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FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2000.

. PHILOSOPHY PAPER- I TIME ALLOWED: 3 HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS: 100 NOTE: Attempt FIVE questions in all, including Question No.8 which is Compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 1. What benefits are to be achieved from the study of logic? Discuss. 2. What is meant by explanation? Differentiate between scientific and nonscientific explanation. 3. What is Inductive Analogy? On what factors does the strength of Inductive Analogy depend? 4. The birth of Islam is the birth of Inductive Intellect. Discuss with reference to Iqbal. 5. Define hypothesis. How are scientific hypothesis evaluated? 6. Write a comprehensive note on the various kinds of definition. 7. Briefly discuss the following: i) Differentiate between Induction and deduction. ii) Traditional square of opposition. iii) Rues for valid syllogism. iv) Ad. hominem (abusive and circumstantial).

COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. Write only the correct answers in the Answer Book. Dont reproduce the questions. (A) Choose the Correct for the following syllogism: 1) AAA-2 (a) Valid (b) illicit major (c) illicit minor (d) undistributed middle 2) EAE1-1 (a) Valid (b) illicit major (c) illicit minor (d) undistributed middle

3) AEO-3 (a) Invalid (b) valid when M exists (c) valid when S exists (d) valid when P exists 4) AAI-3 (a) Invalid (b) valid when M exists (c) valid when S exists (d) valid when P exists 5) No coal tar derivatives are nourishing foods, since no coal tar derivatives are natural grain products, and all natural grain products are nourishing foods. (a) Valid (b) illicit major (c) illicit minor (d) undistributed middle (B) Determine the validity of the following with the help of rules: 6) She can have many friends only if she respects them as individuals. If she respects them as individuals, then she cannot expect them all to behave alike. She does have many friends. Therefore she does not expect them all to behave alike. 7) Either the manager didnt notice the change or else he approves of it. He notices it all right. So he must approve of it. (C) Identify the form and discuss the validity or invalidity of each of the following arguments: 8) Either he lives in Quetta or in Islamabad. He lives in Quetta. So, he does not live in Islamabad. 9) If it was your business, I would have invited you. It is not, and so I did not. 10) Either wealth is an evil or wealth is a good: but wealth is not an evil: therefore wealth is a good. (D) Identify the fallacies if any: 11) All of us cannot be famous, because all of us cannot be well known. 12) Time heals all wounds. Time is money. Therefore money heals all wounds.

13) Of course Karl Marx must have been mistaken in maintaining that capitalism is an evil form of economic and social organization. Why, he was a miserable failure of a man who couldnt earn enough money to support his family. 14) My opinions are right, because I will imprison anyone who disagrees with me. 15) Dogs are frequently encountered in the streets. Afghan Hounds are dogs. Therefore Afghan Hounds are frequently encountered in the streets. (E) Write true of false: 16) If ALL MEN ARE ANIMALS is false, then NO MEN ARE ANIMALS is true. 17) An argument is valid when it is impossible for the premises to be false and conclusion true. (F) Fill in the blanks: 18) The symbol to be defined is known as __________ 19) __________ is a process in which one proposition is arrived at and affirmed on the basis of certain others. 20) __________ (fallacy) is committed when one assumes the truth of what one seeks to prove in an effort to prove it. FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITEMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2001. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS:100 Note: Attempt FIVE questions in all, including question No. 8 which is COMPULSORY. All questions carry EQUAL marks. 1. Define Logic and explain the difference between formal and informal arguments. 2. What is a fallacy? Discuss the different kinds of fallacies and its importance in Logic. 3. Aristotelian Logic was refuted by Ibn-i-Taimya in his book Rad-ul-Mantaqeen. Discuss the main points of his criticism. 4. Discuss Al-Farabis contributions to logic and compare his position to the Modern view of Logic. 5. Discuss the value of Symbols in Logic? How are the Variable, Constants, Brackets and Axioms used as Symbols? 6. What are the different kinds of definitions? Explain with examples.

7. Write short notes on the following: (i) Probability (ii) Analogy (iii) Hypothesis, truth and validity. COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. (A) Are the following Propositions or not say yes or no: (1) Open the door. (2) I am so happy today. (3) All men are Mortal. (4) Aslam is taller than Azam (5) All diplomats are tactful (6) Are you going to Karachi tomorrow? (7) The earth revolves around the sun. (8) Some men are students. (9) What a beautiful house! (10) All Pakistanis are Asians. (B) Write True or False only. Do not reproduce the statements. (11) The conclusions of Induction are certain. (12) Analogy is based on mutual similarities. (13) Aristotle started the use of symbols in logic. (14) o is a symbol of negation. (15) There are three kinds of Mixed Syllogisms. (16) There are only three terms in syllogisms. (17) Inference is a mental process. (18) Proposition O has no converse. (19) Dilemma is not a form of syllogism. (20) If a term is not distributed in the premises it can not be distributed in the conclusion. FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2002. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER - I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS:100 NOTE: Attempt any five questions including Question No. 8 which is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 1. What is Logic? Evaluate in brief Aristotelian Logic. 2. How Induction differs from Deduction? Can Induction be justified? 3. What is the purpose and function of Definition? Discuss various forms of Definition.

4. What is Symbolic Logic? Is it an improvement over traditional logic? 5. Discuss the traditional Square of Opposition. 6. Discuss Ibn-e-Taimyas refutation of Aristotelian Metaphysics and Logic. 7. Write short notes on any Three of the following: (a) Categorical Syllogism (b) Dilemma (c) Laws of Thought (d) Probability (e) Argument by Analogy (f) Functional Analysis COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (A) Distinguish between the Deductive and Inductive arguments: (1) Since the test proved that it took at least 2.3 seconds to operate the bullet on Omers rifle. Omer obviously could not have fired three times hitting Ahmad twice and Ali once on 5.6 second or less. (2) A gardener who cultivates his own garden with his own hands unites in his own person three different characters of land-lord, farmer and labourer. His produce, therefore, should pay him the rent of the first, profit of the second and the wages of the thirds. (3) It is evident from the state of the country from the habits of the people, from the experience we have had on the point itself, that it is impracticable to raise any very considerable sums by direct taxation. Tax laws have in vain been multiplied, new methods to enforce the collection have in vain been tried, the public expectations disappointed and the treasuries of the states have remained empty. (4) (I dont have this one. This is missing) (5) There is, of course, no filament or heating element in the transistor to burn it out. Consequently, transistor should lost almost indefinitely, subject only to limitations of abuse, deterioration through diffusion of water vapour through the casing and so on. (B) If Some Saints were martyrs is true AND Some merchants are not pirates is true what may be inferred about the truth of falsehood of the following propositions? (6) Some martyrs were not saints (7)All martyrs were not saints (8) No martyr were saints (9) Some non-pirates are non-merchants (10) All non-pirates are non-merchants (C) Discuss the validity of invalidity of the following arguments. (11) Smith is a fine man or Smith is the engineer. Smith is not a fine man. Therefore Smith is the engineer. (12) If the second native told truth, then the first native denied being a politician. Therefore

if the second native told the truth, then the third native told the truth. (13) Mr. Smith is the brakemans next-door neighbor or Mr. Robinson is the brakemans next-door neighbor. Therefore Mr. Smith is the brakemans next-door neighbor. (14) There is no case known in which the thing is found to be efficient cause of itself, for if it were so, it would be prior to itself, which is impossible.. (15) It is clear that we mean something and something is different in each case, by such words (as cause change, etc.). If we did not we could not use them consistently, and it is obvious that on the whole we do consistently apply and with hold such names. (D) If the following argument by analogy has five additional premises suggested for it; for each of these alternative premises, decide whether its addition would make the resulting argument more or less probable. An investor has purchased one hundred shares of oil stock every December for the past five years. In every case the value of the stock has appreciated about 3 percent a year, and it has paid regular dividends of about 5 percent a year on the price he bought it. This December he decides to buy another hundred shares of Oil Stock, reasoning that he will probably receive modest earnings while watching the value of his new purchase increase over the years. (16) Suppose he had purchased oil stock every December for the past fifteen years instead of only five years. (17) Suppose the oil-stock previously purchased had gone up by 10 percent a year instead of only 3 percent a year. (18) Suppose his previous purchase of Oil-stock had been in foreign companies as well as in Eastern, Southern and Western American Oil Companies. (19) Suppose he learns that the Federal Government is considering the passage of a new law to regulate oil and gas companies more strictly. (20) Suppose he discovers that Tobacco Stocks have just raised their dividend payments. FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2003. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER - I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS:100 NOTE: Attempt any five questions including Question No. 8 which is compulsory. All questions carry equal marks. 1. Logic deals with arguments and inferences. Discuss 2. What is syllogism? Explain rules of valid syllogism. 3. How are ambiguity and emotive use of language impediments in clear thinking? Discuss. 4. What is a fallacy? Briefly explain various logical fallacies. 5. What is the value of use of symbols in logic? Explain.

6. What is the name of scientific theory? Discuss in detail the scientific method. 7. Briefly examine Muslims contribution in logic with special reference to Ab n Tamiya. COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (1) Which of the following two arguments characterize deductive reasoning? (a) If all the premises are true, conclusion must be true. (b) If all the premises are true, the conclusion is only probably true. (2) Is the conclusion of the following arguments true or false? (a) All diamonds are hard? (true) (b) Some diamonds are gems? (true) (c) All gems are hard? (true/false) (3) Write down a conditional (hypothetical) statement, identifying clearly which of the parts is called the antecedent and which the consequence. (4) What the following forms of arguments signify? Either I plead guilty or I plead not guilty, if I plead guilty them, I must pay a fine 100 rupees for an offence I did not commit. If I plead not guilty, then, I must spend the whole day in court. (a) Reduction ad absurdum (b) The Dilemma (c) Categorical syllogism (d) None of these (5) An argument based upon a comparison between objects of two different types is called: (a) Induction by simple enumeration (b) Analogy (c) Casual argument (d) Colligation of facts (e) None of these (6) What type of definition is this? A politician is one who takes interest in politics. (a) Wide (b) Circular (c) Narrow (d) Metaphorical (e) None of these (7) If two statements are related, in such a way that if one of them is true, the other must be false and vice verse, what type of relation holds between the two? (a) Contradiction (b) Contrariness

(c) Implication (d) None of these (8) When a hypothesis explains an event with reference to its cause, it is called: (a) Working Hypothesis (b) Descriptive Hypothesis (c) Explanatory Hypothesis (d) Legitimate Hypothesis (e) None of these (9) Name any two Muslim Logicians, who, it is claimed, have refuted Greek logic. (10) Name any two modern Logicians. FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2004. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER - I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS:100 NOTE: Attempt all questions. Give details in relevance to the marks assigned to the Question. Question No. 8 is objective. 1. Define Logic. What are its two kinds with reference to Truth and Validity? 2. Discuss syllogism and its formative and general rules. OR What is inference? Discuss the kinds of Immediate Inference. 3. Discuss al-Farabis contribution to Logic. 4. Write short notes on Hypothesis and simple enumeration. OR Discuss Analogy as a form of Inductive Method. 5. Discuss the Emotive or Declarative use of language. 6. What are Variables and Non-Variables in Symbolic Logic? OR Define Prepositional calculus and its elements. 7. Critically discuss the fallacy of Relevance.

8. PART-1: Write True or False in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions.

(a) Logic is a Positive Science. (b) Inference is a Mental Process. (c) Conversion is a form of Immediate Inference. (d) Logic is concerned with the conclusions of though. (e) The conclusions of Induction are not certain. PART-II: Which of the following are Prepositions? Which are not right or wrong? (a) Close the door (b) Mango is the king of fruits. (c) The earth revolve around the sun. (d) Akbar is better than Anwar. (e) I wish I could go to Karachi. PART-III: Do as directed: (a) Write down the four figures of syllogism. (b) Draw the square of oppositions showing the relationship of A,E,I,O. (c) Give the conversion of A,E,I,O. (d) Draw John Venns circles showing A,E,I,O. (e) Draw the truth table of the following and state whether it is correct or incorrect. If he takes poison he will die. He has not died. Therefore he has not taken poison. PART-IV: Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (a) Rad-ul-Mantaqeen was written by: (i) Ghazali (ii) Farabi (iii) Ibn-i-Taimiya (iv) None of these (b) V is the symbol of ________ in Logic. (i) Conjunction (ii) Disconjunction (iii) Implication (iv) Something else (c) ___________ are possible answers or solutions of Scientific enquiries. (i) Analogy (ii) Hypothesis (iii) Propositions (iv) Some other (d) In a syllogism there are __________ terms. (i) Four (ii) Two

(iii) Three (iv) Other (e) There are two kinds of fallacies; ____________ and ____________. (i) Fallacies of Relevance and Ambiguity. (ii) Fallacies of Validity and Invalidity (iii) Fallacies of Vagueness and Emotivety. (iv) Some other FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2005. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER - I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS:100 NOTE: Attempt all questions. Give details in relevance to the marks assigned to the Question. Question No. 8 is objective. 1. Logic is the Science of valid thought. How can we determine validity? 2. Bring out the difference between truth and validity? OR hat is conclusion indicator and premises indicators? 3. Al Farabi divides logic into low many kinds/categories? 4. Write short notes on Inductive Leap? OR What do you mean by ARGUMENTS IN CONTEXT? 5. Discuss the EMOTELY NEUTRAL LANGUAGE? 6. What is the form of discourse and its multiple functions? OR Critically discuss fallacies of Relevance. 7. Bring out the difference between: (a) Ad IGNORANTIAN, and (b) Ad VERECUNDIAN

COMPULSORY QUESTION 8. PART I: Write True and False in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the question: (1) Logic is Normative Science. (2) If Premises are true conclusion must be true (3) Premises are not in declarative form (4) A proposition by itself is not an argument

(5) Deduction is based on induction. PART II: Which of the following are Propositions? Which are not right or wrong. (6) Come a long (7) I a man. (8) Every student studies hard (9) Truth is better than falsehood (10) I wish I could go to London PART III: Do as directed. (11) Evaluate the square of opposition in the light of Modern logic. (12) How do you demarcate a line of difference between: (a) QUALITY (b) QUANTITY (c) DISTRIBUTION (13) Is immediate inference based on: (a) CONVERSION (b) OBVERSION (14) Draw a diagram for categorical proposition. (15) What you prefer Deduction or Induction argue with your own examples. PART IV: Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the questions. (16) __________ of a syllogism uniquely determines its form: (a) Proposition (b) Conclusion (c) Mood (d) Figure (e) Something else (17) Kitab-al-Abr is written by: (a) SINA (b) FARABI (c) Khaldun (d) Rushd (e) None of these (18) C is the symbol of _____________ in logic. (a) Implication (b) Disjunction (c) Conjection (d) None of these

(19) Conclusions is drawn from __________ in Deduction. (a) Propositions (b) Premises (c) Simple enumeration (d) Something else (20) Logic is based on __________. (a) Language (b) Argument (c) Validity (d) Some other FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2006. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER - I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS:100 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTE: Give details in relevance to the marks assigned to the Question. Question No. 8 is objective and Compulsory. 1. Define Logic with special reference to strength, Cogence and Soundness. (20 Marks) 2. Give a brief history of Logic. (20 Marks) OR Elaborate any two groups of Arguments. 3. Bring out the difference between Aristotelian and Modern Logic. (10 Marks) 4. Write short notes on Problem Solving in Logic. (10 Marks) OR Define in detail Fallacies. 5. What is the role of connotation and denotation in logic? (5 Marks) 6. What is categorical proposition and classes? (5 Marks) OR Define in detail categorical syllogism. 7. How can you reduce the number of terms in a Syllogistic Arguments? Compulsory Question

8. PART-1: Write True or False in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the question. (1) Proposition are independent of the language they appear in. (2) The business of logic is analysis and appraisal of arguments. (3) Language is not informative. (4) Language is Directive. (5) Logic is always without fallacy. PART-II: Which of the following are Prepositions? Which are not right or wrong? (6) How are you? (7) Man is mortal. (8) I may not go. (9) Man is a thinking animal. (10) Sorry, I am late. PART-III: Do as directed: (11) Write three types of Fallacies. (12) Bring out the difference between Universal Affirmative and particular Affirmative. (13) Give the diagram of A.I.E.O. (14) Show the categorical Propositions in Boolean form? (15) What is truth table? Give an example. PART-IV: Write only the correct answer in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the question. (16) DURJ is written by: (a) Farabi (b) Ibn-i-Sina (c) Al-Ghazali (d) None of these (17) ~ is the symbol of _________: (a) Conjunction (b) Implication (c) Negation (d) Something else (18) Syllogism is based on _____________: (a) Premises (b) Conclusions (c) Languages (d) Some other (19) Simple - inumeration is the method of ____________: (a) Deduction

(b) Induction (c) Analogy (d) Some other (20) Language is based on __________? (a) Cognitive meaning (b) Emotive Meaning (c) Ethical Meaning (d) Some other FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2007. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER - I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS:100 NOTE: (i) Attempt FIVE questions in all including question No. 8 which is compulsory. All questions carry EQUAL marks. (ii) Extra attempt of any question or any part of the attempted question will not be considered (iii) Candidate must draw two straight lines (==================) at the end to separate each question attempted in Answer Books. Q.1. Discuss the three basic functions of Language. Elaborate upon the importance of Emotionally Neutral Language for reasoning. Q.2. Define Logic and discuss its two main kinds. Deduction and Induction. Q.3. Discuss Al-Farabi,s contributions in Logic. Q.4. Discuss the importance of symbols in Logic. Q.5. Discuss the Inductive use of Analogy and Hypothesis. Q.6. What is a Fallacy of judgment? Differentiate between Fallacies of Relevance and Fallacies of Ambiguity. Q.7. Write short notes on any FOUR of the following: (a) Formal Argument (b) Probability (c) Syllogism (d) Square of oppositions (e) Conversion (f) Logical Definition COMPULSORY QUESTION Q.8.(A) Write only True or False in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the question. (1 each)

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)

Logic Studies the Process of Thought. True/False In deduction the conclusions are drawn from the Premises. True/False V is the symbol of Negation in Logic. True/False There are four Terms in a syllogistic Argument. True/False Testibility is essential to Hypothesis. True/False

(B) Which of the following are propositions, which are not, write only Yes or No in the Answer Book. Do not reproduce the question. ( each) (6) Some Asians are Muslims Yes/No (7) I am very happy today. Yes/No (8) All crows are black Yes/No (9) Rose is the king of flowers. Yes/No (10) Open the door. Yes/No (11) All Pakistanis are not Muslim. Yes/No (12) When are you going home? Yes/No (13) You should read extensively to acquire knowledge. Yes/No (14) Some books are difficult. Yes/No (15) Do not waste your time. Yes/No (C) Separate the Conclusion and Premises Indicators in the following and write in separate columns: (1 each) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) Therefore Because For Consequently As shown by

(D) Answer the following: (1 each) (21) (22) (23) (24) (25) Name the three Terms in an argument. Who wrote Rad- ul-Mantaqeen? Write down the five symbols used in Logic. The conclusions of Inductive Reasoning are? Who is the founder of Logic? FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2008. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER - I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS MAXIMUM MARKS:100

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTE: Attempt all questions. Give details in relevance to the marks assigned to the Question. Question No. 8 is objective. All questions carry equal marks. 1. Distinguish between truth and validity of the logical argument. Il lustrate your answer with the help of examples. 2. Critically examine the role of definition in Aristotelian Logic. 3. How emotive language is an impediment in clear thinking? Discuss. 4. What is a logical fallacy? Discuss in detail formal fallacy. 5. Discuss in detail the significance of use of symbols in logic. 6. Discuss various theory models viz-a-viz scientific theory. What is scientific explanations? 7. How far is it tenable to hold that Muslim contribution to logic is an improvement on Aristotelian logic? Compulsory Question 8. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer sheet. PART I (1) Logic is the study of Rational Argument. (a) True (b) False (2) Reasoning from the general to the particular is induction. (a) True (b) False (3) The parable of ACHILLES and the tortoise ranks as the paradigm of a philosophical argument. (a) True (b) False (4) Two statements are contradictory if they cannot both be true but may both be false. (a) True (b) False (5) A proposition by itself is an argument. (a) True (b) False PART-II: Which of the following are Prepositions and which are not?

(6) What a fine picture. (a) Yes (b) No (7) Some students of the class are bachelors. (a) Yes (b) No (8) All cows are black. (a) Yes (b) No (9) May I come in, Sir. (a) Yes (b) No (10) Do as directed. (a) Yes (b) No PART-III: Choose the best options. (11) The key feature of modern logic is the development of: (a) Aristotelian Logic (b) Forms of definitions (c) logic of Relations (d) None of these (12) What fallacy is committed in the following argument: The criminal must not be punished because he belongs to a noble family. (a) Petitio Principii (b) Figure of speech (c) False cause (d) None of these (13) Draw a valid conclusion from the given argument: (a) Either p or q (b) If p, then r (c) If q, then s (14) What is Bachelor in Bachelor means unmarried adult male. (a) Definition (b) Definiendum (c) Definiens (d) None of these

(15) A is either B or C is a. (a) Hypothetical Judgment (b) Disjunctive judgment (c) Indefinite Judgment (d) None of these (16) Who wrote the book MANTIQ al-MASHR-ISIYYIN? (a) Ibn Sina (b) Al-Ghazali (c) Ibn-Taimiyyah (d) None of these (17) What does the following statement represent, All the chair in the room are wooden? (a) Simple enumeration (b) Perfect enumeration (c) Negative induction (d) None of these (18) What does the symbol stand for (a) Implication (b) Negation (c) Conjunctive (d) None of these (19) The relation between A and E forms of prepositions in the square of oppositions is known as: (a) Contradictory (b) Sub-Contrary (c) Contrary (d) None of these (20) Identify the fallacy committed in the following argument Philosophy is a useles s subject because it does not help you to get a job: (a) Fallacy of Equivocation (b) Fallacy of Secundum Quid (c) Fallacy of Ignoratio Elenchi (d) None of these FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS 17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2008. PHILOSOPHY, PAPER - I TIME ALLOWED: THREE HOURS

MAXIMUM MARKS:100 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------NOTE: Attempt all questions. Give details in relevance to the marks assigned to the Question. Question No. 8 is objective. All questions carry equal marks. 1. Distinguish between truth and validity of the logical argument. Illustrate your answer with the help of examples. 2. Critically examine the role of definition in Aristotelian Logic. 3. How emotive language is an impediment in clear thinking? Discuss. 4. What is a logical fallacy? Discuss in detail formal fallacy. 5. Discuss in detail the significance of use of symbols in logic. 6. Discuss various theory models viz-a-viz scientific theory. What is scientific explanations? 7. How far is it tenable to hold that Muslim contribution to logic is an improvement on Aristotelian logic? Compulsory Question 8. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer sheet. PART I (1) Logic is the study of Rational Argument. (a) True (b) False (2) Reasoning from the general to the particular is induction. (a) True (b) False (3) The parable of ACHILLES and the tortoise ranks as the paradigm of a philosophical argument. (a) True (b) False (4) Two statements are contradictory if they cannot both be true but may both be false. (a) True (b) False (5) A proposition by itself is an argument. (a) True (b) False

PART-II: Which of the following are Prepositions and which are not? (6) What a fine picture. (a) Yes (b) No (7) Some students of the class are bachelors. (a) Yes (b) No (8) All cows are black. (a) Yes (b) No (9) May I come in, Sir. (a) Yes (b) No (10) Do as directed. (a) Yes (b) No PART-III: Choose the best options. (11) The key feature of modern logic is the development of: (a) Aristotelian Logic (b) Forms of definitions (c) logic of Relations (d) None of these (12) What fallacy is committed in the following argument: The criminal must not be punished because he belongs to a noble family. (a) Petitio Principii (b) Figure of speech (c) False cause (d) None of these (13) Draw a valid conclusion from the given argument: (a) Either p or q (b) If p, then r (c) If q, then s (14) What is Bachelor in Bachelor means unmarried adult male. (a) Definition (b) Definiendum (c) Definiens (d) None of these

(15) A is either B or C is a. (a) Hypothetical Judgment (b) Disjunctive judgment (c) Indefinite Judgment (d) None of these (16) Who wrote the book MANTIQ al-MASHR-ISIYYIN? (a) Ibn Sina (b) Al-Ghazali (c) Ibn-Taimiyyah (d) None of these (17) What does the following statement represent, All the chair in the room are wooden? (a) Simple enumeration (b) Perfect enumeration (c) Negative induction (d) None of these (18) What does the symbol stand for (a) Implication (b) Negation (c) Conjunctive (d) None of these (19) The relation between A and E forms of prepositions in the square of oppositions is known as: (a) Contradictory (b) Sub-Contrary (c) Contrary (d) None of these (20) Identify the fallacy committed in the following argument Philosophy is a useless subject because it does not help you to get a job: (a) Fallacy of Equivocation (b) Fallacy of Secundum Quid (c) Fallacy of Ignoratio Elenchi (d) None of these Philosophy 2010 Paper 1

PHILOSOPHY, PAPER-I FEDERAL PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION FOR

RECRUITMENT TO POSTS IN BPS-17 UNDER THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT, 2010 PART I (MCQ) (COMPULSORY)
Q.1. Select the best option/answer and fill in the appropriate box on the Answer Sheet. (20) (a) Which of the following are propositions? Choose True or False: (i) Logic distinguisher correct reasoning from incorrect reasoning: (a) True (b) False (ii) Conclusion can be drawn from two negative premises in categorical syllogism: (a) True (b) False (iii) If a premise of categorical syllogism is negative the conclusion must be negative: (a) True (b) False (iv) Syllogism does not commit the fallacy of Petitio principii: (a) True (b) False (v) To consider what is true of the whole must be true of its parts, is not fallacy: (a) True (b) False (b) Which one of the following is a proposition and which is not: (vi) Close the door: (a) Yes (b) No (vii) Some students are intelligent: (a) Yes (b) No (viii) What a pleasant evening: (a) Yes (b) No (ix) All men are mortal: (a) Yes

(b) No (x) Some books of Logic are not interesting: (a) Yes (b) No (c) Choose the best options: (xi) Deductive logic was introduced by: (a) Pythagoras (b) Plato (c) Aristotle (d) None of these (xii) Inductive Logic was introduced by: (a) Socrates (b) Francis Bacon (c) Russell (d) None of these (xiii) Al Radd al Mantiqiyeen was written by: (a) Al Ghazali (b) Ibn-e-Taimiyah (c) Ibn-e-Sina (d) None of these (xiv) Inference of induction argument is: (a) necessary (b) probable (c) invalid (d) None of these (xv) Logic is a: (a) Behavioural science (b) Normative science (c) Natural science (d) None of these (xvi) If in categorical syllogism the middle term is not distributed, it commits the fallacy of: (a) Existential fallacy (b) Undistributed Middle (c) Illicit major (d) None of these (xvii) Symbolic logic is different from: (a) Deductive logic

(b) Inductive logic (c) Both of these (d) None of these (xviii) Hypothesis is important in: (a) Scientific explanation (b) Deductive logic (c) Symbolic logic (d) None of these (xix) Dilemma is a rhetoric argument: (a) Correct (b) Incorrect (c) None of these (xx) Where P is true and q is false, P.q is: (a) True (b) False (c) None of these Part II Q.2 Define proposition. Explain Aristotle's view of propositions. Q.3 Inductive inference is probable. Discuss it with reference to analogical arguments. Q.4 Emotive language is ambiguous. Illustrate with the help of fallacies of ambiguity . Q.5 Write a not on symbolic logic defining its symbols of conjunction, disjunction and negation with examples. Q.6What is scientific explanation? Discuss the role of hypothesis in scientific explanation. Q.7Describe Ibn-e-Sina's contribution in logic. Q.8 Discuss ibn-e-Taimiyah's criticism on Aristotle's logic.

Philosophy 2010 Paper 2 Part II

Q.2Explain various types of idealism. Discuss Berkeley's idealism. Q.3 Define materialism. Critically examine dialectical materialism.

Q.4 Existence precedes essence. Discuss with reference to Sartre's Existentialism. Q.5 Analyse logical Positivists' views regarding examination of metaphysics. Q.6 Discuss Al-Ghazali's criticism of philosophers regarding the eternity of the world. Q.7 Ibn Khaldun is founder of philosophy of history and sociology. Discuss. Q.8 Elaborate Iqbal's concept of Ijtihad as the principle of movement in the structure of Islam.