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Teaching Social Interaction Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Students with ASD Skills to Students with
Teaching Social Interaction
Teaching Social Interaction
Skills to Students with ASD
Skills to Students with ASD
Presented by the MNPS Autism Team

ThoughtsThoughts continued…continued…

With With me, me, though, though, there there is is no no external external

sign sign that that I I am am conversationally conversationally

handicapped. So folks hear some

handicapped. So folks hear some

conversational misstep and say “What

conversational misstep and say “What

an arrogant jerk!” I look forward to

an arrogant jerk!” I look forward to

the the day day when when my my handicap handicap will will afford afford

me the same respect accorded to a

me the same respect accorded to a

guy in a wheelchair. And if the

guy in a wheelchair. And if the

respect comes with a preferred

respect comes with a preferred

parking space, I won’t turn it down.

parking space, I won’t turn it down.

1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

ObjectivesObjectives

to to understand understand the the common common social social

difficulties difficulties associated associated with with autism autism

to to understand understand an an appropriate appropriate means means

of of evaluating evaluating social social skills skills

gain gain ideas ideas for for using using these these

interventions in classroom

interventions in classroom

activities/groups

activities/groups

Thoughts from an adult with

Thoughts from an adult with

Aspergers

Aspergers

(Look me in the eye by John Elder Robison)

(Look me in the eye by John Elder Robison)

My conversational difficulties highlight a

My conversational difficulties highlight a

problems Aspergians face every day. A

problems Aspergians face every day. A

person with an obvious disability-for

person with an obvious disability-for

example, someone in a wheelchair-is

example, someone in a wheelchair-is

treated compassionately because his

treated compassionately because his

handicap is obvious. No one turns to a guy

handicap is obvious. No one turns to a guy

in a wheelchair and says “Quick! Let’s run

in a wheelchair and says “Quick! Let’s run

across the street!” And when he can’t run

across the street!” And when he can’t run

across the street, no one says, “What’s his

across the street, no one says, “What’s his

problem?” They offer to help him across

problem?” They offer to help him across

the street.

the street.

WhyWhy bebe Concerned?!?!Concerned?!?!

70% of people with

70% of people with

Autism are unemployed

Autism are unemployed

The higher the

The higher the

functioning, the higher

functioning, the higher

the unemployment!

the unemployment!

(Belini, 2007)

(Belini, 2007)

SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills

By definition (Gresham & Elliot, 1995)

By definition (Gresham & Elliot, 1995)

Socially acceptable learned behaviors

Socially acceptable learned behaviors

that enable a person to interact with

that enable a person to interact with

others in ways that elicit positive

others in ways that elicit positive

responses and assist in avoiding negative

responses and assist in avoiding negative

responses.

responses.

AutismAutism DocumentaryDocumentary
AutismAutism DocumentaryDocumentary
EarlyEarly SocialSocial SkillsSkills Turn Turn taking taking Sharing affect Sharing affect Eye contact Eye
EarlyEarly SocialSocial SkillsSkills
Turn Turn taking taking
Sharing affect
Sharing affect
Eye contact
Eye contact
Proximity
Proximity
Sharing
Sharing
Following simple
Following simple
commands
commands
Parallel play
Parallel play
Responding
Responding
Cooperative play
Cooperative play
Rejecting
Rejecting
Imitation
Imitation
appropriately
appropriately
Joint attention:
Joint attention:
Requesting help
Requesting help
gestural and
gestural and
communicative
communicative
gestural and gestural and communicative communicative SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills JointJoint
SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills
SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills
JointJoint AttentionAttention ability to share ability to share attention with another attention with another person
JointJoint AttentionAttention
ability to share
ability to share
attention with another
attention with another
person while both are
person while both are
paying attention to
paying attention to
the the same same object object
Can be gestural or
Can be gestural or
conversational
conversational
LaterLater SocialSocial SkillsSkills Empathy Empathy Comments Comments Compliments Compliments Feelings
LaterLater SocialSocial SkillsSkills
Empathy
Empathy
Comments Comments
Compliments Compliments
Feelings Feelings
Sharing Sharing interests interests
Community Community rules rules
Interpreting Interpreting and and using using
Self monitoring
Self monitoring
facial expressions
facial expressions
Critical thinking
Critical thinking
Initiate, Initiate, terminate, terminate, and and
Dating/sexual etiquette
Dating/sexual etiquette
maintain maintain interactions interactions
Grooming Grooming
Conversation topics and
Conversation topics and
Respecting authority
Respecting authority
amount of info
amount of info
Problem Problem solving solving
Lacks tact: appears rude
Lacks tact: appears rude
Difficulty Difficulty understanding understanding
or naïve
or naïve
jokes jokes
Interpreting Interpreting figurative figurative
Social Social anxiety anxiety and and
language, language,
withdraw withdraw

UnderstandingUnderstanding whywhy thisthis happenshappens

Repetitiveness Repetitiveness and and restricted restricted interests interests

Interpret literally

Interpret literally

Theory of Mind: difficulty understanding

Theory of Mind: difficulty understanding

another person’s perspective or that they

another person’s perspective or that they

have thoughts and feelings different from

have thoughts and feelings different from

their own

their own

Difficulty imitating

Difficulty imitating

Difficulty problem solving

Difficulty problem solving

Pragmatics: form (syntax, morphology,

Pragmatics: form (syntax, morphology,

phonology) and content (semantic) encodes

phonology) and content (semantic) encodes

differently in ASD from early interactions

differently in ASD from early interactions

ActivityActivity 11

Stand Up!!

Stand Up!!

What were the communication

What were the communication

difficulties you experienced?

difficulties you experienced?

Pragmatic Assessments

Pragmatic Assessments

Formal Assessments

Formal Assessments

Test of Pragmatic Language

Test of Pragmatic Language

Clinical Evaluation of Language

Clinical Evaluation of Language

Fundamentals: Pragmatic Profile

Fundamentals: Pragmatic Profile

Social Social Emotional Emotional Evaluation Evaluation

Pragmatics Language Skills Inventory

Pragmatics Language Skills Inventory

Comprehensive Assessment of

Comprehensive Assessment of

Spoken Spoken Language Language

Social Social Skills Skills Rating Rating system system

Consequences of Poor Social Skills: 70% of Consequences of Poor Social Skills: 70% of those
Consequences of Poor Social Skills: 70% of
Consequences of Poor Social Skills: 70% of
those on the spectrum are unemployed
those on the spectrum are unemployed
Poor Academic Performance
Poor Academic Performance
Peer Failure
Peer Failure
Rejection Rejection
Isolation
Isolation
Anxiety
Anxiety
Depression
Depression
Substance Abuse
Substance Abuse
Suicidal Thoughts
Suicidal Thoughts
Violence Towards Self
Violence Towards Self
Bellini/2007
or others.
or others.
SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills EvaluationEvaluation andand PlanningPlanning
SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills
EvaluationEvaluation andand PlanningPlanning

Pragmatic Assessment

Pragmatic Assessment

Informal Assessment

Informal Assessment

Language Sample

Language Sample

Observations:

Observations:

Parent/Teacher Report

Parent/Teacher Report

Social Language Checklist

Social Language Checklist

Informal Assessment: Observations Informal Assessment: Observations What are you looking for? What are you looking
Informal Assessment: Observations
Informal Assessment: Observations
What are you looking for?
What are you looking for?
Proximity: appropriate space
Proximity: appropriate space
Object/body use
Object/body use
Requests
Requests
Initiations
Initiations
Responses
Responses
Behaviors: do they interfere
Behaviors: do they interfere
Transitions
Transitions
Participation in routine or novel situations
Participation in routine or novel situations

www.cpsinstitute.orgwww.cpsinstitute.org

PATHWAYS INVENTORY (Rev. 6/23/07)

Child's Name

Date

Difficulty handling transitions, shifting from one mindset or task to another (shifting cognitive set)

Difficulty doing things in a logical sequence or prescribed order Poor sense of time Difficulty reflecting on multiple thoughts or ideas simultaneously Difficulty maintaining focus for goal-directed problem-solving Difficulty considering the likely outcomes or consequences of actions (impulsive) Difficulty considering a range of solutions to a problem Difficulty expressing concerns, needs, or thoughts in words Difficulty understanding what is being said Difficulty managing emotional response to frustration so as to think rationally (separation of affect) Chronic irritability and/or anxiety significantly impede capacity for problem-solving Difficulty seeing the “grays”/concrete, literal, black-and-white, thinking Difficulty deviating from rules, routine, original plan Difficulty handling unpredictability, ambiguity, uncertainty, novelty Difficulty shifting from original idea or solution/difficulty adapting to changes in plan or new rules/possibly preservative or obsessive Difficulty taking into account situational factors that would suggest the need to adjust a plan of action

What if you are thinking…? What if you are thinking…? I don’t think I should
What if you are thinking…?
What if you are thinking…?
I don’t think I should modify or make excuses for
I don’t think I should modify or make excuses for
these kids. I know they can do it!
these kids. I know they can do it!
Saying that they know how to do
Saying that they know how to do
something is only DECLARATIVE
something is only DECLARATIVE
KNOWLEDGE.
KNOWLEDGE.
I I can can teach teach mostly mostly anyone anyone the the
facts necessary to learn how
facts necessary to learn how
Doing
Thinking
drive drive a a stick stick shift shift car. car. But, But,
being being able able to to say say how how to to do do
something something does does not not mean mean you you
can do it.
can do it.
What often keeps a child from
What often keeps a child from
being successful are skills we
being successful are skills we
often do not teach…
often do not teach…
Feeling
It’s It’s a a continuum continuum that that requires requires
PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE.
PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE.
Bellini/2007

Informal Assessment

Informal Assessment

What is keeping the student from establishing and

What is keeping the student from establishing and

maintaining social relationships?

maintaining social relationships?

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

• •

Rate social competence: interviews and rating scales

Rate social competence: interviews and rating scales

Take date: during recess observe # of social initiations,

Take date: during recess observe # of social initiations,

# #

of social responses, and amount of social engagement

of social responses, and amount of social engagement

time

time

Conversations Conversations skills: skills: Initiations, Initiations, responses, responses, maintenance, maintenance,

closure of social interactions (various settings)

closure of social interactions (various settings)

Cooperative play skills: joining in, taking turns, sharing,

Cooperative play skills: joining in, taking turns, sharing,

losing, games

losing, games

Friendship skills: proximity, appropriate topics, helping,

Friendship skills: proximity, appropriate topics, helping,

rules, bullies, grooming

rules, bullies, grooming

Emotions: understanding emotions, problem solving skills

Emotions: understanding emotions, problem solving skills

Empathy

Empathy

Conflicts: anger, respect, NO,

Conflicts: anger, respect, NO,

Determine: Skill Acquisition

Determine: Skill Acquisition

Deficit or Performance Deficit

Deficit or Performance Deficit

Skill Acquisition Deficit: skill is absent

Skill Acquisition Deficit: skill is absent

(will need to teach)

(will need to teach)

Performance Deficit: skill is in repertoire

Performance Deficit: skill is in repertoire

but the child does not use the skills

but the child does not use the skills

(enhance performance)

(enhance performance)

Can the student do the skill with different

Can the student do the skill with different

people in different settings?

people in different settings?

Being able to say how to do

Being able to say how to do

it doesn’t mean you can do

it doesn’t mean you can do

it!

it!

We

We

can bridge the gap

can bridge the gap

with visual support,

with visual support,

practice, and meaningful

practice, and meaningful

activities

activities

How to start planning and begin

How to start planning and begin

instruction?

instruction?

5 5

Steps

Steps

Identify and assess areas of need

Identify and assess areas of need

Discern between skill acquisition

Discern between skill acquisition

deficits and performance deficits

deficits and performance deficits

Select appropriate intervention

Select appropriate intervention

strategies

strategies

Implement intervention strategies

Implement intervention strategies

Evaluate program and modify as

Evaluate program and modify as

needed

needed

*Source: Bellini, 2007

*Source: Bellini, 2007

The Hidden Curriculum The Hidden Curriculum by Brenda Smith Myles, Melissa L. Trautman, and by
The Hidden Curriculum
The Hidden Curriculum
by Brenda Smith Myles, Melissa L. Trautman, and
by Brenda Smith Myles, Melissa L. Trautman, and
Ronda L. Schelvan
Ronda L. Schelvan
Refers to the set of rules that everyone
Refers to the set of rules that everyone
in in the the school school knows, knows, but but that that no no one one has has
been directly taught:
been directly taught:
How to dress
How to dress
What What type type of of backpack backpack to to carry carry
How How to to greet greet a a peer peer
Where Where to to hang hang out out between between classes classes
What What games games are are acceptable acceptable to to play play
Who to ignore
Who to ignore
Others? Others?
SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills UnderstandingUnderstanding andand DecreasingDecreasing AnxietyAnxiety
SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills
UnderstandingUnderstanding andand DecreasingDecreasing AnxietyAnxiety

GoalGoal SelectionSelection

Goals should be functional and

Goals should be functional and

applicable applicable to to success success in in life life

Ensure goals are appropriate for

Ensure goals are appropriate for

cognitive levels

cognitive levels

Goals should be positive

Goals should be positive

Goals should be realistic and

Goals should be realistic and

represent a challenge

represent a challenge

Set criteria based on baseline data

Set criteria based on baseline data

TeachersTeachers HiddenHidden CurriculumCurriculum

Teacher Expectations

Teacher Expectations

What students should do when the bell

What students should do when the bell

rings

rings

How to travel from class to class in the

How to travel from class to class in the

most most direct direct way. way.

The administrative structure.

The administrative structure.

Which teachers will tolerate lateness

Which teachers will tolerate lateness

Which teachers give homework.

Which teachers give homework.

Which teachers place value on final

Which teachers place value on final

exams.

exams.

Some more thoughts from

Some more thoughts from

John

John

Many descriptions of autism and

Many descriptions of autism and

Asperger’s describe people like as “not

Asperger’s describe people like as “not

wanting to contact with others” or

wanting to contact with others” or

“preferring to play alone.” I played by

“preferring to play alone.” I played by

myself because I was a failure at playing

myself because I was a failure at playing

with others. I was alone as a result of my

with others. I was alone as a result of my

own limitations, and being alone was one of

own limitations, and being alone was one of

my bitterest disappointments of my young

my bitterest disappointments of my young

life. The sting of those early failures

life. The sting of those early failures

followed me long into adulthood, even

followed me long into adulthood, even

after I learned about Asperger’s.

after I learned about Asperger’s.

Look me in the Eye by John Elder

Robison

Some more thoughts on Some more thoughts on Anxiety Anxiety by Jerry Newport Your Life
Some more thoughts on
Some more thoughts on
Anxiety
Anxiety
by Jerry Newport Your Life Is Not a Label
by Jerry Newport Your Life Is Not a Label
“As far back as I remember, I was like a little bird
“As far back as I remember, I was like a little bird
on a wire, ready to flee from the next
on a wire, ready to flee from the next
embarrassment at a moment’s notice. No matter
embarrassment at a moment’s notice. No matter
how hard I tried to obey all the rules, spoken by
how hard I tried to obey all the rules, spoken by
parents with frustration and siblings with
parents with frustration and siblings with
sarcasm, I knew I would eventually screw up and
sarcasm, I knew I would eventually screw up and
tread water in another sea of laughter.
tread water in another sea of laughter.
So, my stress and perhaps yours, came from many
So, my stress and perhaps yours, came from many
sources: frustration, neurological overload, and
sources: frustration, neurological overload, and
social humiliation to name a few.
social humiliation to name a few.
There is nothing more frustrating than the lifelong
There is nothing more frustrating than the lifelong
accumulation of scars that result from trying to
accumulation of scars that result from trying to
be like normal people and failing daily. It is
be like normal people and failing daily. It is
especially hard when your disability is invisible
especially hard when your disability is invisible
like mine.”
like mine.”
Stress in Persons’ with Stress in Persons’ with Asperger’s Asperger’s AggressionAggression VerbalVerbal //
Stress in Persons’ with
Stress in Persons’ with
Asperger’s
Asperger’s
AggressionAggression
VerbalVerbal // physicalphysical
WithdrawalWithdrawal // ShutShut dowdow
IncreasedIncreased ObsessionObsession
IncreasedIncreased StressStress // AnxietyAnxiety
AnxietyAnxiety
TriggersTriggers
Atwood,Atwood, 19991999

5 5

Point Scale

Point Scale

Kari Buron and Mitzi Curtis

Kari Buron and Mitzi Curtis

tool which provides a visual representation

tool which provides a visual representation

of stressors, inappropriate behaviors,

rules, etc

rules, etc

of stressors, inappropriate behaviors,

Allows children the ability to connect

internal issues to a visual support

Allows children the ability to connect

internal issues to a visual support

Encourages problem solving, self monitoring

Encourages problem solving, self monitoring

and independence in resolving issues

and independence in resolving issues

www.5pointscale.com

www.5pointscale.com

Fear and Anxiety are

Fear and Anxiety are

common feelings for people

common feelings for people

with ASD.

with ASD.

Set up your classroom to

Set up your classroom to

increase relaxation

increase relaxation

1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

4. 4.

Be mindful of stress in your students

Be mindful of stress in your students

Establish a relationship with your students so

they they can can come come to to you you for for help help and and support support

Establish a relationship with your students so

Create means to cope within the classroom

Create means to cope within the classroom

(break area, yoga, system for help, organize

(break area, yoga, system for help, organize

areas, visual supports)

areas, visual supports)

Incorporate social skills in lessons, centers, as a

Incorporate social skills in lessons, centers, as a

designated area in the classroom, bulletin

designated area in the classroom, bulletin

5. 5.

6. 6.

boards

boards

Facilitate relationships in your classroom

through character building activities

through character building activities

Facilitate relationships in your classroom

Celebrate uniqueness often

Celebrate uniqueness often

ExamplesExamples
ExamplesExamples
DevelopingDeveloping aa PlanPlan Identify stressors Identify stressors Recognize Recognize behaviors leading
DevelopingDeveloping aa PlanPlan
Identify stressors
Identify stressors
Recognize
Recognize
behaviors leading
behaviors leading
up to aggression or
up to aggression or
shut down
shut down
Create supports,
Create supports,
area, or a plan with
area, or a plan with
the student
the student
SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills InterventionIntervention StrategiesStrategies
SocialSocial InteractionInteraction SkillsSkills
InterventionIntervention StrategiesStrategies

WhyWhy isis thisthis important?important?

Teaching Teaching social social skills skills should should become become a a

priority in our classrooms

priority in our classrooms

Decreases anxiety

Decreases anxiety

Encourages Encourages relationships relationships and and support support

through peers and teachers

through peers and teachers

Allows for problem solving directly in

Allows for problem solving directly in

the classroom

the classroom

RelaxationRelaxation PlansPlans

1. 1.

Help students regulate stress- teach

Help students regulate stress- teach

student to request a break, include

student to request a break, include

breaks in schedule, create break area

breaks in schedule, create break area

in classroom, coping strategies

in classroom, coping strategies

specific to situations

specific to situations

2. 2.

Use self-monitoring- 5 point scale,

Use self-monitoring- 5 point scale,

checklists, power cards

checklists, power cards

3.Tension release and breathing

3.Tension release and breathing

exercises – yoga, deep breathing

exercises – yoga, deep breathing

cards,

cards,

“In the public school setting, children with

“In the public school setting, children with

autism are often integrated into the general

autism are often integrated into the general

education classroom with the hope that social

education classroom with the hope that social

skills will be absorbed through proximity to

skills will be absorbed through proximity to

“normal” socialization.” “Instead, direct

“normal” socialization.” “Instead, direct

instruction of specific skills combined with an

instruction of specific skills combined with an

awareness of appropriate models is required.”

awareness of appropriate models is required.”

“The Effectiveness of an Interview Template in Children with Autism: Structured Peer Interview to Facilitate Peer-

“The Effectiveness of an Interview Template in Children with Autism: Structured Peer Interview to Facilitate Peer-

peer Interactions” Crooke, Pamela J. (2005)

peer Interactions” Crooke, Pamela J. (2005)

PromotePromote SkillSkill AcquisitionAcquisition Role-playing Role-playing Incidental Incidental Teaching
PromotePromote SkillSkill AcquisitionAcquisition
Role-playing
Role-playing
Incidental
Incidental
Teaching Teaching
Teach perspective
Teach perspective
taking, social rules,
taking, social rules,
Sabotage Sabotage
problem solving, and
problem solving, and
Power Power Cards Cards
mind reading
mind reading
Structured
Structured
Discrete trial
Discrete trial
Teaching Teaching
Reciprocal strategies
Reciprocal strategies
Self-Monitoring Self-Monitoring
Social narratives
Social narratives
Prompting
Prompting
Social Skills Picture
Social Skills Picture
Video Video modeling modeling
Stories
Stories
Cartooning Cartooning

Role-PlayRole-Play

The students act out the skills in the appropriate

The students act out the skills in the appropriate

order.

order.

The teacher acts as a hands on coach.

The teacher acts as a hands on coach.

Use scripted and unscripted

Use scripted and unscripted

Keep it fun

Keep it fun

Let the students pick scenarios or practice use

Let the students pick scenarios or practice use

units from class readings or other subjects

units from class readings or other subjects

ConversationConversation SkillsSkills Conversation Conversation webs webs (www.do2learn.com) (www.do2learn.com)
ConversationConversation SkillsSkills
Conversation Conversation webs webs
(www.do2learn.com) (www.do2learn.com)
break down skills into individual
break down skills into individual
pieces as needed: initiation, turn
pieces as needed: initiation, turn
taking, appropriate topics, endings
taking, appropriate topics, endings
using visual supports
using visual supports
Comments: Appropriate vs.
Comments: Appropriate vs.
inappropriate
inappropriate

Specific skills to Target during

Specific skills to Target during

Role-Play

Role-Play

Gaining/Securing Attention: indirectly requests attention or

Gaining/Securing Attention: indirectly requests attention or

acknowledgment from peers (e.g., “Hey!”, “See this?”,

acknowledgment from peers (e.g., “Hey!”, “See this?”,

“Look.”), calls a peer’s name, taps peer on the shoulder,

“Look.”), calls a peer’s name, taps peer on the shoulder,

Greetings, Greetings, Inviting Inviting others others to to play play

Requests for Actions/Objects: requests an action (e.g.,

“Can I have a turn?”), requests an object (e.g., “Can I have a

“Can I have a turn?”), requests an object (e.g., “Can I have a

Requests for Actions/Objects: requests an action (e.g.,

marker?”), tells a peer what action to do or not to do (e.g.,

marker?”), tells a peer what action to do or not to do (e.g.,

“Stop it”, ‘Put it in there.”)

“Stop it”, ‘Put it in there.”)

Commenting: express an opinion (e.g. “I think we should

Commenting: express an opinion (e.g. “I think we should

start.”), response to a peer’s action (e.g. “You’re done.”),

start.”), response to a peer’s action (e.g. “You’re done.”),

express enjoyment or frustration (e.g. “Oh no!”)

express enjoyment or frustration (e.g. “Oh no!”)

Thiemann, K. & Goldstein, H. (2004). Effects of Peer Training and Written Text Cueing on Social Communication of School-Age Children With Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47,

126-144.

Role-Playing: acting out and

Role-Playing: acting out and

practicing newly learned skills

practicing newly learned skills

Teaching students to:

Teaching students to:

1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

Read Read nonverbal nonverbal cues cues

Conversation skills

Conversation skills

Social Social rules rules (interrupting, (interrupting, eye eye

contact, gaining attention, amount

contact, gaining attention, amount

of information, etc…)

of information, etc…)

4. 4.

Sequence interactions

Sequence interactions

TeachingTeaching NonverbalNonverbal CuesCues Explain importance and use of gestures (cartoons Explain importance and
TeachingTeaching NonverbalNonverbal CuesCues
Explain importance and use of gestures (cartoons
Explain importance and use of gestures (cartoons
with volume down, magazine pictures, charades
with volume down, magazine pictures, charades
Teach Teach understanding understanding and and interpretation interpretation of of facial facial
expressions (start with cartoons, then move to
expressions (start with cartoons, then move to
photos as line drawings are easier for children
photos as line drawings are easier for children
with with ASD ASD to to identify, identify, magazines, magazines, software, software,
websites www.cccoe.net/social)
websites www.cccoe.net/social)
Teach tone, volume, proximity (5 point scale,
Teach tone, volume, proximity (5 point scale,
videos, tapes, etc…)
videos, tapes, etc…)
Later social skills will need to focus on conduct
Later social skills will need to focus on conduct
with the opposite sex, rules at work, etc….
with the opposite sex, rules at work, etc….

Specific skills to Target during

Specific skills to Target during

Role-Play

Role-Play

Complimenting: Complimenting: child child reinforces reinforces a a peer peer for for winning winning a a game game

(e.g., “You did it!”), reinforces peer for personal

(e.g., “You did it!”), reinforces peer for personal

performance (e.g. “nice try.”)

performance (e.g. “nice try.”)

Responding: Responding: commenting commenting about about events events in in an an activity, activity,

greeting, greeting, when when others others invite invite child child to to play, play, when when others others

request, request, when when others others ask ask questions questions

Nonverbal cues: Understanding facial expressions (e.g.

Nonverbal cues: Understanding facial expressions (e.g.

eyebrows raised mean surprised), Understanding body

eyebrows raised mean surprised), Understanding body

language (e.g. arms crossed when angry

language (e.g. arms crossed when angry

Thiemann, K. & Goldstein, H. (2004). Effects of Peer Training and Written Text Cueing on Social Communication of School-Age Children With Pervasive Developmental Disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47,

126-144.

Reciprocal Strategies (learning

Reciprocal Strategies (learning

back and forth exchanges)

back and forth exchanges)

Conversation game: supply visuals as

Conversation game: supply visuals as

prompts, provide topic, provide

prompts, provide topic, provide

scripts if necessary

scripts if necessary

Eden Conversation program

Eden Conversation program

Activities to teach perspective,

Activities to teach perspective,

problem solving, social rules, and mind

problem solving, social rules, and mind

reading

reading

Label and recognize emotions: through

Label and recognize emotions: through

cartoons, magazines, pictures, videos,

break down into features of the face if

break down into features of the face if

cartoons, magazines, pictures, videos,

needed

needed

Understand emotions (Why is he feeling

Understand emotions (Why is he feeling

that way, what is he thinking)

that way, what is he thinking)

Prediction of consequences (What will

Prediction of consequences (What will

happen next? What happened before?)

happen next? What happened before?)

Selection of alternative behaviors

Selection of alternative behaviors

(sarcasm, understanding situation to

interpret behaviors)

interpret behaviors)

(sarcasm, understanding situation to

Thought Thought bubble bubble activities activities

ThoughtThought BubbleBubble ActivityActivity
ThoughtThought BubbleBubble ActivityActivity

ReciprocalReciprocal QuestionsQuestions

Newspaper Reporter (give child

Newspaper Reporter (give child

simple questions to ask peer in order

simple questions to ask peer in order

to get your student asking questions

to get your student asking questions

and increasing interactions)

and increasing interactions)

Eden Asking Questions program

Eden Asking Questions program

Asking Questions program Eden Asking Questions program Activities to teach perspective taking, Activities to teach
Activities to teach perspective taking, Activities to teach perspective taking, social rules, problem solving, mind
Activities to teach perspective taking,
Activities to teach perspective taking,
social rules, problem solving, mind
social rules, problem solving, mind
reading
reading
Interest inventories (list of possible peer
Interest inventories (list of possible peer
interest interest that that could could be be used used for for conversation conversation
topics) topics)
Mind Mind reading reading activities activities (Howlin) (Howlin)
If-then If-then statements statements to to infer infer the the
thoughts and interests of others
thoughts and interests of others
Software programs (Simon Baron-
Software programs (Simon Baron-
Cohen, do 2 learn)
Cohen, do 2 learn)
Social scenarios ( what has happened)
Social scenarios ( what has happened)
ExampleExample fromfrom EdenEden CurriculumCurriculum SD “your turn” SD “your turn” Activities include
ExampleExample fromfrom EdenEden CurriculumCurriculum SD “your turn” SD “your turn” Activities include
ExampleExample fromfrom EdenEden CurriculumCurriculum
SD “your turn”
SD “your turn”
Activities include
Activities include
Procedure
Procedure
Passing ball
Passing ball
Banging drum
Banging drum
Model activity
Model activity
Jack-in-the-box
Jack-in-the-box
Model activity again
Model activity again
and give SD
and give SD
Stacking rings
Stacking rings
Same procedure as
Same procedure as
Pegs
Pegs
steps 1-2
steps 1-2
Hi fives
Hi fives
Randomize activities
Randomize activities
Turning pages
Turning pages
Continue procedure
Continue procedure
Sandbox with shovel and
Sandbox with shovel and
with other activities
with other activities
pail
pail
Generalize responses to
Generalize responses to
Jumping
Jumping
various teachers in
various teachers in
Making sandwhich
Making sandwhich
various settings
various settings
Making sandwhich various settings various settings DiscreteDiscrete TrialTrial •Cue •Prompt (if

DiscreteDiscrete TrialTrial

•Cue

•Prompt (if necessary)

•Response (behavior) Consequence (reinforcement)

SocialSocial NarrativesNarratives

Written in first person and describes how

Written in first person and describes how

people people feel feel and and think think in in certain certain situations. situations.

Uses directive statements to show

Uses directive statements to show

students how to act in those situations

students how to act in those situations

Read repeatedly until the child over learns

Read repeatedly until the child over learns

it and rereads before problematic

it and rereads before problematic

situation.

situation.

Should be written at child’s instructional

Should be written at child’s instructional

level for self awareness, self calming, self

level for self awareness, self calming, self

management

management

level for self awareness, self calming, self level for self awareness, self calming, self management management
IncidentalIncidental TeachingTeaching Teaching Teaching as as the the situations situations occur occur rather rather
IncidentalIncidental TeachingTeaching Teaching Teaching as as the the situations situations occur occur rather rather

IncidentalIncidental TeachingTeaching

Teaching Teaching as as the the situations situations occur occur rather rather

than than in in structured structured settings. settings.

Example Example – – a a teacher teacher points points out out (at (at recess) recess) to to

the the student student with with ASD ASD that that a a peer peer looks looks

physically physically hurt. hurt. She She coaches coaches the the student student

with with ASD ASD to to stop stop playing playing and and ask ask the the other other

student if he is OK. (The teacher is

student if he is OK. (The teacher is

amplifying amplifying the the cue cue (someone (someone is is hurt) hurt) so so that that

the the student student with with ASD ASD reacts reacts and and does does not not

remain remain oblivious.) oblivious.)

SocialSocial SkillSkill PicturePicture StoriesStories

The depiction of various social skills – the

The depiction of various social skills – the

correct way to act with accompanying

correct way to act with accompanying

text that explains what the children are

text that explains what the children are

doing.

doing.

text that explains what the children are doing. doing. SabotageSabotage Setup the environment/activity so that
SabotageSabotage Setup the environment/activity so that Setup the environment/activity so that the child will be
SabotageSabotage
Setup the environment/activity so that
Setup the environment/activity so that
the child will be unsuccessful. This
the child will be unsuccessful. This
will require the child to communicate
will require the child to communicate

PowerPower CardsCards

help change an unwanted or inappropriate

help change an unwanted or inappropriate

behavior by capitalizing on the special interests

behavior by capitalizing on the special interests

that that characterize characterize children children and and youth youth with with AS. AS. A A

brief, motivational text related to a special

brief, motivational text related to a special

interest or a highly admired person is combined

interest or a highly admired person is combined

with an illustration and made into a bookmark-

with an illustration and made into a bookmark-

or business card-sized POWER CARD that the

or business card-sized POWER CARD that the

student can refer to whenever necessary. For

student can refer to whenever necessary. For

younger children the special interest or hero is

younger children the special interest or hero is

worked into a brief story.

worked into a brief story.

The A-Team thinks everyone should be respectful to their teachers. They want you to remember
The A-Team thinks everyone should
be respectful to their teachers. They
want you to remember 3 things when
you are in class:
1.Raise your hand if you have a question
2.If you need a break tell your teacher
3.Use kind words like please and thank you.

DidacticDidactic InstructionInstruction

The instructor explains the steps of a

The instructor explains the steps of a

particular particular skill, skill, using using a a visual visual of of the the skill skill

steps

steps

Why Why is is it it important important to to compliment compliment others? others?

What can you compliment others about?

What can you compliment others about?

Why should you use a nice voice tone when

Why should you use a nice voice tone when

complimenting others?

complimenting others?

PowerPower cardcard

Front of power card has the logo on it.

Front of power card has the logo on it.

Back of power card

Back of power card

The contestants on Survivor think everyone

should have fun playing games. They also want you

The contestants on Survivor think everyone

should have fun playing games. They also want you

to remember three things when playing games

to remember three things when playing games

with other people:

with other people:

Games should be fun for everyone.

Games should be fun for everyone.

If you win a game, you can: Smile, give high fives,

If you win a game, you can: Smile, give high fives,

or say, "Alright!"

or say, "Alright!"

If If you you lose lose a a game, game, you you can: can: Take Take a a deep deep breath breath

and say, "Good job" to the opponent or say,

and say, "Good job" to the opponent or say,

"Maybe next time."

"Maybe next time."

StructuredStructured LearningLearning

Didactic instruction (explanation of the

Didactic instruction (explanation of the

skill skill steps) steps)

Modeling of skill steps

Modeling of skill steps

Role-playing skills with feedback

Role-playing skills with feedback

Practice in and outside the group

Practice in and outside the group

CartooningCartooning

Using simple pictures and text as a whole or

Using simple pictures and text as a whole or

in strips to understand a situation

in strips to understand a situation

description of the event that caused the

description of the event that caused the

problem

problem

feelings feelings and and thoughts thoughts of of everyone everyone involved involved

a a solution solution to to the the problem problem and and ideas ideas on on how how

to to avoid avoid it it in in the the future future

reinforcement reinforcement

appropriate appropriate symbols symbols (stick (stick figures, figures, smiley smiley

faces, faces, thought thought bubbles) bubbles)

colors colors used used to to express express feelings feelings (green-happy, (green-happy,

blue-sad, black-angry

blue-sad, black-angry

Self-MonitoringSelf-Monitoring Teaching child to be aware of behavior Teaching child to be aware of behavior

Self-MonitoringSelf-Monitoring

Teaching child to be aware of behavior

Teaching child to be aware of behavior

1. 1.

2. 2.

3. 3.

4. 4.

5. 5.

6. 6.

7. 7.

Identify behavior, emotion, or skill

Identify behavior, emotion, or skill

Define behavior, emotion, or skill

Define behavior, emotion, or skill

Introduce/teach behavior, emotion, skill

Introduce/teach behavior, emotion, skill

Select Select self-monitoring self-monitoring procedure procedure

Teach Teach self-monitoring self-monitoring strategy strategy

Implement

Implement

Provide feedback

Provide feedback

Source: Bellini, 2007

PromptingPrompting

Supports Supports used used to to help help students students learn learn

new skills and successfully perform

new skills and successfully perform

behaviors

behaviors

Have a plan for fading immediately

Have a plan for fading immediately

Determine Determine a a prompt prompt hierarchy hierarchy with with the the

team team

Promote Social Promote Social Performance Performance Peer sensitivity Peer sensitivity Peer Mentoring Peer
Promote Social
Promote Social
Performance
Performance
Peer sensitivity
Peer sensitivity
Peer Mentoring
Peer Mentoring
training
training
Self-Monitoring
Self-Monitoring
Reinforcement/mo
Reinforcement/mo
Relaxation plans
Relaxation plans
tivation
tivation
Prompting
Prompting
Priming
Priming
Video modeling
Video modeling
Modifications
Modifications
Social narratives
Social narratives
Game playing
Game playing
Increase
Increase
opportunities
opportunities
(practice)
(practice)
opportunities opportunities (practice) (practice) LevelLevel ofof PromptingPrompting willwill VaryVary

LevelLevel ofof PromptingPrompting willwill VaryVary

When requesting a physical response:

When requesting a physical response:

Gesture – gesture to indicate the correct

Gesture – gesture to indicate the correct

response

response

Partial Physical – hand over hand

Partial Physical – hand over hand

assistance to initiate response, the

assistance to initiate response, the

student completes on his own. (tap the

student completes on his own. (tap the

elbow to get him to pick something up,

elbow to get him to pick something up,

tap the shoulder to get him to sit down)

tap the shoulder to get him to sit down)

Full Physical – hand over hand assistance

Full Physical – hand over hand assistance

to perform the entire response.

to perform the entire response.

PromptsPrompts continuedcontinued

VERBAL CUES

VERBAL CUES

• •

• •

Visual – a written cue that elicits a

Visual – a written cue that elicits a

response

response

Partial Verbal – stating part of/or

Partial Verbal – stating part of/or

the initial sound of the verbal

the initial sound of the verbal

response you are expecting. (“What

response you are expecting. (“What

• •

time is it? It is

time is it? It is

”)

”)

Full Verbal – stating the entire

Full Verbal – stating the entire

verbal response. (“What time is it?

verbal response. (“What time is it?

It is 2:00.”)

It is 2:00.”)

http://modelmekids.com/autism-video- http://modelmekids.com/autism-video- samples.html samples.html
http://modelmekids.com/autism-video- http://modelmekids.com/autism-video-
samples.html
samples.html

Reinforcement/MotivationReinforcement/Motivation

Increases Increases desired desired behaviors behaviors

Forces Forces us us to to monitor monitor student’s student’s

behavior behavior

Provides Provides feedback feedback to to student student

VideoVideo ModelingModeling Includes videos that Includes videos that depict appropriate target depict appropriate
VideoVideo ModelingModeling
Includes videos that
Includes videos that
depict appropriate target
depict appropriate target
behaviors and/or videos of
behaviors and/or videos of
themselves performing the
themselves performing the
desired behavior
desired behavior
“One Key reason for the
“One Key reason for the
success of video modeling
success of video modeling
is that it increases the
is that it increases the
child’s attention to the
child’s attention to the
Courtesy of Indiana University
television, or computer
television, or computer
screen. And if you do not
screen. And if you do not
have attention, you will not
have attention, you will not
have learning.”
have learning.”
Bellini, S., akullian, J., & Hopf, A. (2007). Increasing social engagement in young children with autism spectrum disorders using
video self-modeling. School Psychology Review, 36, 80-90
Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-modeling interventions for children and
adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 73, 261-284.
PromotePromote SocialSocial PerformancePerformance
PromotePromote SocialSocial PerformancePerformance

Reinforcement/MotivationReinforcement/Motivation

should should receive receive praise praise and and social social reinforcers, reinforcers, even even

when receiving a more tangible reinforcer.

when receiving a more tangible reinforcer.

The type of reinforcer must be appropriate and

The type of reinforcer must be appropriate and

natural to the activity the student is doing and to

the level of student understanding.

natural to the activity the student is doing and to

the level of student understanding.

Reinforcement can include a variety of items or

Reinforcement can include a variety of items or

activities. Give the student CHOICES.

activities. Give the student CHOICES.

The teacher needs to make sure the reinforcing

The teacher needs to make sure the reinforcing

consequence immediately follows the behavior or

consequence immediately follows the behavior or

skill being learned or increased so that the

skill being learned or increased so that the

relationship between the two is clear to the

relationship between the two is clear to the

student. However, be careful to not interrupt a

student. However, be careful to not interrupt a

social interaction.

social interaction.

PrimingPriming

Priming – Preparing the student for

Priming – Preparing the student for

the the upcoming upcoming task. task.

Not Teaching….

Not Teaching….

Preparing

Preparing

Cognitive Priming: use visual and/or verbal

Cognitive Priming: use visual and/or verbal

Behavioral Priming:

Behavioral Priming:

practicing skill right

practicing skill right

before having to perform in natural setting

before having to perform in natural setting

GameGame PlayingPlaying

Games require social interaction but

Games require social interaction but

are structured. Most children

are structured. Most children

interact not just during conversation

interact not just during conversation

but during activities.

but during activities.

Use popular games

Use popular games

Teach Teach child child how how to to play play

PeerPeer SensitivitySensitivity TrainingTraining

Child Child specific specific or or general general overview overview

Celebrate Celebrate differences differences

Allow Allow the the children children to to be be involved involved in in the the

training training

ModificationsModifications

Are necessary modifications in place?

Are necessary modifications in place?

Consider student’s sensory deficits

Consider student’s sensory deficits

PracticePractice

Increase social opportunities. The students

Increase social opportunities. The students

should should be be given given opportunities opportunities to to practice practice skills skills

with peers in other settings.

with peers in other settings.

Feedback from the student, peers, adults as to

Feedback from the student, peers, adults as to

how the opportunity was successful or not

how the opportunity was successful or not

Select Select activities activities that that are are appropriate appropriate for for

practicing (student preferred activities)

practicing (student preferred activities)

Use other strategies for practicing (e.g. role-

Use other strategies for practicing (e.g. role-

playing) playing)

PeerPeer MentoringMentoring

Select age-appropriate sensitive peer

Select age-appropriate sensitive peer

Peer Peer must must willing willing

Can pair during difficult times such as

Can pair during difficult times such as

transitions

transitions

Peer must be given specific instructions on

Peer must be given specific instructions on

how to increase communication success

how to increase communication success

(e.g. if student w/ASD needs simple direct

(e.g. if student w/ASD needs simple direct

instructions)

instructions)

Alternate peers

Alternate peers

Considerations for Social

Considerations for Social

Interaction

Interaction

Match Social Interaction Programs to Students'

Match Social Interaction Programs to Students'

Needs and Settings.

Needs and Settings.

Establish Reasonable Social Interaction

Establish Reasonable Social Interaction

Expectations

Expectations

Be Sensitive to Local Social Interaction Norms

Be Sensitive to Local Social Interaction Norms

and Conditions

and Conditions

Program for Interaction Quality As Well As

Program for Interaction Quality As Well As

Quantity

Quantity

Recognize That Not All General Education

Recognize That Not All General Education

Students Will Be Suited to Social Interaction

Students Will Be Suited to Social Interaction

Programs

Programs

ContinuedContinued

Educate Tutors and Others About Autism

Educate Tutors and Others About Autism

Facilitate Initial Interactions

Facilitate Initial Interactions

Make Data-Based Program Decisions

Make Data-Based Program Decisions

Generalize Social Skills

Generalize Social Skills

Maintain Acquired Social Skills

Maintain Acquired Social Skills

SocialSocial SkillsSkills GroupsGroups Cont.Cont.

Set Set and and display display a a schedule schedule for for the the

group: group:

Talk Talk Time Time

Skill Skill Time Time

Game Time

Game Time

Snack Snack

All All Done Done

ContinuedContinued

Reduce Aberrant Behaviors Prior to Initiating

Reduce Aberrant Behaviors Prior to Initiating

Social Interaction Programs

Social Interaction Programs

Provide Ongoing Instruction and Monitoring

Provide Ongoing Instruction and Monitoring

Task Task Analyze Analyze Social Social Interaction Interaction Skills Skills

Consider the Importance of Setting and Material

Consider the Importance of Setting and Material

Variables

Variables

Consider Social Validity in Programming

Consider Social Validity in Programming

Prioritize Prioritize Social Social Interaction Interaction Skills Skills

Tailor Reinforcement to Meet Individual Needs

Tailor Reinforcement to Meet Individual Needs

SocialSocial SkillsSkills GroupsGroups

When first beginning – make sure the

When first beginning – make sure the

level of understanding is

level of understanding is

commensurate with all students

commensurate with all students

Review the purpose of the group

Review the purpose of the group

Establish group rules and

Establish group rules and

reinforcement/consequences

reinforcement/consequences

Get to know each other through

Get to know each other through

discussion and/or worksheet inventories

discussion and/or worksheet inventories

Game or snack time

Game or snack time

SocialSocial SkillsSkills GroupsGroups Cont.Cont.

Prepare a visual of the agreed upon

Prepare a visual of the agreed upon

group rules

group rules

Listen Listen to to each each other other (wait (wait for for a a pause pause to to talk talk

during during a a conversation, conversation, raise raise your your hand hand and and

wait wait to to be be called called on on during during skill skill time). time).

Talk Talk nicely nicely to to each each other other (do (do not not yell, yell, tease, tease, or or

insult). insult).

Keep Keep hands hands and and feet feet to to yourself yourself (do (do not not push, push,

hit, hit, kick, kick, pinch, pinch, or or grab grab others). others).

SocialSocial SkillsSkills GroupsGroups Cont.Cont.

When getting to know each other --

When getting to know each other --

Use various prompts and visuals to help

Use various prompts and visuals to help

the students focus on each other –

the students focus on each other –

prompt them to respond or ask follow-up

prompt them to respond or ask follow-up

questions.

questions.

Include all communication Include all communication systems systems
Include all communication
Include all communication
systems
systems

ReferencesReferences

Bellini, S., akullian, J., & Hopf, A. (2007). Increasing social engagement in young

Bellini, S., akullian, J., & Hopf, A. (2007). Increasing social engagement in young

children with autism spectrum disorders using video self-modeling. School

children with autism spectrum disorders using video self-modeling. School

Review, 36, 80-90

Psychology Review, 36, 80-90

Psychology

Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-

Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-

modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum

disorders. Exceptional Children, 73, 261-284.

disorders. Exceptional Children, 73, 261-284.

modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum

“The Effectiveness of an Interview Template in Children with Autism: Structured

“The Effectiveness of an Interview Template in Children with Autism: Structured

Peer Interview to Facilitate Peer-peer Interactions”

Peer Interview to Facilitate Peer-peer Interactions”

Crooke, Pamela J. (2005)

Crooke, Pamela J. (2005)

Thiemann, K. & Goldstein, H. (2004). Effects of Peer Training and Written Text

Thiemann, K. & Goldstein, H. (2004). Effects of Peer Training and Written Text

Cueing on Social Communication of School-Age Children With Pervasive

Cueing on Social Communication of School-Age Children With Pervasive

Developmental Disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research,

Developmental Disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research,

47, 126-144.

47, 126-144.

Buschbacher, P. & Fox, L. (2003). Understanding and Intervening With the

Buschbacher, P. & Fox, L. (2003). Understanding and Intervening With the

Challenging Behavior of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Challenging Behavior of Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 217-227.

Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 217-227.

Teacher's Toolbox. "Teacher's Toolbox."

Teacher's Toolbox. "Teacher's Toolbox."

11 September 2007.

11 September 2007.

<http://www.ttoolbox.com/help.htm>.

<http://www.ttoolbox.com/help.htm>.

Susan Klein. "Model Me Kids." . 2004. Model Me Kids®, LLC

Susan Klein. "Model Me Kids." . 2004. Model Me Kids®, LLC

<http://www.modelmekids.com/index.html>.

<http://www.modelmekids.com/index.html>.

Fovel, T. (2002).

Fovel, T. (2002).

The ABA Program Companion.

The ABA Program Companion.

11 September 2007.

11 September 2007.

Bashe, P. & Kirby B. (2001).

The Oasis Guide to Asperger Syndrome-Revised.

Bashe, P. & Kirby B. (2001). The Oasis Guide to Asperger Syndrome-Revised.

SocialSocial SkillsSkills GroupsGroups

Humor: incorporate humor through

Humor: incorporate humor through

jokes, charades, newspaper cartoons,

jokes, charades, newspaper cartoons,

silly stories, etc….

silly stories, etc….

AA LastLast ThoughtThought fromfrom JohnJohn

I I

may look and act pretty strange at times, but

deep down I just want to be loved and understood

for who and what I am. I want to be accepted as

for who and what I am. I want to be accepted as

deep down I just want to be loved and understood

may look and act pretty strange at times, but

part of society, not an outcast or outsider. I

part of society, not an outcast or outsider. I

don’t want to be a genius or freak or something on

don’t want to be a genius or freak or something on

display. I wish for empathy and compassion from

display. I wish for empathy and compassion from

those around me, and I appreciate sincerity,

clarity, and logicality in other people. I believe

those around me, and I appreciate sincerity,

clarity, and logicality in other people. I believe

most people-autistic or not- share this wish. I

most people-autistic or not- share this wish. I

hope you’ll keep those thoughts in mind the next

time you meet someone who looks or acts a little

hope you’ll keep those thoughts in mind the next

time you meet someone who looks or acts a little

strange.

strange.

Look me in the Eye by John Elder Robison

www.speakingofspeech.com www.speakingofspeech.com www.usevisualstrategies.com www.usevisualstrategies.com
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www.usevisualstrategies.com
www.usevisualstrategies.com
www.do2learn.com
www.do2learn.com
www.thegraycenter.org
www.thegraycenter.org
www.tinsnips.com
www.tinsnips.com
www.teacch.com
www.teacch.com
www.mrsriley.com
www.mrsriley.com