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CONSERVATION OF NATURE

The nature has been so kind to man ever since it appearance on the earth, man has been
dependant on it. They needed plant and animal for different purposes. The expanded human
population is resulting into expanded needs of man. The utilizing modern technology man started
to utilize them. We have taken loans from the nature that cannot be paid back. The biological
community that too million of years to develop are been divest by human activities. The umber of
animals and plants are already eliminated from the world and the numbers of organisms are in the
process. Therefore, there is urgent need to conserve them.
Conservation
The care, management, protection, and preservation of natural resources is called
conservation.
Wild life
The living organisms in its natural habitat is called wild life or the non domesticated animals (fauna)
and uncultivated plants (flora) in the wild form is called wild life.
Conservation of wild life
The care, management, protection and preservation of wild life is called conservation of
wild life.
Importance of wild life
Economic value
From plants timber, furniture, resin, gum, latex, flower etc can be obtained and by selling them
money can be earned. From animals fur, wool, horn, bone, silk, meat, leather etc can be
produced and by selling them money can be earned
Scientific value
Plants and animals both are useful to study ecosystem, environment, pathology, taxonomy,
paleontology, genetic engineering and evolution etc.
Food value
The most of the plants and the animals are edible, used as our daily food and diet
Recreation value
The wild lives provide ornamental plants, varieties of animals which give natural beauty which
attracts tourists.
Types of wild life
1. Endangered species (E)
Those species if their use is continue then they are in danger of extinction.
Endangered animals are
Elephas maximus, Panthera uncial, Panthera tigirs, Bos grunnieus, Catreus wallichii,
Gravialis gangetius
Some endangered plants
Cordyceps sinensis, Rauvolfia serpentine, Dactylorhiza hatageria, Taxus baccata, Vythea
spinulosa
2. Vulnerable species (V)
Those species, which are likely to be endangered, are called vulnerable species
Vulnarable Animals
Pyths morulus (AGINGER), Cuon alpinus (wild dog), Antilope cervicarpa (Black buck),
Platanista gangetica (Dolphin), Sclenarctor thibetanus (Black deer)
Vulnarable Plants
Nardostachys grandiflora, Picrorhiza scrophulariflora, Swertia chiruita, Asparagus
racemosus, Acorus calamus

3. Rare species
Those species which are at risk but not vulnerable and endangered are called rare species
Rare Animals
Elachistodon westermani, Aquila heliaca, Aceros nipalensis, Falco naumanni





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4. Threatened species
It is common term used for endangered, vulnerable, and rare species
5. Endemic species
This is not category or wild life. It includes those species, which is native confined within
particular area. There are 20 species algae, 16 species fungi, 30 species lichen and 246
species of angiosperms are endemic to Nepal
The causes of wild life extinction
Habitat destruction: the destroying habitat of wild life by over population for cropland,
resident, industries, road, canal developmental activities cause wildlife extinction
Poaching or Hunting: the hunting of animals for meat, money, enjoyment and hobby and
the international trade cause extinction of wild life
The tiger hunting for leather, the rhino hunting for horn, the elephant hunting for tusk and
musk deer for musk
Pollution: creating pollution by over population, forest destruction, industrialization by
development activities, use of pesticides or insecticides in agriculture, use of poison to kill
fished, dog, birds to cause extinction of wild life.
Natural disasters: the natural disasters like diseases, land slide, flood, fire, and earthquake
also cause extinction of the wild life. in 17
th
century 7 species extinct, in 18
th
century 11
species, in 19
th
century 27 species, and in 20
th
century 67 species extinct from the world.
Conservation strategy
Habitat study: The habitat study of habitat protection habitat improvement and habitat
management.
Maintain statistical data
By implementation of laws against trade or hunter of wild life
Education, awareness and camping about importance of wild life
Bilateral agreement between government and people for conservation of wild life
Multilateral agreement of nations for conservation of wild life
Establishment of national parks and wild life reserves
Scientific researches like genetic engineering by gene library and biotechnologically
like tissue culture and clone etc.