgamesh Epic, the god Shamash (Thoth) also does not condone the killings of Gilgamesh, but he is willing to accept a substitute. Enkidu, the ally and close companion of Gilgamesh, is made to die in his place.

King of the Beasts

What began as a friendly rivalry between Cush and Mizraim eventually turned ugly. It also provided an opportunity for Shem to salvage a measure of honor. The perspective of Shem in this family feud was preserved in the Legend of Etana. Etana (Shem) was declared to be the first king of Kish, and therefore of the "world," following the Flood. As the designated heir of Utnapishtim (Noah), he would have been paired with the preferred female - the fairest of all the fair daughters of men. Nonetheless, as Inanna-Ishtar before her, the wife of Etana could not conceive. (This is an indication of the extensive inbreeding that had already taken place by this time.) In the Legend of Etana, Etana prays daily to his god Shamash for relief, even as his father Utna-pishtim (Noah) had called out to Ea. The "curse" of Etana is not the lack of rain, but a son to carry on his reign. He desperately wants a shumu, which is translated as "name." u In order to get himself this name, he had to have a qualified successor. As the story goes, Shamash finally answers Etana's prayer, probably not directly, but as his "spirit guide." v

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The desire of Etana for a royal dynasty arouses suspicious. The renewal of divine kingship after the Flood is in contradiction to the edict of Thoth-Shamash given in the Bible. The sons of Noah were not to assume the power of life and death over their fellow man. Noah and his sons are granted authority over the beasts, but not to kill human beings. However, the prohibition against kingship is circumvented in the Legend of Etana through a subtle ploy. The childless Etana is not named as a ruler over men. Instead, he is called "king of the animals." Included among these so-called "animals" are rival princes. Etana is the only fully human character in the story. This serves both to distinguish him from other contenders and to make his divine pretensions more legitimate. Moreover, the plight of Etana (Shem) was so personal and the might of Agga (Cush) so mitigated that their shared predicament was better told as a fable rather than as literal narration.

In the opening stanza of the Etana Epic we are presented with an image of befuddled Flood survivors. They had not yet collected themselves well enough to establish a king to rule over them. In fact, the "Seven" (Thoth-Shamash, specifically) and the "Anunnaki-Igigi" (the Assembly of the Gods, in general) are seen as actively opposing the return of civilization and kingship. They have even blocked the gates of the cities such that men cannot re-enter them. This probably alludes to drifts of silt from the Flood. Instead, the Great Gods seek only to confirm the "bounds of Shamash." In the Etana Epic, these bounds clearly correspond to the Biblical restrictions given to the clan of Noah against murder and consuming the blood of animals. However, the "goddess Ishtar," i.e., the wife of Etana, is not at all dismayed by the mud and insists upon the renewal of city and court life. Here, as in the Biblical Creation Story, the woman is revealed as the "civilizing influence." In Genesis 3:12 (KJV), Adam says to his God, "the woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat." The "strong-man" Etana might also have eased his own guilty conscience regarding his kingly ambitions by weakly muttering, "mistress Ishtar made me do it."

In a veiled pursuit of sovereignty, Etana allegorically seeks the help of a condemned "eagle." This eagle had been cast into a pit for slaying the brood of a "serpent." We are told that the eagle and the serpent were once denizens of the same "tree," i.e., shared the same royal lineage. In the Legend of Etana, the eagle logically corresponds to Cush, known in Upper Egypt as Horus-Aha, the "fighting falcon." The serpent represents his sibling and natural rival Mizraim, the "serpent king" of Lower Egypt. In their younger days, the eagle and the serpent form a pact and even help to raise each other's children. But the vain lust of the eagle for glory eventually drives him to murder the children of his brother and ally. In search of justice, the serpent sets a trap for the eagle. He then seizes his former friend and confronts him with his treachery. The eagle cannot bring back the children of the serpent whom he had slain, but he does offer him a bride w with which to start anew. In such a small royal family, there was no more powerful inducement to forgive. Nevertheless, the serpent has nothing but venom for the eagle. Yet, being fearful of Shamash and bloodguilt, he does not kill him. Instead, he throws the ruffed up eagle into a pit and consigns his certain death to the "executioner" Shamash (Thoth).

In desperation, the eagle prays to Shamash, and swears to make him his own personal god in exchange for a pardon. He suggests that Shamash is not aware of all the circumstances that led to his sentencing. Nonetheless, the eagle had done what was expressly forbidden. The text implies that the eagle not only killed the young of the serpent, but also "devoured" them. In other words, this creature was not only a killer of men, but possibly also a cannibal. Shamash remains grieved over his evil, and will not help him directly. However, Shamash does offer the eagle an indirect form of redemption and the possibility for parole. Shamash sends the faithful Etana to obtain from the eagle the "plant of birth." The "plant of birth" is a metaphor for human sperm. In Egypt, there was a type of lettuce with milky excretions resembling semen. These lettuces were part of the regular offerings made to the deity Min, a form of Thoth-Shamash as fertility god. In the "Contendings of Horus and Seth," the semen of Horus was secretly placed on such a lettuce and eaten unwittingly

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by Seth for breakfast. According to this tale, Horus thereby proved his dominance over Seth and secured the kingship of Egypt. x

Strange Bedfellows

Returning to the Legend of Etana, the hero Etana arrives at the pit and offers some food to the languishing eagle. But, before pulling him out, there is a business matter to discuss. Etana minces no words and demands of the eagle, "produce for me a name!" The doomed eagle is naturally overjoyed to comply. Not only does the jailbird offer to give Etana "a human offspring," but promises to forever "sing his praises." In the Bible, barrenness is not only caused but also cured by the gods. y This belief is also reflected in the Legend of Etana. After the eagle is raised from the pit, he proceeds to take Etana to the heavenly abode of Anu. Ostensibly, they are going there to obtain the "plant of birth" with which Etana's wife can become pregnant. However, we are told that Etana had daily made offerings to his own god for this same purpose. Moreover, the eagle already has the live-giving ingredient in his possession. The "plant of birth" is the semen of the eagle. The trip to heaven is only a symbolic gesture to solicit the gods. The literal interpretation of this passage is that of sexual intercourse.

Another clue to the actual history is that Etana (Shem) and the eagle (Cush) do not rise alone. They must be accompanied by the "mistress Ishtar," that is the wife of Etana, who is elevated to the status of a goddess. z Etana has a "fear of flying," at least in the cockpit proposed by the eagle, and he refuses to ascend all the way to heaven. Ishtar had already embraced his desire and his seed to no avail. It would not increase the chances for conception now. It may also have been customary for Etana to establish his dominance by first putting his seed into the eagle, by whatever means. But for Etana (Shem), this wasn't necessary or desirable and his contract didn't stipulate such an act. He chose not to do unto the eagle (Cush) as the eagle's father (Ham) had done unto his father Noah.

It was necessary to take Ishtar with them on their flight into the lofty domain of pleasure. Only "alongside" Ishtar could they ascend. In this way, Etana got his heir and his name. In Hebrew, Shem literally means "name," that is, renown. He was acknowledged by posterity, even "unto distant times," as the father and founder of the post-Deluge dynasty. Mesopotamia was henceforth called "Sumer," and the double crown of united Egypt was called the "Semerty." aa The title sematawy signified "unification of the two lands." The four-month harvest ("dry") season in Egypt was called the shemu or shomu. In the second month of Shemu, the Valley Festival was celebrated during which kingship was reaffirmed. ab It was said that Mizraim (a.k.a. Meshkiaggasher) ac "ascended to the mountains." Cush like Mizraim sought conquest in faraway places, but his most famous exploit was upon Mons Venus. With Ishtar, he achieved even greater heights of fame than did Etana.

Cush, the "eagle" was granted amnesty by substituting his seed for Etana's. The life of Mizraim, the "serpent," was earlier spared, because another was made to die (substituted) on his behalf. It seems that each brother had at least one opportunity to kill the other. However, according to the Epic of Gilgamesh and Agga, the two may have reconciled in the end. In that story, Agga besieges Erech and it is Gilgamesh who becomes trapped like a bird in a cage. With little other recourse, Gilgamesh offers kind words and his submission to Agga. Swearing "before Utu," i.e., Thoth- Shamash, Agga extends mercy to Gilgamesh. The tale concludes with Agga saying to Gilgamesh:

"Your praise is good." ad Nevertheless, the next ruler of Erech would not be the true son of Gilgamesh, but that of Agga by the wife of Etana.

Checkered Champions

What is the lasting legacy of a great person? Is it the bequeathing of genes or adoption of values by

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Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 4: "Deadly Drought, Fatal Flood" (Noah to Nimrod)

future generations? To the ancient kings passed the active traits of Ham, but well remembered were the passive ideals of Shem. Kings were eager to portray themselves as loving shepherds, called from the flocks to lead and care for the people. They wanted to be thought of as meek, tent dwelling men of great learning and meditation. Such rhetoric was also used as royal propaganda to cover their multitude of sins. In times of peace and in tumult, the most daring and deceitful became kings and queens. Losers in this death struggle mourned as a bereaved goose, winners cried tears of the sated crocodile.

The way of Noah and Shem So often was forsaken For the road that was taken In great waste by Cush and Khem.

The Bible calls the son of Cush by the name of Nimrod. In Genesis 10:8-9, he is three times called "mighty," which is very high praise for a grandson of Ham. Nimrod was known by the Sumerian name of En-me-kar or Enmerker. ae However, the Sumerian king-list also names him as Balih(k), the legal heir and successor of Etana. Etana and Balih are not Sumerian names, af but Semitic. The Semitic name Balih(k) conveys "tribute," but also "terror and destruction." The Hebrew word belal denotes "anointing, mingling, and the mixing of self." 9 In Nimrod, the royal lines of Ham and Shem were co-mingled. Nimrod was the legal heir of Shem and the natural son of Cush. The Semitic royal line and the Hamitic royal line became one and the same. Future kings were as likely to consider themselves shepherds like Shem as they were hunters like Ham. Strong's Concordance does not attempt to translate the name Nimrod. Although it does not have a direct Hebrew meaning, it is not difficult to translate. In fact, the Bible translates it for us as "mighty hunter." 10

The Book of Genesis implies that Thoth had blessed only those aboard the ark on behalf of Ptah and the gods. The rest of the "world" had not been granted a stay of execution. Yet, even in the world of the Middle East, the Flood did not kill every living thing, and not every human being. Nimrod took it upon himself to complete the work of Thoth by exterminating all those who had dared to survive apart from divine intervention. In Egypt, Biblical Nimrod was not known by a Sumerian name Enmerkar, or a Semitic name Balih, but by the "Egyptianized" name of Narmer or Na'rmer (with an "ayin" between the a and r). On the famous Narmer Palette, the victims of this great conqueror are dispatched in a number of ways, including ritual drowning.

Strong's Concordance lists a variant of Nimrod as Namer. Unlike Nimrod, Namer does have a Hebrew meaning, which Strong's Concordance defines as "to spot or stain as if by dripping; a leopard (from its stripes)." The almost identical Narmer is translated by Egyptologists as "striking catfish." This may have been the intended meaning in Egyptian. However, the name of Narmer is best assailed as an adaptation or transliteration of the Semitic word namer, "leopard." After all, Nimrod was at least partly raised in the House of Shem. Certainly Nimrod/Narmer did cut down (Heb. namal) countless victims like a leopard, and their blood dripped and stained (Heb. namer) where it fell. In the form of Na'rmer the root rm, meaning "seize," leaps out. Also, compare the Hebrew word remah (7412) "overthrow" and the Hebrew na'ar (5287) "rustling of the mane (as of a lion when growling), overthrow." Na'ar is also used in Ex.14:27 and Ps. 136:15 to describe the drowning ("overthrow") of pharaoh and his army during the Exodus.

Cruel Beauty

The "Narmer Palette" is one of the very first examples of fine art in Egypt. Its practical purpose was to mix and hold the mascara of the Queen Mother, that of "mistress Ishtar" herself. Incongruently, the beautiful green stone is covered with macabre scenes of human execution. On this palette, the

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Lady of Etana is no longer compared to the bereft and barren Isis, but to a bloodthirsty Hathor. In Egyptian myth, Hathor once decided to destroy mankind. The gods intervened by getting her drunk on beer, which had been dyed red to look like blood. The wife of Shem and mother of Nimrod was determined to be the Hathor of the New Age - the mother of all living, the mother of both gods and men. The post-Flood nest was to be re-filled with her children. All others were to be mercilessly slaughtered. This is how the gods had ordained it, and there would be no deterring "Hathor" this time.

It had not only been the ambition of Etana, but that of "Ishtar" his wife, to have a son. Etana called for Shamash to make his wife fertile. His wife looked to Gilgamesh. In the Gilgamesh Epic, Ishtar is not able to seduce the wily serpent Gilgamesh. He only derides her vain ambition. Ironically, Gilgamesh did help her by "clipping the wings" of his brother Agga. In the Legend of Etana, he proudly soars again in the aviary with Ishtar. When the most aggressive male of the family was tethered to the dominant female, he eagerly clutched his kismet. Agga and the wife of Etana were both birds of prey. The chick they hatched scratched out both men and beasts. Enmerkar-Bilah (Nimrod) conquered and he killed. He proved that the earth, as it was then defined, could be united under a single king. He set the standard for all fledgling princes to follow.

In the Torah, the knowledge that Nimrod had been a king of any kind is suppressed. The best the author is willing to say is that Nimrod was a "mighty hunter." The Hebrew word for mighty is gibbowr, which is an obvious allusion to "Geb, the heir." ag The text implies that Nimrod was the rightful successor of both Cush and of Shem, but that he had assumed a wrongful office. The gods had blessed the hunting of animals, but not the killing of men. Gibbowr is also a synonym of Nephilim ("giants") and is translated as "giant" in Numbers 13:33 and Job 16:14. This appellation connects Nimrod to the "mighty (gibbowr) men of old" spoken of in Genesis 6:4. These were the god-kings and tyrants from before the Flood, which we are told also endured afterward. Nimrod is likened to his predatory forbears, not only in greatness but also in greediness.

The Nephilim were a mixed race, and Nimrod was of mixed lineage. Hebrew words related to gibbowr ("mighty") are gebuwlah and gabal, which denote "territory" and "twisting." The Hebrew word for "hunter" is derived from tsuwd, "to lie alongside." The two fathers of Nimrod lay alongside Ishtar. This "twisting together" of Cush with Shem and his "barren" wife resulted in the birth of Nimrod and the founding of the Egyptian Old Kingdom. Because of continued infertility due to incest, this form of cooperation became an integral part of the reproductive model for future generations of royalty. The Egyptian New Kingdom was established through an identical covenant between two rival princes (see Chapters 9-12).

Nimrod was the great father of the Semitic peoples and their kings. He could not be cursed, nor could Cush or Ham. Nimrod had cleared the way for the earth to be replenished by the descendants of Noah. In this sense, he fulfilled the "divine mandate" of Shamash/Thoth. However, by assuming the titles of king and pharaoh, he also prepared the way for those same descendants to be brutally oppressed. Possibly, the mandate itself was misguided or had been misconstrued. Ea-Enki had found in Noah the qualities of a concerned neighbor. But, filling the earth with passive people was going to require considerable aggression.

Wailing Wall

The Genesis author applies a double standard to Narmer/Nimrod. Despite the fact that he was a relentless hunter of men, he was also renowned for establishing the cult of Ptah as supreme in Egypt. Ptah would later become the leading god of the Biblical Godhead, so it is not surprising that the reputation of Nimrod would be salvaged in the Bible. It was Ea/Enki who proved to be the only member of the Elohim that could be fully trusted to protect man. Ea/Enki was the one god who had

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helped Utnapishtim (Noah) and his clan survive the Flood. It is only to be expected that this god would from that moment be elevated above all others. He was not only their personal savior, but also their patient teacher and proud father. In this early dynastic period, Ptah was hailed as the "First Among the Gods," "Lord of Truth" and the "Only True God."

Together, Narmer and his father Horus-Aha (Menes) 11 established a new capital city dedicated to Ptah. The city was called, Inb Hdj, "White Wall." Ptah himself was given the epithet, "He-who-is- south-of-his-wall." ah (Inb Hdj was later called Memphis by the Greeks.) Prior to the Flood, Ptah would have often been found on the sunny side of his temple enclosure making solar measurements. In Memphis, the sun remains in the southern sky year round. However, after the Flood, the above epithet of Ptah takes on a new meaning. From that time forward, Ptah, like the sun, would remain behind the temple enclosure. Consequently, Robert Temple suggests that Ptah was thought of as having been joined with the sun. 12

At what juncture after the Deluge did the gods cease to be real and enter into the realm of faith and delusion? Perhaps, they would have tried to find out whether Noah and those with him had indeed survived. Certainly after that, they went missing. It seems that the orphaned family of Noah never did receive a full closure on the matter. There persisted a gnawing paranoia that the gods were not truly dead, but continued to watch over them from a distance. Even in their state of repose, they could still bless and punish. To the Hebrew speaker, the name Inb Hdj, "White Wall," would have sounded like "anab chedai." Anab means "where (is) father?" Chedai provides the answer. It means "at rest." 13 By the time of Nimrod/Narmer, the gods, and especially their patron deity Ptah, were presumed to either be dead or gone for good. It was time for a memorial. The White Wall was a wall of remembrance. It was the original "Wailing Wall." The departure of the gods was a mixed blessing. It granted independence to man, but it also meant that mankind was on its own.

In Sumerian tradition, it was the god Enki (Ptah) who had warned Utnapishtim (Noah) of the impending Deluge from the opposite side, i.e., "south," of a temple partition. Enki had sworn before the assembly of gods that he would not warn mortals of the coming Flood. He was not willing to tell Utnapishtim face-to-face, but "hid" himself behind an enclosure (hdj). Although he did not appear to Noah directly, he nevertheless did answer his prayer, and then sent his "spirit" Thoth to help him. "The Wall" becomes a metaphor for the period following the Flood. The human race was now permanently separated from their makers. Nevertheless, Ptah retained a symbolic role, and was called "Ptah-hearer-of-prayers." Ear-shaped votive tablets were found at the Temple of Ptah and elsewhere in Egypt. The supplicant prayed into these ears and believed that Ptah would hear. ai Their savior Ptah would always hear them, especially from behind the wall of his holy shrine.

Nimrod not only brought men into bondage, but also took the gods into custody. It would no longer be necessary to scale the heights of heaven or even take to the hills in order to find them. The king and his subjects could conveniently offer praise, seek favor, or ask forgiveness at the local temple. Mankind had been created, or at least procreated, in order to serve the gods. The "spirits" of the gods were now kept alive in order to meet the needs of man, and especially those of the king. The temple was soon the implement of the state. The physical presence of the gods was replaced by graven images made of stone. Only two generations after the Flood, the great-grandson of docile Noah began capturing, counting and killing men as doves. But, it proved easier for him to bind men than to dispel his fear of the gods, and of the unknown. One must then wonder whether the first monument to Ptah was motivated more out of gratitude or from greed and guilt.

The ancients built white walls for their revered ancestors and told white lies to their beloved children. There is no true security, but children deserve to feel safe and loved. Sadly, we can say little more to our heirs than our ancestors said to theirs. We have re-learned 3500 years later that

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our hothouse is hurtling through the minefield of space. The turning heavens hold unspeakable horrors, as does the Earth's burning core. Future traumas will be every bit as great and just as unavoidable. How can those who work and pray blame those who only drink and play? If the gods of this age wish to be remembered, let them construct monuments of science that can withstand earthquake, flood and fire. Let them build arks and fill them with families to carry on the cosmic race.

a.

Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible.

b.

Ibid.

c.

James Pritchard, "The Epic of Gilgamesh," Old Babylonian Version, lines 170-175, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p 95.

d.

Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt, pp 158, 180.

e.

Flame or Fire is also a metaphor for the "Holy Spirit" of God. It can symbolize grace or judgment. For grace, see: Mt. 3:11/Lu. 3:16, Acts 2:3, Acts 7:30, Heb. 1:7. For judgment see:

1 Cor. 3:13-15, 2 Th. 1:8, Dt. 4:24, Heb. 12:29. The god Thoth was said to preside over the judgment of the dead.

f.

Genesis 7:4

g.

http://www.centuries.co.uk/faq.htm (The Centuries of Darkness argue that tree-ring dating has been misapplied in the case of Thera.)

h.

Enki (Ea) continued to have more human children after being restored by Ninhursag. One of the most remarkable was known as "the human offspring, the son of Ea, the capable, the sage, the most wise (attrahasisa), the model of men, Adapa." Like the Biblical Noah, Adapa/Atrahasis was a sailor, and was distinguished among his peers as an exemplary human. He was submerged in his boat by a great storm, and as Noah, Adapa miraculously survived. The Deluge, and the triumph of Adapa over the elements, signaled the end of a time of great affliction upon mankind. They had suffered the ravages of wild beasts, from plague, famine, and finally from the Flood.

i.

James Pritchard, Ancient Near Eastern Texts, p 44, "The Deluge," lines 207-208.

j.

Ibid., p 95, "The Epic of Gilgamesh," Old Babylonian Version, lines 170-175.

k.

Ibid., pp 101-103, "The Legend of Adapa."

l.

An on-line translation is available at:

m.

"The Epic of Gilgamesh," Ancient Near Eastern Texts, ed. J. Pritchard, p 95.

n.

Zecharia Sitchin identified Dilman or Tilman as the Sinai.

o.

The word pharaoh means "great house."

p.

For the basis of this definition of bau, see Jan Assmann, The Mind of Egypt, p 145-147.

q.

Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 16. Another Egyptian form of the name Shem may have been "Sma." Sma is a name of the early dynastic period according to Flinders Petrie, The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty.

r.

Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 32.

s.

For the linguistic association between these two names, see the section "Suffering Serpent" in Chapter 5 and Note 1 of Chapter 5.

t.

"The Epic of Gilgamesh," Ancient Near Eastern Texts, ed. J. Pritchard, p 88-89.

u.

According to S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 298, the early Akkadian word shumu is the same as the later Hebrew word shem.

v.

Alternatively, Shem may have been directed by one of the "gods" in his immediate family, who played the role of Utu--Shamash. Biblical Ham ("warm") is also called Utu ("hot") in the Sumerian king-list, a form of Thoth/Tutu.

w.

Literally, "a gift befitting a bridegroom."

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x. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 195, 107.

y. 1 Sam. 1:5, 19

z. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Etana (Shem) is named as a god, along with the father of

Gilgamesh, who is called Lugalbanda (Ham). The epithet Lugalbanda may have originally applied to Ninurta (see the "Myth of Zu"). aa. There are 300 Semitic loan words in the ancient Egyptian language, and about 100 of Hamitic origin. (See, T.G.H. James, An Introduction to Ancient Egypt.) ab. Nigel & Helen Strudwick, Thebes in Egypt, pp 78-80. ac. See Notes 7 & 8 below, and Chart 13. ad. S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, pp 186-190. ae. David Rohl points out that "kar is the Sumerian word [or logogram] for 'hunter' (Akkadian Habilu). Thus we have King 'En-me-ru, the hunter'. " Legend, p 215. The Sumerian word me stands for "divine commandments, powers or virtues." Z.Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men, p 239. Nimrod was not only known as a "tracker of truth" and "seeker of knowledge," but also as a "seizer of boundaries." The Indo-European root me signifies "marker of time, distance, etc." The Indo-European root mer signifies "darkness, death, murder, and mooring (of a boat)." The root merg/merk denotes "to mark out a boundary by walking around it, to march, to seize." The American Heritage Dictionary. Also, compare the name Ishkur, an epithet of Adad/Horus the Elder. af. Etana and Balih of the 1 st Dynasty of Kish are probably also the Elulu and Balulu of the 1 st Dynasty of Ur. (See Sumerian king-list in: S.N. Kramer, The Sumerians, p 329.) In other words, the same father and "son" combination were known by slightly different names in different cities. ag. The Egyptian god-king Geb was called Ninurta in Mesopotamia. The name Nim-rod is very similar to Nin-urta. (Nim ~ Nin and urt ~ rut/rod). As a mighty warrior among the gods, Ninurta became a role model for the later Nimrod. ah. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 165. ai. Barbara Watterson, Gods of Ancient Egypt, p 169.

Note 1:

Spell 175 of the Book of the Dead begins:

"O Thoth, what is it that has come about through the Children of Nut? They have made war, they have raised up tumult, they have done wrong, they have created rebellion, they have done slaughter, they have created imprisonment, they have reduced what was great to what is little in all that we have made; show greatness, O Thoth! - so says Atum."

Thoth responds:

"You shall not witness wrong-doing, you shall not suffer it! Shorten their years, cut short their months, because they have done hidden damage to all that you have made."

F.O. Faulkner, The Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead, p 175.

Note 2:

Robert Graves, The Greek Myths, 39.2, p 146.

In the Boeotian version of the Greek flood myth, the survivor is king Ogygos along with his wife

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Thebe. The name Thebe means "ark." The capital city of Boeotia was also called Thebes, in apparent honor of the ark and/or the wife of this hero. (Michael Astour, Hellenosemitica, p 212, 213) Similarly, the Hebrew word used to describe the boat of Noah is tebah, meaning "ark, chest." This word is only used in one other context in the Bible, and that is to describe the basket in which the baby Moses was placed to save him from genocide. A Greek (Ptolemaic) Period text states that it was the god Ptah in the form of his heir Khonsu who had cleared the Nile Valley of excess water in order to found the city of Thebes in Egypt. (Religion in Ancient Egypt, p 105-106, Byron Shafer, ed.)

Note 3:

Web sites related to Thera/Santorini:

Note 4:

"Meteor Clue to End of Middle East Civilisations" By Robert Matthews, Science Correspondent (Filed: 04/11/2001) http://portal.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?

Note 5:

The Akkadian (Semitic) name of Ptah was E-a, which means "(Whose) House (is) Water." In Greek Mythology, Ptah is known both as the "hurrier" Iapetos (Roman: Jupiter) and Poseidon (Roman:

Neptune), god of the seas. A variant of the name Poseidon is Potidan ("father of Dan"). This identifies Iapetos as the father of Greek Dan-el ("Divine Judge"), an epithet of Re son of Ptah. Prometheus was another Greek name or title of Ptah, which was also later assumed by his son Re. Both the Greek Iapetos and Latin Neptune contain forms of the P-t combination found in the Egyptian name Ptah.

There is some consensus among scholars that the Greek name Aegy-ptos ("Mansion of Ptah")

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derives from Ptah and was later applied by the Greeks to the entire country of Egypt. The name Copt (ka-pt) probably also derives from Ptah, meaning "soul of Ptah." Compare English words, such as pith ("heart, vital force, spine"), python ("enormous but venom-less snake"), and scepter. The was scepter of the pharaohs was that of Ptah (See Note 11).

Note 6:

The Hebrew word used for "heart" (leb) alludes to Uriel ("flame of God"), which is the name of Thoth in the Book of Enoch. Cf libbah (feminine of leb) and labbah, "flame" Cf lebanah (3842) white, i.e. the moon. Thoth was a moon god in Egypt.

Note 7:

Aha, perhaps pronounced as Akka by some speakers, is the Egyptianized form of the Mesopotamian king name Agga son of Enmebaraggesi (Mesannepadda). Agga and Gilgamesh were rivals in Sumer, as indicated by the Epic of Gilgamesh and Agga. It can now be said that their conflict spilled over into Egypt as well. Kemit was the ancient Egyptian name for Egypt, commonly translated as the "black land" after the dark alluvial soil, but perhaps also named for Ham/Khem. The "Two Lands" of Egypt were divided between Misraim ("Egypt") and Cush ("Ethiopia"), the two leading sons of Ham ("warm") found in Genesis 10. Cush gained control of Upper Egypt (Nubia/Cush). His brother Mizraim held sway over Lower Egypt. See Chart 14 for the chronology of this period.

In Egypt, Agga was called Horus-Aha and Scorpion. The name of "Men" is also probably associated with both Horus-Aha and Scorpion. On the decorated mace of King Scorpion there is a seven- pointed star next to the head of the king along with the picture of a scorpion. As in the headdress of the goddess Sheshat (see Chapter 3), the seven-pointed star associates King Scorpion with the patron god of Thoth-Minh (Men). See Note 11 below regarding Men and the mythical figure of Menes.

The symbol of Horus (Har) was the falcon. Horus-Aha is translated as "Fighting Falcon." Ref: Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, p 16. Another bird, the vulture, was also a traditional symbol of Upper Egypt.

In the Bible, falcon and eagle are roughly synonymous.

Hebrew racham (7360) raw-khawm'; from 7355; a kind of vulture (supposed to be tender towards its young):-- gier-eagle racham (7355), raw-kham'; to fondle; by impl. to love, espec. to be compassionate:-- have compassion (on, upon), love, (find, have, obtain, shew) mercy (iful, on, upon), (have) pity, Ruhamah, x surely.

Racham ("eagle") is perhaps a play on words alluding to Ra (god of Egypt) and Ham.

One of the sons of Cush is called Raamah (Gen. 10:7)

The name Aha, like that of Narmer, has meaningful Hebrew connotations. Compare Aha and the following Hebrew words (definitions from Strong's Concordance):

Aha (162) ahahh (a-haw'); appar. a prim. word expressing pain exlamatorily; Oh!:- ah, alas.

Ah (253) ach (awkh); a var. for 162; Oh! (expressive of grief or surprise):- ah, alas

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(251) ach (awkh); a prim. word; a brother (used in the widest sense … ) Comp. also the prop. names beginning with "Ah-" or "Ahi-" Ahab (256) brother [i.e., friend] of (his) father Ahban (257) brother (i.e. possessor) of understanding Ahijah (281) brother (i.e., worshipper) of Jah Ahihud (282) brother (i.e., possessor) of renown

(270) achaz; to seize (often with the accessory idea of holding in possession) Ahaz (271) achaz; possessor (268) achor; the hinder part; hence (adv.) behind, backward; also (as facing north) the West (309) achar; a prim. root; to loiter (i.e., be behind); by impl. to procrastinate:- continue, defer, delay, hinder, be late (slack), stay (there), tarry (longer).

Note 8:

"Egypt" can be substituted for "Mizraim" in the Biblical text of Genesis 10. (See notes in the New International Translation.) However, the direct Hebrew meaning of Mizraim is "fortifications," a salient attribute of the Egyptian Delta. In Egyptian the root ms (mose) signified "son of." The name Mizraim would suggest "son of Ra." In the Sumerian language, the root mus means "serpent." The symbol of Lower Egypt was the serpent, or more specifically the cobra (uraeus/wadjet). In Egypt, Gilgamesh was known as the "serpent king" Djoser (Zoser/Zeser/Cobra) and as Netjer-i-khet, meaning "godly in body." The Egyptian word Djeser also means "holy, divine" i.e., godlike. In Mesopotamia, the primary residence of Mizraim/Gilgamesh was at Eanna (Uruk/Erech). In the king- list of Erech (see Chart 13), Gilgamesh is not surprisingly the most prominent king and is given three different names. Like the Biblical name Mizraim, the Mesopotamian names Gilgamesh and Meshkiaggasher contain a word play on the root mus. (Mesh means "safety/security" or "freedom" in Hebrew.) The root lab in the name Lab-asher also connotes serpent as in the Biblical name libhyethen (Leviathan). According to Flinders Petrie (The Royal Tombs of the First Dynasty), Zeser is a name of the transitional period before the 1 st Dynasty. (See commentary in Zecharia Sitchin, The Wars of Gods and Men, p 36.) This Zeser has not previously been identified with the Djoser (Zoser) of the 3 rd

Note 9:

The Semitic name Balih is related to Hebrew words

balah (1086) consume

balahh (1089) to terrify, trouble ballahah (1091) alarm; hence destruction:-- terror, trouble

below (1093) excise (on articles consumed):-- tribute

bala (1104) to make away with (spec. by swallowing); gen. to destroy:-- cover, destroy, devour, eat up

Bela (1105) a gulp; fig. destruction:-- devouring, that which he hath swallowed up.

Balaq (1110) to annihilate:-- (make) waste.

Belal (1101) to over-flow (spec.with oil); by impl. to mix …:-- anoint, confound, x fade, mingle, mix (self), give provender, temper.

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Cf Bel, an epithet of Marduk-Re (and earlier belonging to Ninurta)

Note 10:

Nimrod (5246), "the mighty hunter before the Lord," literally, "strong (rud) seizer (nim)"

The root nim has the meanings (see below) of "number," "quickness/nimbleness" and "seize." The second component of the name Nimrod, rod/rud, means "strong." Therefore, the name Nimrod can be defined as "strong and swift seizer," or more freely, "mighty hunter."

Etymology of "mighty"

Mighty gibbowr (1368) ghib-bore'; intens. From the same as 1397; powerful; by impl. warrior, tyrant:-- champion, chief, X excel, giant, man, mighty (man, one), strong (man), valiant man. gebuwlah (1367) a boundary, region:-- border, bound, coast, landmark, place. From gabal (1379) gaw-bal'; to twist as a rope

Cf Egyptian god Geb, "the heir"

From The American Heritage Dictionary (William Morris, editor, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981):

reudh- red, ruddy, hard, strong, robust ret- rod- cross, rude reu- reud/raud- bellow, roar reug- roar, rut, riot

Etymology of "hunter"

Hunter tsayid (6718) tsah'-yid; the chase; also game … from tsuwd (6679) stood; to lie alongside …

Extracted from The American Heritage Dictionary:

root Nem (2) To assign, allot; also to take. For example, "quick at learning, seizing," from Old English numol Compare the English word nimble, meaning "quick and clever in action or acumen."

Compare the roots nem and men (see Note 11). Khmenu was the city of Ptah and Thoth worship in Middle Egypt. Khnum was the name of Ptah in Upper Egypt. Nim is a transposition of Men (Minh), an epithet of Thoth, the great reckoner and inventor of mnemonics. The wise king Nemuel of the Book of Proverbs is likely another Biblical memory of Lamech-Thoth.

Note 11:

Narmer (Nimrod), the natural son of Horus-Aha (Cush), shared his father's devotion not only for conquest but also for the god Ptah. There is currently an academic debate regarding whether the legendary warrior Menes was based on Narmer or Horus-Aha. See: Jacques Kinnaer, "Aha or Narmer. Which Was Menes?" KMT Journal, Vol. 12, No. 3, Fall 2001, pp 75-81. The name of Men is found side-by-side with that of Horus-Aha on one artifact found in Egypt. It has been speculated that this indicates Men was one of the royal names or epithets of Aha. Others think that Men could have been the name of his father and/or predecessor, namely Narmer. In the current model, Horus-

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Aha follows Narmer, however with help from the Bible and the Sumerian king-list it is now clear that it was Narmer who followed Horus-Aha and was his son. Menes of myth was probably a composite of the father and son combination of Aha and Narmer.

Etymology of Menes

manes, Manes (ma'nez, ma'nas) 1. The spirits of the dead, especially ancestors, deified as minor gods. 2. Any revered spirit of one who has died. Used with a singular verb. Compare lemurs. (Latin manes, probably "the good ones," from manis, good. See ma (1)"

ma (1) Good; with derivatives meaning "occurring at a good moment, timely, seasonable, early."

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language William Morris, editor, published by Houghton Mifflin Company, 1981.

The following is condensed from the root etymologies provided in the The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language:

Root men (1)

form mn- Mneumonic, from Gk. mnemon, mindful

form men- Remember, from Latin meminisse. Spirit, from Gk. menos.

form mon- Monument, remind, from Latin monere. Remember, amnesia (forgetfulness), from Gk. mnasthai, Latin mentio.

Root men (2)

To project, menace, from Latin minae. Eminent, prominent, from Latin -minere. Mountain, from Latin mons.

Root men (3)

Remain, manor, mansion, permanent, from Latin manere.

Root men (4)

Rare, sparse, from Gk manos. Single, sole, from Gk monos.

The equivalence of the words manes and lemurs also strengthens the link between the Patriarch Lamech/Lemek and Min/Thoth. (In Egypt, the god Min is a form of both Ptah and Thoth. This god was especially associated with ancestor worship.) The Egyptian word men (see form mon above) means monument, as in Akh-menu, "most glorious of monuments." Nigel & Helen Strudwick, Thebes in Egypt, p 55

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Hebrew etymology of Menes:

"MENE, MENE, TEKEL, PARSIN

This is what these words mean:

Mene: God has numbered the days of your reign and brought it to an end. Tekel: You have been weighed on the scales and found wanting. Peres: Your kingdom is divided and given to the Medes and Persians."

- Daniel 5:25-28 (NIV)

mene (4484) (Chald.) men-ay'; pass. part. of 4483; numbered:- Mene men (4482) mane; from an unused root mean. to apportion; a part; hence a musical chord (as parted into strings) mena/menah (4483) men-aw'; corresp. to 4487; to count, appoint:- number, ordain, set. manda (4486) (Chald.) wisdom or intelligence:- knowledge, reason, understanding. manah (4487) maw-naw'; a prim. root; prop. to weigh out; by impl. to allot or constitute officially; also to enumerate or enroll:- appoint, count, number, prepare, set, tell. manah (4489) mo-neh'; prop. something weighed out, i.e. (fig.) a portion of time, i.e. an instance:-- time. Menahem (4505) comforter, epithet of the Holy Spirit minyan (4510) (Chald.) enumeration:- number menorah (4501) a chandelier:- candlestick A menorah is a "ceremonial seven-branched candelabrum of the Jewish Temple symbolizing the seven days of the Creation." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language:

See Exodus 37:17-24 Seven was the number of Thoth.

Note 12:

The Egyptian scepter had two heads (or a head and a tail), which indicates a dual purpose. However, it likely was designed to serve a great many functions. The shaft was curved at one end and held a distinctive faceplate. The opposite end of the shaft (the "tail") was forked. With the forked end pointed up, the scepter crudely resembled the split handle of a shepherd's staff. When cast on the ground, i.e., flipped over, the curved end of the rod became the top. In this orientation, it resembled the head of an animal, especially a dog, donkey, or serpent. A grandson of Ptah named Set became particularly adept at using this scepter. The distinctive features of the curved end of the scepter became known as the Set symbol or "Set animal." In folklore, Set (Satan, the Devil) was depicted as having pointy ears and a forked tail, a personification of his own scepter!

This scepter of Ptah was no shepherd's cane, magic wand or devil stick, but a precision instrument. It was a "101 uses" utility pole. These functions were accomplished with a number of attachments or accessories. In The Crystal Sun, Robert Temple provides new insight into the various staffs/scepters that were used by the gods and later by the pharaohs. The principal function of Egyptian "rods" appears to have been for analyzing sun and moon shadows. Robert Temple explains that the split tail functioned like a pin-hole for sharpening the shadow-tip cast onto a temple floor by a gnomon or obelisk. The point of the shadow needed to be well defined in order to make accurate calculations of the time of day or year. Other probable applications of the scepter would have been in surveying (determining positions through triangulation) and in astronomy (determining the elevation and azimuth of a star or planet in the sky).

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A variant of this scepter is found in the Biblical account of Moses. Such was the mighty morphin' rod of god that Moses brought before pharaoh in order to prove his own royal knowledge and confirm his kingly status. As a king, Moses (through Aaron) demonstrated that he knew how to use the scepter, not only for scientific or engineering purposes, but probably also for "shadow art." One can easily imagine how he demonstrated that his mastery of the device excelled that of the Egyptian priests. "Swallowing" their shadows with his own was probably pure showmanship. The truly divine side of human nature demands a bit of fun. The gods, and pharaohs after them, no doubt used these scepters to create a great number of entertaining wall shadows, much as people playfully do today with their hands or other objects using a back light.

The waset scepter was also copper based, which suggests a possible application in dowsing, i.e., as a "divining rod." Ptah was the god of "magic" and renowned for his mischief. To those who did not understand his science and methodology, the scepter of Ptah may have appeared to magically find subterranean water or precious metals. The underlying physics (if any) and especially the knowledge needed to locate hidden resources was itself concealed, or at least not explained to the uninitiated. Ptah was also "god of the pole" in a true or geographic sense, rather than the magnetic pole. This again points to an association with the copper and other metal constituents of the scepter. Copper is alloyed with zinc to make brass. It stands to reason that the scepter was made from essentially the same ingredients that were used by the Biblical Moses to make the "brasen serpent" that was raised upon a pole. It may have been a scepter that was lifted up before the dying people (see discussion on Osiris in Chapter 3). According to Robert Temple, the waset sceptre was also known as the tcham sceptre. He writes, "The word tcham, incorporating the hieroglyph of this same sceptre, refers to an unknown precious metal." (The Crystal Sun, p 388) Temple does not speculate as to the type of metal. However, the "pillars of Solomon" (obelisks or statues) were made of, i.e., plated with, brass. See 1 Kings 7:15; 2 Kings 25:13-16.

Note 13:

Inb an (575) where, whither ab (1) father anab, "where (is) father?" In Hebrew, the word for "white" is laben or laban The consonants are transposed in the Egyptian as inb Cf Heb. eben (68/69/70) stone

Cf Egyptian Inb and Hebrew words:

naba (5012) naw-baw' prophesy naba (5042) naw-bah' gush forth This connotes that the White Wall of Narmer and Hor-Aha was a "Flood Memorial or Prophesy Wall" Enki-Ptah had predicted ("prophesied") the coming Flood.

Hdj chadar (2314) to inclose (as a room) chedai/chedel (2308/2309) cease, end, rest, i.e., the state of the dead Compare hdj with the English words hide and hedge.

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Living in Truth:
Archaeology and the Patriarchs
Chapter 5
"Biblical Dark Ages"
(From Nimrod to Sargon)
by Charles N. Pope
Copyright ©1999-2002 by Charles Pope
United States Library of Congress
All rights reserved under International and
Pan-American Copyright Conventions
Grafted onto the Root of Adam
In previous chapters, two fundamental types of twisting in the Torah were unraveled. The first
involved the identity of Biblical Jehovah as a composite of multiple deities, primarily the gods Ea and
Enlil, but also the primeval goddess Gaia. The second type of twisting in the Torah derives from the
intermarriage of "the sons of god" with "the daughters of men." These so-called human offspring
were described in the Book of Genesis as "the mighty men of old." They were also the great heroes
of Mythology. One such prodigy was Noah (Adapa), who alone was found "righteous" in the last
generation before the Deluge. After the Flood, Noah's great-grandson the "mighty hunter" Nimrod
(Narmer/Bilak) carried on the tradition of tyranny in the Middle East. His own strength was based on
a combined inheritance from both Ham (Utu) and Shem (Etana).
Nimrod is handled with extreme discretion in the Genesis account. His wide-ranging exploits are
presented in only five verses. Nothing at all is said about his sons or successors. The master
weaver of the Torah considered the kings after Nimrod to be nothing more than dull and idolatrous
oppressors. They followed the example of Nimrod in lording over men, but not in their devotion to
the Lord Ea-Ptah. Nimrod/Narmer was apparently not succeeded by a true son, but possibly by a
brother or son-in-law within the house of Cush (see Chart 14). Soon after the reign of Nimrod, the
Old Kingdom pharaohs replaced Ea-Ptah with Marduk-Re as supreme god of Egypt. Therefore,
these kings were themselves judged and suppressed by the author of Genesis. No redeeming
qualities were found to compensate for their unpardonable "error." The portion of the scarlet thread
corresponding to the Old Kingdom was removed. The Middle Kingdom pharaohs, who are
representing by the second genealogy of Adam through Seth, were then grafted onto the "loose
end" of Nimrod's reign by forming a knot in the narrative of Genesis 10.
The "generations" of the first Adam listed in Genesis 4:1-24 are identified as:
of the first Adam listed in Genesis 4:1-24 are identified as: Genesis 4 Adam Cain Mesopotamia
of the first Adam listed in Genesis 4:1-24 are identified as: Genesis 4 Adam Cain Mesopotamia
of the first Adam listed in Genesis 4:1-24 are identified as: Genesis 4 Adam Cain Mesopotamia

Genesis 4

Adam

Cain

Mesopotamia

-

Anu

Egypt

Atum

Anubis

of the first Adam listed in Genesis 4:1-24 are identified as: Genesis 4 Adam Cain Mesopotamia
of the first Adam listed in Genesis 4:1-24 are identified as: Genesis 4 Adam Cain Mesopotamia
of the first Adam listed in Genesis 4:1-24 are identified as: Genesis 4 Adam Cain Mesopotamia

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 5: "Biblical Dark Ages" (From Nimrod to Sargon)

 

Enoch

Enki

Ptah

 

Irad

Marduk

Re

Mehujael

Dumuzi

Osiris

Mehushael

Adad

Horus the Elder

Lemekh

Tutu

Thoth

Noah

Utna-pishtim / Adapa

Nut-jeren / Ny-netjer

Shem

Etana

Semerkhet

Ham

Utu

Khem

Cush

Agga

Aha

Nimrod

Enmerkar

Narmer

Nimrod (Narmer/Enmerkar) was in the direct line of descent from the first Adam, the god Atum. He was the natural son of Cush (Agga) and a grandson of Ham (Utu). However, starting with Genesis 4:25 and continuing through the end of Genesis 5, another line of descent from Adam is introduced. This new succession is through a son of Adam called Seth, which means "substituted." We are told that the second line of Adam was granted by God to replace that of the martyred Abel. The reader takes for granted that the two lines of Adam through Cain and Seth are contemporary and collateral.

   

Original Ordering

Re-Ordering for Comparison

   

Gen. 4:1-24

Gen. 4:25-5

Gen 4:1-24

Gen 4:25-5

Adam

Adam

Adam

Adam

Cain

Seth

Seth

Enoch

Enosh

Enoch

Enosh / Enoch

Living in Truth by Charles N.Pope - Chapter 5: "Biblical Dark Ages" (From Nimrod to Sargon)

 

Irad

Kenan

Cain

Kenan

 

Mehujael