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Reconceiving Theory: The Analysis of Tone Color Author(s): Robert Cogan Source: College Music Symposium, Vol.

15 (Spring, 1975), pp. 52-69 Published by: College Music Society Stable URL: . Accessed: 07/04/2011 20:01
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NewApproaches toAnalysis

Reconceiving Theory: The Analysis ofTone Color

Robert Cogan New England Conservatory I. Background is hard to imaginea more interesting momentto be a music theorist. need This is theresult ofa unique obligation and opportunity: theurgent fora wide-ranging It results ofmusictheory. from convergence reconception offourrecent forces: historicalthe reemergence, in the hundred-fifty years since the death of of Europe's distantmusicalpast,reflecting othertheories Beethoven, and ideals ofsound thanthoseof 18thand 19th-century Europe; culturaltheintermingling of musicsof the entire worldwiththeirnumerous classicaltraditions, and theevolution ofnewmusiccultures coexisting from theirmeetingforexample,theAfro-american; therevelation ofmanyessential, hitherto scientificby psychophysical analysis elements of sound and its unexpected perception; the dramatic expansion of resourcesfor synthesis, technologicalanalysis, and transmission of sound and musicoffered memory, by electronic technology. The result oftheseforces is to makeavailable hereand now,forvirtually the first the sum total of all sonic and musicalphenomena.Whereas time, and memory, previouslimitswere determined by instruments by cultures and history, thecurrent limits are globaland psychophysical. The boundaries stretch to the limitsof sound and of the musicalimagination. The unprecedentedcurrent is to means for illumination of the entire task,then, provide art of sound in ways responsive to the worldwidemusical and scientific imaginations. Since thiswas not thetaskofearliertheory does not it,notsurprisingly, these aims. And since the of the task defeats accomplish enormity piecemeal



evenconcerned, dedicatedteachers in isolation have solutions, working singly on wavesofthesedimensions. foundered The new premises oftheory require new conceptsappropriate to them. This articleis written out ofa decade ofexperience the spentdeveloping of theory outlinesof a basic re-direction and its teaching, embodied in the in thisbrief cannotbe conveyed I shall focus oped there space. Consequently, hereonlyupon theaspectthatis mostnovel,and thathighlights thecontrast of previous betweenthe assumptions and those of the new European theory we propose. This is notdone,let it be immediately of noted,in a spirit theory but ratherin a spiritof adding complementary of ueither-or," possibilitiesviews of the nature alternative of musical and sound order. It is developing the analysisof tonecolor,then,thathas been chosenas the paradigmof the new approach. II. Rudimentsof Tone-color Analysis For severalthousandyearsthe methodof European theory has been rePhenomenaof sound and music,oftenof staggering ductionism. complexity, have been reducedto: pitches; -single fundamental -and, in fact,to veryfewof them-betweenseven and twelveto the octave; in a fewoctaveregisters;2 -distributed to based on a fewchosenratios. -according rhythms Here our procedurewill be the opposite.We will attemptto investigate, oftheentire theordering and define measure, complexofphenomenaidentilet me say at fiableas sonic or musicalstimuli.While thissoundsabstract, and concrete. It meansdealingin it is immediate once that,on thecontrary, withsuchdirectly and teaching situation factors as inthetheoretical tangible sound. strumental If we taketwo sonicevents-forexampleC1 and C8 on the piano3-conall other ventionaltheory assignsthemto the same pitchclass,C. Virtually classification; that primary depend upon perceptions
in 1976. The present articleis issued by permission of PrenticePozzi Escot, forthcoming "Co-author, See also RobertCogan, "Teaching Music Theory," ofSonic Hall, Inc., publishers Design. ofMusic Journal Theory, Spring1974. to a singleoctaveregister shouldbe recalledin thisconnec-The Medieval European modal limitation Chant from tion. See Willi Apel, Gregorian 1958),pp. 133-135.By comparison, (Bloomington, earlyantiSee Alain Danielou, quity vocal theoryin the Indian raga systemrecognizedthreeoctave registers. has onlyvery itssevere Indian Music(London, 1949),p. 24. Europeancomposition Northern slowly outgrown evenmoreslowly. itstheory, limitations; registral international The lowestC are numbered acousticalterminology. accordingto standardized 3Registers is C2; thenthe next-lowest is Reg. 1. The next-lowest is C3. Middle-C is C4, on thepiano is C; itsregister etc. Each successive C beginsa new register.

book SonicDesign: The NatureofSoundand Music.l The entire approach devel-



Let us, however, undertake theirtone-color analysis.As is well known, tone-color was with Helmholtz's thattonecolordeinitiated theory analysis of pends upon the numberof partialsin a sound and the relativeintensity those partials.4Most sounds which seem simple and unified(or which led us to regardand hearin thatway),such as "singlemusiprevious theory cal notes,"turnout upon analysisto be compounds or complexes ofpartials. The irreducible the toneproconstructive elementis the partial,or sinetoneduced by a sinusoidalwave, a tonewhichdoes not produceany further partials of its own. Compound or complex tones are built up of different of sine-tone quantitiesand intensities partials,each compoundor complex tone being a different "formula"or "recipe." In analysissuch a recipe is called the spectrum of a compoundor complextone. for soundsimilarto has a significance Helmholtz'stheory, consequently, atomictheory forphysicalmatter. of immensedeIt revealsa sub-structure theapparentsurface. Like atomictheory tail underlying, or (better)forming, it forces a re-examination ofthe natureofreality. Ex. 1.


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Ex. 1 showsspectrum analysesofC'-C7 on thepiano. The spectraof the lowestC's, C'-C3,have commoncharacteristics: -a verylargenumberofpartials(betweentwenty and forty-four); -relative weakness of the fundamental, and greater of certain intensity upperpartials. Such a perception information about C1 on thepialreadyconveys important ano: that it is a compound signal comprising numerousstrongseparate audible (and producingnoticeablebeats), pitches, many of themdistinctly whichnotational and theoretical conventions have reducedto a singlefundamentalpitch,C1. Thus, reductionism.
Hermann Sensations Helmholtz,On the ofTone (2nd Eng. ed., tr.A. Ellis, 1895,rpt. 1954),p. 56.



in Ex. 1,thespectra As we ascendthepiano's registers changemarkedly. lessrich.They reveala middle-C the with (C4) spectraare notably Beginning of higherpartials,untilwithC8 only a offin quantityand intensity falling remains. is, therefore, (This simplespectrum singlepartial,thefundamental, C1 and C8 of the piano not shown.)In terms of spectrum as well as register, standalmostat oppositepoles. thesinetone.Since it is Let us add herea further observation concerning it a primary element,we must understand building block or constructive the entire audible well. When one hears a sine-tone range, sweep covering The color one observesdifferences of sound quality in different registers. to brighter dulleroo(u)-likesound in the lowestregisters ee(i)changesfrom in tonereflected likesoundin thehighest This changeis,ofcourse, registers. and complexes builtout ofsinetones:theytakeon added brightcompounds ness as the quantityof high-register Spectrumand register partialsgrows.5 tone color. are crucial to both,then, Ex.2. * I
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5R. Plomp,Experiments on Tone Perception, pp. 131-3.



Helmholtz's oftonecolorreallateranalysts Movingon from beginnings, colorsare morecomplicated ized thatinstrumental thanrevealedby spectral in a classicstudyofpiano tonecolor analysis.For example,HarveyFletcher wrote:

"It is truethatthequality[orcolor]dependsupon thewave-form [Helmholtz's differing But it also dependsupon the pitch(especiallyregispartialswithdiffering intensities]. ter,as we have just observed),the loudness,the decay and attack time,the variation withtimeof the intensity of the partials,the impactnoise of the hammer, the noise of ofthetonebythedamping thedamping etc."6 felt, pedal,and also thecharacteristic ending

Ex. 2 showsthe changeof Ex. 2 and 3 revealaspectsof theseproperties. noise at three different and attack dynamiclevelsforC2. Greater spectrum It should noise of and attack loudnessgenerates higherfrequencies. partials in higher relative noise assumes be noted,too,thatattack greater importance a wide frequency-band ofatso muchso thatin thehighest registers registers, weak thanthe few, tacknoiseis farmoreprominent relatively partials.Ex. 3 sixpartialsofC4 overtwosecondsoftime.Cerofthefirst showsthe"history" others tain partialsdisappearentirely; decay; stillothers actuallygain intenis constant the and that the color, undergoing spectrum, consequently sity-so subtlechange. one tonesacceptable as piano-like, Fletcherlearned that to synthesize And also withan additionalsurprising mustdeal withall of thesefactors. identicalpiano strings are not tunedexactly one: thatsupposedly alike; that, are also inharmonic of those strings, due to the stiffness (or many partials theex"out oftune"); and thatin additionto theseintonation discrepancies, thanto a just or temrather ofpianosare tunedto a stretched tremities tuning pered tuning.As a resultof all these intonationvariants,piano sound is of suffused by slowacousticalbeats producedby near-adjacencies constantly beatof a massive includes A well-tuned quantity "out-of-tune," piano pitch. to piano sound. Synthesized ing elements.These turn out to be necessary identicalto piano sounds but lackingsuch discrepancies sounds otherwise and beats arejudged notto be piano-like! richsonic actualitiesof piano sound, So we glimpsethe extraordinarily comprising: duration and relative -attack noisewhosefrequency, intensity varywith and register loudness; and likewise -the bodyof sound whosespectrum changeswithregister ofthepartials' but also changesovertimewithvariations loudness, intensities; ofpedeffects -the wholesuffused by beats,by thesoundand resonance rate different overall the (also dependingupon inidecay aling,by and pedaling); tial loudness, register
AcousticalSociety ofAmerica,34 (1962), 749.

E. Donnell Blackham,Richard Stratton,"Quality of Piano Tones," Journal of the 6HarveyFletcher,



theconclusion ofthe toneby thedampingfelt. -and ultimately, A complexmass of sonic data. The one "fact" recognizedby previous to theC1 and C8 withwhichwe began,theirreduction withrespect to theory the pitchclass C, is actuallyone of the morequestionablepossiblegeneralizations.Ratherthan beingentirely similar, theyare characterized by radiand spectra.They are stillfurther attacks, unlike, decay rates, callydifferent for affected Yet reare especially by thestretched they tuning just mentioned. to draw attention to its ductionist theory prefers questionablepitchgeneralthanto theactual and massivesonicdata! izationrather raw material forsomething neverachievedin two milThere now exists a genuineinstrumental from and lenia of European theory: theory, deriving when could enmusical sound. Such a with total theory, developed, dealing where lie. their musicians instrumental exactly deepestpreoccupations gage of dealing with the whole sound of musical events, It offers the possibility from them.In learnreductions abstracted thanwithone,or veryfew, rather for students to perand to be it turns out revealing exciting immensely ing, in the sounds full detail: of instrumental their the actualities ceive analytic and loudnessofattack theduration, elements; frequency spectral perceptible or to in attack due transformations noise; dynamicor otherchanges; spectra modulations. whichundergochange in tone-color the elements Indeed, it is to value such information to lingerhere,but to allow the reader tempting I mustdriveon to one further stage,a stagenot achievedby our acousfully, of tonethe analysisof the unfolding tical or psychophysical predecessors: colorin an actual musicalwork.

III. Analysis: Schoenberg's"Colors" Originallynamed "Colors," later renamed "Summer Morning by a Five Orchestra of Schoenberg's Pieces,Op. 16 Lake," the centralmovement of Le several rivaled to be now Stravinsky's only by passages appears (1909), stretch ofmusiccomposedin the and influential as themoststimulating Sacre of Schoenberg's idea of tone-color The embodiment century. earlytwentieth imitsmystery, for remaining analytically yearsit has preserved sixty melody, host of diverse followers: Vaa while even Webern, Berg, affecting penetrable ... to name themostobvious.In a revealing rese,Carter, Ligeti,Stockhausen the arch-analyst, his Harmonielehre end of at the himself, Schoenberg passage successions.7 to analyzesuch tone-color his inability confessed
Harmonielehre 'ArnoldSchoenberg, (Vienna, 3rded., 1922),pp. 506-7.









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Ex. 4 lays out the movement's fundamental pitches.The principalmotionofthepiece is carriedout on theexample'scentrallevel,notatedas halfnotes: ofa singlefive-voice -It consists theentire harmony moving throughout in motion to a cellular piece parallel according single patternof a linearmotion- semitone descent. rise,followed by a whole-tone -By sequencesof thiscell, the entireprincipalmotionof thisharmony its beginning executesa gradual ascent(in the sopranovoice from on A4 to its apex, D5) followedby a rapid descentback to the A4 starting point-the total space coveredby each voice is only a triin the soprano. tone;forexample,Ab4-D5 the motionof the voices In the piece itself, as opposed to Ex. 4, staggering but ultimately the createsan illusionof counterpoint, canon, and stretto; Let us note thatat first voicesrejoineach otherand parallel motionreigns. ofthemotion's wouldseeman unprorangeto a tritone glancethelimitation of instrumental colors. for diverse one development mising at intermittent derivedfrom the In Ex. 4, one finds pointsthatelements into other lower or are reflected outward motion registers, higher. principal ofidenticalstructures but by directregister-shift accomplished (This is often of These reflecsometimes momentary by transposition derivedstructures.) certainaspectsofthe principalmotion.For example: tionsintensify of the harmony -The principalmotionbeginslow(the lowestvoicings in thesoprano)and thenasand ofthecell- for A4-Bb4-Ab4 example, is intensified lownessof thebeginning cends; the relative by reflecof the that tionsdownward piece (SectionI). throughout part ofthe principalmotionin SectionII is in-On theotherhand,the rise reflections. tensified by upward is characterized motion -Section III oftheprincipal bythecloseclimacofthelinearhighand low points;in thereflections ticjuxtaposition of both upward and downward thisis paralleledby juxtaposition reflections. of the principalmotionare gestures By such means the minutedirectional shifts. the and written register reflecting by notablymagnified large its pattern of motionand the reflections The singleharmony, (director the fundamenfor all account or in derived) downward upwardregister-shifts tal pitchesofthe piece. proceed pitchesin mind,let us now, Keeping thislayoutoffundamental motion(themovement alThe to itstone-color piece'sprincipal composition. level of Ex. on the central ofthesinglefive-voice 4) harmony readydescribed, but rather not bya singlefixed is presented instrumentation, byone thatfluctheentirepiece. tuatesthroughout

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of the first Ex. 5 showsthe instrumental fluctuation section.The four half-note and windsof the first clarinet, (two flutes, bassoon)alternate regu(two double reeds:Englishhornand larlywiththoseof thesecondhalf-note and mutedFrenchhorn).8 bassoon;and twomutedbrasses:mutedtrumpet intospectral terms. Therein separatecolthisalternation Ex. 6 translates of the spectrum of each instrument forits given an estimate umnsone finds the for two sonopitchand dynamic.Followingtheseare spectralestimates and "secondsonority." undertheheadings"first rities, (Ex. 7 shows sonority" ofMusic,[New York, samplesof the tables,drawnfromSeashore,Psychology information.) spectral 1938]whichare sourcesofinstrumental Ex.7
F-1397 D-1174 G-784 B-494 G-392 Partials f: p: f: p: f: p: f: p: f: The Flute 100 100 100 100 87 100 14 73 2 88 12 The Oboe G-784 E-659 C-523 G-392 E-329
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32 15 33341 2065 1 11 3 36 42 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 1 1 100122

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The voicesofthe five-voice The tone-color harmony. analysisalwaysdeals withcolorsoftheupperfour instrumental itsown rhythmoreconstant a separateidentity lowestvoicemaintains coloration; (different, in the transformations effected it does notparticipate mic periodofoscillation; by the etc.). Consequently, uppervoices.

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of thesetwo sonorities. In the We can now comparespectralestimates9 in the the bulk of is concentrated first 4, Register regissonority great energy in fundamentals in thatregisterofmiddle-C;concentrated especially falling in the second ter,with only minutetracesof higherpartials.By contrast, to shift of there is a energy higher partials.The most strong upward sonority in 5 and while traces stretch located are intense 6, Registers through partials in the twosonorities activatenotablydifferReg. 7. The same fundamentals ofpartials. ent configurations thedegreeto whichspectrum The readercan testforhim/herself analyto thesesonorities.10 sonic realityby listening sis represents Especarefully do elements become at are and if spectral half-speed played they taped cially sounds an octave In such a case, of course,everything clearlyperceptible. ofan octavebetweenthespecan upwardshift lowerthannotated;however, is astonishingly vivid-so and secondsonorities of the first tralconcentration of the shift seems to be an octave higherregister that the second sonority first!11 On such a slowed-down hearingthereis timeto noticeothercolor eleor fluctuations. are pulsations mentsas well. Withineach sonority They result either from acoustical beats, or from the amplitude or frequency In thathave come to be groupedunderthegeneraltermvibrato. modulations The most measured. are each the beats Ex. 8 prominent sonority producedby 440createdby the adjacencyG#4-A4: beats are heard in the first sonority, the two flutes 415 cps = 25 bps. In thissame sonority produceamplitude in low flute modulations sound,at a speedofca. 6 moduprominent especially and are faster beat fluctuations the second In the lations/second.12 sonority the mostprominent morediffuse, being 108bps. Here,too,thetwosonorities slowthrobofbeatsand amplitudemoduthepronounced contrast: relatively in of the first between6 and 25/second) lations(ranging sonority dissipating thesecond. ofevery sonic I do notmean to wearthereaderdownwithmeasurement auare perfectly Those mentioned, of thesetwo sonorities. element however, of the transformations color the for basis form the and dible, continuing flueof beats and variation and amplitude piece. For example,the presence
in the inThe information are roughestimates. nt mustbe emphasizedthatthe spectralpresentations In preparing the tablesis limitedby the pitchesand dynamics strumental analyzedforeach instrument. is to choose the closestpitchand dynamicforwhichspectralinformation graphsit has been necessary have not been acbetweeninstruments; factors available. Other technical masking) (dynamicdifferences on theseexampleswould effect due to thespecified countedfor.However, soft, equal dynamiclevel,their be slight. now available is Nonesuch71192: GunterWand recorded l0Themostaccurate,revealing performance ofCologne. Orchestra the Giirzenich conducting in the reflections. shifts shifts "In thisway thespectralregister prepareforthe forthcoming register 41 Acoustical of Wind-instrument and Clark,"Synthesis Tones,"Journal ofAmerica, Society ofthe l2Strong (1967), 48.



tuations create that"shimmer" ofsound to light on water alluded analogous toin thepiece's second "Summer a Lake." Before title, Morning by completthesystematic ofspectra andother transformation ingtheanalysis bytracing elements ofcolorthrough with thatevenherethepiece,letme emphasize twosonorities whoseidentical fundamental sound at a singledypitches namic-wehavebeenable to define characteristics ofcolorand its precise and evento find ofregistral motion and changtransformation, implications ofactivity. Theseforeshadowings willbe confirmed intheupcoming ingrates transformations. Now to extend theanalysis to encompass theentire than piece.Rather in detail, eachwillbe analyzed to a specanalyze every spectrum according tralscale.Ex. 9 demonstrates thebasisfor suchscaling.13 Fora number ofinEx. 9.


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13I am greatly indebtedto Mr. JohnR. FrancisforExx. 8-10,whichworkout the detailsof a spectral scale and itsapplicationto thispiece. Such simplescalingis onlyfeasible wherechangeofregister and dynamicsis minimal, as in theprincipal motion of"Colors."Otherwise an instrument find itself in sevmight eralscalarpositions and dynamics. Even the depending upon spectral changescaused by different registers scale offered mustbe understood as an approximate modelapproaching rather than here,however, reality, as absolutereality itself.



it givesthespectra struments ofa singlenoteand dynamic, G4(392 cps) at piano dynamic.Reading across the example fromleftto right,the spectral from dullerto brighter. the same ascends; the colorsshift energy Extending Ex. 10 then ranks all of the instruments in used the of process, presentation motion on a numerical scale from one to eleven. Schoenberg'sprincipal "One" represents the lowestspectralconcentration of energy:virtualsinetonecharacter, the highlackingstrong higherpartials."Eleven" represents in sounds audio those where a filter est,brightest terms, resembling, high-pass and low partials,allowingonly the highestto eliminatesthe fundamental pass. Ex. 10
1 2 3 4 5 6 harmonics string flutes clarinets brasses solo mutedstrings, section mutedstrings, Tone-color Scale 7 mutedbrasses 8 double reeds solo 9 unmuted strings, 10 unmuted section strings, 11 strings, sulponticello

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COLLEGE MUSIC SYMPOSIUM beSection I Rewritten accordingto the spectralscale is the fluctuation in demonstrated tweena dullerand a brighter sonority previously thecomposite dull,by spectra(Ex. 6). We can now noticehowvery the initial with later is, sonorities, consisting sonority comparison ofthelowergroups, 2 and 3, on thescale. The contrasting primarily secondsonority drawson groups7 and 8 (mutedbrassand double reeds). in sections Section II The additionofgroups9 and 10 (unmutedstrings, used groups7 and 8 significantly and solo) to thepreviously brightens theentire section's tonecolor.The readerwillrecallthatin this also turn shift reflections sectiontheadded intermittent by register There motion. of the as does the linear direction principal upward, and reflections is a directcorrelation betweenthe upwardregister exists colors.Indeed,there ofnewhigher-spectrum theupwardshift coordia threefold and reflections between motion, spectra principal the tonecolor. nation,brightening At the same time it should be noticedthat the newlyadded sectionsalso increasethe quanta of beats (by choral effect) string and vibrato. attain HI In this section'sprincipalmotionthe fundamentals Section fill in the extremities. Furthermore, upward (and spaces between) are brought to greatly and downwardreflections magnify together So too, thatjuxtapositionof extremities. by contrasting registers thissection'sspectraformthe piece's mostcomplex,intensemixtures.High, bright and low,dull colorsare combinedin them.Finally, too, in mm. 28-31, the very extremities of spectral characteristics are juxtaposed. For example,group 11 (the highest in m. is opposed to the group 1 concentration 28 spectra) (the lowest spectra)in mm. 30-31. Here again the threelevels- principal and spectra-are coordinated, thistimeto maxmotion, reflections, imize contrast and complexity, the piece's greatachieving thereby est intensification oftonecolor. In otherrespects, too, this section'scolorsare the most complex. thanslowly, and forthefirst timeinThey fluctuate rapidlyrather clude significant attacknoise.Furthermore, are filled withvithey brato (for example, fromstrings), with beats (generated,among otherthings, amount of doubling),and even with by the greatest tremolo.Indeed, theseelementsat theirpeak, m. 29, lend to the color the complexity of white noise. The directcontrastof this white-noise-like with the following sine-tone-like sonority sonority of 1 (mm. 30-31,consisting solely group color; and lackingsignificant attack-noise, thisjuxtaposition clibeats,vibratoor tremolo),



maxesthe piece. It sumsup theentire available rangeof tone-color on theone hand whitenoise,on theotherthesine tone. contrast: IV. The primary tone-color of thepiece occursthrough evolution Section SectionsI-III, as describedabove. Followingthat,to conclude the back to theinitialtone-color state.The compiece SectionIV works of and colors is graduallyscaled down,so thatby intensity plexity the concludingmeasures(mm. 43-44) the highestspectra(groups 11, 10 and 9) as well as the lowest(group 1) have all been elimito theoriginal stateyetagain parallelstheprincinated.This return turns back through the initialcell whichby retrograde pal motion, ofmotion. unfoldSo we findthatwe can analyze,forthefirst time,the tone-color of we discover that the In so whole of a implication movepiece. doing ing ofthe initialsonorities: mentembodiedin the colorelements the quickeningand the rise and fall of theirspectralconcentrations; in as inner of their beats; activity, slowing rise of thepiece- the brightening evolution theentiretone-color foreshadows ofthemostminute and thequickening ofthespectral concentrations, activity theirfallingoff II before Sections and tone-color III, elements, throughout oftransthis entire And maintained IV. in Section pattern throughout again events. We local of is the alternating formation pulsation color-contrasting ofmotionand activtheinitialgestation have alreadynotedhow remarkable elements withtone-color it is since one in measure is, by conveyed purely ity or overt of fundamental out movement rhythmic pitches,dynamicchange, difference. revealsthe mostconstant evolution In the piece the tone-color composiThe structural it bearsthe greatest and imagination; tionalattention weight. motion in the of fundamental actual movement (when it principal pitches redownward and The microcosm. a additional seed, upward happens)is an But the tonehintsand glimmers. form flections reinforcements, significant tone of changing the succession colorevolutionmodulations, beats, spectra, thegreatsonicand structural themacrocosm, and attacks-is theblossoming, the entire hostof It is a structure itself. by recognizing onlyperceived reality leftunrecognized sonicelements theory. by earlierreductionist IV. Conclusion theJapanese of"watermusic,""WaterImages" from tradition Another revealsa similarsonicvision.Similar,but not identical.It Kabuki theatre,14 ten with repeatedD4's; each attackand decay,specslowly separated, begins a music not contrumand resonance,loudnessand durationis differentrecordML 4925, theAzuma Kabuki musicians. l4Columbia



ceived as movementof fundamentalpitches, but including the subtle ofmovement and changewe have foundevenwithidenticalfunsuggestions damentalpitches.The analyticalprocedures developedabove, and at length in SonicDesign,that illuminatethe one music also serve to illuminatethe other.Music cultures whichsystematically cultivate spectraldifferentiation, attackdifferentiation, orcontinuous tonemodulation (as in Chinesech'in muthegeneration ofbeatsofdifferent sic),or thosewhichcultivate speedsand inin tensities with a place for Indonesian (as gamelan music) requiretheory thosesonicproperties.15 it is European orchestra musicof Berlioz,Mahler,DeIndeed, whether and Stravinsky; or the greatbulk of recentinstrumental bussy, composition conceivedas "colordesign"(to use thepainterAlbers'sterm);16 or electronic music,whoseeverysound is a specifically color; or manyof the synthesized classicalmusicsofAsia; or thejazz improvisation ofa Red Allen- tone-color is a primary understanding requirement. instruWe have previously triedto understand musicby a theory largely fromEuropean traditions mentand tone-color blind. It has been inherited back to anti-instrumental medievalreligiousbiases; and, even furharking thatrecognized to ancientPythagorean numbermysticism ther, onlya very and fewnumerical in of as the conventions relationshipsEuropeanrhythmic intervalic This notational reducled to the substitution of theoretical, theory. tionsforsonic reality. wheresuch reducUndoubtedlythereexistinstances tioncorresponds to a music'sessential But and littleis lostthereby. impulse, it is folly to reduceall musicso. It is our particular to have available on every hand through good fortune musicalcreation of thepast hundred-fifty the and years, through rediscovery of marvelous and ancientcultures, musicwhichshapes theentiresonicrealmeansforperceiving and appreity.And to have equally at hand theoretical it. The that will this about hending theory accomplishes bring many reformulations of our musicaland theoretical habits: -It will no longerbe necessary to reduceeverysonic eventto a single or aggregation of fundamentals. fundamental, -Motion will not be understood in terms of notation alone; and a new for motion will significance wide-ranging registral emerge. -Such elementsas acousticalbeats and so-callednoise will be viewed notas irrelevant or undesirable, but rather as positive and necessary to shapingand analysisin their (in the rightplaces!), susceptible own right.
15See Part IV. Cogan and Escot,Sonic Design, Interaction Albers, "Josef ofColor (New Haven, 1963),p. 42.



-And finally, color will no longerbe regardedas "surface"-surface of previous more characteristic it, than of ways of regarding being itself. theparameter intuition when he wroteof toneFor we can now substantiate Schoenberg's "What finesensesdiscriminate color melodiesand successions: here,what in which can find such subtleties!"17 satisfaction developedspirit highly will proveadvantageousat two levels.At the practical Such a theory oflearning the sonicrewill be the advantageto instrumentalists level there sounds. Therebywill come direct sourcesembedded in theirinstrumental newopportunities for At thesame timeit willoffer to performance. relevance on the Asiatic and Afro-american of musics,from a variety understanding on the other,which instrumental and electronic one hand to contemporary fortoo long have eluded satisfactory analyticalexplanationbecause theireshas been content sentialtone-color ignored.

X1 Harmonielehre, p. 506-7.