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ABSTRACT

Voltage Quality problem is an occurrence manifested as a nonstandard voltage, current and frequency that results in a failure of end user equipment. The major electric problems that always occur in power systems are the voltage quality problems. The increased concern for voltage quality has resulted in measuring voltage quality variations, studying the characteristics of voltage disturbances and providing solutions to the problems. In distribution systems, the voltage quality problems can reduce the power supplied to the customers from its nominal value. Voltage sag, harmonic, transient, overvoltage and under voltage are major impacts to a distribution system. The problem also occurs due to the shortage or excess of reactive power transfer in the distribution system .The best equipment to solve this problem at distribution system with minimum cost is D-STATCOM.

A Static Compensator (STATCOM) is a flexible ac transmission system (FACTS) controller, which can either absorb or deliver reactive power to a power system. Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) is proposed for

compensation of reactive power and unbalance caused by various loads in distribution system. Distribution static compensator is based on the VSC principle. A DSTATCOM injects a current into the system to correct the voltage sag, swell and power factor. Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM) is an effective measure to maintain voltage stability and improve power quality of distribution grid.

This project discusses the dynamic performance of a (D-STATCOM) with ESS for mitigation of voltage flicker. The D-STATCOM is intended to replace the widely used static VAR compensator (SVC). A Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM) is used to regulate voltage on a 25-kV distribution network. The (D-STATCOM) protects the utility transmission or distribution system from voltage sag and /or flicker caused by rapidly varying reactive current demand. The D-STATCOM regulates bus voltage by absorbing or generating reactive power. This voltage is provided by a voltage-sourced PWM inverter. The simulation is carried out using MATLAB/SIMULINK and the simulation results illustrate the performance of (D-STATCOM) in mitigation of voltage flicker.
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1. INTRODUCTION
Utility and customer-side disturbances result in terminal voltage fluctuations, transients, and waveform distortions on the electric grid. A Voltage quality problem is an occurrence manifested as a nonstandard voltage, current or frequency that results in a failure or a mis-operation of end user equipments. Utility distribution networks, sensitive industrial loads and critical commercial operations suffer from various types of outages and service interruptions which can cost significant financial losses. With the restructuring of power systems and with shifting trend towards distributed and dispersed generation, the issue of power quality is going to take newer dimensions. The major electric problems that always occur in power systems are the voltage quality problems. These problems have become a major issue due to the rapid development of sophisticated and sensitive equipment in the manufacturing and production industries. The increased concern for voltage quality has resulted in measuring voltage quality variations, studying the characteristics of voltage disturbances and providing solutions to the problems. In distribution systems, the voltage quality problems can reduce the power supplied to the customers from its nominal value. The major problems faced by the power system due to voltage disturbances are: 1. Voltage Sag 2. Voltage Swell 3. Harmonic Distortion 4. Low Power factor 5. Reactive power transfer The development of power electronics devices such as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) and customs power devices have introduced and emerging branch of technology providing the power system with versatile new control capabilities. A flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) is a system composed of static equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy. It is meant to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability of the network.

2. FACTS DEVICES
A flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) is a system composed of static equipment used for the AC transmission of electrical energy. It is meant to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability of the network. It is generally a power electronics-based system. FACTS is defined by the IEEE as "a power electronic based system and other static equipment that provide control of one or more AC transmission system parameters to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability." Flexible AC transmission systems, called facts, got in the recent years a wellknown term for higher controllability in power systems by means of power electronic devices. Several facts-devices have been introduced for various applications worldwide. A number of new types of devices are in the stage of being introduced in practice. In most of the applications the controllability is used to avoid cost intensive or landscape requiring extensions of power systems, for instance like upgrades or additions of substations and power lines. Facts-devices provide a better adaptation to varying operational conditions and improve the usage of existing installations. The basic applications of facts-devices are: Power flow control, Increase of transmission capability, Voltage control, Reactive power compensation, Stability improvement, Power quality improvement, Power conditioning, Flicker mitigation, Interconnection of renewable and distributed generation and storages.

1.1 TYPES OF FACTS DEVICES: SERIES TCSC TCSR TSSC TSSR SHUNT SVC TCR TSC/TSR MSC VSC BASED DPFC UPFC SSSC STATCOM

For the facts side the taxonomy in terms of 'dynamic' and 'static' needs some explanation. The term 'dynamic' is used to express the fast controllability of facts-devices provided by the power electronics. This is one of the main differentiation factors from the conventional devices. The term 'static' means that the devices have no moving parts like mechanical switches to perform the dynamic controllability. Therefore most of the facts-devices can equally be static and dynamic. These devices contain the conventional devices build out of fixed or mechanically switch able components like resistance, inductance or capacitance together with transformers. The facts-devices contain these elements as well but use additional power electronic valves or converters to switch the elements in smaller steps or with switching patterns within a cycle of the alternating current. TCSC: Thyristor controlled series capacitors (TCSC) address specific dynamical problems in transmission systems. Firstly it increases damping when large electrical systems are interconnected. It is a series capacitor bank shunted by a thyristor switched reactor. TCSR TCSR means thyristor controlled series reactor. It is a series reactor bank shunted by a thyristorized controlled reactor.

TSSC TSSC means thyristor switched series capacitor. It is a series capacitor

bank shunted by a thyristor switched reactor. TSSR TSSR means thyristor series switched reactor. It is a series reactor bank shunted by a thyristor switched reactor.

Figure 1: Series compensators

1.2 Shunt Compensating devices:


In shunt compensation, power system is connected in shunt (parallel) with the FACTS. It works as a controllable current source. Shunt compensation is of two types: A. Shunt capacitive compensation This method is used to improve the power factor. Whenever an inductive load is connected to the transmission line, power factor lags because of lagging

load current. To compensate, a shunt capacitor is connected which draws current leading the source voltage. The net result is improvement in power factor. B. Shunt inductive compensation This method is used either when charging the transmission line, or, when there is very low load at the receiving end. Due to very low, or no load very low current flows through the transmission line. Shunt capacitance in the transmission line causes voltage amplification (Ferranti Effect). The receiving end voltage may become double the sending end voltage (generally in case of very long transmission lines). To compensate, shunt inductors are connected across the transmission line. The power transfer capability is thereby increased depending upon the power equation. These shunt devices are operating as reactive power compensators. The main applications in transmission, distribution and industrial networks are: Reduction of unwanted reactive power flows and therefore reduced

network losses. Keeping of contractual power exchanges with balanced reactive power. Compensation of consumers and improvement of power quality demand fluctuations like industrial machines, metal melting

especially with huge

plants, railway or underground train systems. 1. SVC 2. TCR 3. TSC/TSR 4. MSC Compensation of thyristor converters e.g. in conventional HVDC lines.

1. STATIC VOLTAGE COMPENSATOR (SVC): A static VAR compensator (or SVC) is an electrical device for providing fast-acting reactive power on high-voltage electricity transmission networks. SVCs are part of the Flexible AC transmission system device family, regulating voltage and stabilising the system. Unlike a synchronous condenser which is a rotating electrical
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machine, a static VAR compensator has no significant moving parts (other than internal switchgear). Prior to the invention of the SVC, power factor compensation was the preserve of large rotating machines such as synchronous condensers or switched capacitor banks. The SVC is an automated impedance matching device, designed to bring the system closer to unity power factor. SVCs are used in two main situations:

Connected to the power system, to regulate the transmission voltage

("Transmission SVC")

Connected near large industrial loads, to improve power quality ("Industrial

SVC") In transmission applications, the SVC is used to regulate the grid voltage. If the power system's reactive load is capacitive (leading), the SVC will use thyristor controlled reactors to consume VARs from the system, lowering the system voltage. Under inductive (lagging) conditions, the capacitor banks are automatically switched in, thus providing a higher system voltage. By connecting the thyristor-controlled reactor, which is continuously variable, along with a capacitor bank step, the net result is continuously-variable leading or lagging power. 2. THYRISTOR CONTROLLED REACTOR In an electric power transmission system, a thyristor-controlled

reactor (TCR) is a reactance connected in series with a bidirectional thyristor valve. The thyristor valve is phase-controlled, which allows the value of delivered reactive power to be adjusted to meet varying system conditions. Thyristor-controlled reactors can be used for limiting voltage rises on lightly-loaded transmission lines. Another device which used to be used for this purpose is a magnetically controlled reactor (MCR), a type of magnetic amplifier otherwise known as a transduction. In parallel with series connected reactance and thyristor valve, there may also be a capacitor bank, which may be permanently connected or which may use mechanical or thyristor switching. The combination is called a static VAR compensator.A thyristor controlled reactor is usually a three-phase assembly, normally connected in a delta arrangement to provide partial cancellation of Harmonics. Often the main TCR reactor is split into two halves, with the thyristor

valve connected between the two halves. This protects the vulnerable thyristor valve from damage due to flashovers, lightning strikes etc. 3. THYRISTOR SWITCHED CAPACITOR A thyristor switched capacitor (TSC) is a type of equipment used for compensating reactive power in electrical power systems. It consists of a power capacitor connected in series with a bidirectional thyristor valve and, usually, a current limiting inductor (reactor). The thyristor switched capacitor is an important component of a Static VAR Compensator (SVC), where it is often used in conjunction with a thyristor controlled reactor (TCR). Static VAR compensators are a member of the Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) family. A TSC is usually a three-phase assembly, connected either in a delta or a star arrangement. Unlike the TCR, a TSC generates no harmonics and so requires no filtering. For this reason, some SVCs have been built with only TSCs. This can lead to a relatively cost-effective solution where the SVC only requires capacitive reactive power, although a disadvantage is that the reactive power output can only be varied in steps. Continuously variable reactive power output is only possible where the SVC contains a TCR or another variable element such as a STATCOM. 4. MECHANICALLY SWITCHED CAPACITOR Mechanically switched devices are the most economical reactive power compensation devices. They are a simple and low-cost, but low-speed solution for voltage control and network stabilization under heavy load conditions. Their utilization has almost no effect on the short-circuit power but it supports the voltage at the point of connection. An advanced form of mechanically switched capacitor is the MSCDN (Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network) for avoidance of system resonances. The MSC/MSCDN incorporates only passive components such as capacitors and reactors and can be connected directly to the high voltage busbar system or via a coupling transformer. MSC Mechanically Switched Capacitor However, the effectiveness of voltage stabilization depends on the distance from the fault location. The MSC does not create any harmonics, but may interact with system harmonics. MSCDN Mechanically Switched Capacitor with Damping Network
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As a more highly developed form of mechanically switched capacitor, the MSC with an additional damping circuit provides voltage support and in addition, it is insensitive to harmonics interactions. The MSC/MSCDN can be operated in a controlled mode or manually. The control system realizes, among other features, the following main control:
automatic

switching of the capacitor banks according to the need of the network

system
sufficient

hysteresis is built into the control to avoid repetitive switching

("hunting")
each

capacitor bank can also be manually switched on and off.

Fig 2: Shunt Compensating Devices

1.3 VSC BASED:


These facts-devices contains more advanced technology of voltage source converters based today mainly on insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT) or insulated gate commutated thyristor (IGCT). Voltage source converters provide a free controllable voltage in magnitude and phase due to a pulse width modulation of the igbts or IGCTS.
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High modulation frequencies allow to get low harmonics in the output signal and even to compensate disturbances coming from the network. The disadvantage is that with an increasing switching frequency, the losses are increasing as well. Therefore special designs of the converters are required to compensate this. 1. DPFC 2. UPFC 3. SSSC 4. STATCOM 1. DYNAMIC POWER FLOW CONTROLLER A new device in the area of power flow control is the dynamic power flow controller (DFC). The DFC is a hybrid device between a phase shifting transformer (PST) and switched series compensation. A functional single line diagram of the dynamic flow controller is shown in figure .The dynamic flow controller consists of the following components: A standard phase shifting transformer with tap-changer (PST) Series-connected thyristor switched capacitors and reactors (TSC/TCR)

A mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC). (This is optional depending on the system reactive power requirements).

Fig 3.Configuration of DFC

Based on the system requirements, a DFC might consist of a number of series TSC or TSR The mechanically switched shunt capacitor (MSC) will provide voltage support in
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case of overload and other conditions. Normally the reactance of reactors and the capacitors are selected based on a binary basis to result in a desired stepped reactance variation. If a higher power flow resolution is needed, a reactance equivalent to the half of the smallest one can be added.

2.

UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER: The UPFC is a combination of a static compensator and static series

compensation. It acts as a shunt compensating and a phase shifting device simultaneously.

Fig 4. Principle configuration of an UPFC

The UPFC consists of a shunt and a series transformer, which are connected via two voltage source converters with a common dc-capacitor. The dc-circuit allows the active power exchange between shunt and series transformer to control the phase shift of the series voltage. 3. STATIC SYCHRONOUS SERIES COMPENSATOR (SSSC): SSSC is a static synchronous generator operated without an external electric energy source as a series compensator whose output voltage is in quadrature with, and controllable independently of, the line current for the purpose of increasing or decreasing the overall reactive voltage drop across the line and thereby controlling the transmitted electric power . An SSSC comprises a voltage source inverter and a coupling transformer that is used to insert the ac output voltage of the inverter in series with the transmission line. The magnitude and phase of this inserted ac compensating voltage can be rapidly adjusted by the SSSC controls. The SSSC injects the compensating voltage in series with the line irrespective of the line current. The SSSC may include transiently rated energy storage or energy absorbing devices to

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enhance the dynamic behaviour of the power system by additional temporary real power compensation, to increase or decrease momentarily, the overall real (resistive) voltage drop across the line.

Figure 5: SSSC 4. STATCOM The Statcom has a characteristic similar to the synchronous condenser, but as an electronic device it has no inertia and is superior to the synchronous condenser in several ways, such as better dynamics, a lower investment cost and lower operating and maintenance costs. A Statcom is built with thyristors with turn-off capability like GTO or today IGCT or with more and more IGBTS. The static line between the current limitations has a certain steepness determining the control characteristic for the voltage.The advantage of a Statcom is that the reactive power provision is independent from the actual voltage on the connection point. In the distributed energy sector the usage of voltage source converters for grid interconnection is common practice today. The next step in Statcom development is the combination with energy storages on the dcside. The performance for power quality and balanced network operation can be improved much more with the combination of active and reactive power.

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3. DISTRIBUTION STATIC

COMPENSATOR
A D-STATCOM (Distribution Static Compensator), which is schematically depicted in Figure, consists of a two-level Voltage Source Converter (VSC), a dc energy storage device, a coupling transformer connected in shunt to the distribution network through a coupling transformer. The VSC converts the dc voltage across the storage device into a set of three-phase ac output voltages. These voltages are in phase and coupled with the ac system through the reactance of the coupling transformer. Suitable adjustment of the phase and magnitude of the D-STATCOM output voltages allows effective control of active and reactive power exchanges between the D-STATCOM and the ac system. Such configuration allows the device to absorb or generate controllable active and reactive power. The VSC connected in shunt with the ac system provides a multifunctional topology which can be used for up to three quite distinct purposes: 1. Voltage regulation and compensation of reactive power; 2. Correction of power factor 3. Elimination of current harmonics.

Here, such device is employed to provide continuous voltage regulation using an indirectly controlled converter.

Figure 6: D-STATCOM

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The addition of energy storage through an appropriate interface to the power custom device leads to a more flexible integrated controller. The ability of the BESS/DSTATCOM of supplying effectively extra active power allows expanding its compensating actions, reducing transmission losses and enhancing the operation of the electric grid.

Fig 7: Basic circuit of a DSTATCOM integrated with energy storage

Various types of energy storage technologies can be incorporated into the dc bus of the DSTATCOM, namely superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), super capacitors (SC), flywheels and battery energy storage systems (BESS), among others.

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The integrated BESS/DSTATCOM system proposed is basically composed of the inverter (indistinctly called converter), the coupling step-up transformer, the line connection filter, the dc bus capacitors, and the array of batteries. Since batteries acts as a stiff dc voltage source for the inverter, the use of a conventional voltage source inverter appears as the most cost-effective solution for this application. The presented VSI corresponds to a dc to ac switching power inverter using Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT). In the distribution voltage level, the switching device is generally the IGBT due to its lower switching losses and reduced size. As a result, the output voltage control of the BESS/DSTATCOM can be achieved through pulse width modulation (PWM) by using high-power fast-switched IGBTs. This topology supports the future use of PWM control even for higher power utility applications. The VSI structure is designed to make use of a three-level pole structure, also called neutral point clamped (NPC), instead of a standard two-level sixpulse inverter structure This three-level inverter topology generates a more sinusoidal output voltage waveform than conventional structures without increasing the switching frequency. The additional flexibility of a level in the output voltage is used to assist in the output waveform construction. A drawback of the NPC inverters is that the split dc capacitor banks must maintain a constant voltage level of half the dc bus voltage. Otherwise, additional distortion will be contributed to the output voltage of the BESS/DSTATCOM. In this work, the use of battery energy storage in an arrangement with neutral point (NP) permits to independently contributing to the charge of the capacitors C1 and C2, and thus to maintain the voltage balance of the dc capacitors without using additional control techniques. The connection to the utility grid is made by using low pass sine wave filters in order to reduce the perturbation on the distribution system from high-frequency switching harmonics generated by PWM control. The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output voltage of the inverter combined with a sine wave filter is less than 5 % at full rated unity power factor load. Typically, leakage inductances of the step-up transformer windings are high enough as to build the sine wave filter simply by adding a bank of capacitors in the PCC. In this way, an effective filter is obtained at low costs, permitting to improve the quality of the voltage waveforms introduced by the PWM control to the power utility.

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4. OPERATION PRINCIPLE OF D-STATCOM


The D-STATCOM is a three-phase and shunt connected power electronics based device. It is connected near the load at the distribution systems. The major components of a D-STATCOM are dc capacitor, three-phase inverter (IGBT, thyristor) module, ac filter, coupling transformer and a control strategy. The basic electronic block of the D-STATCOM is the voltage-sourced inverter that converts an input dc voltage into a three-phase output voltage at fundamental frequency.

Fig.8: Basic Building Blocks of the D-STATCOM The D-STACOM employs an inverter to convert the DC link voltage Vdc on the capacitor to a voltage source of adjustable magnitude and phase. Therefore the BESS/DSTATCOM can be treated as a voltage-controlled source. The D-STATCOM can also be seen as a current-controlled source. Figure shows the inductance L and resistance R which represent the equivalent circuit elements of the step-down transformer and the inverter will is the main component of the D-STATCOM. The voltage Vi is the effective output voltage of the D-STATCOM and is the power angle. The reactive power output of the D-STATCOM inductive or capacitive depending can be either on the operation mode of the D-STATCOM.

4.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF D-STATCOM:


The phase of the output voltage of the thyristor-based inverter, Vi, is controlled in the same way as the distribution system voltage, Vs. Figure 2 shows the three basic operation modes of the BESS/DSTATCOM output current, I, which varies depending upon Vi. If Vi is equal to Vs, the reactive power is zero and the D-STATCOM does not generate or absorb reactive power. When Vi is greater than Vs, the BESS/DSTATCOM shows an inductive reactance connected at its terminal. The current,
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I, flows through the transformer reactance from the D-STATCOM to the ac system, and the device generates capacitive reactive power. If Vs is greater than Vi, the D-STATCOM shows the system as a capacitive reactance. Then the current flows from the ac system to the D-STATCOM, resulting in the device absorbing inductive reactive power.

a)

No-load mode (Vs = Vi)

b) Capacitive mode (Vi >Vs)

b) Inductive mode (Vi <Vs)

Fig.9: Operation modes OF D-STATCOM Figure shows the three basic operation modes of the BESS/DSTATCOM output current, I, which varies depending upon Vi. If Vi is equal to Vs, the reactive power
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is zero and the D-STATCOM does not generate or absorb reactive power. When Vi is greater than Vs, the D-STATCOM shows an inductive reactance connected at its terminal. The current I, flows through the transformer reactance from the D-STATCOM to the ac system, and the device generates capacitive reactive power. If Vs is greater than Vi, the D-STATCOM shows the system as a capacitive reactance. Then the current flows from the ac system to the D-STATCOM, resulting in the device absorbing inductive reactive power.

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5. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION
5.1 D-STATCOM (Distribution Statcom)
The DSTATCOM is commonly used for voltage sags mitigation and harmonic elimination at the point of connection. The DSTATCOM coupling transformer is connected in shunt with the ac system. The VSC generates a threephase ac output current which is controllable in phase and magnitude. These currents are injected into the ac distribution system in order to maintain the load voltage at the desired voltage reference. Active and reactive power exchanges between the VSC connected in shunt with the ac system provides a multifunctional topology which can be used for up to three quite distinct purposes: 1) 2) 3) 4) Voltage regulation Compensation of reactive power Correction of power factor Elimination of current harmonics. In this DSTATCOM implementation, a voltage-source inverter converts a dc voltage into a three-phase ac voltage that is synchronized with, and connected to, the ac line through a small tie reactor and capacitor (ac filter).The block diagram of the Distribution Static Compensator is shown in figure:

Figure 10: Block Diagram of D-Statcom


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Basically, STATCOM is comprised of three main parts: 1) Voltage source inverter (VSI), 2) a step-up coupling transformer, and 3) A controller 4) LC filters In a very-high-voltage system, the leakage inductances of the step-up power transformers can function as coupling reactors. The main purpose of the coupling inductors is to filter out the current harmonic components that are generated mainly by the pulsating output voltage of the power converters. 5.1. Voltage source converter (VSC) A voltage-source converter is a power electronic device, which can generate a sinusoidal voltage with any required magnitude, frequency and phase angle. Voltage source converters are widely used in adjustable-speed drives, but can also be used to mitigate voltage dips. The solid-state electronics in the converter is then switched to get the desired output voltage. VSC is used to convert Vdc to a voltage of adjustable magnitude and phase. (PWM Function).Normally the VSC is not only used for voltage dip mitigation, but also for other power quality issues, e.g. flicker and harmonics. The voltage source rectifier operates by keeping the dc link voltage at a desired reference value, using a feedback control loop as shown in the figure. To accomplish this task, the dc link voltage is measured and compared with a reference VREF. The error signal generated from this comparison is used to switch the six valves of the rectifier ON and OFF.

Figure 11: Voltage Source Converter

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5.2 Step up transformer In a very-high-voltage system, the leakage inductances of the step-up power transformers can function as coupling reactors. The main purpose of the coupling inductors is to filter out the current harmonic components that are generated mainly by the pulsating output voltage of the power converters. The coupling transformer ensures coupling between the PWM inverter and the network. 5.3 Controller The aim of the control scheme is to maintain constant voltage magnitude at the point where a sensitive load is connected, under system disturbances. The control system only measures the r.m.s voltage at the load point, i.e., no reactive power measurements are required. The VSC switching strategy is based on a sinusoidal PWM technique which offers simplicity and good response. The PI controller process the error signal generates the required angle to drive the error to zero, i.e., the load r.m.s voltage is brought back to the reference.

Fig 12: Control System The control system consists of: A phase-locked loop (PLL) which synchronizes on the positive-sequence component of the three phase primary voltage V1. The output of the PLL (angle

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=t) is used to compute the direct-axis and quadrature-axis components of the AC three-phase voltage and currents (labelled as Vd, Vq or Id, Iq on the diagram). Measurement systems measuring the d and q components of AC positivesequence voltage and currents to be controlled as well as the DC voltage Vdc. An outer regulation loop consisting of an AC voltage regulator and a DC voltage regulator. The output of the AC voltage regulator is the reference current Iqref for the current regulator (Iq =current in quadrature with voltage which controls reactive power flow). The output of the DC voltage regulator is the reference current Idref for the current regulator (Id = current in phase with voltage which controls active power flow). An inner current regulation loop consisting of a current regulator. The current regulatory controls the magnitude and phase of the voltage generated by the PWM converter (V2d V2q) from the Idref and Iqref reference currents produced respectively by the DC voltage regulator and the AC voltage regulator (in voltage control mode). The current regulator is assisted by a feed forward type regulator which predicts the V2 voltage output (V2d V2q) from the V1 measurement (V1d V1q) and the transformer leakage reactance. PWM generator is the device that generates the Sinusoidal PWM waveform or signal. To operate PWM generator, the angle is summed with the phase angle of the balance supply voltages equally at 120 degrees. Therefore, it can produce the desired synchronizing signal that required. PWM generator also received the error signal angle from PI controller. The modulated signal is compared against a triangle signal in order to generate the switching signals for VSC valves.

5.4 LC Filters An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit, consists of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C. When connected together, they can act as an electrical resonator, storing energy oscillating at the circuit's resonant frequency. LC circuits are used either for generating signals at a particular frequency, or picking out a signal at a particular frequency from a more complex signal. They are key components in many electronic devices, oscillators, filters, tuners and frequency mixers.

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6. SIMULINK MODEL DESCRIPTION


A Distribution Static Synchronous Compensator (D-STATCOM) is used to regulate voltage on a 25-kV distribution network. Two feeders (21 km and 2 km) transmit power to loads connected at buses B2 and B3. A shunt capacitor is used for power factor correction at bus B2. The 600-V load connected to bus B3 through a 25kV/600V transformer represents a plant absorbing continuously changing currents, similar to an arc furnace, thus producing voltage flicker. The variable load current magnitude is modulated at a frequency of 5 Hz so that its apparent power varies approximately between 1 MVA and 5.2 MVA, while keeping a 0.9 lagging power factor. This load variation will allow you to observe the ability of the DSTATCOM to mitigate voltage flicker.

The D-STATCOM regulates bus B3 voltage by absorbing or generating reactive power. This reactive power transfer is done through the leakage reactance of the coupling transformer by generating a secondary voltage in phase with the primary voltage (network side). This voltage is provided by a voltage-sourced PWM inverter. When the secondary voltage is lower than the bus voltage, the D-STATCOM acts like an inductance absorbing reactive power. When the secondary voltage is higher than the bus voltage, the D-STATCOM acts like a capacitor generating reactive power. The D-STATCOM consists of the following components: A 25kV/1.25kV coupling transformer which ensures coupling between the PWM inverter and the network. A voltage-sourced PWM inverter consisting of two IGBT bridges. This twin inverter configuration produces Fewer harmonic than a single bridge, resulting in smaller filters and improved dynamic response. In this case, The inverter modulation frequency is 28*50=1.4 kHz so that the first harmonics will be around 3.36 kHz. LC damped filters connected at the inverter output. Resistances connected in series with capacitors provide a quality factor of 40 at 60 Hz.
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a 10000-microfarad capacitor acting as a DC voltage source for the inverter a voltage regulator that controls voltage at bus B3 a PWM pulse generator using a modulation frequency of 1.4 kHz Anti-aliasing filters used for voltage and current acquisition.

Fig 13: main Simulink model

Fig 14: D-Statcom Simulink Model

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6.1 Parameter values of the system:

Parameters
Source Voltage Source Power Total Line length Coupling Transformer Modulation frequency DC link Voltage

Values 25kV/50Hz 100MVA 23Km 25kV/1.25kV 1.40kHz 2.4kV

6.2 DYANAMIC RESPONSE TEST:


During this test, the variable load will be kept constant and we will observe the dynamic response of a D-STATCOM to step changes in source voltage. Check that the modulation of the Variable Load is not in service (Modulation Timing [Ton Toff] = [0.15 1]*100 > Simulation Stop time). The Programmable Voltage Source block is used to modulate the internal voltage of the 25-kV equivalent. The voltage is first programmed at 1.077 p.u in order to keep the D-STATCOM initially floating (B3 voltage=1 p.u and reference voltage Vref=1 p.u). Three steps are programmed at 0.2 s, 0.3 s, and 0.4 s to successively increase the source voltage by 6%, decrease it by 6% and bring it back to its initial value. Start the simulation. Observe on Fig. 15 the phase voltage waveform of the D-STATCOM. After a transient lasting approximately 0.15 sec., the steady state is reached. Initially, the source voltage is such that the D-STATCOM is inactive. It does not absorb nor provide reactive power to the network. At t = 0.2 s, the source voltage is increased by 6%. The D-STATCOM compensates for this voltage increase by absorbing reactive power from the network (Q = +2.7 MVAR on Fig. 5). At t = 0.3 s, the source voltage is decreased by 6% from the value corresponding to Q = 0. The D-STATCOM must generate reactive power to maintain a 1 p.u voltage (Q changes from +2.7 MVAR to -2.8 MVAR). Note that when the DSTATCOM changes from inductive to capacitive operation, the modulation index of the PWM inverter is increased from 0.56 to 0.9 which corresponds to a proportional
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increase in inverter voltage. Reversing of reactive power is very fast, about one cycle, as observed on D-STATCOM current.

Fig 15: Output Waveforms of Dynamic Response

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6.3 TESTS FOR VOLTAGE FLICKER MITIGATION


During this test, voltage of the Programmable Voltage Source will be kept constant and we will enable modulation of the Variable Load so that you can observe how the D-STATCOM can mitigate voltage flicker. In the Programmable Voltage Source block menu, change the Time Variation of parameter to None". In the Variable Load block menu, set the Modulation Timing parameter to [Ton Toff] = [0.15 1] (remove the 100 multiplication factor). Finally, in the D-STATCOM Controller, change the "Mode of operation" parameter to "Q regulation and make sure that the reactive power reference value Qref (2nd line of parameters) is set to zero. In this mode, the D-STATCOM is floating and performs no voltage correction. Run the simulation and observe on Fig. 8 variations of P and Q at bus B3 as well as voltages at buses B1 and B3 Fig 7.1. Without D-STATCOM, B3 voltage varies between 0.96 p.u and 1.04 p.u (+/- 4% variation). Now, in the D-STATCOM Controller, change the "Mode of operation" parameter back to "Voltage regulation" and restart simulation. Observe on Fig. 16 that voltage fluctuation at bus B3 is now reduced to +/- 0.7 % (0.993to 1.007). The D-STATCOM compensates voltage by injecting a reactive current modulated at 5 Hz and varying between 0.6 p.u capacitive when voltage is low and 0.6 p.u inductive when voltage is high.

Figure 16: Output Waveforms Without D-Statcom

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Fig 17: Output Waveforms with D-Statcom

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7. CONCLUSION
In this paper, D-STATCOM controller is derived by using synchronous reference theory. The model is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK platform and DSTATCOM controllers performance is evaluated using d-q theory for voltage flicker mitigation. The controller is proven to be effective for flicker mitigation with improved dynamic response of the system and compensating reactive currents will help the mitigation of voltage flicker. Custom power devices can be used, at reasonable cost, to provide high power quality and improved power service. These Custom Power devices provide solutions to power quality at the medium voltage distribution network level. This paper presents the detailed modelling of one of the custom power products, DSTATCOM is presented and also a comparative study of two control algorithms, phase shift control and instantaneous P-Q theory, used for the control of DSTATCOM are discussed with their relative merits and demerits. It is concluded that a DSTATCOM though is conceptually similar to a STATCOM at the transmission level; its control scheme should be such that in addition to complete reactive power compensation, power factor correction and voltage regulation the harmonics are also checked, and for achieving improved power quality levels at the distribution end. In this report, I have discussed the problems faced due to voltage quality problems. I have also discussed briefly all types of FACTS devices. The modelling and simulation of the D-STATCOM has been discussed in a very detailed manner. The results prove the effective Reactive power compensation during Dynamic changes and also the reduction in the voltage flickering at the distribution end.

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